Sample records for burning violates sustainable

  1. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf


    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  2. Resuscitation Strategies for Burn Injuries Sustained in Austere Environments to Improve Renal Perfusion and Function (United States)


    vascular endothelial growth factor gene transfer on wound healing after burn injury , Crit. Care Med. 31 (2003) 1017–1025. D.M. Burmeister et al. BBA...G.L. Su, D.G. Remick, S.C. Wang, S. Arbabi, Attenuating burn wound inflammatory signaling reduces systemic inflammation and acute lung injury , J...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0041 TITLE: Resuscitation Strategies for Burn Injuries Sustained in Austere Environments to Improve Renal Perfusion

  3. The National Incidence and Resource Utilization of Burn Injuries Sustained While Smoking on Home Oxygen Therapy. (United States)

    Assimacopoulos, Evangelia M; Liao, Junlin; Heard, Jason P; Kluesner, Karen M; Wilson, Jeffrey; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A


    Considerable risk of burn injury exists for those patients on home oxygen therapy (HOT) who continue to smoke. In this study, the authors sought to establish the national incidence of burns incurred while smoking on HOT and to determine the resource utilization and sequelae of these injuries. A retrospective review of the American Burn Association's National Burn Repository was conducted to identify patients burned while on HOT during the years 2002 to 2011. Duplicate entries, as well as records of follow-up visits and readmissions, were removed. Univariate analysis was used to compare the differences between patients sustaining burn injuries related to HOT and patients with other mechanisms of injury. Multivariate analysis provided odds ratios for mortality controlling for all significant variables. The frequency of burns sustained on HOT significantly increased during the 10-year period reviewed and were associated with increased comorbidities and certain complications. Compared with non-HOT injuries, HOT injuries had higher incidence of inhalation injury and mortality. Inhalation injury was the strongest predictor of mortality in HOT burn injuries. The likelihood of poor prognosis was even more pronounced in patients who required intubation. Smoking was responsible for 83% of the HOT burn injuries described here. Therefore, smoking cessation counseling and treatment should be mandatory in all patients prescribed HOT.

  4. Burning of fuelwood in South Africa: when is it sustainable?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P


    Full Text Available a consideration of both consumption and production patterns. The burning of fuelwood is still the primary source of energy for most of sub-Sahara Africa (Anderson, 1986)--the majority of the rural population, even...

  5. Burns (United States)

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or ... the power source has been turned off. For chemical burns: Dry chemicals should be brushed off the skin ...

  6. Crisis as a Factor of the Sustainability Violation in the Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhereliuk Iuliia O.


    Full Text Available The article substantiates that crisis is a factor of violation of the enterprise’s sustainability as economic system, crisis can occur at all stages of the life cycle of enterprise, act as a brake against the further development of enterprise and its movement to the next stage of development. On the basis of theoretical generalization, the author’s own approach to the definition of concept of «crisis» is presented. Causes of occurrence of crisis were generalized depending on certain stage of the life cycle of enterprise. It has been specified that crisis poses a threat to the sustainability of enterprise, but, despite this, it is the regularity and necessity of development, which in all its manifestations and consequences will be overcome by anti-crisis. The theoretical approaches by different scientists as to interpretation of the concept of «anti-crisis sustainability» were considered that allowed to substantiate the author’s own approach to the interpretation of this concept. Prospects for further research in this directions will be systematization of the factors to ensure the anti-crisis sustainability of enterprise in a competitive environment.

  7. [The application of ultrasonography to estimate blood vessel injury of upper limbs sustaining electric burns]. (United States)

    Chai, Jia-ke; Li, Li-gen; Chen, Yue-xiu; Hu, Xiao-juan; Yang, Yong-ming


    To explore a new method in estimating extent and degree of arterial injury in upper limbs sustaining high tension electric burns. Eighteen patients (twenty-four upper limbs) with high tension electricity injury were admitted from December 1998 to September 2002, The damaged limbs consisted of four parts: wrist wound part, 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm parts around wrist wound, where the radial and ulnar arteries were detected using B ultrasound and color WP Doppler examination. The changes of endangium, vessel diameter, thickness of the vessel wall and volume of blood flow were recorded respectively. The parameters of normal radial and ulnar arteries were also determined as normal control. B ultrasound and color WP Doppler examination showed that the endangium in radial and ulnar arteries become coarse, edema or exfoliation. The vessel wall was thicker than that of the normal control and the thickness was heterogeneity. The vessel wall could be necrosis in severe patient and the vessel cavity was stricture or beaded. Thrombosis or occlusion could occur at the site of severe injury area in vessel. The decrease in volume of blood flow was observed. The condition of the radial and ulnar arteries become well apart from 10 - 15 cm of wrist wound. The ultrasonography can be used to detect the changes in endangium, diameter, thickness of the vessel wall, blood flow volume in injury blood vessel caused by electric burn injury. It is helpful in judging the degree and extent of injury vessel and could be a safe, non-invasive diagnostic method and is worth popularizing.

  8. A Phased Development of Breed-and-Burn Reactors for Enhanced Nuclear Energy Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Greenspan


    Full Text Available Several options for designing fast reactors to operate in the Breed-and-Burn (B&B mode are compared and a strategy is outlined for early introduction of B&B reactors followed by a gradual increase in the fuel utilization of such reactors. In the first phase the fast reactor core will consist of a subcritical B&B blanket driven by a relatively small critical seed. As the required discharge burnup/radiation-damage to both driver and blanket fuel had already been proven, and as the depleted uranium fueled B&B blanket could generate close to 2/3 of the core power and will have very low fuel cycle cost, the deployment of such fast reactors could start in the near future. The second phase consists of deploying self-sustaining stationary wave B&B reactors. It will require development of fuel technology that could withstand peak burnups of ~30% and peak radiation damage to the cladding of ~550 dpa. The third phase requires development of a fuel reconditioning technology that will enable using the fuel up to an average burnup of ~50%—the upper bound permitted by neutron balance considerations when most of the fission products are not separated from the fuel. The increase in the uranium ore utilization relative to that provided by contemporary power reactors is estimated to be 20, 40 and 100 folds for, respectively, phase 1, 2 and 3. The energy value of the depleted uranium stockpiles (“waste” accumulated in the US is equivalent to, when used in the B&B reactors, up to 20 centuries of the total 2010 USA supply of electricity. Therefore, a successful development of B&B reactors could provide a great measure of energy sustainability and cost stability.

  9. Predicted Effects of Prescribed Burning and Timber Management on Forest Recovery and Sustainability at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T.,JR.


    The objective of this work was to use a simple compartment model of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics to predict forest recovery on degraded soils and forest sustainability, following recovery, under different regimes of prescribed fire and timber management. This report describes the model and a model-based analysis of the effect of prescribed burning and forest thinning or clearcutting on stand recovery and sustainability at Fort Benning, GA. I developed the model using Stella{reg_sign} Research Software (High Performance Systems, Inc., Hanover, NH) and parameterized the model using data from field studies at Fort Benning, literature sources, and parameter fitting. The model included (1) a tree biomass submodel that predicted aboveground and belowground tree biomass, (2) a litter production submodel that predicted the dynamics of herbaceous aboveground and belowground biomass, (3) a soil C and N submodel that predicted soil C and N stocks (to a 30 cm soil depth) and net soil N mineralization, and (4) an excess N submodel that calculated the difference between predicted plant N demands and soil N supplies. There was a modeled feedback from potential excess N (PEN) to tree growth such that forest growth was limited under conditions of N deficiency. Two experiments were performed for the model-based analysis. In the first experiment, forest recovery from barren soils was predicted for 100 years with or without prescribed burning and with or without timber management by thinning or clearcutting. In the second experiment, simulations began with 100 years of predicted forest growth in the absence of fire or harvesting, and sustainability was predicted for a further 100 years either with or without prescribed burning and with or without forest management. Four performance variables (aboveground tree biomass, soil C stocks, soil N stocks, and PEN) were used to evaluate the predicted effects of timber harvesting and prescribed burning on forest recovery and

  10. [Cooperation, Job Satisfaction and Burn Out - Sustainability in Outpatient Mental Health Care among Medical Specialists in Germany]. (United States)

    Baumgardt, Johanna; Moock, Jörn; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram


    Objective Cooperation, job satisfaction, and burn out risk are indicators of sustainability in mental health services. Thus they were assessed among registered medical specialists in outpatient mental health care in Germany. Method A postal survey consisting of three questionnaires about cooperation, job satisfaction, and burnout was carried out among all registered medical specialists in outpatient mental health care in Germany (n = 4,430). Results 14.1 % (n = 626) of the specialists responded to the survey. Quality and quantity of cooperation regarding mental health care services were rated diverse, job satisfaction was assessed medium to high, and burnout risk was low to medium. Higher job satisfaction correlated with good quality of cooperation, fewer years of practice, fewer patients' chronically ill, more patients who as well seek psychotherapy, and less time spent on cooperation. Low burn out risk correlated with good quality of cooperation, higher age, single practice setting and a higher amount of patients who as well seek psychotherapy. Conclusion Quality and quantity of cooperation in outpatient mental health care - especially regarding community mental health care institutions - should be fostered. Aspects to be considered to reinforce job satisfaction and minimize burn out risk are age, years of practice, quality and quantity of cooperation, practice setting, and the mixture of patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Sustained Subconjunctival Delivery of Infliximab Protects the Cornea and Retina Following Alkali Burn to the Eye (United States)

    Zhou, Chengxin; Robert, Marie-Claude; Kapoulea, Vassiliki; Lei, Fengyang; Stagner, Anna M.; Jakobiec, Frederick A.; Dohlman, Claes H.; Paschalis, Eleftherios I.


    Purpose Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is upregulated in eyes following corneal alkali injury and contributes to corneal and also retinal damage. Prompt TNF-α inhibition by systemic infliximab ameliorates retinal damage and improves corneal wound healing. However, systemic administration of TNF-α inhibitors carries risk of significant complications, whereas topical eye-drop delivery is hindered by poor ocular bioavailability and the need for patient adherence. This study investigates the efficacy of subconjunctival delivery of TNF-α antibodies using a polymer-based drug delivery system (DDS). Methods The drug delivery system was prepared using porous polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinyl alcohol composite fabrication and loaded with 85 μg of infliximab. Six Dutch-belted pigmented rabbits received ocular alkali burn with NaOH. Immediately after the burn, subconjunctival implantation of anti-TNF-α DDS was performed in three rabbits while another three received sham DDS (without antibody). Rabbits were followed with photography for 3 months. Results After 3 months, the device was found to be well tolerated by the host and the eyes exhibited less corneal damage as compared to eyes implanted with a sham DDS without drug. The low dose treatment suppressed CD45 and TNF-α expression in the burned cornea and inhibited retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and optic nerve degeneration, as compared to the sham DDS treated eyes. Immunolocalization revealed drug penetration in the conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and choroid, with residual infliximab in the DDS 3 months after implantation. Conclusions This reduced-risk biologic DDS improves corneal wound healing and provides retinal neuroprotection, and may be applicable not only to alkali burns but also to other inflammatory surgical procedures such as penetrating keratoplasty and keratoprosthesis implantation. PMID:28114570

  12. CP violation

    CERN Document Server


    Contents: CP Phenomenology: Introduction to CP Violation (C Jarlskog); CP-Violation in the K 0 -K 0 -System (K Kleinknecht); The Quark Mixing Matrix, Charm Decays and B Decays (S Stone); The Question of CP Noninvariance - As Seen through the Eyes of Neutral Beauty (I I Bigi et al.); In Search of CP Noninvariance in Heavy Quark Systems (L-L Chau); CP Violation at High Energy e + e - Colliders (J Bernabéu & M B Gavela); CP Violation in the Standard Model with Four Families (A Datta & E A Paschos); CP Effects When Neutrinos are their Own Antiparticles (B Kayser); On Spontaneous CP Violation Trigg

  13. CP violation

    CERN Document Server


    The articles collected in this volume are mainly concerned with the phenomenological description of the 1964 discovery on K° decay that CP invariance was violated in nature. The variety of models developed to explain this CP violation are described together with reprints of more recent definitive experiments, and CP violation in the B° system and the electric dipole moment of the neutron is also covered.

  14. CP violation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    In the first two lectures, CP violation in the K system is pedagogically reviewed: its manifestations in the neutral K meson systems, in rare K meson decays and in decays of charged K mesons, and results from classical and current experiments, are discussed. In the third lecture, CP Violation in the B system and the forthcoming experimental tests will be discussed.

  15. CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X. G


    This lecture reviews the present status of CP violation in the Standard Model (SM) and some of its extensions and discuss ways to distinguish different models. More than 30 years have passed since the surprising discovery of CP violation in neutral kaon system in 1964, the origin of CP violation is still a mystery. Many models have been proposed to explain the observed CP violation in K{sup 0}-K-bar{sup 0} mixing. From previous discussions, it is clear that the SM is consistent with all laboratory experimental data. However there are also extensions of the SM such as the Weinberg Model and the Left-Right Symmetric Model, which can equally well explain experimental data. However, to date, no satisfactory explanation for CP violation has been established, therefore, more experiments are needed to pin down the origin of CP violation. Although no new signal for CP violation has been observed in laboratory systems, considerable progress have been made in obtaining limits on various experimental measurables, for example, the Electric Dipole Momentum`s of neutron and electron 107 refs., 20 figs.

  16. Volkswagen Violations (United States)

    This site provides information on EPA's issued notice of violation (NOV) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to Volkswagen. The NOV alleges software that circumvents EPA emissions standards for certain air pollutants.

  17. Economics of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G


    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  18. Sustainable effect of skin stretching for burn scar excision: Long-term results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, P.D.H.M.; van der Wal, M.B.A.; Bloemen, M.C.T.; Dokter, J.; Melis, P.; Middelkoop, E.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.


    Purpose: Primary wound closure of large defects after burn scar excision may be facilitated by intraoperative stretching of the adjacent skin. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the effect of skin stretching for wound closure after scar excision (SS) was compared to scar excision without

  19. Spontaneous CP violation and CPT violation


    Qian, Yu Kun


    At first we give a little formalism to show some features of spontaneous CP violation theory. Then we give a convincing argument show that Cronin etc's experiment is a evidence of CPT violation and spontaneous CP violation is absolutely necessary. Final we discuss some possible CPT violation mechanism.

  20. Burning Feet (United States)

    Symptoms Burning feet By Mayo Clinic Staff Burning feet — the sensation that your feet are painfully hot — can be mild or severe. In some cases, your burning feet may be so painful that the pain interferes ...

  1. Use of Implementation Science for a Sustained Reduction of Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections in a High-Volume, Regional Burn Unit. (United States)

    Sood, Geeta; Caffrey, Julie; Krout, Kelly; Khouri-Stevens, Zeina; Gerold, Kevin; Riedel, Stefan; McIntyre, Janet; Maragakis, Lisa L; Blanding, Renee; Zenilman, Jonathan; Bennett, Richard; Pronovost, Peter


    OBJECTIVE We describe the use of implementation science at the unit level and organizational level to guide an intervention to reduce central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in a high-volume, regional, burn intensive care unit (BICU). DESIGN A single center observational quasi-experimental study. SETTING A regional BICU in Maryland serving 300-400 burn patients annually. INTERVENTIONS In 2011, an organizational-level and unit-level intervention was implemented to reduce the rates of CLABSI in a high-risk patient population in the BICU. At the organization level, leaders declared a goal of zero infections, created an infrastructure to support improvement efforts by creating a coordinating team, and engaged bedside staff. Performance data were transparently shared. At the unit level, the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP)/ Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) model was used. A series of interventions were implemented: development of new blood culture procurement criteria, implementation of chlorhexidine bathing and chlorhexidine dressings, use of alcohol impregnated caps, routine performance of root-cause analysis with executive engagement, and routine central venous catheter changes. RESULTS The use of an implementation science framework to guide multiple interventions resulted in the reduction of CLABSI rates from 15.5 per 1,000 central-line days to zero with a sustained rate of zero CLABSIs over 3 years (rate difference, 15.5; 95% confidence interval, 8.54-22.48). CONCLUSIONS CLABSIs in high-risk units may be preventable with the a use a structured organizational and unit-level paradigm. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1306-1311.

  2. Burns dressings. (United States)

    Douglas, Helen E; Wood, Fiona


    Burn injuries are common and costly; each year, there are more than 200,000 cases, costing the Australian community $150 million. Management of smaller burn injuries in the community can be improved by appropriate first aid, good burn dressings and wound management. This can reduce the risk of the burn becoming deeper or infected, and can potentially reduce the requirement for specialist review or surgery. The objective of this article is to provide healthcare professionals with information about the pathophysiology of burn wound progression. This information includes the aims of burn wound dressings and indications for different types of dressings in different burn depths, advantages of blister debridement, and the reasoning behind advice given to patients after healing of the burn wound. This article provides a framework used by the State Burn Service of Western Australia, by which clinicians can understand the needs of a specific burn wound and apply these principles when choosing an appropriate burn dressing for their patient. Every intervention in the journey of a patient with a burn injury affects their eventual outcome. By managing all burn injuries effectively at every single step, we can reduce burn injury morbidity as a community.

  3. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D


    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  4. Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology? (United States)

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.


    Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale. PMID:22174972

  5. Parity Violation in the NN System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindler M.J.


    Full Text Available We briefly review the apparent experimental discrepancies that sustain interest in the field of lowenergy few-nucleon parity violation. We argue that it is not possible to determine whether present experimental measurements are consistent unless each is understood in terms of a complete EFT with consistent power counting. Towards this end, we present the EFT that describes very low energy parity violating observables associated with two-nucleon scattering and photon-deuteron interactions.

  6. CP Violation course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA


    The lecture introduces the concepts and phenomena of matter-antimatter symmetry violation, so-called "CP" violation. The lecture is organized in four courses, the first being devoted to a historical overview and an introduction into fundamental discrete symmetries. The second course introduces the most compelling CP-violating phenomena, and presents the first experimental discovery of CP violation in the neutral kaon system. The third course discusses how CP violation is beautifully incorporated into the Standard Model of particle interactions, and how modern B-meson "factories" provide precise tests of this picture. Finally, the fourth and last course introduces CP violation and the genesis of our matter world.

  7. Ball lightning burn. (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip


    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications.

  8. Iatrogenic Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Kaya


    Full Text Available Iatrogenic burns are rare complications that can occur after using medical devices and chemicals in hospitals. Usually, these burns are deep and cause additional morbidity to patients. In this article, 6 iatrogenic burn patients referred to our department are presented, and predisposing factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  9. CP violation in B decay


    Yamamoto, Hitoshi


    We review the physics of CP violation in B decays. After introducing the CKM matrix and how it causes CP violation, we cover three types of CP violation that can occur in B decays: CP violation in mixing, CP violation by mixing-decay interference, and CP violation in decay.

  10. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  11. Time Reversal Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, H; /SLAC


    This talk briefly reviews three types of time-asymmetry in physics, which I classify as universal, macroscopic and microscopic. Most of the talk is focused on the latter, namely the violation of T-reversal invariance in particle physics theories. In sum tests of microscopic T-invariance, or observations of its violation, are limited by the fact that, while we can measure many processes, only in very few cases can we construct a matched pair of process and inverse process and observe it with sufficient sensitivity to make a test. In both the cases discussed here we can achieve an observable T violation making use of flavor tagging, and in the second case also using the quantum properties of an antisymmetric coherent state of two B mesons to construct a CP-tag. Both these tagging properties depend only on very general properties of the flavor and/or CP quantum numbers and so provide model independent tests for T-invariance violations. The microscopic laws of physics are very close to T-symmetric. There are small effects that give CP- and T-violating processes in three-generation-probing weak decays. Where a T-violating observable can be constructed we see the relationships between T-violation and CP-violation expected in a CPT conserving theory. These microscopic effects are unrelated to the 'arrow of time' that is defined by increasing entropy, or in the time direction defined by the expansion of our Universe.

  12. [Ocular burns]. (United States)

    Merle, H; Gérard, M; Schrage, N


    Ocular or thermal burns account for 7.7%-18% of ocular trauma. The majority of victims are young. The burns occur in the setting of accidents at work or in the home, or during a physical attack. Chemical burns by strong acids or bases are responsible for the most serious injuries. Associated with the destruction of limbal stem cells, they present as recurrent epithelial ulcerations, chronic stromal ulcers, deep stromal revascularization, conjunctival overlap, or even corneal perforation. The initial clinical exam is sometimes difficult to perform in the presence of burning symptoms. Nevertheless, it enables the physician to classify the injury, establish a prognosis, and most importantly, guide the therapeutic management. The Roper-Hall modification of the Hughes classification system is the most widely utilized, broken down into stages based on the size of the stromal opacity and the extent of possible limbal ischemia. This classification is now favorably supplemented by those proposed by Dua and Wagoner, which are based on the extent of the limbal stem cell deficiency. The prognosis of the more serious forms of ocular burns has markedly improved over the last decade because of a better understanding of the physiology of the corneal epithelium. Surgical techniques aimed at restoring the destroyed limbal stem cells have altered the prognosis of severe corneal burns. In order to decrease the incidence of burns, prevention, particularly in industry, is essential.

  13. Pittsburgh PLI Violations Report (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Report containing Department of Permits, Licenses, and Inspections violation notices that have been issued by the City after October 15, 2015

  14. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns (United States)

    ... to injury. , as your immune system shifts into gear. “The immune system response is intended to limit ... maintain blood pressure. Grafting—placing healthy skin on top of the burn wound—might help promote new ...

  15. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009 (United States)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.


    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley


    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  17. Burn severity mapping in Australia 2009 (United States)

    McKinley, Randy; Clark, J.; Lecker, Jennifer


    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  18. Burns: dressings (United States)


    Introduction Burns are classified according to depth. This overview concerns the treatments for partial-thickness burns, which can be expected or have the potential to heal spontaneously (superficial partial-thickness and mid-dermal partial-thickness burns). Injuries that involve the deeper part of the dermis and require surgical treatments to achieve healing are not the focus of this overview. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic overview and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for partial-thickness burns? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2014 (BMJ Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). Results At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 322 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 193 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 160 studies and the further review of 33 full publications. Of the 33 full articles evaluated, two systematic reviews and two RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 30 PICO combinations. Conclusions In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for 10 interventions, based on information relating to the effectiveness and safety of alginate dressing, biosynthetic dressing, chlorhexidine-impregnated paraffin gauze dressing, hydrocolloid dressing, hydrogel dressing, paraffin gauze dressing, polyurethane film, silicone-coated nylon dressing, silver-impregnated dressing, and silver sulfadiazine cream. PMID:26173045

  19. 48 CFR 403.104-7 - Violations or possible violations. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Violations or possible violations. 403.104-7 Section 403.104-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 403.104-7 Violations or...

  20. 48 CFR 3.104-7 - Violations or possible violations. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Violations or possible violations. 3.104-7 Section 3.104-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 3.104-7 Violations or...

  1. Flavor Violating Higgs Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni [Fermilab; Kopp, Joachim [Fermilab; Zupan, Jure [Cincinnati U.


    We study a class of nonstandard interactions of the newly discovered 125 GeV Higgs-like resonance that are especially interesting probes of new physics: flavor violating Higgs couplings to leptons and quarks. These interaction can arise in many frameworks of new physics at the electroweak scale such as two Higgs doublet models, extra dimensions, or models of compositeness. We rederive constraints on flavor violating Higgs couplings using data on rare decays, electric and magnetic dipole moments, and meson oscillations. We confirm that flavor violating Higgs boson decays to leptons can be sizeable with, e.g., h → τμ and h → τe branching ratios of (10%) perfectly allowed by low energy constraints. We estimate the current LHC limits on h → τμ and h → τe decays by recasting existing searches for the SM Higgs in the ττ channel and find that these bounds are already stronger than those from rare tau decays. We also show that these limits can be improved significantly with dedicated searches and we outline a possible search strategy. Flavor violating Higgs decays therefore present an opportunity for discovery of new physics which in some cases may be easier to access experimentally than flavor conserving deviations from the Standard Model Higgs framework.

  2. Beautiful CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunietz, I.


    CP violation is observed to date only in K{sup 0} decays and is parameterizable by a single quantity {epsilon}. Because it is one of the least understood phenomena in the Standard Model and holds a clue to baryogenesis, it must be investigated further. Highly specialized searches in K{sup 0} decays are possible. Effects in B decays are much larger. In addition to the traditional B{sub d} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub S}, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} asymmetries, CP violation could be searched for in already existing inclusive B data samples. The rapid B{sub s}--{anti B}{sub s} oscillations cancel in untagged B{sub s} data samples, which therefore allow feasibility studies for the observation of CP violation and the extraction of CKM elements with present vertex detectors. The favored method for the extraction of the CKM angle {gamma} is shown to be unfeasible and a solution is presented involving striking direct CP violation in charged B decays. Novel methods for determining the B{sub s} mixing parameter {Delta}m are described without the traditional requirement of flavor-specific final states.

  3. Electron scattering violates parity

    CERN Multimedia


    Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)

  4. Searches for lepton flavor violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D.


    The present status of a selection of important lepton flavor violating (LFV) processes, mainly involving muon number violation, are briefly discussed, with indications of the special attractiveness of each. 44 refs., 11 figs. (LEW)

  5. CP violation and modular symmetries


    Dent, Thomas


    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent non-invariance of the results under duality. We find an unambiguous modular CP invariance condition, applicable to predictive models of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated a...

  6. An unusual burn caused by hot argy wormwood leaf water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Guo


    Full Text Available An unusual burn case caused by hot wormwood leaf water was discussed. A 29-year-old woman sustained a 7% second-degree burn on both buttocks and left thigh. This case report highlights a rare cause of a chemical burn that may become more common with increasing use of this Chinese traditional medicine. The prevention measures of this burn injury were also presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master


    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  8. Hyperscaling violating Lifshitz holography (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Ioannis


    We present an overview of the construction of the general holographic dictionary for asymptotically locally Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating Lifshitz backgrounds with arbitrary dynamical exponents z and θ, compatible with the null energy condition, which was recently developed in [W. Chemissany, I. Papadimitriou, Generalized dilatation operator method for non-relativistic holography, arxiv:arXiv:1405.3965, W. Chemissany, I. Papadimitriou, Lifshitz holography: The whole shebang, arxiv:arXiv:1408.0795]. A concrete definition of asymptotically locally Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating Lifshitz backgrounds is provided in the context of a generic bottom-up Einstein-Proca-Dilaton theory, and a systematic procedure for solving the radial Hamilton-Jacobi equation via a covariant expansion in eigenfunctions of two commuting operators is presented. The resulting asymptotic solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is subsequently used to derive the full holographic dictionary, including the Fefferman-Graham asymptotic expansions and the non-relativistic holographic Ward identities.

  9. LHCb CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Vesterinen, Mika


    The study of $CP$ violation in the beauty hadron sector is a promising approach to search for the effects of physics beyond the Standard Model. Several recent measurements in this area from the LHCb experiment are reported in these proceedings. These are based on the Run-I dataset of 3~fb$^{-1}$ of data collected at proton-proton centre of mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV.

  10. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption. (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan


    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  11. Lorentz violation naturalness revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Gambassi, Andrea; Liberati, Stefano [SISSA - International School for Advanced Studies, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)


    We revisit here the naturalness problem of Lorentz invariance violations on a simple toy model of a scalar field coupled to a fermion field via a Yukawa interaction. We first review some well-known results concerning the low-energy percolation of Lorentz violation from high energies, presenting some details of the analysis not explicitly discussed in the literature and discussing some previously unnoticed subtleties. We then show how a separation between the scale of validity of the effective field theory and that one of Lorentz invariance violations can hinder this low-energy percolation. While such protection mechanism was previously considered in the literature, we provide here a simple illustration of how it works and of its general features. Finally, we consider a case in which dissipation is present, showing that the dissipative behaviour does not percolate generically to lower mass dimension operators albeit dispersion does. Moreover, we show that a scale separation can protect from unsuppressed low-energy percolation also in this case.

  12. A closer look at burn injuries and epilepsy in a developing world ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Burn injuries in South Africa result in significant morbidity and mortality, and specific vulnerable groups of patients are at increased risk of sustaining a burn injury. Epileptic patients are one such vulnerable group. The spectrum of burn injuries sustained by epileptic patients in a South African township and the ...

  13. Self-inflicted burns: a case series. (United States)

    Henderson, Antony; Wijewardena, Aruna; Streimer, Jeff; Vandervord, John


    Self-inflicted burns are regularly admitted to burns units worldwide. Most of these patients are referred to psychiatric services and are successfully treated however some return to hospital with recurrent self-inflicted burns. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of the recurrent self-inflicted burn patients admitted to the Royal North Shore Hospital during 2004-2011. Burn patients were drawn from a computerized database and recurrent self-inflicted burn patients were identified. Of the total of 1442 burn patients, 40 (2.8%) were identified as self-inflicted burns. Of these patients, 5 (0.4%) were identified to have sustained previous self-inflicted burns and were interviewed by a psychiatrist. Each patient had been diagnosed with a borderline personality disorder and had suffered other forms of deliberate self-harm. Self-inflicted burns were utilized to relieve or help regulate psychological distress, rather than to commit suicide. Most patients had a history of emotional neglect, physical and/or sexual abuse during their early life experience. Following discharge from hospital, the patients described varying levels of psychiatric follow-up, from a post-discharge review at a local community mental health centre to twice-weekly psychotherapy. The patients who engaged in regular psychotherapy described feeling more in control of their emotions and reported having a longer period of abstinence from self-inflicted burn. Although these patients represent a small proportion of all burns, the repeat nature of their injuries led to a significant use of clinical resources. A coordinated and consistent treatment pathway involving surgical and psychiatric services for recurrent self-inflicted burns may assist in the management of these challenging patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical burn or reaction (United States)

    ... this page: // Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on ... the burned area from pressure and friction. Minor chemical burns will generally heal without further treatment. However, if ...

  15. Lethal triad in severe burns. (United States)

    Sherren, P B; Hussey, J; Martin, R; Kundishora, T; Parker, M; Emerson, B


    Hypothermia, acidaemia and coagulopathy in trauma is associated with significant mortality. This study aimed to identify the incidence of the lethal triad in major burns, and describe demographics and outcomes. Patients admitted during a 71 month period with a total body surface area burn (TBSA)≥30% were identified. A structured review of a prospective database was conducted. The lethal triad was defined as a combination of coagulopathy (International normalised ratio>1.2), hypothermia (temperature≤35.5°C) and acidaemia (pH≤7.25). Fifteen of 117 patients fulfilled the criteria for the lethal triad on admission. Lethal triad patients had a higher median (IQR) abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) (12 (9-13) vs. 8.5 (6-10), p=0.001), mean (SD) TBSA burn (59.2% (18.7) vs. 47.9% (18.1), p=0.027), mean (SD) age (46 (22.6) vs. 33 (28.3) years, p=0.033), and had a higher incidence of inhalational injury (p0.05). The lethal triad was associated with increased mortality (66.7% vs. 13.7%, plethal triad was not shown to be a predictor of mortality (p>0.05). Burn patients with the lethal triad have a high mortality rate which reflects the severity of the injury sustained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Simplifying Contract-Violating Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Colombo


    Full Text Available Contract conformance is hard to determine statically, prior to the deployment of large pieces of software. A scalable alternative is to monitor for contract violations post-deployment: once a violation is detected, the trace characterising the offending execution is analysed to pinpoint the source of the offence. A major drawback with this technique is that, often, contract violations take time to surface, resulting in long traces that are hard to analyse. This paper proposes a methodology together with an accompanying tool for simplifying traces and assisting contract-violation debugging.

  17. Parity violation in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.G.H.


    A summary of parity violating effects in nuclei is given. Thanks to vigorous experimental and theoretical effort, it now appears that a reasonably well-defined value for the weak isovector ..pi..-nucleon coupling constant can be obtained. There is one major uncertainty in the analysis, namely the M2/E1 mixing ratio for the 2.79 MeV transition in /sup 21/Ne. This quantity is virtually impossible to calculate reliably and must be measured. If it turns out to be much larger than 1, then a null result in /sup 21/Ne is expected no matter what the weak interaction, so an experimental determination is urgently needed. The most promising approach is perhaps a measurement of the pair internal conversion coefficient. Of course, a direct measurement of a pure isovector case is highly desirable, and it is to be hoped that the four = 1 experiments will be pushed still further, and that improved calculations will be made for the /sup 6/Li case. Nuclear parity violation seems to be rapidly approaching an interesting and useful synthesis.

  18. A clinico-epidemiological study of rescuer burns. (United States)

    Basra, Baljeet Kumar; Suri, Manav P; Patil, Nilesh; Atha, Ravish; Patel, Natvar; Sachde, Jayesh P; Shaikh, M F


    Rescuer burn is a relatively newer terminology introduced to define the burns sustained by a person attempting to rescue a primary burn victim. Few studies have been published thus far on this peculiar type of burns. Due to the general neglect of the rescuer burns victim and discontinuation of treatment in most cases, once the primary victim dies, the rescuer often ends up in badly infected wounds and has a delayed return to work. A prospective study was conducted at the B J Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2009 to December 2012 on the rescuer burns patients treated in its burns and plastic surgery department. 3074 patients of burns received treatment during the period of study. Of these, 48 patients gave the history of sustaining burns while trying to rescue a burns victim. Male to female ratio of rescuers was approximately 7:1. It was significantly higher as compared to the ratio of 1:0.8 of females to male burn victims observed at our centre (p≤0.01). Average age of the rescuers was higher in males as compared to females but the difference was not significant (p≥0.05). Of the 45 cases of female primary burns victims, male rescuer was husband of the primary victim in 41/45 cases (91.1%), mother was rescuer in three cases (6.6% cases) and sister was rescuer in one case. Though multiple people came to rescue a burns victim, in all cases, it was seen that it was the first rescuer who sustained burns himself or herself. None of the rescuers had any knowledge of the techniques and precautions to be taken while performing a rescue operation irrespective of their education status, indirectly pointing to the lack of any teaching on burns rescue in the school education curriculum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.



    McKinley, R; Clark, J.; J. Lecker


    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-der...

  20. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... to the Gynecologist? Blood Test: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  1. Minor burns - aftercare (United States)

    ... If this is not possible, put a cool, clean wet cloth on the burn, or soak the burn in a cool water bath for 5 minutes. ... After the burn is cooled, make sure it is a minor burn. If it is deeper, ... You may put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum ...

  2. New Limit on CPT Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; Marriner, J.; Martens, M.; Ray, R. E.; Streets, J.; Wester, W.; Hu, M.; Snow, G. R.; Armstrong, T.; Buchanan, C. (and others)


    A search for antiproton decay has been made at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator. Limits are placed on fifteen antiproton decay modes. The results are used to place limits on the characteristic mass scale m{sub X} that could be associated with CPT violation accompanied by baryon number violation. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  3. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well known that the study of flavour physics and CP violation is very important to critically test the Standard Model and to look for possible signature of new physics beyond it. The observation of CP violation in kaon system in 1964 has ignited a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to understand its origin and to look ...

  4. Characteristics of adult scald burn patients-a single center study in western Kanagawa Prefecture. (United States)

    Morita, S; Higami, S; Aoki, H; Yamagiwa, T; Akieda, K; Inokuchi, S


    Burns sustained in bathtubs are a social and medical problem in Japan, especially among the elderly. Between October 2003 and March 2009, 22 adult scald burn patients (men, 17; average age, 65.3 ± 21.2 years) were transferred to Tokai University. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of these patients, and compared clinical parameters among patients with burns sustained in a bathtub (n = 10) and those with burns sustained due to other causes (n = 12). The average percentage total body surface area (%TBSA), dermal and deep burn area, and abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) were 27.6 ± 23.8, 19.9 ± 20.5%, 7.8 ± 13.1%, and 7.7 ± 3.1, respectively. All patients in the bathtub burn group were elderly, 6 developed internal diseases, 3 had alcohol-related burns, and 4 died. Additionally, their %TBSA and ABSI were higher than those of the non-bathtub burn group patients. Burns sustained in bathtubs were more severe than those sustained due to other causes. The bathtub-related burn patients were elderly, and their burns were extensive and deep; hence, they were at a higher risk of developing internal diseases. Thus, introduction of safer bathing styles and bath systems will decrease incidences of bathtub-related burns. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Lepton family number violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herczeg, P.


    At present there is evidence from neutrino oscillation searches that the neutrinos are in fact massive particles and that they mix. If confirmed, this would imply that the conservation of LFN is not exact. Lepton family number violation (LFNV) has been searched for with impressive sensitivities in many processes involving charged leptons. The present experimental limits on some of them (those which the author shall consider here) are shown in Table 1. These stringent limits are not inconsistent with the neutrino oscillation results since, given the experimental bounds on the masses of the known neutrinos and the neutrino mass squared differences required by the oscillation results, the effects of LFNV from neutrino mixing would be too small to be seen elsewhere (see Section 2). The purpose of experiments searching for LFNV involving the charged leptons is to probe the existence of other sources of LFNV. Such sources are present in many extensions of the SM. In this lecture the author shall discuss some of the possibilities, focusing on processes that require muon beams. Other LFNV processes, such as the decays of the kaons and of the {tau}, provide complementary information. In the next Section he shall consider some sources of LFNV that do not require an extension of the gauge group of the SM (the added leptons or Higgs bosons may of course originate from models with extended gauge groups). In Section 3 he discusses LFNV in left-right symmetric models. In Section 4 he considers LFNV in supersymmetric models, first in R-parity conserving supersymmetric grand unified models, and then in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. The last section is a brief summary of the author`s conclusions.

  6. Referral patterns in pediatric burn patients. (United States)

    Doud, Andrea N; Swanson, John M; Ladd, Mitchell R; Neff, Lucas P; Carter, Jeff E; Holmes, James H


    Though multiple studies have demonstrated superior outcomes amongst adult burn patients at verified burn centers (VBCs) relative to nondedicated burn centers (NBCs), roughly half of such patients meeting American Burn Association (ABA) referral guidelines are not sent to these centers. We sought examine referral patterns amongst pediatric burn patients. Retrospective review of a statewide patient database identified pediatric burn patients from 2000 to 2007 using International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) discharge codes. These injuries were crossreferenced with ABA referral criteria to determine compliance with the ABA guidelines. 1831 children sustained burns requiring hospitalization during the study period, of which 1274 (70%) met ABA referral criteria. Of 557 treated at NBCs, 306 (55%) met criteria for transfer. Neither age, gender, nor payer status demonstrated significant association with treatment center. VBCs treated more severely injured patients, but there was no difference in survival or rate of discharge home from NBCs versus VBCs. Studies to evaluate differences in functional outcomes between pediatric burn patients treated at VBCs versus NBCs would be beneficial to ensure optimization of outcomes in this population.

  7. Management of Critical Burn Injuries: Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Dries


    Full Text Available Background Burn injury and its subsequent multisystem effects are commonly encountered by acute care practitioners. Resuscitation is the major component of initial burn care and must be managed to restore and preserve vital organ function. Later complications of burn injury are dominated by infection. Burn centers are often called to manage problems related to thermal injury, including lightning and electrical injuries. Methods A selected review is provided of key management concepts as well as of recent reports published by the American Burn Association. Results The burn-injured patient is easily and frequently over resuscitated, with ensuing complications that include delayed wound healing and respiratory compromise. A feedback protocol designed to limit the occurrence of excessive resuscitation has been proposed, but no new “gold standard” for resuscitation has replaced the venerated Parkland formula. While new medical therapies have been proposed for patients sustaining inhalation injury, a paradigm-shifting standard of medical therapy has not emerged. Renal failure as a specific contributor to adverse outcome in burns has been reinforced by recent data. Of special problems addressed in burn centers, electrical injuries pose multisystem physiologic challenges and do not fit typical scoring systems. Conclusion Recent reports emphasize the dangers of over resuscitation in the setting of burn injury. No new medical therapy for inhalation injury has been generally adopted, but new standards for description of burn-related infections have been presented. The value of the burn center in care of the problems of electrical exposure, both manmade and natural, is demonstrated in recent reports.

  8. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmark....... METHODS: We included burn patients referred to the NBC in a three-months period. Patient records were systematically analyzed and compared with the national guidelines for referral of burn injured patients. RESULTS: A total of 97 burn injured patients were transferred for treatment at the NBC and the most...... common reason for referral was partial thickness burn exceeding 3% estimated area of burn (55% of the patients) while facial burns (32%) and inhalational injury (25%) were other common reasons. We found that 29 (30%) of the referrals were considered potentially unnecessary according to the guidelines...

  9. Lepton Flavour Violation Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cei


    Full Text Available Lepton Flavour Violation in the charged lepton sector (CLFV is forbidden in the Minimal Standard model and strongly suppressed in extensions of the model to include finite neutrino mixing. On the other hand, a wide class of Supersymmetric theories, even coupled with Grand Unification models (SUSY-GUT models, predict CLFV processes at a rate within the reach of new experimental searches operated with high resolution detectors at high intensity accelerators. As the Standard model background is negligible, the observation of one or more CLFV events would provide incontrovertible evidence for physics beyond Standard model, while a null effect would severely constrain the set of theory parameters. Therefore, a big experimental effort is currently (and will be for incoming years accomplished to achieve unprecedented sensitivity on several CLFV processes. In this paper we review past and recent results in this research field, with focus on CLFV channels involving muons and tau's. We present currently operating experiments as well as future projects, with emphasis laid on how sensitivity enhancements are accompanied by improvements on detection techniques. Limitations due to systematic effects are also discussed in detail together with the solutions being adopted to overcome them.

  10. An atypical cause of alkali chemical burn: a case report. (United States)

    Boutefnouchet, T; Moiemen, N; Papini, R


    It has already been reported that wet ash turns into a strong alkali agent, which can cause full-thickness skin burns. A case is presented which has the particularity of sustained, self-inflicted contact with wet ash. The coal used was the self-igniting type normally used for burning scented weed or for smoking the hubbly bubbly or shisha pipe.

  11. An Atypical Cause of Alkali Chemical Burn: a Case Report


    Boutefnouchet, T; Moiemen, N.; Papini, R.


    It has already been reported that wet ash turns into a strong alkali agent, which can cause full-thickness skin burns. A case is presented which has the particularity of sustained, self-inflicted contact with wet ash. The coal used was the self-igniting type normally used for burning scented weed or for smoking the hubbly bubbly or shisha pipe.

  12. Autopsy audit of burn patients; the Lagos State University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background There are many studies detailing the improvement in the care and survival of burns patients. Very little have however been documented about the postmortem findings in patients that died after sustaining burns. This study was carried out to assess the severity of injury to skin and internal organs as revealed by ...

  13. Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert


    The starting point of these lectures is an introduction to the weak interactions of quarks and the Standard-Model description of CP violation, where the central role is played by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and the corresponding unitarity triangles. Since the B-meson system will govern the stage of (quark) flavour physics and CP violation in this decade, it will be our main focus. We shall classify B-meson decays, introduce the theoretical tools to deal with them, investigate the requirements for non-vanishing CP-violating asymmetries, and discuss the main strategies to explore CP violation and the preferred avenues for physics beyond the Standard Model to enter. This formalism is then applied to discuss the status of important B-factory benchmark modes, where we focus on puzzling patterns in the data that may indicate new-physics effects, as well as the prospects for B-decay studies at the LHC.

  14. Flavour physics and CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Kou, Emi


    In these three lectures, I overview the theoretical framework of the flavour physics and CP violation. The first lecture is the introduction to the flavour physics. Namely, I give theoretical basics of the weak interaction. I follow also some historical aspect, discovery of the CP violation, phenomenological studies of charged and neutral currents and the success of the GIM mechanism. In the second lecture, I describe the flavour physics and CP violating phenomena in the Standard Model (SM). I also give the latest experimental observation of the CP Violation at the B factories and the LHC and discuss its interpretation. In the third lecture, I discuss the on-going search of the signals beyond SM in the flavour physics and also the future prospects.

  15. CP violating scalar Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero-Cid, A.; Hernández-Sánchez, J. [Instituto de Física and Facultad de Ciencias de la Electrónica, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal 542, C.P. 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Keus, V. [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hallstromin katu 2, Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); King, S.F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Moretti, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Rojas, D. [Instituto de Física and Facultad de Ciencias de la Electrónica, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal 542, C.P. 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Sokołowska, D. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)


    We study an extension of the Standard Model (SM) in which two copies of the SM scalar SU(2) doublet which do not acquire a Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV), and hence are inert, are added to the scalar sector. We allow for CP-violation in the inert sector, where the lightest inert state is protected from decaying to SM particles through the conservation of a Z{sub 2} symmetry. The lightest neutral particle from the inert sector, which has a mixed CP-charge due to CP-violation, is hence a Dark Matter (DM) candidate. We discuss the new regions of DM relic density opened up by CP-violation, and compare our results to the CP-conserving limit and the Inert Doublet Model (IDM). We constrain the parameter space of the CP-violating model using recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and DM direct and indirect detection experiments.

  16. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  17. Burns - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Burns URL of this page: Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  18. 7 CFR 632.42 - Violation procedures. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violation procedures. 632.42 Section 632.42..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Appeals and Violations § 632.42 Violation procedures. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the regulations dealing with contract violations...

  19. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan


    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  20. Pattern of burn injury in hang-glider pilots. (United States)

    Campbell, D C; Nano, T; Pegg, S P


    High-voltage electrical injury has been well documented in a number of situations, such as the occupational hazard of linesmen and construction workers, and in the context of overhead railway power lines. Two cases of hang-glider pilots contacting 11,000-volt power lines have recently been treated in the Royal Brisbane Hospital Burns Unit. They demonstrate an interesting pattern of injury, not described in current burns literature, involving both hand and lower abdominal burns. Both patients sustained full-thickness patches of burn injury, with underlying muscle damage and peripheral neurological injury. This distribution of injury seems to be closely related to the design of the hang glider.

  1. Epidemiology of Burns in Rural Bangladesh: An Update. (United States)

    He, Siran; Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Sharmin, Shumona; Islam, Irteja; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Arifeen, Shams El


    Each year, approximately 265,000 deaths occur due to burns on a global scale. In Bangladesh, around 173,000 children under 18 sustain a burn injury. Since most epidemiological studies on burn injuries in low and middle-income countries are based on small-scale surveys or hospital records, this study aims to derive burn mortality and morbidity measures and risk factors at a population level in Bangladesh. A household survey was conducted in seven rural sub-districts of Bangladesh in 2013 to assess injury outcomes. Burn injuries were one of the external causes of injury. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors were described using descriptive as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 2 deaths and 528 injuries per 100,000 populations. Females had a higher burn rate. More than 50% of injuries were seen in adults 25 to 64 years of age. Most injuries occurred in the kitchen while preparing food. 88% of all burns occurred due to flame. Children 1 to 4 years of age were four times more likely to sustain burn injuries as compared to infants. Age-targeted interventions, awareness of first aid protocols, and improvement of acute care management would be potential leads to curb death and disability due to burn injuries.

  2. Epidemiology and outcome of burns: early experience at the country's first national burns centre. (United States)

    Iqbal, Tariq; Saaiq, Muhammad; Ali, Zahid


    This study aims to document the epidemiologic pattern and outcome of burn injuries in the country's first national burn centre. This case series study was conducted over a 2-year period at Burns Care Centre (BCC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. The study included all burn injury patients who primarily presented to and were managed at the centre. Those patients who presented more than 24 h after injury or those who were initially managed at some other hospital were excluded from the study. Initial assessment and diagnosis was made by thorough history, physical examination and necessary investigations. Patients with major burns, high voltage electric burns and those needing any surgical interventions were admitted for indoor management. Patients with minor burns were discharged home after necessary emergency management, home medication and follow-up advice. The sociodemographic profile of the patients, site of sustaining burn injury, type and extent (total body surface area (TBSA), skin thickness involved and associated inhalational injury) of burn and outcome in terms of survival or mortality, etc., were all recorded on a proforma. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Out of a total of 13,295 patients, there were 7503 (56.43%) males and 5792 (43.56%) females. The mean age for adults was 33.63±10.76 years and for children it was 6.71±3.47 years. The household environment constituted the commonest site of burns (68%). Among all age groups and both genders, scalds were the commonest burns (42.48%), followed by flame burns (39%) and electrical burns (9.96%). The affected mean TBSA was 10.64±11.45% overall, while for the hospitalised subset of patients the mean TBSA was 38.04±15.18%. Most of the burns were partial thickness (67%). Inhalation injury was found among 149 (1.12%) patients. Most of the burns were non-intentional and only 96 (0.72%) were intentional. A total of 1405 patients (10.58%) were admitted while the remainder

  3. [Treatment of burns in infants]. (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L


    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  4. B Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert


    After an introduction to the Standard-Model description of CP violation, we turn to the main focus of these lectures, the B-meson system. Since non-leptonic B decays play the key role for the exploration of CP violation, we have to discuss the tools to describe these transitions theoretically before classifying the main strategies to study CP violation. We will then have a closer look at the B-factory benchmark modes $B_d\\to J/\\psi K_S$, $B_d\\to\\phi K_S$ and $B_d\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-$, and shall emphasize the importance of studies of $B_s$ decays at hadron colliders. Finally, we focus on more recent developments related to $B\\to\\pi K$ modes and the $B_d\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B_s\\to K^+K^-$ system.

  5. Flavour physics and CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Nir, Y.


    We explain the many reasons for the interest in flavor physics. We describe flavor physics and the related CP violation within the Standard Model, and explain how the B-factories proved that the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism dominates the CP violation that is observed in meson decays. We explain the implications of flavor physics for new physics, with emphasis on the “new physics flavor puzzle”, and present the idea of minimal flavor violation as a possible solution. We explain why the values flavor parameters of the Standard Model are puzzling, present the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism as a possible solution, and describe how measurements of neutrino parameters are interpreted in the context of this puzzle. We show that the recently discovered Higgs-like boson may provide new opportunities for making progress on the various flavor puzzles.

  6. Chirality and gravitational parity violation. (United States)

    Bargueño, Pedro


    In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Burn mortality in Iraq. (United States)

    Qader, Ari Raheem


    Mortality rates are important outcome parameters after burn, and can serve as objective end points for quality control. Causes of death after severe burn have changed over time. In a prospective study, eight hundred and eighty-four burn patients were admitted to the Burns and Plastic surgery Hospital in Sulaimani-Kurdistan region of Iraq in 2009. Age, gender, nationality, cause of burn, extent of injury, cause of death and mortality rate were tabulated and analyzed, 338 (38.2%) were male and 546 (61.8%) were female. The highest number of cases occurred in January, with the highest short period incidence occurring in April. Out of 884 cases, 260 persons died. Burn injuries were more frequent and larger with higher mortality in females than in males. Flame was the major cause of burns. Self-inflicted burns were noted mainly in young women. A large number of burns which affect children and females, occur in the domestic setting and could have been prevented. Therefore, it is necessary to implement programs for health education relating to prevention of burn injuries focusing on the domestic setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional Therapy in Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Durmuş


    Full Text Available A burn is characterized by the damage to one’s body tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, or radiation. The incidence of burn injuries has recently been decreasing. However, it is a fact that burns constitute a significant problem all over the world, with a few million people being affected by burns each year. A burn is an extensive trauma that affects the whole organism and determines the prognosis through its physiopathology. The case of the burn patient is also characterized by the acute phase response. Since burn patients have a non-functional skin barrier, they experience loss of liquids, minerals, proteins and electrolytes. They can also develop protein, energy and micro-nutrition deficiencies due to intense catabolic processes, infections and increased bodily needs in case of wound healing. Therefore, nutritional therapy is one of the major steps that need to be monitored from the initial moments of the burn injury through to the end of the burn treatment. This study focuses on the significance of nutritional therapy for burn patients in the light of current literature.

  9. [The pain from burns]. (United States)

    Latarjet, J


    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  10. New sources of CP violation (United States)

    Moyotl, A.


    We present a short review of CP-violating effects induced by radiative corrections in a framework of extensions of the Standard Model: (EM,Weak, Chromo) electric dipole moments of heavy fermions, trilinear neutral gauge boson couplings and decays of the Higgs boson. We show that in order to induce CP-violating effects, non-diagonal couplings with complex coupling constant are required and the respective CP-odd term is proportional to the imaginary part of the product of coupling constants involved in the process, which is mathematically consistent with the respective CP-odd Lagrangian.

  11. Is there an increased risk of burns to Amish children? (United States)

    Rieman, Mary T; Hunley, Melissa; Woeste, Lori; Kagan, Richard J


    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, causes, and demographics of burn injuries in Amish children, treated at a pediatric burn center located in close proximity to the Midwestern Amish country. After Institutional Review Board approval, we used our TRACS Burn Registry to identify burn injuries in Amish and non-Amish children. We then compared the groups formed by gender and culture. We identified 37 Amish children (1.25%) among the 2972 acute burn patients admitted over the 12-year period of review. Importantly, Amish girls sustained significantly more extensive and deeper burns than Amish boys or non-Amish children of either gender (P Amish girls than for the non-Amish groups (P Amish girls was likely because of their significantly larger burn size. There were also overall significant differences in burn causes among Amish and non-Amish children (P = .002). Amish patients had a higher incidence of burns, by hot liquids not related to cooking, ignition of clothing, or ignition of flammable materials, than non-Amish children. Of note, Amish girls had a relatively shorter delay in admission to our burn center than did Amish boys and non-Amish children. Burn injuries to Amish children requiring inpatient treatment seem to be quite uncommon. When they do occur, burns in Amish children tend to be more extensive than similar injuries in non-Amish children. The data suggest that there may be significant and specific educational opportunities for burn prevention in Amish children in our burn center's referral area.

  12. Burns and epilepsy. (United States)

    Berrocal, M


    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  13. Management of Hand Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Irmak


    Full Text Available Objective: The hand is one of the most frequently affected body parts by burn injuries with a rate of 80% among all burn wounds. Early and effective treatment ensures the best chance of survival as well as a good functional prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, variation, relationship between etiology and hospital stay, clinical features, and management of hand burns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted the University of Health Sciences; Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Application and Research Center, Departmant of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery and the Intensive Burn Care Unit between April 2009 and April 2014. Burns were assessed based on etiology, anatomical location, percentage of total body surface area affected, and depth of injury. Treatment was categorized as conservative, elective operative, or urgent operative. Results: In the study period, 788 patients were admitted to our Burn Unit. Of these, 240 were females (30.5% and 548 were males (69.5%. The most common type of burn injury in this study was thermal injury (695 cases; 88.2%, followed by electrical injury (67 cases; 8.5%, and chemical, frictional or unknown injuries (26 cases; 3.3%. Majority (more than 85% of the patients had second-degree burns, and some had third-degree burns. Conclusions: Burns commonly affect the hands, and many functional problems may develop if appropriate basic treatments are neglected. The best treatment for burns is prevention. Appropriate indoor arrangement and simple but effective measures that can be taken at home can significantly reduce burn trauma exposure.

  14. Pediatric facial burns. (United States)

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K


    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes.

  15. Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio


    An introductory overview of the Standard Model description of flavour is presented. The main emphasis is put on present tests of the quark-mixing matrix structure and the phenomenological determination of its parameters. Special attention is given to the experimental evidences of CP violation and their important role in our understanding of flavour dynamics.

  16. 5 CFR 1312.31 - Security violations. (United States)


    ... Classified Information § 1312.31 Security violations. (a) A security violation notice is issued by the United... Budget employees will comply with this section. Additionally, personnel on detail or temporary duty will... dismissal. ...

  17. [Inherit enterprising spirit of burn discipline and meet the new challenge]. (United States)

    Sun, Y H


    Burn is a common trauma in peace time and war. Burn care was not designated as a specific discipline but a subspecialty of general surgery in China until the 1950s. In 1958, along with the development of metallurgical industry in China, the number of burn patients was increased remarkably, followed by establishment of modern burn departments. A steel worker sustaining a burn injury with size of 89% total burn surface area (TBSA) and full-thickness wound size of 23% TBSA was successfully cured by burn experts of Shanghai Guangci Hospital (renamed Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to the School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiao Tong University). This was considered as a miracle in the history of burn treatment in the world. Thenceforth a number of burn patients with size over 80% TBSA were saved in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Xi'an, and other cities. However, with rapid advances in burn treatment, it was soon recognized that one should fully grasp the science of the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. To fulfill these demands, specialists devoted themselves to the study of basic problems, and they made significant and valuable contributions to the knowledge concerning basic problems in burn injury, followed by significant improvements in burn care. In the meantime, Chinese Burn Association and Chinese Journal of Burns were inaugurated. An overall strategy for treatment of severe burn patients with Chinese characteristics was established. However, it is also important to inherit traditional ideologies, namely"morality, diligence, excellence, and creativity".

  18. Burns and military clothing. (United States)

    McLean, A D


    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  19. 21 CFR 1230.46 - Violation. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Violation. 1230.46 Section 1230.46 Food and Drugs... POISON ACT Imports § 1230.46 Violation. (a) If a violation of the Federal Caustic Poison Act is disclosed, the chief of the district shall send to the importer due notice of the nature of the violation and of...

  20. The strong equivalence principle and its violation (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.


    Theoretical and observational aspects of an SEP violation are discussed. A two-times theory is presented as a possible framework to handle an SEP violation, and tests performed to check the compatibility of such violation with a host of data ranging from nucleosynthesis to geophysics are summarized. Also discussed are the dynamical equations needed to analyze radar ranging data to reveal an SEP violation and in particular the method employed by Shapiro and Reasenberg (1976).

  1. CP-violations in B decays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent results on CP-violation measurements in decays from energy asymmetric -factory experiments are reported. Thanks to large accumulated data samples, CP-violations in decays in mixing-decay interference and direct CP-violation are now firmly established. The measurements of three angles of the unitarity ...

  2. Constraints on the CP-Violating MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, A; Godbole, R M; Mahmoudi, F


    We discuss the prospects for observing CP violation in the MSSM with six CP-violating phases, using a geometric approach to maximise CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We consider constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics, the dark matter relic density and spin-independent scattering cross section with matter.

  3. Burns and Fire Safety (United States)

    ... Cairns BA, et al. Etiology and outcome of pediatric burns. J Pediatr Surg. 1996; 31(3): 329-33. ... RT, Feldman JA, McMillon M. Tap water scald burns in children. Pediatrics. 1978; 62(1): 1-7. 10 Baptiste MS, ...

  4. Are burns photographs useful? (United States)

    Nelson, L; Boyle, M; Taggart, I; Watson, S


    Routine photography of all patients admitted to the West of Scotland Regional Burns Unit was introduced in 2003. To date, there are few burns units to evaluate the usefulness of photographs taken. To assess the usefulness of photographs of patients admitted to the burns unit to various members of the multidisciplinary team. A questionnaire was completed by hospital staff involved in the management of burns patients over a 3-month period. A total of 43 questionnaires were completed. The majority of questionnaires were completed by nursing staff (55%) followed by medical staff (23%); physiotherapy (5%); anaesthetists (7%); theatre staff (5%); students (2%); dietician (2%). About 98% of respondents agreed that photographs were useful overall, particularly for teaching purposes. About 9% disagreed that photographs were useful for assessment due to difficulty in assessing depth of burn. About 72% agreed that the photographs were useful for patient management and improve patient care. About 88% agreed that all patients should have photographs available in future. Advantages of photographs include; moving and handling of patients; patient positioning in theatre; reviewing wound healing and complications. They are useful for assessing site, size and type of burn. Disadvantages include difficulty in assessing depth of burn, technical factors, and unavailability out of hours. Photographs of burns patients are useful overall to all members of the multidisciplinary team.

  5. Treating and Preventing Burns (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Burn Treatment & Prevention Tips for Families Page Content ​There are many different causes of serious burns in children, including sunburn , hot water or other hot liquids, and those due to ...

  6. Pain in burn patients. (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M


    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  7. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts]. (United States)

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L


    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  8. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  9. The epidemiology of geriatric burns in Iran: A national burn registry-based study. (United States)

    Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Momeni, Mahnoush; Karimi, Hamid


    Defining the epidemiology and outcome of geriatric burn patients is critical for specialized burn centers, health-care workers, and governments. Better resource use and effective guidelines are some of the advantages of studies focusing on this aspect. The outcome of these patients serves as an objective criterion for quality control, research, and preventive programs. We used data from the burn registry program in our country. For 2 years, >28,700 burn patients were recorded, 1721 of whom were admitted. Among them, 187 patients were ≥55 years old. Sixty-nine percent of patients were male and 31% female, with a male to female ratio of 2.22:1. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of age was 63.4±8.1. The cause of burns was flame (58.2%) and scalds (20.3%). Most of the burns were sustained at home. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.5 days (range 3-59 days). The mean (SD) of the total body surface area (TBSA) was 20.3% (8.4%). The median hospital stay (length of stay (LOS)) was 11 days (SD=14). The increase in TBSA was related to a longer LOS (pBurn wound infection developed in 44.3% of patients. The presence of inhalation injury was significantly related to mortality (pburn patients. However, being alone or single, ignition of clothing, cause of burn, comorbid illnesses, complications following the burn, TBSA, age, and sepsis were positively correlated with mortality. The mean cost of treatment for each patient was about $7450. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. The minimal flavour violating axion (United States)

    Arias-Aragón, F.; Merlo, L.


    The solution to the Strong CP problem is analysed within the Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) context. An Abelian factor of the complete flavour symmetry of the fermionic kinetic terms may play the role of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry in traditional axion models. Its spontaneous breaking, due to the addition of a complex scalar field to the Standard Model scalar spectrum, generates the MFV axion, which may redefine away the QCD theta parameter. It differs from the traditional QCD axion for its couplings that are governed by the fermion charges under the axial Abelian symmetry. It is also distinct from the so-called Axiflavon, as the MFV axion does not describe flavour violation, while it does induce flavour non-universality effects. The MFV axion phenomenology is discussed considering astrophysical, collider and flavour data.

  11. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where the V 's are the elements of the CKM matrix and i, j, k, l = 1, 2, 3. In terms of the standard parametrization. J = c12c23c2. 13s12s23s13 sin δ. (17). Thus, in order to have an observable CP violation effect in the SM, the mixing angles θij should not be zero or π/2 and the phase δ should not be zero or π. The Yukawa ...

  12. Leptonic CP violation and leptogenesis (United States)

    Achelashvili, Avtandil; Tavartkiladze, Zurab


    We investigate the extension of MSSM by two mass-degenerate (at tree level) right handed neutrinos. Addressing neutrino masses and leptogenesis, we show that the lepton asymmetry is induced at 1-loop level. We consider concrete neutrino model, which enables to predict the CP violating δ phase and relate it to the cosmological CP asymmetry. The needed amount of the baryon asymmetry is generated via the resonant leptogenesis.

  13. Burning mouth and saliva. (United States)

    Chimenos-Kustner, Eduardo; Marques-Soares, Maria Sueli


    Stomatodynia is the complaint of burning, tickling or itching of the oral cavity, and can be associated with other oral and non-oral signs and symptoms. However, the oral mucosa often appears normal, with no apparent underlying organic cause to account for the symptomatology. The etiology is unknown, though evidence points to the participation of numerous local, systemic and psychological factors. Among the local factors, saliva may play an important role in the symptoms of burning mouth. Saliva possesses specific rheological properties as a result of its chemical, physical and biological characteristics - these properties being essential for maintaining balanced conditions within the oral cavity. Patients with burning mouth present evidence of changes in salivary composition and flow, as well as a probable alteration in the oral mucosal sensory perception related particularly to dry mouth and taste alterations. On the other hand, alterations in salivary composition appear to reflect on its viscosity and symptomatology of burning mouth. Saliva is a field open to much research related to burning mouth, and knowledge of its properties (e.g., viscosity) merits special attention in view of its apparent relationship to the symptoms of burning mouth. The present study describes our clinical experience with burning mouth, and discusses some of the aspects pointing to salivary alterations as one of the most important factors underlying stomatodynia.

  14. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine. (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N


    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Bell violation in the sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Sayantan [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mumbai (India); TIFR, DTP, Mumbai (India); Panda, Sudhakar [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Singh, Rajeev [Savitribai Phule Pune University, Department of Physics, Pune (India)


    In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in the presence of additional time-dependent mass contribution in the cosmological perturbation theory. Here for completeness we compute the total number density and the energy density of the newly created particles in terms of the Bogoliubov coefficients using the WKB approximation method. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in the presence of a new time-dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for a one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a future theoretical probe to break the degeneracy amongst various models of inflation. Additionally, we also fix the scale of inflation in a model-independent way without any prior knowledge of primordial gravitational waves. Also using the input from a newly introduced cosmological parameter, we finally give a theoretical estimate for the tensor-to-scalar ratio in a model-independent way. Next, we also comment on the technicalities of measurements from isospin breaking interactions and the future prospects of newly introduced massive particles in a cosmological Bell violating test experiment. Further, we cite a precise example of this setup applicable in the context of string theory motivated axion monodromy model. Then we

  16. Pediatric sink-bathing: a risk for scald burns. (United States)

    Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W


    Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard.

  17. Burn patients during the Summer Solstice festivities: A retrospective analysis in a hospital burn unit from 2005 to 2015. (United States)

    Pacheco Compaña, Francisco Javier; Avellaneda Oviedo, Edgar Mauricio; González Rodríguez, Alba; González Porto, Sara Alicia


    San Juan (Summer Solstice) is an annual festival celebrated in many parts of Spain on June 24 by lighting bonfires on beaches and in open air. The aim of this study is to analyse the patient profile of those sustaining burns the night before San Juan. The data of 179 patients who sustained burns on June 23 and 24 between 2005 and 2015 were collected retrospectively. The average age of the patients involved in this study was 27.33 years, with males constituting a higher proportion. Hands were the most affected area of the body, and the average burn area was 3.39%. No statistically significant relationship was found between the tidal times and the number of patients with burns, although the latter increased at low tide (p=0.177). The results of this study can guide prevention campaigns during these festivities in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kumar Dash


    Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.

  19. Pattern of burns identified in the Pediatrics Emergency Department at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City: Riyadh. (United States)

    Alharthy, Nesrin; Al Mutairi, Mohammad; AlQueflie, Sulaiman; Nefesa, Aminah Bin; Manie, Najd Bin; Nafesa, Salahaldin Bin; Al Zahrani, Fawaz Saeed


    The objective of the study was to report the incidence of pediatric burn injuries and describe the pattern and the trend of pediatrics burns seen in King Abdul-Aziz Medical City. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Data collected through chart review of pediatrics patients aged 1-month to 14 years who presented with a burn injury to the pediatric emergency department during the year 2013. Burn patients were divided into two groups based on the percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) burned: Either Burn incidence rate was 4.9 patients/1000/year. Children with burns on more than 10% TBSA accounted for 16% incidence (0.8/1000 emergency department patients). The burn injury severity ranged from 1% TBSA to 37%, with a mean of 5%. The proportion of male and female burn patients was 54.1% and 45.9%, respectively. Children between 1 and 3 years of age sustained the majority (48.6%) of burn injuries. Scald burns were found to be the most common cause of injury. Hot water and beverages were considered root for most of the scald burn injuries. As children advance in age, scald injury becomes less likely, and they are more obviously subjected to flame burn injuries. Burn injuries sustained at home were 35% compared to 2.7% occurring outside the home. None of the study variables were good predictors for severe burn injuries affecting more than 10% TBSA. The incidence and the severity of burn injuries remain high at the national level. Burn injuries continue to affect the pediatric population, predominantly, young children, which indicate the need for increasing parent educational programs and government regulations. Because we reported scald burns as the most common causes of burn injury, which are consistent with previous national reports, we recommend having legislation that focuses on scald burn prevention.

  20. Burning Mouth Syndrome (United States)

    ... NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  1. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  2. American Burn Association (United States)

    ... is the premier educational event for the entire burn care team. Submit an abstract or session idea, exhibit or sponsor the meeting, or plan to attend. Find out more about the 50th Annual Meeting in Chicago, ...

  3. Burns (For Parents) (United States)

    ... oven. The liquid may heat unevenly, resulting in pockets of breast milk or formula that can scald a baby's mouth. Screen fireplaces and wood-burning stoves. Radiators and electric baseboard heaters may ...

  4. Management of burn wounds. (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin


    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Burn Wise Awareness Kit (United States)

    Health and safety outreach materials in the form of an awareness kit. Designed specifically for state, local, and tribal air agencies working to reduce wood smoke pollution, it includes best burn tips, social media m

  6. Smartphone applications in burns. (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P


    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus


    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  8. Management of pediatric hand burns. (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Kisch, Tobias; Mauss, Karl L; Senyaman, Oezge; Kraemer, Robert; Mailänder, Peter; Wünsch, Lutz; Stang, Felix


    Hand burns are common in the pediatric population. Optimal hand function is a crucial component of a high-quality survival after burn injury. This can only be achieved with a coordinated approach to the injuries. The aim of this study was to review the management algorithm and outcomes of pediatric hand burns at our institution. In total, 70 children fulfilling our study criteria were treated for a burn hand injury in our Burn Care Center between January 2008 and May 2013. 14 of the 70 pediatric patients underwent surgery because of the depth of the hand burns. The management algorithm depending on the depth of the burn is described. Two patients underwent correction surgery due to burn contractures later. For a successful outcome of the burned hand, the interdisciplinary involvement and cooperation of the plastic and pediatric surgeon, hand therapist, burn team, patient and their parents are crucial.

  9. Flavor Physics & CP Violation 2015 (United States)

    "Flavor Physics & CP violation 2015" (FPCP 2015) was held in Nagoya, Japan, at Nagoya University, from May 25 to May 29 2015. This is the 13th meeting of the series of annual conferences started in Philadelphia, PA, USA in 2002. The aim of the conference is to review developments in flavor physics and CP violation, in both theory and experiment, exploiting the potential to study new physics at the LHC and future facilities. The topics include CP violation, rare decays, CKM elements with heavy quark decays, flavor phenomena in charged leptons and neutrinos, and also interplay between flavor and LHC high Pt physics. The FPCP2015 conference had more than 140 participants, including researchers from abroad and many young researchers (postdocs and students). The conference consisted of plenary talks and poster presentations. The plenary talks include 2 overview talks, 48 review talks, and 2 talks for outlook in theories and experiments, given by world leading researchers. There was also a special lecture by Prof. Makoto Kobayashi, one of the Nobel laureates in 2008. The poster session had 41 contributions. Many young researchers presented their works. These proceedings contain written documents for these plenary and poster presentations. The full scientific program and presentation materials can be found at We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for their invaluable assistance in coordinating the scientific program and in helping to identifying many speakers. Thanks are also due to the Local Organizing Committee for tireless efforts for smooth running of the conference and very enjoyable social activities. We also thank the financial supports provided by Japanese Scociety for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) unfer the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) "Probing New Physics with Tau-Lepton" (No. 26220706), by Nagoya University under the Program for Promoting the Enhancement of Research Universities, and

  10. Calculation of the linear heat generation rates which violate the thermomechanical limit of plastic deformation of the fuel cladding in function of the burn up of a BWR fuel rod type; Calculo de las razones de generacion de calor lineal que violen el limite termomecanico de deformacion plastica de la camisa en funcion del quemado de una barra combustible tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucatero, M.A.; Hernandez L, H. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    The linear heat generation rates (LHGR) for a BWR type generic fuel rod, as function of the burnup that violate the thermomechanical limit of circumferential plastic deformation of the can (canning) in nominal operation in stationary state of the fuel rod are calculated. The evaluation of the LHGR in function of the burnt of the fuel, is carried out under the condition that the deformation values of the circumferential plastic deformation of the can exceeds in 0.1 the thermomechanical value operation limit of 1%. The results of the calculations are compared with the generation rates of linear operation heat in function of the burnt for this fuel rod type. The calculations are carried out with the FEMAXI-V and RODBURN codes. The results show that for exhibitions or burnt between 0 and 16,000 M Wd/tU a minimum margin of 160.8 W/cm exists among LHGR (439.6 W/cm) operation peak for the given fuel and maximum LHGR of the fuel (calculated) to reach 1.1% of circumferential plastic deformation of the can, for the peak factor of power of 1.40. For burnt of 20,000 MWd/tU and 60,000 MWd/tU exist a margin of 150.3 and 298.6 W/cm, respectively. (Author)

  11. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses


    Sibel Yilmaz sahin; Umran Dal; Gulsen Vural


    AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Servic...

  12. Fire walking in Singapore-a study of the distribution of burns. (United States)

    Sayampanathan, Andrew A


    Fire walking is a religious ritual practiced by predominantly Indians and some Chinese living in Singapore. Eighteen new cases of burns, directly related to a firewalking ceremony on 05 October 09, were studied as to the pattern of burns. Burns on the soles of the feet occurred in 17 patients. All these injuries were superficial or partial thickness burns. There were no deep dermal burns. The extent of burns ranged from 0.25% to 1.5% of body surface area. Burns due to falls accounted for one casualty. He sustained a mixture of deep dermal and partial thickness burns, and the extent of burns was 20% of body surface area. A new classification for the distribution of burns related to fire walking was developed based on the mechanism of injury. It was predictive of the anatomical distribution of burns, the extent of burns (in terms of body surface area), the depth of burns and the general severity of the injury: Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Processing of abstract rule violations in audition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Schröger

    Full Text Available The ability to encode rules and to detect rule-violating events outside the focus of attention is vital for adaptive behavior. Our brain recordings reveal that violations of abstract auditory rules are processed even when the sounds are unattended. When subjects performed a task related to the sounds but not to the rule, rule violations impaired task performance and activated a network involving supratemporal, parietal and frontal areas although none of the subjects acquired explicit knowledge of the rule or became aware of rule violations. When subjects tried to behaviorally detect rule violations, the brain's automatic violation detection facilitated intentional detection. This shows the brain's capacity for abstraction - an important cognitive function necessary to model the world. Our study provides the first evidence for the task-independence (i.e. automaticity of this ability to encode abstract rules and for its immediate consequences for subsequent mental processes.

  14. B decays and models for CP violation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiao Gang [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics]|[Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States)


    The decay modes B to {pi} {pi},{upsilon}K{sub S}{sup ,} K{sup -}D, {pi}K and {eta}K are promising channels to study the unitarity triangle of the CP violating Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The consequences of these measurements in the Weinberg model are discussed. It is shown that measurements of CP violation in B decay can be used to distinguish Standard Model from Weinberg model and that the following different mechanisms for CP violation can be distinguished: (1) CP is violated in the CKM sector only; (2) CP is violated spontaneously in the Higgs sector only; and (3) CP is violated in both the CKM and Higgs sectors. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Lorentz violation in supersymmetric field theories. (United States)

    Nibbelink, Stefan Groot; Pospelov, Maxim


    We construct supersymmetric Lorentz violating operators for matter and gauge fields. We show that in the supersymmetric standard model the lowest possible dimension for such operators is five, and therefore they are suppressed by at least one power of an ultraviolet energy scale, providing a possible explanation for the smallness of Lorentz violation and its stability against radiative corrections. Supersymmetric Lorentz noninvariant operators do not lead to modifications of dispersion relations at high energies thereby escaping constraints from astrophysical searches for Lorentz violation.

  16. CP violation in the B system. (United States)

    Gershon, T; Gligorov, V V


    The phenomenon of CP violation is crucial to understand the asymmetry between matter and antimatter that exists in the Universe. Dramatic experimental progress has been made, in particular in measurements of the behaviour of particles containing the b quark, where CP violation effects are predicted by the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism that is embedded in the standard model. The status of these measurements and future prospects for an understanding of CP violation beyond the standard model are reviewed.

  17. Soil heating and impact of prescribed burning (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne


    Prescribed burning is highly uncommon in the Netherlands, where wildfire awareness is increasing but its risk management does not yet include fuel management strategies. A major exception is on two military bases, that need to burn their fields in winter and spring to prevent wildfires during summer shooting practice. Research on these very frequent burns has so far been limited to effects on biodiversity, yet site managers and policy makers have questions regarding the soil temperatures reached during these burns because of potential impact on soil properties and soil dwelling fauna. In March 2015, I therefore measured soil and litter temperatures under heath and grass vegetation during a prescribed burn on military terrain in the Netherlands. Soil and litter moisture were sampled pre- and post-fire, ash was collected, and fireline intensity was estimated from flame length. While standing vegetation was dry (0.13 g water/g biomass for grass and 0.6 g/g for heather), soil and litter were moist (0.21 cm3/cm3 and 1.6 g/g, respectively). Soil heating was therefore very limited, with maximum soil temperature at the soil-litter interface remaining being as low as 6.5 to 11.5°C, and litter temperatures reaching a maximum of 77.5°C at the top of the litter layer. As a result, any changes in physical properties like soil organic matter content and bulk density were not significant. These results are a first step towards a database of soil heating in relation to fuel load and fire intensity in this temperate country, which is not only valuable to increase understanding of the relationships between fire intensity and severity, but also instrumental in the policy debate regarding the sustainability of prescribed burns.

  18. Flavon-induced lepton flavour violation (United States)

    Keus, Venus


    ATLAS and CMS have observed a flavor violating decay of the Higgs to muon and tau. The fact that flavour violating couplings of the Higgs boson are exactly zero in the Standard Model suggests the mixing of the Higgs with another scalar with flavour violating couplings. We use the flavon field from the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, responsible for generating the lepton Yukawa matrices, for this purpose. The parameter space is constrained from experimental bounds on charged lepton flavor violation in other processes, however, we show that a substantial region of parameter space survives these bounds while producing a large enough Br(h → μτ).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Hanum Sari Pertiwi


    Full Text Available This study was qualitative research action that focuses to find out the flouting of Gricean maxims and the functions of the flouting in the tales which are included in collection of children literature entitled My Giant Treasury of Stories and Rhymes. The objective of the study is generally to identify the violation of maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner in the data sources and also to analyze the use of the flouting in the tales which are included in the book. Qualitative design using categorizing strategies, specifically coding strategy, was applied. Thus, the researcher as the instrument in this investigation was selecting the tales, reading them, and gathering every item which reflects the violation of Gricean maxims based on some conditions of flouting maxims. On the basis of the data analysis, it was found that the some utterances in the tales, both narration and conversation, flouting the four maxims of conversation, namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner. The researcher has also found that the flouting of maxims has one basic function that is to encourage the readers’ imagination toward the tales. This one basic function is developed by six others functions: (1 generating specific situation, (2 developing the plot, (3 enlivening the characters’ utterance, (4 implicating message, (5 indirectly characterizing characters, and (6 creating ambiguous setting. Keywords: children literature, tales, flouting maxims

  20. Burning mouth disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Bala


    Full Text Available Burning mouth disorder (BMD is a burning or stinging sensation affecting the oral mucosa, lips and/or tongue, in the absence of clinically visible mucosal lesions. There is a strong female predilection, with the age of onset being approximately 50 years. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. The causes of BMD are multifactorial and remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of burning mouth syndrome (BMS may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The most common sites of burning are the anterior tongue, anterior hard palate and lower lip, but the distribution of oral sites affected does not appear to affect the natural history of the disorder or the response to treatment BMS may persist for many years. This article provides updated information on BMS and presents a new model, based on taste dysfunction, for its pathogenesis.

  1. Burn injuries and pregnancy. (United States)

    Kennedy, Betsy B; Baird, Suzanne McMurtry; Troiano, Nan H


    Although burn injuries during pregnancy are considered relatively rare, the exact incidence is not known. Multiple factors influence morbidity and mortality resulting from burn injuries during pregnancy. These factors include the depth and size of the burn, the woman's underlying health and age, and the estimated gestational age of the fetus. Associated inhalation injury and development of other significant secondary complications also influence maternal and fetal outcomes. Successful burn care requires a team approach in which almost every healthcare discipline is represented. Initial care is almost always provided by a specially trained emergency medical team in an out-of-hospital setting. During this phase, the ability of the team to communicate with emergency hospital personnel facilitates appropriate clinical management at the scene. In addition, continued communication regarding the woman's status and responses to treatment allows critical care specialists within the hospital to ensure that necessary personnel and resources are available when the patient arrives. From the time the pregnant woman is admitted to a hospital for additional acute and critical care through the extensive process of rehabilitation from burn injuries, providing care often evokes strong emotions and requires specialized skills to achieve the most positive outcomes.

  2. Hand chemical burns. (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby


    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 48 CFR 303.104-7 - Violations or possible violations of the Procurement Integrity Act. (United States)


    ... violations of the Procurement Integrity Act. 303.104-7 Section 303.104-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 303.104-7 Violations or possible violations of the Procurement Integrity Act. (a)(1) The...

  4. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin


    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  5. Thermal burns on lower limb resulting from laptop use: A case report and review of literature. (United States)

    Jacob, Nebu C; Zarugh, Adel; Suraliwala, Khushroo H


    We report a case of a 29-year-old man with a background history of incomplete quadriplegia, who sustained a second degree thermal burn of the lower limb from prolonged proximity to the extractor fan of his laptop. We have also reviewed all other reported cases of thermal burns associated with laptop use. This literature review highlights the variability in the extent of injury and the subsequent management of laptop induced burns.

  6. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P


    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  7. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  8. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  9. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil


    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  10. Lorentz violation and deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelecký, V. Alan, E-mail: [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Lunghi, E. [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Vieira, A.R. [Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Departamento de Física – ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 30.161-970 (Brazil)


    The effects of quark-sector Lorentz violation on deep inelastic electron–proton scattering are studied. We show that existing data can be used to establish first constraints on numerous coefficients for Lorentz violation in the quark sector at an estimated sensitivity of parts in a million.

  11. Parity violation in low-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Savage


    Parity violation in low-energy nuclear observables is included in the pionless effective field theory. The model-independent relation between the parity-violating asymmetry in polarized np -> d gamma and the non-nucleon part of the deuteron anapole moment is discussed. The asymmetry in np -> d gamma computed with KSW power-counting, and recently criticized by Desplanques, is discussed.

  12. Leptogenesis without CP Violation at Low Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Rebelo, Margarida N


    In this letter we give a class of examples where the decays of the heavy Majorana neutrinos may violate CP even if there is no CP violation at low energies, i. e., leptogenesis can take place without Majorana or Dirac type CP phases at low energies.

  13. P and CP violation in physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the Kobayashi-Maskawa single phase origin of CP violation passed its first crucial precision test in B → J / K S , the chirality of weak b -quark couplings has not yet been carefully tested. We discuss recent proposals for studying the chiral and CP-violating structures of these couplings in radiative and hadronic B ...

  14. CP violation in $b$ hadrons at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Hicheur, Adlene


    The most recent results on $CP$ violation in b hadrons obtained by the LHCb Collaboration with Run I and years 2015-2016 of Run II are reviewed. The different types of violation are covered by the studies presented in this paper.

  15. Violations of ignorability in computerized adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    Using auxiliary information and allowing item review in computerized adaptive testing produces a violation of the ignorability principle for missing data (Rubin, 1976) that may bias parameter estimates in IRT models. However, the violation of ignorability does not automatically lead to bias. In this

  16. Lepton number violation searches at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Salvucci, Antonio; The ATLAS collaboration


    Lepton number is conserved in the Standard Model, therefore, any evidence for its violation would indicate the existence of new physics. This talk presents a review of the latest searches performed at the LHC concerning Lepton Number Violation (LNV) processes in the context of Left-Right Symmetric theory and Seesaw mechanism.

  17. 32 CFR 552.216 - Violations. (United States)


    ... on the Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.216 Violations. (a) A person is in violation of the terms of this subpart if: (1) That person enters or remains upon Aberdeen Proving Ground..., Aberdeen Proving Ground pursuant to the terms of § 552.214; or (2) That person enters upon or remains upon...

  18. 32 CFR 806b.3 - Violation penalties. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Violation penalties. 806b.3 Section 806b.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.3 Violation penalties. An individual may file a civil...

  19. Quantum metrology to probe atomic parity violation


    Mukherjee, M.


    An entangled state prepared in the decoherence free sub-space together with a Ramsey type measurement can probe parity violation in heavy alkali ions like Ba+ or Ra+. Here we propose an experiment with Ba+ ions as an example to measure the small parity violating effect in this system.

  20. Bell Violation in Primordial Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantan Choudhury


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have worked on the possibility of setting up an Bell’s inequality violating experiment in the context of primordial cosmology following the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. To set up this proposal, we have introduced a model-independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles for the scalar fluctuations in the presence of an additional time-dependent mass parameter. Next we explicitly computed the one-point and two-point correlation functions from this setup. Then, we comment on the measurement techniques of isospin breaking interactions of newly introduced massive particles and its further prospects. After that, we give an example of the string theory-originated axion monodromy model in this context. Finally, we provide a bound on the heavy particle mass parameter for any arbitrary spin field.

  1. Massive Neutrinos and Flavour Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Masiero, A; Vives, O; Masiero, Antonio; Vempati, Sudhir K.; Vives, Oscar


    In spite of the large lepton flavour violation (LFV) observed in neutrino oscillations, within the Standard Model, we do \\textit{not} expect any visible LFV in the charged lepton sector ($\\mu \\to e, \\gamma$, $\\tau \\to \\mu, \\gamma$, etc.). On the contrary, the presence of new physics close to the electroweak scale can enhance the amplitudes of these processes. We discuss this in general and focus on a particularly interesting case: the marriage of low-energy supersymmetry (SUSY) and seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses (SUSY seesaw). Several ideas presented in this context are reviewed both in the bottom-up and top-down approaches. We show that there exist attractive models where the rate for LFV processes can attain values to be probed in pre-LHC experiments.

  2. Lorentz violation and perpetual motion (United States)

    Eling, Christopher; Foster, Brendan Z.; Jacobson, Ted; Wall, Aron C.


    We show that any Lorentz-violating theory with two or more propagation speeds is in conflict with the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics. We do this by identifying a classical energy-extraction method, analogous to the Penrose process, which would decrease the black hole entropy. Although the usual definitions of black hole entropy are ambiguous in this context, we require only very mild assumptions about its dependence on the mass. This extends the result found by Dubovsky and Sibiryakov, which uses the Hawking effect and applies only if the fields with different propagation speeds interact just through gravity. We also point out instabilities that could interfere with their black hole perpetuum mobile, but argue that these can be neglected if the black hole mass is sufficiently large.

  3. Major Burn Injury From Lightning Strike: A Case Report and Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When lightning strikes, it draws the attention of the public, news media, and the medical profession. Since lightning rarely causes major burn, we hereby present a 75-year old man who sustained a major burn injury (TBSA-42%) from a lightning strike with a review of literature on lightning strike. METHOD: A 75-year old man ...

  4. A psychological morbidity study of patients with major burns seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... occurred among the patients that were studied. This psychological morbidity developed by 72 hours after sustaining the injury. The need for specialized multidisciplinary approach in burns is emphasized. Keywords: Burns, psychometric study, psychological morbidity. Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery Vol. 4 (2) 2008: pp.

  5. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourdine Aliane


    Full Text Available This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations.

  6. Revisiting holographic superconductors with hyperscaling violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Qiyuan [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Zhang, Shao-Jun [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    We investigate the effect of the hyperscaling violation on the holographic superconductors. In the s-wave model, we find that the critical temperature decreases first and then increases as the hyperscaling violation increases, and the mass of the scalar field will not modify the value of the hyperscaling violation which gives the minimum critical temperature. We analytically confirm the numerical results by using the Sturm-Liouville method with the higher order trial function and improve the previous findings in Fan (J High Energy Phys 09:048, 2013). However, different from the s-wave case, we note that the critical temperature decreases with the increase of the hyperscaling violation in the p-wave model. In addition, we observe that the hyperscaling violation affects the conductivity of the holographic superconductors and changes the expected relation in the gap frequency in both s-wave and p-wave models. (orig.)

  7. Unbounded Violation of Quantum Steering Inequalities. (United States)

    Marciniak, M; Rutkowski, A; Yin, Z; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, R


    We construct steering inequalities that exhibit unbounded violation. The concept was to exploit the relationship between steering violation and the uncertainty relation. To this end, we apply mutually unbiased bases and anticommuting observables, known to exhibit the strongest uncertainty. In both cases, we are able to procure unbounded violations. Our approach is much more constructive and transparent than the operator space theory approach employed to obtain large violation of Bell inequalities. Importantly, using anticommuting observables we are able to obtain a dichotomic steering inequality with unbounded violation. Thus far, there is no analogous result for Bell inequalities. Interestingly, both the dichotomic inequality and one of our inequalities cannot be directly obtained from existing uncertainty relations, which strongly suggest the existence of an unknown kind of uncertainty relation.

  8. Propagation of Cigarette Static Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K


    Full Text Available A propagation model of cigarette static burn at the cigarette periphery is proposed. Propagation of cigarette static burn is characterized by intermittent burn of the cigarette paper. The burning rate depends on the period of flash burn of the paper and is independent of the burning width. By measuring the local temperature near the front line of the burning propagation, the rate-determining step was identified as the time required to ignite the paper. A mathematical analysis was performed by calculating the heat transfer at the periphery during the paper heating period, and it was revealed that the thermal properties of the cigarette are the dominant factors of cigarette static burn. Modeling results showed good agreement with measured data.

  9. Accumulative eschar after burn


    Ma, Fushun


    Key Clinical Message Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb?bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome.

  10. One Burn, One Standard (United States)


    law , no person shall be...Johannes Kepler University Linz Software GmbH Research Department Medical Informatics Hagenberg, Austria Herbert L. Haller, MD Trauma Hospital Linz of...0000000000000004 Address correspondence to M. Giretzlehner, PhD, Johannes Kepler University Linz, RISC Software GmbH, Research Department Medical Informatics, Softwarepark 35, 4232 Hagenberg, Austria. One Burn, One Standard LETTER TO THE EDITOR

  11. Rural and Metropolitan Pediatric Burns in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory: Does Distance Make a Difference? (United States)

    Hyland, Ela J; Zeni, Geoffrey; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    To determine if differences exist between children who sustain burns in rural areas and in metropolitan areas, an analysis of children presenting to the Burns Unit at The Children's Hospital at Westmead, from the January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 was performed. In all, 4326 children met the inclusion criteria, of which 21.2% came from rural regions. Just more than a quarter (26.0%) of rural children and 11.6% from metropolitan areas were Indigenous Australian (P burns in both populations. Of the rural children, 40.8% sustained contact burns, 37.7% scald, and 12.5% flame. In contrast, 58.8% metropolitan children sustained scalds, 27.4% contact, and 4.5% flame. The home was the most common place for all burns to occur, but rural injuries commonly occurred outdoors. Burns were associated with risk-taking behavior in 15.3% rural and 8.7% metropolitan children (P burn injuries (≥10% Total BSA) occurred in 3.4% of rural and 2.1% metropolitan children (P = 0.02). Skin grafting was required in 28.3% rural and 16.3% metropolitan children (P = 0.0001). Nearly 32% of rural children required admission to the Burns Unit for >24 hours (15.9% metropolitan; P = 0.0001). Significant differences exist between burns sustained by rural and metropolitan children. This should be accounted for in burns prevention campaigns and the education of local health practitioners.

  12. Fire walking in Singapore: a profile of the burn patient. (United States)

    Sayampanathan, S R; Ngim, R C; Foo, C L


    Fire walking is a religious ritual practised mainly by Indians, but also by some Chinese, living in Singapore. Seventeen new cases of burns sustained after a fire walking ceremony are reported. All the patients were males. One patient was Catholic, the others being Hindus. All the patients were Indians. The mean age of the patients was 25.47 years (range 19-56 years). All the patients had burns on the feet only. Of the 17 patients, 15 had burns on the non-weight-bearing area of the foot, one had burns on the weight-bearing area of the foot and one had burns on both the weight-bearing and the non-weight-bearing areas of the foot. The mean percentage of total body surface area affected was 0.81% (range 0.25-1.25%). The burn injuries were either erythema or partial thickness burns. The mean duration of disability was 21.4 days (range 14-35 days). Of those burnt, three were novices, six had walked twice and the remaining eight had walked three to 16 times. The profile of a fire walker is generally a young Indian with partial thickness injuries on one or both feet involving the non-weight-bearing area.

  13. Use of telemedicine to improve burn care in Ukraine. (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Knittel, Justin; Driscoll, Daniel N


    Global burn injuries have been described as the "forgotten public health crises" by the World Health Organization. Nearly 11 million people a year suffer burns severe enough to require medical attention; more people are burned each year than are infected with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and tuberculosis combined. Telemedicine has the potential to link experts in specialized fields, such as burn care, to regions of the world that have limited or no access to such specialized care. A multilevel telemedicine program was developed between Massachusetts General Hospital/Shriners Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, and City Hospital #8 in Lviv, Ukraine. The program should lead to a sustainable improvement in the care of burn victims in Ukraine. The authors helped establish a Learning Center at City Hospital #8 in Lviv, Ukraine, through which they were able to consult from Shriners Hospital in Boston, on a total of 14 acute burn patients in Ukraine. This article discusses two case reports with the use of telemedicine and how it has allowed the authors to provide not only acute care consultation on an international scale, but also to arrange for direct expert examination and international transport to their specialized burn center in the United States. The authors have established a program through doctors from Massachusetts General Hospital/Shriner's Hospital in Boston, which works with a hospital in Ukraine and has provided acute consultation, as well as patient transportation to the United States for treatment and direct assessment.

  14. Fatal Burn due to Solarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Sever


    Full Text Available Radiation burns are uncommon and their etiologies are various. The ultraviolet lights are also a source of radiation burns. We present a case of life-threatening radiation burn caused by long wave ultraviolet lights (UV at the solarium center. Up to now, despite its widespread use, fatal radiation burns caused by the indoor tanning device at the solarium center have not been reported. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed.

  15. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (United States)


    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  16. Nurses' emotional experience of caring for children with burns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hilliard, Carol


    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the emotions experienced by children\\'s nurses when caring for children with burns, in addition to ascertaining how the nurses dealt with these emotions. BACKGROUND: The nature of nursing practice is such that it inevitably generates some form of emotional response in nurses. The literature reveals that the manner nurses deal with their emotional experiences can impact on their nursing care. DESIGN: The study used Husserlian phenomenology to explore the emotional experiences of eight purposively selected children\\'s nurses who have worked on the burns unit of an Irish paediatric hospital. METHODS: Data were collected using in-depth, unstructured interviews and analysed using Colaizzi\\'s seven stage framework. RESULTS: The phenomenon of participants\\' emotional experiences is captured in four themes: (1) caring for children with burns, (2) supporting parents, (3) sustaining nurses\\' emotional well-being, and (4) learning to be a burns nurse. Nursing children with burns generated a myriad of emotions for participants. Burns dressing-changes, managing burn-related pain, supporting parents and the impact of busy workloads on the emotional care of children and their parents emerged as the most emotionally challenging aspects of participants\\' role. Participants recognised the need to manage their emotional responses and spoke of the benefits of a supportive nursing team. CONCLUSIONS: The findings offer insights into both the rewarding and challenging aspects of nursing children with burns. Nurses in this environment must be supported to recognise and manage their emotional responses to their work. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Helping nurses to manage the emotional consequences of their work will help to sustain their emotional well-being, enhance the care received by children and also enable nurses to support parents in their role as partners in care.

  17. An evaluation of nutritional practice in a paediatric burns unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are especially vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies owing to their limited energy reserves. Methods. ... They sustained between 2% and 55% TBSA burns. Inadequate caloric intake ... In contrast, excess protein supplementation was seen in 24 of 29 group 1 patients and 6 of 11 group 2 patients. The dietician's food ...

  18. Flavor physics and CP violation (United States)

    Chang, Paoti; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, Wei-Shu


    We currently live in the age of the CKM paradigm. The 3 × 3 matrix that links (d , s , b) quarks to (u , c , t) in the charged current weak interaction, being complex and nominally with 18 parameters, can be accounted for by just 3 rotation angles and one CP violating (CPV) phase, with unitarity and the CKM phases triumphantly tested at the B factories. But the CKM picture is unsatisfactory and has too many parameters. The main aim of Flavor Physics and CP violation (FPCP) studies is the pursuit to uncover New Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Two highlights of LHC Run 1 period are the CPV phase ϕs of Bs mixing and Bs →μ+μ- decay, which were found to be again consistent with SM, though the saga is yet unfinished. We also saw the emergence of the P5‧ angular variable anomaly in B0 →K∗0μ+μ- decay and R K (∗) anomaly in B →K (∗)μ+μ- to B →K (∗)e+e- rate ratios, and the BaBar anomaly in B →D (∗) τν decays, which suggest possible New Physics in these flavor processes, pointing to extra Z‧, charged Higgs, or leptoquarks. Charmless hadronic, semileptonic, purely leptonic and radiative B decays continue to offer various further windows on New Physics. Away from B physics, the rare K → πνν decays and ε‧ / ε in the kaon sector, μ → e transitions, muon g - 2 and electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron, τ → μγ , μμμ , eee, and a few charm physics probes, offer broadband frontier windows on New Physics. Lastly, flavor changing neutral transitions involving the top quark t and the 125 GeV Higgs boson h, such as t → ch and h → μτ, offer a new window into FPCP, while a new Z‧ related or inspired by the P5‧ anomaly, could show up in analogous top quark processes, perhaps even link with low energy phenomena such as muon g - 2 or rare kaon processes. In particular, we advocate the potential new SM, the two Higgs doublet model without discrete symmetries to control flavor violation, as SM2. As we are

  19. Cosmological Constraints on B and L Violation (United States)

    Davidson, Sacha


    The existence of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe puts strong constraints on extensions of the Standard Model which violate baryon and/or lepton number. Interactions violating baryon number (B) but conserving lepton number (L) in the early Universe could wash away any previously established baryon asymmetry. Interactions which violate lepton number separately, with or without associated violation of baryon number, could combine with non-perturbative electroweak effects to eradicate the cosmological baryon asymmetry. We derive constraints on such interactions arising from the persistence of the cosmological baryon asymmetry. After implementing astrophysical constraints, we discuss the prospects for observing B and/or L violation in laboratory experiments. Modulo loopholes that we mention, we find that even if R-parity is violated, the lifetime of the lightest supersymmetric particle must be so long that its decays could not be observed in accelerator experiments, and that L-violating Z decays would have unobservably small branching ratios. The only novel signature for accelerator experiments that survives our analysis is a small window for the lightest supersymmetric particle to be strongly -interacting or charged, with a lifetime that is short on a cosmological time-scale but long enough to appear stable in accelerator experiments. We also find that if Delta{B} = 2 interactions exist, the rates they yield for n - |{n} oscillations and N - N annihilations in nuclei are probably below the present observational threshold.

  20. Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning. (United States)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive


    Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and

  1. Chemical Debridement of Burns (United States)

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli


    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and

  2. Patient adherence to burn care: A systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Szabo, Margo M; Urich, Monica A; Duncan, Christina L; Aballay, Ariel M


    Few studies have been conducted on treatment adherence to burn care. Given the prevalence of burn injuries across the lifespan and the impact of proper burn care on associated morbidity, it is important to understand factors associated with regimen non-adherence in this population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and critique all published literature on patient adherence to burn care. With no restriction on publication date, 13 relevant articles met the following inclusion criteria: (a) utilized a sample of patients who sustained a burn injury or their medical staff; (b) focused on treatment or healthcare adherence of the patient (e.g., adherence to pressure garment therapy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, diet, dressing changes, or sunscreen use); and (c) publication written or translated into English. Most studies (70%) used a correlational design, while only four studies used an experimental design (either longitudinal or single subject) to assess adherence to burn care treatment. Current research suggests that burn treatment characteristics, knowledge, and beliefs are associated with adherence to burn care regimens. Given that adherence may vary as a function of different factors, future research should assess pediatric burn patients as a separate population, as well as investigate adherence to multiple aspects of the burn care regimen. To enhance adherence to burn care, healthcare providers should educate their patients on various treatment components and tailor these components to meet patients' goals and needs, as feasible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Lorentz violations in multifractal spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca


    Using the recent observation of gravitational waves (GW) produced by a black-hole merger, we place a lower bound on the energy above which a multifractal spacetime would manifest an anomalous geometry and, in particular, violations of Lorentz invariance. In the so-called multifractional theory with $q$-derivatives, we show that the deformation of dispersion relations is much stronger than in generic quantum-gravity approaches (including loop quantum gravity) and, contrary to the latter, present observations on GWs can place very strong bounds on the characteristic scales at which spacetime deviates from standard Minkowski. The energy at which multifractal effects should become apparent is $E_*>10^{14}\\,\\text{GeV}$ (thus improving previous bounds by 12 orders of magnitude) when the exponents in the measure are fixed to their central value $1/2$. We also estimate, for the first time, the effect of logarithmic oscillations in the measure (corresponding to a discrete spacetime structure) and find that they do not...

  4. Signals of lepton number violation

    CERN Document Server

    Panella, O; Srivastava, Y N


    The production of like-sign-dileptons (LSD), in the high energy lepton number violating ( Delta L=+2) reaction, pp to 2jets+l/sup +/l /sup +/, (l=e, mu , tau ), of interest for the experiments to be performed at the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is reported, taking up a composite model scenario in which the exchanged virtual composite neutrino is assumed to be a Majorana particle. Numerical estimates of the corresponding signal cross-section that implement kinematical cuts needed to suppress the standard model background, are presented which show that in some regions of the parameter space the total number of LSD events is well above the background. Assuming non-observation of the LSD signal it is found that LHC would exclude a composite Majorana neutrino up to 700 GeV (if one requires 10 events for discovery). The sensitivity of LHC experiments to the parameter space is then compared to that of the next generation of neutrinoless double beta decay ( beta beta /sub 0 nu /) experiment, GENIUS, and i...

  5. A model of duality violations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descotes-Genon, Sébastien [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS/Univ. Paris-Sud 11 (UMR 8627), 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Roig, Pablo [Grup de Física Teòrica, Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)


    A realistic model for the spin-one correlators guided by the large-N{sub c} limit of QCD is elaborated in terms of the meson decay constants, masses and energy-dependent widths, which are expanded in 1/n, where n is the radial excitation number. The matching onto OPE is performed up to NLO in 1/N{sub c}. After applying the resulting constraints, the remaining free parameters are fitted to ALEPH and OPAL data on the related spectral functions. Excellent agreement with the data is found and the model yields, at large n, a spectrum of overlapping states coupling with essentially equal strength, in agreement with the large-N{sub c} predictions. This model provides a consistent and appropriate way to compute the impact of duality violations on the moments of the related spectral functions computed along the circle in the complex s-plane, and therefore to quantify its importance in the extraction of physical parameters like α{sub S}(M{sub τ}{sup 2})

  6. Lorentz violations in multifractal spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Gianluca [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)


    Using the recent observation of gravitational waves (GW) produced by a black-hole merger, we place a lower bound on the energy above which a multifractal spacetime would display an anomalous geometry and, in particular, violations of Lorentz invariance. In the so-called multifractional theory with q-derivatives, we show that the deformation of dispersion relations is much stronger than in generic quantum-gravity approaches (including loop quantum gravity) and, contrary to the latter, present observations on GWs can place very strong bounds on the characteristic scales at which spacetime deviates from standard Minkowski. The energy at which multifractal effects should become apparent is E{sub *} > 10{sup 14} GeV (thus improving previous bounds by 12 orders of magnitude) when the exponents in the measure are fixed to their central value 1 / 2. We also estimate, for the first time, the effect of logarithmic oscillations in the measure (corresponding to a discrete spacetime structure) and find that they do not change much the bounds obtained in their absence, unless the amplitude of the oscillations is fine tuned. This feature, unavailable in known quantum-gravity scenarios, may help the theory to avoid being ruled out by gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations, for which E{sub *} > 10{sup 17} GeV or greater. (orig.)

  7. Instant hot noodles: do they need to burn? (United States)

    Wu, C; Tan, A L; Maze, D A E; Holland, A J A


    Scalds and contact burns in children may occur as the result of spillage of hot food and drinks, including instant hot noodles. This study sought to determine the frequency of noodle burns in children and investigate the thermal properties of instant hot noodles. Data on instant hot noodle burns in children were retrieved from the New South Wales Severe Burn Injury Database between 2005 and 2010. Five widely available brands of instant hot noodles, including three cup and two packet varieties, were prepared following the manufacturer's instructions. For each preparation the initial temperature after cooking was recorded, together with the time to cool to 50°C. 291 children sustained instant hot noodle burns over the 6 year study period, representing 5.4% of all children referred to our burns unit. Over a third received inadequate first aid. Cup noodles cooked with boiling water reached the highest temperature of over 80°C and took the longest time to cool to 50°C: on average 52.3 min. Cup noodles in smaller, narrower containers achieved higher post-cooking temperatures compared to noodles in wider, bowel shaped containers. Packet noodles cooked in a Microwave oven attained lower peak temperatures and shorter cooling times compared to cup noodles. Although relatively uncommon in children, instant hot noodle burns often received inadequate first aid. When cooked according to manufacturer's instructions, noodles generally exceeded temperatures sufficient to cause a burn. Consumers and parents need to be aware of the risks of burn when preparing these foods. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluid replacement in burned patients. (United States)

    Bortolani, A; Governa, M; Barisoni, D


    Burn injury involves a large amount of water, electrolytes and proteins loss trough the burn wound. For this reason, to avoid shock, a wide infusion of fluid is necessary in the first hours after trauma. Many reanimation formulas were proposed in the past years, with different composition: saline, colloids, plasma. The authors have studied 40 burned patients admitted in Verona Burn Center within 4 hours after burn, with burns over 30% of the body surface area. Twenty of them were treated with Baxter reanimation formula (ringer lactated saline, RLS) while the others with Monafo hypertonic lactated saline (HLS), modified by Milan Burn Center. The two randomized groups were assessed and compared. In RLS group total fluid volume infused was higher while sodium requirements was lower than in HLS patients, with statistically significative difference (p electrolytes balance with lower fluid load, reducing tissue oedema and complication rate. Mortality rate was higher in HLS, may be for an higher Roy index in this group.

  9. Burn Wound Infection (United States)


    generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control

  10. Fungal Burn Wound Infection (United States)


    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  11. Lepton Flavor Violation beyond the MSSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vicente


    Full Text Available Most extensions of the Standard Model lepton sector predict large lepton flavor violating rates. Given the promising experimental perspectives for lepton flavor violation in the next few years, this generic expectation might offer a powerful indirect probe to look for new physics. In this review we will cover several aspects of lepton flavor violation in supersymmetric models beyond the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. In particular, we will concentrate on three different scenarios: high-scale and low-scale seesaw models as well as models with R-parity violation. We will see that in some cases the LFV phenomenology can have characteristic features for specific scenarios, implying that dedicated studies must be performed in order to correctly understand the phenomenology in nonminimal supersymmetric models.

  12. Polarized protons and parity violating asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueman, T.L.


    The potential for utilizing parity violating effects, associated with polarized protons, to study the standard model, proton structure, and new physics at the SPS Collider is summarized. 24 references.

  13. CP violation in b-hadrons

    CERN Document Server



    Latest LHCb measurements of $CP$ violation in b-hadrons are presented based on $pp$ collision data collected in 2011 and 2012 at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ $\\rm TeV$ and $8\\ \\rm TeV$ respectively. The total integrated luminosity collected is 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. Results include recent measurements of $CP$ violation in $B_d$ and $B_s$ mixing, along with those of quantifying the effects of $b\\to c\\bar{c} s$ loop pollution. Standard Model $CP$ violation tests in loop transitions are discussed with results consistent with expectations. New decays of b-baryons are presented and preliminary studies of $CP$ violation are performed.

  14. Baryogenesis in Lorentz-violating gravity theories (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy; Solomon, Adam R.


    Lorentz-violating theories of gravity typically contain constrained vector fields. We show that the lowest-order coupling of such vectors to U (1)-symmetric scalars can naturally give rise to baryogenesis in a manner akin to the Affleck-Dine mechanism. We calculate the cosmology of this new mechanism, demonstrating that a net B - L can be generated in the early Universe, and that the resulting baryon-to-photon ratio matches that which is presently observed. We discuss constraints on the model using solar system and astrophysical tests of Lorentz violation in the gravity sector. Generic Lorentz-violating theories can give rise to the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry without violating any current bounds.

  15. Constrained Gauge Fields from Spontaneous Lorentz Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Chkareuli, J L; Jejelava, J G; Nielsen, H B


    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type $A_{\\mu}^{2}=M^{2}$ ($M$ is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and $CPT$) violating couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical ...

  16. CP Violation and Rare Kaon Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buchalla, Gerhard


    We summarize both the study of CP violation with $K$ and $B$ mesons, as wellas rare decays of kaons, emphasizing recent developments. The topics discussedinclude the unitarity triangle, $\\epsilon'/\\epsilon$, $K\\to\\pi\

  17. Baryogenesis in Lorentz-violating gravity theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Sakstein


    Full Text Available Lorentz-violating theories of gravity typically contain constrained vector fields. We show that the lowest-order coupling of such vectors to U(1-symmetric scalars can naturally give rise to baryogenesis in a manner akin to the Affleck–Dine mechanism. We calculate the cosmology of this new mechanism, demonstrating that a net B−L can be generated in the early Universe, and that the resulting baryon-to-photon ratio matches that which is presently observed. We discuss constraints on the model using solar system and astrophysical tests of Lorentz violation in the gravity sector. Generic Lorentz-violating theories can give rise to the observed matter–antimatter asymmetry without violating any current bounds.

  18. Constrained gauge fields from spontaneous Lorentz violation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chkareuli, J. L.; Froggatt, C. D.; Jejelava, J. G.


    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type AµAµ=M2 (M is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant...... theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory...... proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and CPT) violating...

  19. Infinite violation of Bell inequalities in inflation (United States)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro


    We study the violation of Bell-Mermin-Klyshko (BMK) inequalities in initial quantum states of scalar fields in inflation. We show that the Bell inequality is maximally violated by the Bunch-Davies vacuum which is a two-mode squeezed state of a scalar field. However, we find that the violation of the BMK inequalities does not increase with the number of modes to measure. We then consider a non-Bunch-Davies vacuum expressed by a four-mode squeezed state of two scalar fields. Remarkably, we find that the violation of the BMK inequalities increases exponentially with the number of modes to measure. This shows that the BMK inequalities are useful to classify the initial quantum state of the Universe.

  20. Exploring CP violation in the MSSM. (United States)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Ellis, John; Godbole, Rohini M; Mahmoudi, Farvah

    We explore the prospects for observing CP violation in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) with six CP-violating parameters, three gaugino mass phases and three phases in trilinear soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters, using the CPsuperH code combined with a geometric approach to maximise CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We also implement CP-conserving constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics and the upper limits on the cosmological dark matter density and spin-independent scattering. We study possible values of observables within the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), the non-universal Higgs model (NUHM), the CPX scenario and a variant of the phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM). We find values of the CP-violating asymmetry [Formula: see text] in [Formula: see text] decay that may be as large as 3 %, so future measurements of [Formula: see text] may provide independent information about CP violation in the MSSM. We find that CP-violating MSSM contributions to the [Formula: see text] meson mass mixing term [Formula: see text] are in general below the present upper limit, which is dominated by theoretical uncertainties. If these could be reduced, [Formula: see text] could also provide an interesting and complementary constraint on the six CP-violating MSSM phases, enabling them all to be determined experimentally, in principle. We also find that CP violation in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] couplings can be quite large, and so may offer interesting prospects for future [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] colliders.

  1. Lepton flavor violation at the CERN LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hinchliffe, Ian


    Recent results from Super Kamiokande suggest nu /sub mu /- nu /sub tau / mixing and hence lepton flavor violation. In supersymmetric models, this flavor violation may have implications for the pattern of slepton masses and mixings. Possible signals for this mixing in the decays of sleptons produced at the CERN LHC are discussed. The sensitivity expected is compared to that of rare decays such as tau to mu gamma. (22 refs).

  2. Gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED (United States)

    Santos, Tiago R. S.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F.


    In this work we study the issue of gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED. To do so, we opt to use the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism within the algebraic renormalization approach, reducing our study to a cohomology problem. Since this approach is independent of the renormalization scheme, the results obtained here are expected to be general. We find that the Lorentz-violating QED is free of gauge anomalies to all orders in perturbation theory.

  3. Lepton Flavor Violation Induced by Dark Matter


    Arcadi, Giorgio; Ferreira, C. P.; Goertz, Florian; Guzzo, M. M.; Farinaldo S. Queiroz; Santos, A. C. O.


    Guided by gauge principles we discuss a predictive and falsifiable UV complete model where the Dirac fermion that accounts for the cold dark matter abundance in our universe induces the lepton flavor violation (LFV) decays $\\mu \\rightarrow e\\gamma$ and $\\mu \\rightarrow e e e$ as well as $\\mu-e$ conversion. We explore the interplay between direct dark matter detection, relic density, collider probes and lepton flavor violation to conclusively show that one may have a viable dark matter candida...

  4. Directly detecting Isospin-Violating Dark Matter


    Kelso, Chris; Kumar, Jason; Marfatia, Danny; Sandick, Pearl


    We consider the prospects for multiple dark matter direct detection experiments to determine if the interactions of a dark matter candidate are isospin-violating. We focus on theoretically well-motivated examples of isospin-violating dark matter (IVDM), including models in which dark matter interactions with nuclei are mediated by a dark photon, a Z, or a squark. We determine that the best prospects for distinguishing IVDM from the isospin-invariant scenario arise in the cases of dark photon-...

  5. Expectancy violations promote learning in young children. (United States)

    Stahl, Aimee E; Feigenson, Lisa


    Children, including infants, have expectations about the world around them, and produce reliable responses when these expectations are violated. However, little is known about how such expectancy violations affect subsequent cognition. Here we tested the hypothesis that violations of expectation enhance children's learning. In four experiments we compared 3- to 6-year-old children's ability to learn novel words in situations that defied versus accorded with their core knowledge of object behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught children novel words following one of two types of events. One event violated expectations about the spatiotemporal or featural properties of objects (e.g., an object appeared to magically change locations). The other event was almost identical, but did not violate expectations (e.g., an object was visibly moved from one location to another). In both experiments we found that children robustly learned when taught after the surprising event, but not following the expected event. In Experiment 3 we ruled out two alternative explanations for our results. Finally, in Experiment 4, we asked whether surprise affects children's learning in a targeted or a diffuse way. We found that surprise only enhanced children's learning about the entity that had behaved surprisingly, and not about unrelated objects. Together, these experiments show that core knowledge - and violations of expectations generated by core knowledge - shapes new learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory (United States)

    Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.


    Any possible Lorentz violation in the hadron sector must be tied to Lorentz violation at the underlying quark level. The relationships between the theories at these two levels are studied using chiral perturbation theory. Starting from a two-flavor quark theory that includes dimension-4 Lorentz-violation operators, the effective Lagrangians are derived for both pions and nucleons, with novel terms appearing in both sectors. Since the Lorentz-violation coefficients for nucleons and pions are all related to a single set of underlying quark coefficients, one can compare the sensitivity of different types of experiments. Our analysis shows that atomic physics experiments currently provide constraints on the quark parameters that are stronger by about 10 orders of magnitude than astrophysical experiments with relativistic pions. Alternatively, it is possible to place approximate bounds on pion Lorentz violation using only proton and neutron observations. Under the assumption that the Lorentz-violating operators considered here are the only ones contributing to the relevant observables and taking the currently unknown hadronic low-energy constants to be of natural size, the resulting estimated bounds on four pion parameters are at the 10-23 level, representing improvements of 10 orders of magnitude.

  7. Antiseptics for burns. (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Christie, Janice; Liu, Zhenmi; Westby, Maggie J; Jefferies, Jayne M; Hudson, Thomas; Edwards, Jacky; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Hassan, Ibrahim A; Dumville, Jo C


    Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting. In September 2016 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid Embase, and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched three clinical trials registries and references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with any burn wound and assessed the use of a topical treatment with antiseptic properties. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We included 56 RCTs with 5807 randomised participants. Almost all trials had poorly reported methodology, meaning that it is unclear whether they were at high risk of bias. In many cases the primary review outcomes, wound healing and infection, were not reported, or were reported incompletely.Most trials enrolled people with recent burns, described as second-degree and less than 40% of total body surface area; most participants were adults. Antiseptic agents assessed were: silver-based, honey, Aloe Vera, iodine-based, chlorhexidine or polyhexanide (biguanides), sodium hypochlorite, merbromin, ethacridine lactate, cerium nitrate and Arnebia euchroma. Most studies compared antiseptic with a topical antibiotic, primarily silver sulfadiazine (SSD); others compared antiseptic with a non

  8. Ocular burns in eye traumatology emphatically on chemical burns


    Farský, Lukáš


    Burns to the sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, and eyelid are considered ocular burns. Ocular burn injuries are classified by etiologic agents as either chemical injuries (ie, acid, alkali) or radiant energy injuries (ie, thermal, ultraviolet). Chemical injuries to the eye represent one of the true ophthalmic emergencies. While almost any chemical can cause ocular irritation, serious damage generally results from either strongly basic (alkaline) compounds or acidic compounds. Alkali injuries are m...

  9. Burn Burn Burn - er du skræmt? - en analyse af Kræftens Bekæmpelses kampagnefilm Burn Burn Burn


    Knigge Kæstel-Hansen, Camilla; Wittrup Stæger, Cæcilie


    This project examines how to organize a health campaign to a specific target audience of 15-25 year olds. This audience very quickly filters out information they find irrelevant, and quickly moves on to new things. Thereby, this audience has high demands regarding health campaigns and their relevance. Conclusions will be based on Danish organization Kræftens Bekæmpelse’s campaign film Burn Burn Burn. The film target audience are youths aged 15- 25, and the film’s message is, that the use of t...

  10. Burns, biofilm and a new appraisal of burn wound sepsis. (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter; Brammah, Susan; Wills, Edward


    Following a burn, the wound may become colonized and septic complications may ensue. Many organisms, commonly isolated from burn wounds produce biofilms, which are defined as a collection of organisms on a surface surrounded by a matrix. Biofilms are associated with development of antibiotic resistant organisms and are refractory to the immune system. The presence of biofilm in the burn wound has not been documented. A study was undertaken using light and electron microscopy to determine the presence of biofilm in the burn wound. Specific stains were used to detect the presence of micro-organisms and associated carbohydrate, a major constituent of the biofilm matrix. A concurrent microbiological study of the burn wound was also carried out. Biofilm was detected in ulcerated areas of the burn wound. Bacterial wound invasion with mixed organisms was also commonly detected. The finding of biofilm in the burn wound has significance in our understanding of burn wound sepsis and supports the evidence for early excision and closure of the burn wound. Due to the recalcitrant nature of biofilm associated sepsis and the difficulty in disrupting biofilm it has implications for the future development of wound care dressings. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Third-degree burn from a grounding pad during arthroscopy. (United States)

    Sanders, Samuel M; Krowka, Stephanie; Giacobbe, Andrew; Bisson, Leslie J


    We describe a healthy 59-year-old woman who sustained a third-degree burn from a grounding pad during shoulder arthroscopy. We wish to make surgeons aware of a rare complication associated with any arthroscopic procedure in which an electrocautery/grounding pad system is used. We detail the presentation, evaluation, treatment, and definitive care and review the possible causes of this complication and the mechanism by which an electrocautery/grounding pad system functions. Although this complication is not uncommon, we believe that this is the first case report describing a burn at the grounding pad site occurring during arthroscopy.

  12. [Heat stroke and burns resulting from use of sauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runitz, K.; Jensen, T.H.


    We describe a case of severe heat stroke resulting from exposure to extreme heat in a sauna for an unknown period of time. The patient sustained 20% 2nd degree burns. On arrival at the emergency department, the patient's temperature was 40.5 degrees C. At the critical care unit, the patient...... developed severe multi-organ failure and critical polyneuropathy. Severe heat stroke is a rare diagnosis in Denmark. The treatment is symptomatic and the prognosis is grave, especially in combination with severe burns Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/26...

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for thermal burns. (United States)

    Villanueva, E; Bennett, M H; Wasiak, J; Lehm, J P


    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) consists of intermittently administering 100% oxygen at pressures greater than 1 atmosphere in a pressure vessel. This technology has been used to treat a variety of disease states and has been described as helping patients who have sustained burns. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the benefit of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) for the treatment of thermal burns. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2002), MEDLINE (Ovid 1966 to November Week 2, 2003), CINAHL (Ovid 1982 to December Week 2 2003), EMBASE (Ovid 1980 to September 2003), DORCTHIM (Database of Randomised Controlled Trials in Hyperbaric Medicine) from inception to 2003, and reference lists of articles. We included all randomised controlled trials that compared the effect of HBOT with no HBOT (no treatment or sham). Two authors using standardised forms extracted the data independently. Each trial was assessed for internal validity with differences resolved by discussion. Data was extracted and entered into RevMan 4.2.3. Four randomised controlled trials were identified, of which two satisfied the inclusion criteria. The trials were of poor methodological quality. As a result, it was difficult to have confidence in the individual results and it would not have been appropriate to attempt to pool the data. One trial reported no difference in length of stay, mortality, or number of surgeries between the control and HBO-treated groups once these variables were adjusted for the patient's condition. The second trial reported mean healing times that were shorter in patients exposed to HBOT (mean: 19.7 days versus 43.8 days). This systematic review has not found sufficient evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of HBOT for the management of thermal burns. Evidence from the two randomised controlled trials is insufficient to provide clear guidelines for practice. Further research is needed to better define

  14. [The organization of burn care]. (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques


    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  15. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns. (United States)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Disseldorp, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K


    Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Perceived fatigue was assessed in 23 children and adolescents (15 boys and 8 girls, aged 6-18 years, with burns covering 10-46% of the total body surface area, 1-5 years post burn) using both child self- and parent proxy reports of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. Outcomes were compared with reference values of non-burned peers. At group level, pediatric burn survivors did not report significantly more symptoms of fatigue than their non-burned peers. Individual assessments showed, however, that four children experienced substantial symptoms of fatigue according to the child self-reports, compared to ten children according to the parent proxy reports. Furthermore, parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue than the children themselves. Age, gender, extent of burn, length of hospital stay, and number of surgeries could not predict the level of perceived fatigue post-burn. Our results suggest that fatigue is prevalent in at least part of the pediatric burn population after 1-5 years. However, the fact that parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue then the children themselves, hampers evident conclusions. It is essential for clinicians and therapists to consider both perspectives when evaluating pediatric fatigue after burn and to determine who needs special attention, the pediatric burn patient or its parent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. [Epidemiology of burns in France]. (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François


    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  17. The epidemiology of burns in young children from Mexico treated at a U.S. hospital. (United States)

    Patel, Dipen D; Rosenberg, Laura; Rosenberg, Marta; Leal, Jesus; Andersen, Clark R; Foncerrada, Guillermo; Lee, Jong O; Jimenez, Carlos J; Branski, Ludwik; Meyer, Walter J; Herndon, David N


    Young children are the most vulnerable for sustaining burns. At this pediatric burn hospital we have provided medical care to young children with severe burns from Mexico for many years. This study identified modifiable risk factors that could be used to assist in prevention of burns in this age group. A retrospective chart review was performed with children burns >20% total body surface area (TBSA) burned. Primary causes of burns were flame and scalds. Children with flame injuries were older (3.0±1.5 years of age) than those with scalds (2.6±1.2 years of age). Admissions attributed to flame burns were largely from explosions by propane tanks, gas line leaks, and house fires. Most admissions for scalds were predominantly from falling in large containers of hot water, food, or grease; and fewer were attributed to spills from hot liquids. Most cases reported to a social service agency were to find resources for families. Mortality rate for flame and scald burns was low. It is important take into account demographic, cultural, and socioeconomic variables when developing and implementing prevention programs. Burn prevention instruction for parents is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Neonatal burns in Lagos, South-Western Nigeria: Epidemiology and outcome of management. (United States)

    Ugburo, Andrew Omotayo; Fadeyibi, Idowu Olusegun; Mofikoya, Bolaji Oyawoye; Akanmu, Olanrewaju Nurudeen; Temiye, Edamisan Olusoji; Kanu, Okezie Obasi; Chira, Muna Kenneth; Egbikuadje, Dennis Emonena; Majekodunmi, Adetinuwe


    Burns in the neonate are rare and result mostly from iatrogenic sources in developed countries. The socioeconomic settings of developing countries are different from those in the developed countries. A review of the epidemiology and management of burns in the neonates in Lagos, Nigeria is presented. The case notes of burns in patients less than 29 days-old from 2004 to 2008 in 4 tertiary health institutions in Lagos were retrieved from the Medical Records Department; necessary data were extracted and analyzed. There were 21 neonates with burns within the study period. The incidence of neonatal burns ranged between 0.5 and 2.5%/year. The mean age was 16.38 ± 1.84 days and the mean BSA of 26.00 ± 5.53%. The etiology of burns was thermal in 19(90.5%) and chemical in 2(9.5%). Hypokalemia was common at early stages of their treatment. Burns were sustained at home in 90.5% of the cases. The mortality rate was 43.5%. Inhalation and thermal injuries were associated with most of the deaths. Domestic incidents from flames are the commonest causes of neonatal burns in the study environment. These are associated with prolonged morbidity and high mortality rate. Health education, highlighting methods of prevention should be undertaken in the community. Well equipped burn centers should be established to treat burns in all age groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Kenya cardinal burns condoms. (United States)


    Kenya's top Roman Catholic church official burned condoms and safe sex literature in a ceremony organized by a group opposed to contraception and sex education. About 250 people watched as Cardinal Maurice Otunga and two gynecologists prayed and sang before setting fire to several boxes of condoms and 100 copies of pamphlets promoting safe sex. The pamphlets encouraged condom use to fight the spread of HIV. The World Health Organization has estimated that 1 million of Kenya's 26 million people are infected with HIV or AIDS. full text

  20. Peat Bog Ecosystems: Burning


    Lindsay, Richard; Birnie, Richard; Clough, Jack


    Fires occur naturally on bogs through lightning strikes, but for any given location this is a rare occurrence - perhaps once every 200 or 300 years. Current burning practice for grazing or to encourage grouse means that ground is burnt 10x more frequently than this, resulting in loss of natural peat bog biodiversity and peat-forming species. Full recovery may take considerably more than a century.\\ud \\ud This briefing note is part of a series aimed at policy makers, practitioners and academic...

  1. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde


    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  2. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan


    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  3. Prevention and management of outpatient pediatric burns. (United States)

    O'Brien, Shannon P; Billmire, David A


    Burns are common injuries in the pediatric population, with an estimated 250,000 pediatric burn patients seeking medical care annually. A relative few require inpatient management. This article discusses suggestions for burn prevention, as well as acute burn care and long-term management of small burns.

  4. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients (United States)


    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  5. Human Rights Violations and Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Mfoafo-M’Carthy


    Full Text Available The literature review identifies and examines human rights violations experienced by individuals with mental illness on a global level. In addition, the intent is to explore how current legislation either reinforces or supports these violations. The authors conducted an extensive review of the existing literature on mental health and human rights violations. Keywords were used to exhaust databases on this subject matter and to collect data, interpretations, and government publications on mental health and human rights. Individuals with mental illness are experiencing human rights violations on a global scale both within and outside of psychiatric institutions. These violations include denial of employment, marriage, procreation, and education; malnutrition; physical abuse; and negligence. This information was reviewed and compiled into the following article, along with interpretations of current implications and suggestions for future research. It is evident that more supports need to be instilled, especially within the context of low- and middle-income countries lacking adequate staffing and accessible services. Furthermore, legislation needs to be modified, updated, or created with relevant systems in place to make these laws enforceable.

  6. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.


    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  7. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.


    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  8. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics


    Alvarez, Mavis Dora


    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  9. R-Parity Violation and Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian Francesco


    The reported anomaly in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA has revived interest in the phenomenology of R-parity violation. From the theoretical point of view, the existence of R-violating interactions poses two considerable problems. The first one concerns the flavour structure of the interactions and the origin of an appropriate suppression of flavour-changing neutral-current processes and lepton-family transitions. The second one concerns the way of embedding R-violating interactions in a grand unified theory (GUT) without introducing unacceptable nucleon decay rates. We show that the second problem can be solved by a mechanism which is purely group theoretical and does not rely on details of the flavour theory. We construct explicit GUT models in which our mechanism can be realized.

  10. ERP correlates of script chronology violations. (United States)

    Baetens, Kris; Van der Cruyssen, Laurens; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Van Overwalle, Frank


    Research indicates a distinction between the processing of script content (which events, behaviors, scenes… are part of it) and script chronology (what is their usual order of occurrence). Using sequences of two line drawings depicting everyday social script events, we examined the event related potential (ERP) correlates of script chronology violations (i.e., wrong order). An increased left anterior negativity (LAN) following chronology violations suggests similarities between the processing of script chronology in visually observed human behavior and verbal syntax. Consequently, this study extends previous findings suggesting that the LAN is sensitive to structure violation across domains (e.g., verbal syntax, abstract structure), including that of meaningful human actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CP violation with an unbroken CP transformation (United States)

    Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas


    A CP conserving SU(3) gauge theory is spontaneously broken to T7 by the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of a 15-plet. Even though the SU(3)- CP transformation is not broken by the VEV, the theory exhibits physical CP violation in the broken phase. This is because the SU(3)- CP transformation corresponds to the unique order-two outer automorphism of T7, which is not a physical CP transformation for the T7 states, and there is no other possible CP transformation. We explicitly demonstrate that CP is violated by calculating a CP odd decay asymmetry in the broken phase. This scenario provides us with a natural protection for topological vacuum terms, ensuring that θ {G}_{μ ν }{tilde{G}}^{μ ν } is absent even though CP is violated for the physical states of the model.

  12. The theory of hadronic parity violation (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias R.


    Parity-violating interactions between nucleons are the manifestation of an interplay of strong and weak interactions between quarks in the nucleons. Compared to the dominant parity-conserving part, the parity-violating component of the nuclear force is typically suppressed by approximately 6 to 7 orders of magnitude or more. Due to the short range of the weak interactions, however, it provides a unique probe of the strong dynamics that confine quarks into nucleons. An ongoing experimental program is mapping out this weak component of the nuclear force in few-nucleon systems. I will discuss recent theoretical progress based on effective field theory methods to analyze and interpret hadronic parity violation in few-nucleon systems, with a particular focus on two- and three-nucleon systems.

  13. Flavour violating squark and gluino decays

    CERN Document Server

    Hurth, Tobias


    We consider scenarios with large flavour violating entries in the squark mass matrices focusing on the mixing between second and third generation squarks. These entries govern both, flavour violating low energy observables on the one hand and squark and gluino decays on the other hand. We first discuss the constraints on the parameter space due to the recent data on B mesons from the B factories and Tevatron. We then consider flavour violating squark and gluino decays and show that they can still be typically of order 10% despite the stringent constraints from low energy data. Finally we briefly comment on the impact for searches and parameter determinations at future collider experiments such as the upcoming LHC or a future International Linear Collider.

  14. CP Violation Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert


    Recent developments concerning CP violation beyond the Standard Model are reviewed. The central target of this presentation is the $B$ system, as it plays an outstanding role in the extraction of CKM phases. Besides a general discussion of the appearance of new physics in the corresponding CP-violating asymmetries through $B^0_q$--$\\bar{B^0_q}$ mixing $(q\\in\\{d,s\\})$, it is emphasized that CP violation in non-leptonic penguin modes, e.g. in $B_d\\to\\phi K_{S}$, offers a powerful tool to probe physics beyond the Standard Model. In this respect $B\\to\\pi K$ modes, which have been observed recently by the CLEO collaboration, may also turn out to be very useful. Their combined branching ratios allow us to constrain the CKM angle $\\gamma$ and may indicate the presence of physics beyond the Standard Model.

  15. Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberati, S. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)

  16. Corneoscleral Laceration and Ocular Burns Caused by Electronic Cigarette Explosions. (United States)

    Paley, Grace L; Echalier, Elizabeth; Eck, Thomas W; Hong, Augustine R; Farooq, Asim V; Gregory, Darren G; Lubniewski, Anthony J


    To report cases of acute globe rupture and bilateral corneal burns from electronic cigarette (EC) explosions. Case series. We describe a series of patients with corneal injury caused by EC explosions. Both patients suffered bilateral corneal burns and decreased visual acuity, and one patient sustained a unilateral corneoscleral laceration with prolapsed iris tissue and hyphema. A review of the scientific literature revealed no prior reported cases of ocular injury secondary to EC explosions; however, multiple media and government agency articles describe fires and explosions involving ECs, including at least 4 with ocular injuries. Given these cases and the number of recent media reports, ECs pose a significant public health risk. Users should be warned regarding the possibility of severe injury, including sight-threatening ocular injuries ranging from corneal burns to full-thickness corneoscleral laceration.

  17. Burning more than calories: treadmill friction injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davidson, C C


    Treadmill injuries in young children are a serious but little documented problem. Friction burns occur when the hands come into contact with the moving belt resulting in deep burns that often require hospital admission and surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the nature and prevalence of injuries sustained and to highlight treadmill friction burns as a public health issue previously undocumented in Ireland. A retrospective chart review from January 2006 until March 2008 was performed and functional outcome was assessed by the modified Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. Eight girls and four boys from one year and seven months to seven years and five months were treated. Eight children required admission to hospital and to date three have required surgery for their injuries. This is a new and increasing problem in Ireland which must be highlighted.

  18. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Purpose: Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods: Perceived fatigue was

  19. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481962X; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Purpose Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods Perceived fatigue was

  20. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burns surgery has traditionally been somewhat of a. “Cinderella” subspecialty, with the burn surgeon regularly being faced with significant physical and emotional demands. In addition, this branch of surgery has neither complicated surgical procedures nor a plethora of technological equipment to pique the interest of ...

  1. Modern management of paediatric burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2010 ... management of burns within a general hospital setting. Causes. About 90% of childhood burns are preventable. Informal housing, overcrowding and lack of electricity are underlying problems.4. The most frequent ... injury is not important from a wound treatment perspective, NAI has far-reaching social and ...

  2. The seesaw path to leptonic CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputo, A.; Hernandez, P. [Universidad de Valencia and CSIC, Edificio Institutos Investigacion, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna (Spain); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Kekic, M.; Salvado, J. [Universidad de Valencia and CSIC, Edificio Institutos Investigacion, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna (Spain); Lopez-Pavon, J. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)


    Future experiments such as SHiP and high-intensity e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders will have a superb sensitivity to heavy Majorana neutrinos with masses below M{sub Z}. We show that the measurement of the mixing to electrons and muons of one such state could establish the existence of CP violating phases in the neutrino mixing matrix, in the context of low-scale seesaw models. We quantify in the minimal model the CP reach of these future experiments, and demonstrate that CP violating phases in the mixing matrix could be established at 5σ CL in a very significant fraction of parameter space. (orig.)

  3. Covenant Violations and Dynamic Loan Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudenberg, Felix; Imbierowicz, Björn; Saunders, Anthony


    This paper examines the dynamic allocation of control rights in private debt contracts of firms. We show that a covenant violation in the prior loan contract implies a stigma for borrowers which results in stricter loan contract terms in subsequent new loan contracts. Our analyses reject potentia......This paper examines the dynamic allocation of control rights in private debt contracts of firms. We show that a covenant violation in the prior loan contract implies a stigma for borrowers which results in stricter loan contract terms in subsequent new loan contracts. Our analyses reject...

  4. Penguins and cp violation in {beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.C.


    The measurement of the {epsilon}-parameter in the K{sup 0} - K-bar{sup 0} meson system is the only direct evidence for CP violation in the laboratory. The Standard Model (SM) of three generations with the source for CP violation arising from the phases in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix is consistent with the experiment. An unique feature of this model is that the CKM matrix is a 3 x 3 unitary matrix. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs.

  5. CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Weigang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)


    We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb-1 of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.

  6. The seesaw path to leptonic CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Caputo, A.; Kekic, M.; López-Pavón, J.; Salvado, J.


    Future experiments such as SHiP and high-intensity $e^+ e^-$ colliders will have a superb sensitivity to heavy Majorana neutrinos with masses below $M_Z$. We show that the measurement of the mixing to electrons and muons of one such state could imply the discovery of leptonic CP violation in the context of seesaw models. We quantify in the minimal model the CP discovery potential of these future experiments, and demonstrate that a 5$\\sigma$ CL discovery of leptonic CP violation would be possible in a very significant fraction of parameter space.

  7. Prospects of searches for Lepton Flavor Violation (United States)

    Bryman, Douglas


    Although only null results have been reported so far, extraordinary experimental progress continues to be made in searches for lepton flavor violation involving a wide variety of processes like μ→ e γ, nuclear capture μ → e conversion, K^+arrowπ^+μ^+e^- and K^0_Larrowμ e. Furthermore, there are promising prospects for additional gains in sensitivity of many orders of magnitude. Why do these efforts continue unabated after 50 years of apparent failure? How is it possible to make large advances in this ``mature'' experimental field? These and other issues related to experiments searching for lepton flavor violation will be briefly reviewed.

  8. Lorentz violation parameters and noncommutative scale (United States)

    Aghababaei, S.; Haghighat, M.


    We consider the noncommutative Standard Model that contains Lorentz symmetry violation as a subset of the Standard Model extension. We introduce a constant electromagnetic field as a background to derive mutual relations between the free parameters of both theories. As the Lorentz violation parameters of the Standard Model extension are extensively explored in different experiments and many stringent bounds on these parameters are available, we can find new bounds on the scale of noncommutativity of the order of a few to tens of teraelectron volts.

  9. Duality violations in τ hadronic spectral moments (United States)

    Boito, D. R.; Catà, O.; Golterman, M.; Jamin, M.; Maltman, K.; Osborne, J.; Peris, S.


    Evidence is presented for the necessity of including duality violations in a consistent description of spectral function moments employed in the precision determination of α from τ decay. A physically motivated ansatz for duality violations in the spectral functions enables us to perform fits to spectral moments employing both pinched and unpinched weights. We describe our analysis strategy and provide some preliminary findings. Final numerical results await completion of an ongoing re-determination of the ALEPH covariance matrices incorpo-rating correlations due to the unfolding procedure which are absent from the currently posted versions. To what extent this issue affects existing analyses and our own work will require further study.

  10. Scalar boundary conditions in hyperscaling violating geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Pin Wu


    Full Text Available We study the possible boundary conditions of scalar field modes in a hyperscaling violation (HV geometry with Lifshitz dynamical exponent z (z≥1 and hyperscaling violation exponent θ (θ≠0. For the case with θ>0, we show that in the parameter range 1≤z≤2, −z+d−12, −z+d−10, which has been addressed in Ref. [1]. Meanwhile, we also carry out the parallel investigation in the case with θ0, only one type is available.

  11. The year in burns 2013. (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herbert A; Arnoldo, Brett D


    Approximately 3415 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2013. We have continued to see an increase in this number; the following reviews articles selected from these by the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and colleagues that in their opinion are most likely to have effects on burn care treatment and understanding. As we have done before, articles were found and divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. The articles are mentioned briefly with notes from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for details. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Deaths related to chemical burns. (United States)

    Pavelites, Joseph J; Kemp, Walter L; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Prahlow, Joseph A


    The authors present a series of 6 deaths due to the uncommon cause of chemical burns. Of the 6 deaths due to chemical burns, 4 deaths were due to ingestion of a chemical, 1 death was caused by chemical burns of the skin, and 1 death resulted from rectal insufflation of a chemical. Seven additional cases where chemical burns may have been a contributing factor to the death or an incidental finding are also presented. Four cases are related to an incident involving chemical exposure during an industrial explosion. Three cases involve motor fuel burns of the skin. Two cases concern a plane crash incident, and 1 case involved a vehicular collision. Cases are derived from the records of the Dallas County Medical Examiner's Office and those of the authors' consultation practices. Each of the cases is presented, followed by a discussion of the various mechanisms of chemical injury.

  13. Superior segment facet joint violation and cortical violation after minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. (United States)

    Knox, Jeffrey B; Dai, Joseph M; Orchowski, Joseph R


    Minimally invasive approaches to the lumbar spine allow for pedicle screw placement through a muscle-splitting paraspinal approach. These techniques are highly dependent on fluoroscopy and do not allow for direct visualization of anatomic landmarks. The effect of this on the accuracy of pedicle screw placement is not well described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of violation of the superior segment facet joint and rates of cortical violation after minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. To evaluate the rate of cortical violation and involvement of the superior segment facet after minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. Retrospective chart review. Patients who underwent minimally invasive pedicle screw placement by a single surgeon between January 2004 and July 2009. Violation of the superior segment facet joint or cortical violation identified on computed tomography (CT). This study consisted of a consecutive series of adult patients undergoing minimally invasive pedicle screw placement by a single surgeon for degenerative lumbar spinal conditions. Routine postoperative CT was obtained and evaluated for involvement of the superior segment facet joint and for cortical violation. Sixty-one consecutive patients (282 pedicle screws) met the study criteria and were included in the study, including 42 single-level fusions and 19 two-level fusions. Seven cortical breaches were identified for a rate of 2.48%. Seven patients had involvement of the superior-level facet for an incidence of 11.48%. One patient required revision for a malpositioned pedicle screw. This study revealed a low rate of superior segment facet violation and cortical violation after minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. This rate of superior-level facet involvement is significantly lower than previously reported after open procedures. The rate of cortical violation is similar to previous reports in the literature with a low revision rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Why burn patients are referred? (United States)

    Latifi, Noor-Ahmad; Karimi, Hamid


    Many burn patients are needed to be referred to a tertiary burn hospital according to the American Burn Association (ABA) criteria. The purpose of this study was to verify the reasons for referring of the burn patients to the hospital. For 2 years, we prospectively surveyed the burn patients referred to a tertiary teaching burn hospital. Data for the following variables were collected and analyzed with SPSS software V21.0: causes of burn; age; gender; total body surface area (TBSA) measured at the referring center; TBSA measured at the receiving center; concomitant diseases and traumas; the reason for referral; condition of patients before and during the transportation; transportation time; presence of infection; presence of inhalation injury, electrical injury, and chemical injury; child abuse; insurance coverage; and results and outcomes of patients. A total of 578 burn patients (33.6% of the total admissions) were referred in the study period. Among these patients, 70.9% were females. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 35.3 (19.69) years. The mean (SD) of TBSA was 45.2 (26.3). Of the 578 patients, 45% were referred by request of the family or patients; 9% were referred because lack of diagnostic facility, approximately 43% were referred because of the need to be admitted in a tertiary burn center, 0.7% were referred because of a lack of capacity at other hospitals, and 0.5% were referred because of an error in the estimation of TBSA. A total of 45% of the referrals were by request of the family and patients. Tele-medicine may help to establish a direct contact between expert burn physicians and the patients and thus reduce unnecessary transfers. Approximately 9% of the referrals were because of lack of some diagnostic facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychological contract types as moderator in the breach-violation and violation-burnout relationships. (United States)

    Jamil, Amber; Raja, Usman; Darr, Wendy


    This research examined the relationships between perceived psychological contract breach, felt violation, and burnout in a sample (n = 361) of employees from various organizations in Pakistan. The moderating role of contract types in these relationships was also tested. Findings supported a positive association between perceived psychological contract breach and felt violation and both were positively related to burnout. Transactional and relational contracts moderated the felt violation-burnout relationship. Scores on relational contract type tended to be higher than for transactional contract type showing some contextual influence.

  16. Facial burns from exploding microwaved foods: Case series and review. (United States)

    Bagirathan, Shenbana; Rao, Krishna; Al-Benna, Sammy; O'Boyle, Ciaran P


    Microwave ovens allow for quick and simple cooking. However, the importance of adequate food preparation, prior to microwave cooking, and the consequences of inadequate preparation are not well-known. The authors conducted a retrospective outcome analysis of all patients who sustained facial burns from microwaved foods and were treated at a UK regional burns unit over a six-year period. Patients were identified from clinical records. Eight patients presented following inadequate preparation of either tinned potatoes (n=4) or eggs (n=4). All patients sustained burns. Mean age was 41 years (range 21-68 years). Six cases (75%) had associated ocular injury. One received amniotic membrane grafts; this individual's vision remains poor twelve months after injury. Rapid dielectric heating of water within foods may produce high steam and vapour pressure gradients and cause explosive decompression [1,5,11]. Consumers may fail to recognise differential heating and simply cook foods for longer if they remain cool on the outer surface. Education on safe use and risks of microwave-cooked foods may help prevent these potentially serious injuries. Microwave ovens have become ubiquitous. The authors recognise the need for improved public awareness of safe microwave cooking. Burns resulting from microwave-cooked foods may have life-changing consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Hot ash burns in the children of Western Australia: how and why they happen. (United States)

    Martin, L; Rea, S; McWilliams, T; Wood, F


    Burns from hot ash are common in the paediatric population in Western Australia. Fifty children were admitted to the paediatric burn centre with hot ash contact burns to the feet in 2011 and 2012. It is important to examine the extent of the problem, seasonal variations, and identify those at risk to determine strategies for prevention campaigns. Retrospective review of medical notes for all admissions to the paediatric burns unit was undertaken for 2011 and 2012. Data were collected for patient demographics, time, circumstance of injury, burn severity and treatment. Hot ash burns accounted for 8.6% of admissions but 16.1% of burns sustained in non-metro areas. Median age was just under 3 years, male or female. Median burn TBSA was 2%, and 44% of children required surgery. The burns were less common in summer, more common on non-school days and in children who were on camping trips away from home. Previous work has shown the value of targeted campaigns. The group for targeted prevention campaigns are the carers of very young children who go camping. Information distributed at camping shows and stores about the principles of campfire safety would reach the people at risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Agents, mechanisms and clinical features of non-scald burns in children: A prospective UK study. (United States)

    Johnson, E L; Maguire, S; Hollén, L I; Nuttall, D; Rea, D; Kemp, A M


    To inform childhood burn prevention by identifying demographics, clinical features and circumstances of unintentional non-scald burns. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted across Cardiff, Bristol and Manchester, including six emergency departments, three minor injury units and one burns unit between 13/01/2013-01/10/2015. Data collected for children aged burn (scald, contact, flame, radiation, chemical, electrical, friction) included: demographics, circumstances of injury and clinical features. Scalds and burns due to maltreatment were excluded from current analysis. Of 564 non-scald cases, 60.8% were boys, 51.1% were burns affected one anatomical site. Contact burns accounted for 86.7% (489/564), 34.8% (137/394) of which were from objects placed at >0.6m and 76.5% (349/456) affected the hands. Hairstyling devices were the most common agent of contact burns (20.5%, 100/487); 34.1% (30/88) of hairstyling devices were on the floor. Of children aged 10-15 years, 63.7% (65/102), sustained contact burns of which 23.2% (13/56) were preparing food, and when burnt from hairstyling devices, 73.3% (11/15) were using them at the time of injury. Parents of toddlers must learn safe storage of hazardous items. Older children should be taught skills in safe cooking and hairstyling device use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Alkali-related ocular burns: a case series and review. (United States)

    Bunker, Daniel J L; George, Robert J; Kleinschmidt, Andrew; Kumar, Rohit J; Maitz, Peter


    Alkali burns are known to possess high pathological potential because of their inherent ability to lyse cell membranes and penetrate intraocular structures with devastating results. The authors aimed to evaluate the most common cause of this presentation, the current treatment approaches to injury, and eventual outcome as related to severity. The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients who sustained chemical-related ocular injuries seen at the Concord Hospital Burns Unit, Australia between January 2005 and March 2012. Management was based on cooperation between ophthalmic staff and the burns unit, with emphasis on early aggressive intervention and rigorous follow-up. The records of 39 patients who presented with chemical-related injury were assessed, 12 of whom had confirmed alkali burns involving the cornea. The most commonly implicated agent was sodium hydroxide, usually in the context of otherwise trivial domestic accidents. Acute medical management included copious irrigation and the use of analgesics, cycloplegics, and topical antibiotics. In half the cases, steroid drops and oral vitamin C were also used. Ten of the 12 patients (83%) had return to premorbid visual acuity. Complications included cicatrical ectropion (n = 1), pseudoexfoliative syndrome (n = 1), and symblepharon (n = 1). Surgical correction was needed in the one patient with cicatrical ectropion. This case series shows that appropriate acute management minimizes the potentially devastating sequelae of ocular alkali burns. Emphasis should be placed on prevention of domestic and workplace injuries when using alkaline products.

  20. Resistance of the boreal forest to high burn rates. (United States)

    Héon, Jessie; Arseneault, Dominique; Parisien, Marc-André


    Boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks are strongly shaped by extensive wildfires. Coupling climate projections with records of area burned during the last 3 decades across the North American boreal zone suggests that area burned will increase by 30-500% by the end of the 21st century, with a cascading effect on ecosystem dynamics and on the boreal carbon balance. Fire size and the frequency of large-fire years are both expected to increase. However, how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future burn rates is poorly understood, mostly because of incomplete records of past fire overlaps. Here, we reconstruct the length of overlapping fires along a 190-km-long transect during the last 200 y in one of the most fire-prone boreal regions of North America to document how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future fire recurrence. We provide direct field evidence that extreme burn rates can be sustained by a few occasional droughts triggering immense fires. However, we also show that the most fire-prone areas of the North American boreal forest are resistant to high burn rates because of overabundant young forest stands, thereby creating a fuel-mediated negative feedback on fire activity. These findings will help refine projections of fire effect on boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks.

  1. Is light water reactor technology sustainable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, G. [Stanford Univ., Dept. of Economics, CA (United States); Van der Zwaan, B. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam, Inst. for Environmental Studies (Netherlands)


    This paper proposes criteria for determining ''intermediate sustainability'' over a 500-year horizon. We apply these criteria to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and the LWR industry. We conclude that LWR technology does not violate intermediate sustainability criteria for (1) environmental externalities, (2) worker and public health and safety, or (3) accidental radioactive release. However, it does not meet criteria to (1) efficiently use depleted uranium and (2) avoid uranium enrichment technologies that can lead to nuclear weapons proliferation. Finally, current and future global demand for LWR technology might be below the minimum needed to sustain the current global LWR industry. (author)

  2. Atomic parity violation and the HERA anomaly


    Giusti, Leonardo; Strumia, Alessandro


    We show that the two scenarios able to explain the HERA anomaly --- a new leptoquark coupling or a new contact interaction --- predict new contributions to atomic parity violation. These corrections are sufficiently large and different that a feasible reduction in the dominant atomic theory uncertainty could give some hint in favour of one of the two scenarios.

  3. 78 FR 5055 - Pattern of Violations (United States)


    ... operators their constitutional rights to adequate notice and a fair opportunity to be heard before MSHA... proposed rule's elimination of the PPOV provisions, denies mine operators the constitutional right to.... Some stated that the proposal violates mine operators' due process rights under the Fifth Amendment to...

  4. From Parity Violation to Nobel 2008

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The question whether parity was conserved was raised by Marty Block via Feynman at the 1956 Rochester. Conference………… T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang did a detailed analysis of consequences of parity violation in beta decay and other weak decay processes(1956). (“The question of parity conservation in.

  5. Boundary crossings and violations in clinical settings. (United States)

    Aravind, V K; Krishnaram, V D; Thasneem, Z


    Principles of beneficence, autonomy, and nonmaleficence, compassion along with fiduciary partnership are the core concepts in the doctor-patient relationship in therapeutic settings. There are varieties of reasons for boundary problems. Physicians ignorance, exploitative character, emotional vulnerability moral weakness and similar factors may pave the way for boundary issues resulting in nonsexual or sexual boundary crossings and violations.

  6. CP violation in neutral kaon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchalla, G.


    A brief review of the theoretical status of CP violation in decays of neutral kaons is presented. We focus on three important topics: {epsilon}, {epsilon}`/{epsilon} and K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{anti {nu}}.

  7. Black Hole Complementarity and Violation of Causality


    Rozenblit, Moshe


    Analysis of a massive shell collapsing on a solid sphere shows that black hole complementarity (BHC) violates causality in its effort to save information conservation. In particular, this note describes a hypothetical contraption based on BHC that would allow the transfer of information from the future to the present.

  8. The effect of maintenance policy violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, Christiaan; Tinga, Tiedo


    Motivation Maintenance policy assessments usually rely on expert judgement. We seek for some history based validation. Organisations may use our inference to assess risks of maintenance policy violations. Approach We depart from the arbitrary viewpoint that decisions have observable effects. We

  9. Lepton flavour violation in composite Higgs models. (United States)

    Feruglio, Ferruccio; Paradisi, Paride; Pattori, Andrea

    We discuss in detail the constraints on the partial compositeness coming from flavour and CP violation in the leptonic sector. In the first part we present a formulation of partial compositeness in terms of a flavour symmetry group and a set of spurions, whose background values specify the symmetry breaking pattern. In such a framework we construct the complete set of dimension-six operators describing lepton flavour violation and CP violation. By exploiting the existing bounds, we derive limits on the compositeness scale in different scenarios, characterised by increasing restrictions on the spurion properties. We confirm that in the most general case the compositeness scale should lie well above 10 TeV. However, if in the composite sector the mass parameters and Yukawa couplings are universal, such a bound can be significantly lowered, without necessarily reproducing the case of minimal flavour violation. The most sensitive processes are decays of charged leptons either of radiative type or into three charged leptons, [Formula: see text] conversion in nuclei and the electric dipole moment of the electron. In the second part we explicitly compute the Wilson coefficients of the relevant dimension-six operators in the so-called two-site model, embodying the symmetry breaking pattern discussed in our first part, and we compare the results with those of the general spurion analysis.

  10. Violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum optics (United States)

    Reid, M. D.; Walls, D. F.


    An optical field produced by intracavity four-wave mixing is shown to exhibit the following nonclassical features: photon antibunching, squeezing, and violation of Cauchy-Schwarz and Bell's inequalities. These intrinsic quantum mechanical effects are shown to be associated with the nonexistence of a positive normalizable Glauber-Sudarshan P function.

  11. Leptonic flavor and СP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss two ways that can be used to probe other non-standard leptonic physics. We show that non-standard neutrino interaction can be probed in neutrino oscillation experiments and discuss sneutrino-antisneutrino mixing. Keywords. Lepton number violation; supersymmetry; neutrino oscillation. PACS Nos 12.60.

  12. Scaling violation in hadron-nucleus interaction (United States)

    Verbetski, Y. G.; Garsevanishvili, L. P.; Kotlyarevski, D. M.; Ladaria, N. K.; Tatalashvili, N. G.; Tsomaya, P. V.; Sherer, N. I.; Shabelski, Y. M.; Stemanetyan, G. Z.


    The scaling violation within the pionization region in the energy range of 0.2 to 2.0 TeV is shown on the basis of the analysis of angular characteristics in the interactions of the cosmic radiation hadrons with the nuclei of various substances (CH2, Al, Cu, Pb).

  13. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence (United States)

    Fitch, V. L.


    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  14. Memory for expectation-violating concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porubanova, Michaela; Shaw, Daniel; McKay, Ryan


    and animals) than to non-agents (plants or objects/artifacts). We conclude that due to their evolutionary salience, cultural ideas which combine expectancy violations and the involvement of an agent are especially memorable and thus have an enhanced probability of being successfully propagated....

  15. Addressing violations of international criminal procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitcher, K.M.; Abels, D.; Dolman, M.M.; Vriend, K.C.J.


    This chapter provides an overview of the law and practice of the ICTY, ICTR and ICC with respect to procedural violations, including how such international criminal tribunals have dealt with the unique severity of the crimes falling within their jurisdiction in this context. The picture that emerges

  16. Addressing Violations of International Criminal Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitcher, K.


    This chapter provides an overview of the law and practice of the ICTY, ICTR and ICC with respect to procedural violations, including how such international criminal tribunals have dealt with the unique severity of the crimes falling within their jurisdiction in this context. The picture that emerges

  17. Complex chemical burns following a mass casualty chemical plant incident: how optimal planning and organisation can make a difference. (United States)

    O'Neill, Tomás B; Rawlins, Jeremy; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona


    Four employees at a chemical plant sustained extensive chemical burns following the explosion of a pipeline containing 100% sulphuric acid. We describe the management of these patients from the initial ED triage through to discharge from hospital in life and limb threatening chemical burns. Four patients who sustained chemical burns to the torso and extremities are reviewed. Data was retrieved from patient case notes and operating theatre logbooks. Four patients sustained chemical burns during the blast and were immediately transferred to a local ED where a prompt referral was made to the burns service. All patients were male aged 25-59 years (mean 46.5). Burn size was 2-50% BSA (mean 22.5). Following RFDS transfer to the state burns service two patients required immediate excisional surgery. In these patients the chemical burn involved full thickness skin loss with extensive underlying muscle and neurovascular damage. One patient required immediate above knee amputation of one leg and fascial burn excision of the other. The other patient required fascial burn excision of both legs followed by Integra placement 24h later. Both patients had prolonged hospital stays due to the complex nature of their injuries requiring multiple trips to theatre and lengthy rehabilitation. The two patients with smaller burns had straightforward surgery and an unremarkable recovery. Early communication following this mass casualty incident allowed for organisation of tertiary services and early radical surgery which was life saving. Management lessons were learnt following this mass casualty chemical burn incident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Outpatient management of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Kassira, Wrood; Namias, Nicholas


    The leading etiologies of pediatric burns are scald, thermal, and electrical injuries. The initial management of burns involves assessment of burn depth and total body surface area (TBSA) affected, a history, and physical examination. Calculation of percent of TBSA affected is an important determinant of the necessity for hospitalization versus outpatient management. Only second- and third-degree burns are included in the calculation. The criteria for outpatient management vary based on the center experience and resources. One such set of criteria in an experienced burn center includes burn affecting less than 15% TBSA, therefore not requiring fluid resuscitation; the ability to take in oral fluids, excluding serious perioral burns; no airway involvement or aspiration of hot liquid; no abuse; and dependable family able to transport the patient for clinic appointments. Once the child is ready to reenter school, the physician must discuss with the family and school staff any needs and expectations for the child, including wound care. Social reintegration can be difficult. Educating the teachers and staff of the child's appearance may help prepare the students.

  19. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona


    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  20. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı


    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  1. Understanding Internal Information Systems Security Policy Violations as Paradoxes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy Njenga


    Aim/Purpose: Violations of Information Systems (IS) security policies continue to generate great anxiety amongst many organizations that use information systems, partly because these violations are carried out by internal employees...

  2. Lawful Solutions For Violation On Women In Sports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuzana Sakáčová


    .... Violence against women is one of the most widespread violations of human dignity. It represents a violation of human rights, namely the right to life, the right to safety, the right to dignity, the right to physical and mental integrity...

  3. D0 Evidence for CP Violation and Implication for CPT Violation in B-Meson Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooten, R.Van; /Indiana U.


    A D0 analysis measuring the charge asymmetry A{sub sl}{sup b} of like-sign dimuon events due to semileptonic b-hadron decays at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is described. It differs by 3.2 standard deviations from the Standard Model prediction to provide first evidence of CPT-invariant anomalous CP violation in the mixing of neutral B mesons, and is compared to the CP-violating phase obtained from a D0 analysis of the time-dependent decay angles in B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi}. If CPT violation is allowed, the dimuon asymmetry also yields the first sensitivity to CPT violation in the B{sub s}{sup 0} system.

  4. Burns treatment in ancient times. (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija


    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  5. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation. (United States)

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David


    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients. (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C


    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Effect of CP violation in bilinear R-parity violation on baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheriguene, Asma; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Porod, Werner [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Liebler, Stefan [Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany)


    Supersymmetric models where R-parity is broken via lepton number violation provides an intrinsically supersymmetric explanation for the observed neutrino. The complex phases of the corresponding parameters are constrained by the observed matter anti-matter asymmetry of the universe. Taking bilinear R-parity violation as framework in combination with the assumption of a large lepton asymmetry generated via the Affleck-Dine mechanism at the end of inflation we investigate these constraints in the parameter range compatible with neutrino data.

  8. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (United States)


    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  9. Energy poverty, shack fires and childhood burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Kimemia


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a persisting challenge in South Africa. Energy poverty, prevalent in under-resourced communities, is a key contributor to the problem. The energy-poor rely on solid fuels and flammable hydrocarbons, such as paraffin, for energy services. The fuels are burnt in inefficient, leaky and unstable appliances, leading to health losses from pollutant emissions, burns, and conflagrations. Within cramped informal home settings, using flammable fuels and risky combustion technologies, the situation can become devastating, especially for young children. Those who survive fiery incidents have to contend with trauma and property losses that may lead to further impoverishment. Proactive intervention strategies are required and should include the broadening of access to safe and sustainable energy. We advocate greater enforcement of home appliance standards and targeted support for the distribution of proven alternative energy technologies, such as liquefied petroleum gas and solar power. Support and advocacy from professional and citizen groups would be necessary to ensure that government prioritises the safe energy requirements of poor citizens.

  10. Neutrinos as a probe of CP-violation and leptogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Establishing CP-violation in the lepton sector is one of the most challenging future tasks in neutrino physics. The lepton mixing matrix contains one Dirac phase and, if neutrinos are Majorana particles, two additional CP-violating phases. I will review the main theoretical aspects of CP-violation in the lepton sector. Then, I will ...

  11. Measurements of CP violation in charm decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Pietro


    The copious amount of D-meson decays collected by the LHCb experiment, opens the doors to measurements with sensitivities close to the Standard Model expectations for CP violation in charm. Latest results on CP violation searches at the LHCb experiment are reported. No hint of CP violation has been found so far.

  12. 32 CFR 634.32 - Traffic violation reports. (United States)


    ... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.32 Traffic violation... Government vehicle at the time of the violation. (2) A Federal Magistrate is either not available or lacks... refer violations of State traffic laws made applicable to the installation (Assimilative Crimes Act (18...

  13. Parity-Violating in e - e + Scattering at Finite Temperature (United States)

    Chekerker, M.; Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.; Ladrem, M.


    Parity violation implies that physics laws are not invariant under spatial coordinate reversal. Electron-positron scattering is a process that displays parity violation. Using the Thermo Field Dynamics formalism this scattering at finite temperature is analyzed. The transition amplitude is calculated as a function of temperature. The parity violation at very high temperatures tend to go to zero.

  14. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric


    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  15. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.


    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  16. Honey dressing in pediatric burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangroo A


    Full Text Available The medicinal properties of honey have been recognized since antiquity. Although used as an adjuvant method of accelerating wound healing from ancient times, honey has been sporadically used in the treatment of burns. Honey acts mainly as a hyperosmolar medium and prevents bacterial growth. Because of its high viscosity, it forms a physical barrier, and the presence of enzyme catalase gives honey an antioxidant property. Its high-nutrient content improves substrate supply in local environment promoting epithelialization and angiogenesis. In pediatric burn patients no exclusive study has been conducted using honey as a burn dressing. An attempt is being made to evaluate the effect of honey in the management of burns in pediatric patients.

  17. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors (United States)

    ... Harman Award Hickey Award Advocacy Award Edge Servant Leadership Award Contact Information News & Media Phoenix Blog Who We Are Get Involved Ways to Give Our Vision | Uniting the voice of the burn community around the globe to profoundly advance lifelong ...

  18. Prescribed burning: a topical issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovio G


    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a promising technique for the prevention of forest fires in Italy. The research deepened several ecological and operative aspects. However, legal issues need to be thoroughly investigated.

  19. Chemistry of Cigarette Burning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P


    Full Text Available Cigarette-burning and the smoke-formation processes and smoke composition are important topics for understanding cigarette performance. This paper proposes the molecular formulas representing the active components of bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos and a basic chemistry model of the cigarette burning processes. Previous knowledge of the cigarette burning processes and smoke formation helped to establish parameters in deriving the basic chemistry equations. The proposed chemistry provides a brief view of the mechanisms of the cigarette burning during puffing and interpuff smoldering, and can be used to interpret and predict the smoke composition for cigarettes made from bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos. Based on the proposed chemistry, the effect of ventilation on smoke component deliveries is discussed and the reaction heat of the puffing process is estimated.

  20. Electrothermal Ring Burn - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil


    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring.

  1. Chemical burns: pathophysiology and treatment. (United States)

    Palao, R; Monge, I; Ruiz, M; Barret, J P


    Chemical burns continue to pose a variety of dilemmas to the clinician managing such cases. Assessment of burn depth is often difficult and the decision whether to excise the wound early is not always clear-cut. In this updated review, common agents are classified and the basic principles of management and specific recommendations are examined. The complications arising from exposure to these chemicals and the supportive measures needed during treatment are also described. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical and Common Burns in Children. (United States)

    Yin, Shan


    Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact. In children, the most common cause of chemical burns is from household products such as toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, detergents, and bleaches. Mild chemical burns generally cause redness and pain and can look similar to other common rashes or skin infections, whereas severe chemical burns are more extreme and may cause redness, blistering, skin peeling, and swelling.

  3. Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck


    Full Text Available New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z′ not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for h→μτ at CMS, the two-body decay mode τ→μZ′ opens up and for MZ′<2mμ gives better constraints than τ→3μ already with 20-year-old ARGUS limits. We discuss the general prospects and motivation of light vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.

  4. R parity violation from discrete R symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Chun Chen


    Full Text Available We consider supersymmetric extensions of the standard model in which the usual R or matter parity gets replaced by another R or non-R discrete symmetry that explains the observed longevity of the nucleon and solves the μ problem of MSSM. In order to identify suitable symmetries, we develop a novel method of deriving the maximal ZN(R symmetry that satisfies a given set of constraints. We identify R parity violating (RPV and conserving models that are consistent with precision gauge unification and also comment on their compatibility with a unified gauge symmetry such as the Pati–Salam group. Finally, we provide a counter-example to the statement found in the recent literature that the lepton number violating RPV scenarios must have μ term and the bilinear κLHu operator of comparable magnitude.

  5. CP Violation in Tau to K* Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgkinson, Mark; /Manchester U.


    A sample of {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} K*{sup {+-}} decays with K*{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup {+-}} and K{sub S}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, using 123.4 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the BaBar detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is used to search for a direct CP violation effect in the charged Higgs sector. No evidence of CP violation is found and the imaginary part of the charged Higgs coupling, {l_brace}Im{r_brace}({Lambda}), in the Multi-Higgs-Doublet-Model is found to be at -0.284 < {l_brace}Im{r_brace}({Lambda}) < 0.200 at 90% Confidence Level. In addition the installation of the kk2f Monte Carlo generator into the BaBar software framework is described.

  6. Bell's inequality violation with spins in silicon. (United States)

    Dehollain, Juan P; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Hudson, Fay; Itoh, Kohei M; Jamieson, David N; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea


    Bell's theorem proves the existence of entangled quantum states with no classical counterpart. An experimental violation of Bell's inequality demands simultaneously high fidelities in the preparation, manipulation and measurement of multipartite quantum entangled states, and provides a single-number benchmark for the performance of devices that use such states for quantum computing. We demonstrate a Bell/ Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violation with Bell signals up to 2.70(9), using the electron and the nuclear spins of a single phosphorus atom embedded in a silicon nanoelectronic device. Two-qubit state tomography reveals that our prepared states match the target maximally entangled Bell states with >96% fidelity. These experiments demonstrate complete control of the two-qubit Hilbert space of a phosphorus atom and highlight the important function of the nuclear qubit to expand the computational basis and maximize the readout fidelity.

  7. Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamín


    These lectures on flavor physics are an introduction to the subject. First lec- ture: We discuss the meaning of flavor and the importance of flavor physics in restricting extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of Electroweak interactions. We explain the origin of the KM matrix and how its elements are determined. We discuss FCNC and the GIM mechanism, followed by how a principle of Minimal Flavor Violation leads to SM extensions that are safe as far as FCNC are concerned even if the new physics comes in at low, TeVish scales. This is illustrated by the example of B radiative decays ( b → sγ ). Second lecture: We then turn our attention to CP-violation. We start by presenting neutral meson mixing. Then we consider various CP-asymmetries, culminating in the theoretically clean interference between mixing and decay into CP eigenstates.

  8. Interpreting hints for lepton flavor universality violation (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Stangl, Peter; Straub, David M.


    We interpret the recent hints for lepton flavor universality violation in rare B meson decays. Based on a model-independent effective Hamiltonian approach, we determine regions of new physics parameter space that give a good description of the experimental data on RK and RK*, which is in tension with Standard Model predictions. We suggest further measurements that can help narrowing down viable new physics explanations. We stress that the measured values of RK and RK* are fully compatible with new physics explanations of other anomalies in rare B meson decays based on the b →s μ μ transition. If the hints for lepton flavor universality violation are the first signs of new physics, perturbative unitarity implies new phenomena below a scale of ˜100 TeV .

  9. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette


    Miura K; Nagao A; Ueyama K


    We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smolder...

  10. Chemical burns: Diphoterine untangled. (United States)

    Alexander, K Skaria; Wasiak, Jason; Cleland, Heather


    Diphoterine is a hypertonic, amphoteric, polyvalent and chelating decontamination solution used in the treatment of cutaneous and ocular chemical burns. Due to infrequent use by emergency physicians along with the small number of available studies, its debate in the literature as to its efficacy and safety remains inconclusive. A structured literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and TOXNET to June 2016 for original English-language studies reporting on the safety and effectiveness of Diphoterine. Methodological and reporting quality of pre-clinical animal studies was assessed using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) risk of bias tool and Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Clinical studies were assessed using Chambers' criteria. 13 studies (seven in the pre-clinical, five in the clinical setting and one mixed) met the study inclusion criteria. Pre-clinical studies showed a faster resolution of pH and reduced tissue necrosis with Diphoterine. Clinical studies showed reduced tissue necrosis/severity of symptoms, faster pH resolution and a reduction in pain when using Diphoterine. No adverse events were attributable to Diphoterine. Reporting and methodology of the studies was poor or showed a high risk of bias. Diphoterine appears to be safe to use and is probably superior to other rinsing solutions. However, immediate decontamination is imperative and if Diphoterine is not available a different rinsing solution should be used. The methodology of the published literature for Diphoterine is generally poor and future publications should use the frameworks given as templates. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Constraint on parity-violating muonic forces. (United States)

    Barger, Vernon; Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Keung, Wai-Yee; Marfatia, Danny


    Using the nonobservance of missing mass events in the leptonic kaon decay K→μX, we place a strong constraint on exotic parity-violating gauge interactions of the right-handed muon. By way of illustration, we apply it to an explanation of the proton size anomaly that invokes such a new force; scenarios in which the gauge boson decays invisibly or is long lived are constrained.

  12. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.


    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.



    Rozhan Othman; Rasidah Arshad; Noor Azuan Hashim; Rosmah Md Isa


    A psychological contract is an implicit understanding between a group of employees and their employer that arose as a result of a particular leadership style. Psychological contract violation (PCV) is said to occur when there is a perceived breach of promise that leads to an emotional and affective response. The literature on PCV posits a number of antecedents and outcomes of PCV. This study seeks to develop a model of PCV by linking it with justice and organizational citizenship behavior (OC...

  14. Comments on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (United States)

    Bryman, Douglas


    Charged lepton flavor violation has been of interest since the muon (and subsequently, the tau lepton) was identified as a heavy version of the electron. CLFV continues to be pursued vigorously with the hope that its observation would reveal new information relating to the generation puzzle or about physics beyond the Standard Model. Theories abound which incorporate hypothetical CLFV at potentially observable levels although the mass scales and couplings are unknown, and innovative experiments continue to push the boundaries of sensitivity.

  15. Atomicity violation detection using access interleaving invariants (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Lu, Shan; Tucek, Joseph Andrew


    During execution of a program, the situation where the atomicity of a pair of instructions that are to be executed atomically is violated is identified, and a bug is detected as occurring in the program at the pair of instructions. The pairs of instructions that are to be executed atomically can be identified in different manners, such as by executing a program multiple times and using the results of those executions to automatically identify the pairs of instructions.

  16. Searches for lepton flavour violation at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Besjes, Geert-Jan; The ATLAS collaboration


    Lepton flavour violation (LFV) is a striking signature of potential beyond the Standard Model physics. Searches for LFV with the ATLAS detector are reported in channels focusing on the decay of the Higgs boson, the Z boson and of a heavy neutral gauge boson, Z', using pp collisions data with a center of mass energy of 8 TeV and 13 TeV.

  17. CP violation in the neutral kaon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brod, Joachim [TTP, Uni Karlsruhe (Germany); Gorbahn, Martin [TU Muenchen, IAS (Germany)


    The parameter {epsilon}{sub K} describes CP violation in the mixing of neutral K-mesons. It is an important ingredient in the standard analysis of the unitarity triangle. Recent progress in the lattice calculation of B{sub K}, parameterising the long distance effects in neutral Kaon mixing, have made a NNLO calculation of the short distance contributions mandatory. I discuss this calculation and present first results.

  18. When things look wrong: theta activity in rule violation. (United States)

    Tzur, Gabriel; Berger, Andrea


    A violation of a rule or expectation is known to evoke a phasic negative potential over the medial frontal cortex. This electrophysiological effect has been shown for incorrect mathematical equations and incongruent words at the end of sentences. The cognitive processes elicited in rule violation seem to involve violation of expectation, error detection, and conflict between competing cognitions. Consistent with the conceptual relation between rule violation and error/conflict detection, rule violation conditions should involve a power increase in the theta frequency band involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The present study verifies the connection between rule violation and theta activity using a wavelet analysis. Moreover, low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) source localization connects this theta activity to the ACC. Furthermore, the results show that theta activity is sensitive to the salience of the violation, that is, the degree of deviation of the conflicting/erroneous stimulus from the correct (expected) one.

  19. Scald burns in children aged 14 and younger in Australia and New Zealand—an analysis based on the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). (United States)

    Riedlinger, Dorothee I; Jennings, Paul A; Edgar, Dale W; Harvey, John G; Cleland, Ms Heather J; Wood, Fiona M; Cameron, Peter A


    Scalds are a common injury in children and a frequent reason for hospitalisation despite being a preventable injury. This retrospective two year study reports data from 730 children aged 14 years or younger who sustained a scald between 2009 and 2010 and were admitted to a burns centre in Australia or New Zealand. Data were extracted from the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ), which included data from 13 burns centres in Australia and New Zealand. Scald injury contributed 56% (95% CI 53-59%) of all pediatric burns. There were two high risk groups; male toddlers age one to two, contributing 34% (95% CI 31-38%) of all scalds, and indigenous children who were over 3 times more likely to experience a scald requiring admission to a burns unit than their non-indigenous peers. First aid cooling by non-professionals was initiated in 89% (95% CI 86-91%) of cases but only 20% (95% CI 16-23%) performed it as recommended. This study highlights that effective burn first aid reduces hospital stay and reinforces the need to encourage, carers and bystanders to deliver effective first aid and the importance of targeted prevention campaigns that reduce the burden of pediatric scald burns in Australia and New Zealand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Gemmler, Katrin


    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a $U(3)_\\chi$ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter $\\chi$ which transforms as triplet under $U(3)_\\chi$, and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator $\\phi$ with a coupling $\\lambda$. We identify a number of "flavor-safe" scenarios for the structure of $\\lambda$ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. For dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of $b$-...

  1. Charm mixing and CP violation at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Gersabeck, Evelina Mihova


    LHCb has collected the world's largest sample of charmed hadrons. This sample is used to search for direct CP violation in the multibody prompt charm decays $D^0 -> \\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^0$. The search is employing an unbinned model independent method known as the energy test. Using the data collected by LHCb at centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, the world's best sensitivity to CP violation in this decay is achieved. The data are found to be consistent with the hypothesis of CP symmetry with a p-value of $(2.6 \\pm 0.5)\\%$. New measurements of indirect CP violation in muon tagged $D^0$ decays to two-body CP even final states are presented. The time dependent CP asymmetries in the decay rates of the singly Cabibbo-suppressed decays $D^0->KK$ and $D^0->\\pi\\pi$ decays using the full LHCb run 1 data set are determined to be $A_{\\Gamma} (K^-K^+) = (-0.134 \\pm 0.077 ^{+0.026}_{-0.034})\\% ; A_{\\Gamma} (\\pi^-\\pi^+) = (-0.092 \\pm 0.145 ^{+0.025}_{-0.033})\\%$, and are compatible with the hypothesis of no indirect CPV and with ...

  2. Lattice QCD spectroscopy for hadronic CP violation (United States)

    de Vries, Jordy; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Seng, Chien-Yeah; Walker-Loud, André


    The interpretation of nuclear electric dipole moment (EDM) experiments is clouded by large theoretical uncertainties associated with nonperturbative matrix elements. In various beyond-the-Standard Model scenarios nuclear and diamagnetic atomic EDMs are expected to be dominated by CP-violating pion-nucleon interactions that arise from quark chromo-electric dipole moments. The corresponding CP-violating pion-nucleon coupling strengths are, however, poorly known. In this work we propose a strategy to calculate these couplings by using spectroscopic lattice QCD techniques. Instead of directly calculating the pion-nucleon coupling constants, a challenging task, we use chiral symmetry relations that link the pion-nucleon couplings to nucleon sigma terms and mass splittings that are significantly easier to calculate. In this work, we show that these relations are reliable up to next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion in both SU (2) and SU (3) chiral perturbation theory. We conclude with a brief discussion about practical details regarding the required lattice QCD calculations and the phenomenological impact of an improved understanding of CP-violating matrix elements.

  3. Astroparticle Physics Tests of Lorentz Invariance Violation (United States)

    Lang, R. G.; de Souza, V.


    Testing Lorentz invariance is essential as it is one of the pillars of modern physics. Moreover, its violation is foreseen in several popular Quantum Gravity models. Several authors study the effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. These particles are the most energetic events ever detected and therefore represent a promising framework to test LIV. In this work we present an analytic calculation of the inelasticity for any a + b → c + d interaction using first order perturbation in the dispersion relation that violates Lorentz invariance. The inelasticity can be calculated by solving a third-order polynomial equation containing: a) the kinematics of the interaction, b) the LIV term for each particle and c) the geometry of the interaction. We use the inelasticity we calculate to investigate the proton propagation in the intergalactic media. The photopion production of the proton interaction with the CMB is taken into account using the inelasticity and the attenuation length in different LIV scenarios. We show how the allowed phase space for the photopion production changes when LIV is considered for the interaction. The calculations presented here are going to be extended in order to calculated the modified ultra-high energy cosmic rays spectrum and compare it to the data.

  4. Causality violation, gravitational shockwaves and UV completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)


    The effective actions describing the low-energy dynamics of QFTs involving gravity generically exhibit causality violations. These may take the form of superluminal propagation or Shapiro time advances and allow the construction of “time machines”, i.e. spacetimes admitting closed non-spacelike curves. Here, we discuss critically whether such causality violations may be used as a criterion to identify unphysical effective actions or whether, and how, causality problems may be resolved by embedding the action in a fundamental, UV complete QFT. We study in detail the case of photon scattering in an Aichelburg-Sexl gravitational shockwave background and calculate the phase shifts in QED for all energies, demonstrating their smooth interpolation from the causality-violating effective action values at low-energy to their manifestly causal high-energy limits. At low energies, these phase shifts may be interpreted as backwards-in-time coordinate jumps as the photon encounters the shock wavefront, and we illustrate how the resulting causality problems emerge and are resolved in a two-shockwave time machine scenario. The implications of our results for ultra-high (Planck) energy scattering, in which graviton exchange is modelled by the shockwave background, are highlighted.

  5. Professional boundary violations: a literature review. (United States)

    Manfrin-Ledet, Linda; Porche, Demetrius J; Eymard, Amanda S


    The purpose of this article is to review the nursing literature related to professional boundary violations in nursing. A search was conducted using CINAHL, MEDLINE, Ebscohost, and NCSBN. The key words searched were professional boundaries, boundary violation, boundary crossings, nurse, home health nurses, and home nursing. The search returned over 40 publications related specifically to boundary violations and nursing although only four of them are published research studies and one as a dissertation. Seven common characteristics emerged from the nonresearch nursing articles on professional boundaries: (1) Dual relations/role reversal, (2) Gifts and money, (3) Excessive self-disclosure, (4) Secretive behavior, (5) Excessive attention/overinvolvement, (6) Sexual behavior, and (7) Social media. Additional nursing research is greatly needed in the area of professional boundaries. The nurse-patient relationship should always be maintained for the benefit of the patient and not the personal gain of the nurse. Ongoing education in nursing practice regarding professional boundaries is needed. Nurses need to be mindful of state practice acts, codes of conduct, and employer policies.

  6. Flavor mixing democracy and minimal CP violation (United States)

    Gerard, Jean-Marc; Xing, Zhi-zhong


    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle θC≃13° with the CP-violating phase ϕq around 1°, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around π/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase ϕl is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the ϕl→0 limit and predicts sin θ13=1/√{2}sin(ϕl/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation Jl=(sin ϕl)/12 can reach a few percent if θ13 lies in the range 7°⩽θ13⩽10°.

  7. Collinear factorization violation and effective field theory (United States)

    Schwartz, Matthew D.; Yan, Kai; Zhu, Hua Xing


    The factorization of amplitudes into hard, soft and collinear parts is known to be violated in situations where incoming particles are collinear to outgoing ones. This result was first derived by studying limits where noncollinear particles become collinear. We show that through an effective field theory framework with Glauber operators, these factorization-violating effects can be reproduced from an amplitude that is factorized before the splitting occurs. We confirm results at one loop, through single Glauber exchange, and at two loops, through double Glauber exchange. To approach the calculation, we begin by reviewing the importance of Glauber scaling for factorization. We show that for any situation where initial-state and final-state particles are not collinear, the Glauber contribution is entirely contained in the soft contribution. The contributions coming from Glauber operators are necessarily nonanalytic functions of external momentum, with the nonanalyticity arising from the rapidity regulator. The nonanalyticity is critical so that Glauber operators can both preserve factorization when it holds and produce factorization-violating effects when they are present.

  8. CP Violation in Heavy MSSM Higgs Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, M; Lee, J S; Pilaftsis, A; Wagner, C E M


    We introduce and explore new heavy Higgs scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with explicit CP violation, which have important phenomenological implications that may be testable at the LHC. For soft supersymmetry-breaking scales M_S above a few TeV and a charged Higgs boson mass M_H+ above a few hundred GeV, new physics effects including those from explicit CP violation decouple from the light Higgs boson sector. However, such effects can significantly alter the phenomenology of the heavy Higgs bosons while still being consistent with constraints from low-energy observables, for instance electric dipole moments. To consider scenarios with a charged Higgs boson much heavier than the Standard Model (SM) particles but much lighter than the supersymmetric particles, we revisit previous calculations of the MSSM Higgs sector. We compute the Higgs boson masses in the presence of CP violating phases, implementing improved matching and renormalization group (RG) effects, as well as two-loop RG...

  9. Pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival in Fuyang city, China. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhou, Bo; Tao, Ren Qin; Chen, Xu Lin


    The Chinese people in Fuyang city, a northwest city of Anhui Province, are accustomed to burning incense at home for blessing during the Spring Festival. Their children, especially toddlers, like playing around the burning incense and are at risk of burning by hot incense ashes. The purpose of this study was to describe the unique cause and clinical characteristics of pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival. Twelve consecutive children admitted to our Burn Center and Fuyang People's Hospital during 2014 Spring Festival, with burn injuries caused by hot incense ashes which were epidemiologically studied retrospectively. Data on age, gender, size, depth and site of burn, incidence by day, number of operation, hospital stay, and causes of burns were collected. All patients came from Fuyang city. Of the 12 patients, the average age was 2.17 years, with a range of 1-6. The boy-to-girl ratio was 2: 1. The mean total burn surface area (TBSA) was 5.83%, and 91.67% of the children sustained full-thickness burn. Hands were the most common parts of the body to be injured. Dry necrosis developed in 14 fingers of 3 patients. January 31, 2014, the first day of the Chinese New Year, was the time of highest incidence. Six patients (50%) required surgical intervention while the number of operations including escharectomy, excision, skin grafting, or amputation of necrotic fingers, per patient was 2. A total of 14 fingers were amputated of the necrotic parts. All children survived and mean length of hospital stay of the patients was 20 days. Hot incense ashes cause serious injuries to children in Fuyang city during the Spring Festival. Preventive programs should be directed towards high risk groups to reduce the incidence of this burn.

  10. Burn Wound Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan (United States)

    Saaiq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shehzad; Zaib, Muhammad Salman


    BACKGROND Burn wound infections carry considerable mortality and morbidity amongst burn injury victims who have been successfully rescued through the initial resuscitation. This study assessed the prevalent microrganisms causing burn wound infections among hospitalized patients; their susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics; and the frequency of infections with respect to the duration of the burn wounds. METHODS This study was carried out at Burn Care Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of two years (i.e. from June 2010 to May 2012). The study included all wound-culture-positive patients of either gender and all ages, who had sustained deep burns and underwent definitive management with wound excisions and skin auto-grafting. Patients with negative cultures of the wounds were excluded. Tissue specimens for culture and sensitivity were collected from burn wounds using standard collection techniques and analyzed at microbiological laboratory. RESULTS Out of a total of 95 positive microbial growths, 36 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35.29%) as the most frequent isolate found, followed by 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.58%), 19 Staphylococcus aureaus (18.62%), 10 Proteus (9.80%), 7 E. coli (6.86%), 7 Acinetobacter (6.86%), and 4 Candida (3.92%). A variable antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed among the grown microbes. Positive cultures were significantly more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. CONCLUSION P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus constituted the most common bacterial microbes of burn wounds in our in-patients cases. Positive cultures were more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. Early excision and skin grafting of deep burns and adherence to infection control measures can help to effectively reduce the burden of these infections. PMID:25606471

  11. Burn plasma transfer induces burn edema in healthy rats. (United States)

    Kremer, Thomas; Abé, Dorotheé; Weihrauch, Marc; Peters, Christopher; Gebhardt, Martha Maria; Germann, Guenter; Heitmann, Christoph; Walther, Andreas


    Thermal injuries greater than 20% body surface area (BSA) result in systemic shock with generalized edema in addition to local tissue destruction. Burn shock is induced by a variety of mediators, mainly immunomodulative cytokines. This experimental study evaluates if burn shock can be induced in healthy rats by transfer of burn plasma (BP) with mediators. Thermal injury was induced by hot water (100 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA) in male syngenic Wistar rats. Donor rats were killed 4 h posttrauma, and BP was harvested. Burn plasma was transferred to healthy animals by continuous intravenous infusion in three types of dilution (100%, 10%, and 1%). Positive controls were directly examined 4 h after thermal injury, and negative control rats had a continuous infusion done with sham burn (SB) plasma (37 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA). Afterwards, intravital fluorescence microscopy was performed in postcapillary mesenteric venules at 0, 60, and 120 min. Edema formation was assessed by relative changes over time in fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin in the intravascular versus the extravascular space. The interactions of leucocytes and endothelium were evaluated by quantification of leukocyte sticking. Additionally, microhemodynamic (volumetric blood flow, erythrocyte velocity, venular wall shear rate, venular diameters) and macrohemodynamic parameters (blood pressure, heart frequency, temperature) were assessed online (arterial catheter). For statistics, an ANOVA was performed with Bonferroni adjustment procedure. Differences were considered significant when P edema formation remains uncertain and requires further investigation.

  12. LA50 in burn injuries (United States)

    Seyed-Forootan, K.; Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; Momeni, M.; Safari, R.; Ghadarjani, M.


    Summary Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months – 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P < 0.05). LA50 values showed that children tolerate more extensive burns. Female sex, burn size, age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country PMID:27857645

  13. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin


    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  14. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch


    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  15. Scald burn, a preventable injury: Analysis of 4306 patients from a major tertiary care center. (United States)

    Sahu, Shamendra Anand; Agrawal, Karoon; Patel, Pankaj Kumar


    Scalds have distinct epidemiological and predisposing risk factors amongst all types of burns. Though scald affects all age groups, the brunt falls on the minor age groups. It may result in major physical disabilities and significant loss of school years. Apart from the economic burden on family, major scald burn may compromise overall development of the affected children. Most of the scald injuries occur in domestic settings and are preventable. Despite improvement in living conditions, the incidence of scald burn has failed to decline. Our aim was to study the detailed epidemiology and severity of scald burn amongst all age groups. A retrospective study was carried out from the records of all burn patients who attended a tertiary burn care center from January 2013 and December 2014. Data of the patients with scald injury was segregated and analyzed using Microsoft excel spreadsheet. 10,175 burn patients attended the burn casualty during the study period, of which 42.3% had sustained scald. 56.85% of patients were under 15 years of age with preschool children (36.4%) being the prime victims of scald. The % TBSA involved is also relatively larger in children. Scald follows definite seasonal variation peaking in winters. 36.8% patients arrived to the hospital without any first aid. 74.2% of patients reported to casualty with in 24hours after sustaining scald injury. The median time interval between injury and reporting to casualty was 3hours 30minutes. This study concludes that the scald is injury of all age groups, though majority of them are children. The first aid is not given to large number of patients and late reporting is quite common. These are the factors which may affect the course of scald burn. Spreading public awareness regarding safe household practises and educating them for proper first aid management after scald may have significant impact on the burden of care and outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina


    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  17. Violation of unitarity by Hawking radiation does not violate energy-momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje, E-mail: [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Bošković Institute, P.O.B. 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)


    An argument by Banks, Susskind and Peskin (BSP), according to which violation of unitarity would violate either locality or energy-momentum conservation, is widely believed to be a strong argument against non-unitarity of Hawking radiation. We find that the whole BSP argument rests on the crucial assumption that the Hamiltonian is not highly degenerate, and point out that this assumption is not satisfied for systems with many degrees of freedom. Using Lindblad equation, we show that high degeneracy of the Hamiltonian allows local non-unitary evolution without violating energy-momentum conservation. Moreover, since energy-momentum is the source of gravity, we argue that energy-momentum is necessarily conserved for a large class of non-unitary systems with gravity. Finally, we explicitly calculate the Lindblad operators for non-unitary Hawking radiation and show that they conserve energy-momentum.

  18. Violation of unitarity by Hawking radiation does not violate energy-momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Bošković Institute, P.O.B. 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)


    An argument by Banks, Susskind and Peskin (BSP), according to which violation of unitarity would violate either locality or energy-momentum conservation, is widely believed to be a strong argument against non-unitarity of Hawking radiation. We find that the whole BSP argument rests on the crucial assumption that the Hamiltonian is not highly degenerate, and point out that this assumption is not satisfied for systems with many degrees of freedom. Using Lindblad equation, we show that high degeneracy of the Hamiltonian allows local non-unitary evolution without violating energy-momentum conservation. Moreover, since energy-momentum is the source of gravity, we argue that energy-momentum is necessarily conserved for a large class of non-unitary systems with gravity. Finally, we explicitly calculate the Lindblad operators for non-unitary Hawking radiation and show that they conserve energy-momentum.

  19. Up sector of minimal flavor violation: top quark properties and direct D meson CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yang; Berger, Joshua; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Li, Ye


    Minimal Flavor Violation in the up-type quark sector leads to particularly interesting phenomenology due to the interplay of flavor physics in the charm sector and collider physics from flavor changing processes in the top sector. We study the most general operators that can affect top quark properties and D meson decays in this scenario, concentrating on two CP violating operators for detailed studies. The consequences of these effective operators on charm and top flavor changing processes are generically small, but can be enhanced if there exists a light flavor mediator that is a Standard Model gauge singlet scalar and transforms under the flavor symmetry group. This flavor mediator can satisfy the current experimental bounds with a mass as low as tens of GeV and explain observed D-meson direct CP violation. Additionally, the model predicts a non-trivial branching fraction for a top quark decay that would mimic a dijet resonance.

  20. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Nasri-Heir


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  1. Exercise behaviors after burn injury. (United States)

    Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank


    The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified.

  2. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J


    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support.

  3. The changing pattern of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Abeyasundara, Sandun L; Rajan, Vasant; Lam, Lawrence; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    After scalds, flame burns have been considered the next most common mode of burn injury in childhood. Recent experience in the authors' unit suggested that contact burns were becoming more frequent. The authors sought to determine the contemporary frequency of different burn modalities in children presenting to a burns unit. A retrospective review of 3621 children treated in the burns unit, both ambulatory and inpatient, at the authors' institution between January 2003 and December 2007 was performed. Patients were identified using the Burns Unit database. Data collected included age, gender, burn etiology and site, TBSA, and whether operative surgery was required. Of the 3515 patients eligible for inclusion, scalds accounted for 55.9%, contact 30.5%, and flame 7.9% of all burns. Contact burns were shown to be consistently more frequent than flame burns for every year of the study (z = 17.30, P burns, reflecting the variety of mechanisms involved. The data suggest a change in the historical pattern of pediatric burns previously reported in the literature. These findings have implications for public health awareness and burns prevention campaigns.

  4. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  5. Burn injury and wound healing in X-linked ichthyosis. (United States)

    Yancon, Andrea R; Wahl, Wendy L


    X-linked ichthyosis is a skin condition of decreased keratin degradation and hyperkeratosis resulting from a deficiency of steroid sulfatase causing scaly skin. Burns in these patients may require skin grafting and harvesting from diseased donor sites. No descriptions of the outcomes of attempted grafting, donor site healing, and burn recovery in patients with X-linked ichthyosis exist. The authors describe split-thickness skin grafting in one patient with X-linked ichthyosis who sustained a burn with crush injury to his bilateral lower extremities. Although he developed cellulitis, there is no evidence that patients with ichthyosis have higher rates of infection. The patient exhibited rapid healing at postgrafting clinic visits with a much flatter texture than expected early after meshed skin grafting. This could be a benefit of the excess keratin state. Wound healing was not impaired by the ichthyosis. Concerns over skin harvest were alleviated by aggressive topical emollients, which did not negatively impact harvest of donor skin or primary burn site healing.

  6. Management of patients in a dedicated burns intensive care unit (BICU) in a developing country. (United States)

    Hashmi, Madiha; Kamal, Rehana


    In Pakistan the practice of managing extensive burns in dedicated intensive care units is not well established. This audit aims to define the characteristics of the victims of major burns and factors that increase mortality and outcome of the protocol-based management in a dedicated burns intensive care unit (BICU). This prospective audit included all patients admitted to the BICU of Suleiman Dawood Burns Unit in Karachi from 1st September 2002 to 31st August 2011. Demographic information, type and place of burn, total body surface area burn (TBSA), type of organ support provided, length of ICU stay, any associated medical diseases, and out outcome were documented. A total of 1597 patients were admitted to the BICU in 9 years. Median age of the patients was 22 (IQR =32-7). 32% victims were children 50 years old. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Fire was the leading cause of burns in adults (64%) and scald burns were most common in (64%) in children. 72.4% of the accidents happened at home, where kitchen was the commonest location (597 cases). Mean TBSA burnt was 32.5% (SD ± 22.95%, 95%CI: 31.36-33.61). 27% patients needed ventilatory support, 4% were dialyzed and split skin graftings were performed in 20% patients. Average length of ICU stay was 10.42 days. Epilepsy, psychiatric illness and drug addiction were not common associations with burns. Overall mortality was 41.30% but it decreased over the years from 75% to 27%. Groups of people most vulnerable to sustain burn are young females getting burnt in the kitchen, young males getting burnt at work, and small children falling in pots of hot water stored for drinking or bathing. TBSA >40%, age >50 years, fire burn and female gender were associated with a higher risk of death. Carefully planned, protocol based management of burn patients by burn teams of dedicated healthcare professionals, even with limited resources reduced mortality. Burn hazard awareness, prevention and educational programmes targeted at the

  7. Charged Lepton Flavour Violation/Lepton Number Violation searches and studies with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Xella, Stefania; The ATLAS collaboration


    This talk reports about the search for lepton flavour violation (CLFV) with the ATLAS detector. CLFV is searched for in the decay of the Higgs, the Z boson and of a heavy neautral gauge boson, Z', as well as in decays of doubly charged Higgs. A search for LFV tau->3mu decays is also presented. Finally, search for Lepton Number violation (LNV) in processes involving heavy neutral Majorana leptons are summarized. Data from run 1 (8 TeV) and run 2 (13 TeV) are used.

  8. Critical properties of scalar field theory with Lorentz violation: Exact treatment of Lorentz-violating mechanism (United States)

    Carvalho, P. R. S.; Sena-Junior, M. I.


    In this work, we compute analytically the infrared divergences of massless O(N) self-interacting scalar field theories with Lorentz violation, which are exact in the Lorentz-violating Kμν coefficients, for evaluating the corresponding next-to-leading order critical exponents. For that, we apply three distinct and independent field-theoretic renormalization group methods. We find that the outcomes for the critical exponents are the same in the three methods and, furthermore, are identical to their Lorentz invariant counterparts. We generalize the results for all loop levels by employing a general theorem arising from the exact procedure and give the corresponding physical interpretation.

  9. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K


    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smoldering burn rate did not affect the total amount of heat emitted nor the ratio of radiated heat to convected heat.

  10. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  11. [Burn out syndrome in oncology]. (United States)

    Schraub, Simon; Marx, E


    SEPS or burnout syndrome was described among health care workers. Oncology care givers--physicians and nurses--can be concerned. Burnout is a chronical stress reaction. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation are more prevalent than low personal accomplishment. Burnout is essentially assessed by questionnaires. Oncologists report an higher level of burnout, than AIDS medical or palliative care staff. Causes of burn out are numerous: insufficient personal time, sense of failure,... followed by poorly management and difficulties in staff or institution relationships. Prevention and therapy of burn out can be considered on three levels: personal, (psychotherapy, advices on health way of life), team (improvement in communication) and institution (support meetings and talking groups).

  12. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg


    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  13. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina


    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  14. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou


    . Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....

  15. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent


    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  16. Sustainable Learning (United States)

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert


    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  17. Bacteriological profile of burn patients at Yekatit 12 Hospital Burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods: A prospective hospital based study was carried out from December 2010 to February 2011 at Yekatit 12 hospital burn center. Periodic wound swabs and blood samples were collected on 1st, 7th, and 14th days of hospital stay and processed with conventional culture and biochemical tests. Isolates ...

  18. Air-freshener burns: A new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umran Sarwar


    Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  19. Violations of Temporary Flight Restrictions and Air Defense Identification Zones: An Analysis of Airspace Violations and Pilot Report Data (United States)

    Zuschlag, Michael


    This document provides the results from a study into the apparent factors and causes of violations of restricted airspace, particularly temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) and air defense identification zones (ADIZs). By illuminating the reasons for these violations, this study aims to take the first step towards reducing them. The study assesses the basic characteristics of restricted airspace violations as well as the probable causes and factors contributing to violations. Results from the study imply most violations occur where the restriction has been in place for a significant amount of time prior to the violation. Additionally, the study results imply most violations are not due to the pilot simply being unaware of the airspace at the time of violation. In most violations, pilots are aware of the presence of the restricted airspace but have incorrect information about it, namely, its exact boundaries or procedures for authorized penetration. These results imply that the best means to reduce violations of restricted airspace is to improve the effectiveness of providing pilots the details required to avoid the airspace.

  20. Dark Energy from Violation of Energy Conservation. (United States)

    Josset, Thibaut; Perez, Alejandro; Sudarsky, Daniel


    In this Letter, we consider the possibility of reconciling metric theories of gravitation with a violation of the conservation of energy-momentum. Under some circumstances, this can be achieved in the context of unimodular gravity, and it leads to the emergence of an effective cosmological constant in Einstein's equation. We specifically investigate two potential sources of energy nonconservation-nonunitary modifications of quantum mechanics and phenomenological models motivated by quantum gravity theories with spacetime discreteness at the Planck scale-and show that such locally negligible phenomena can nevertheless become relevant at the cosmological scale.

  1. Searches for lepton flavour violation at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Charged lepton flavour is conserved within the Standard Model (SM) up to exceedingly small rates of about $10^{-50}$. This makes charged lepton flavour violation (cLFV) a very interesting place to look for hints of New Physics (NP). In fact, many NP scenarios predict cLFV to occur at rates within the reach of the experiments. Finding these transitions would mean a definite departure from the SM, while not finding them narrows the NP phase space. In this seminar, the latest LHCb results in the cLFV sector will be presented, and their implications for NP scenarios discussed.

  2. DISCRETE 2012: CP violation at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, A E; The ATLAS collaboration


    A measurement of the decay $B_s \\rightarrow J/\\psi (\\mu^+ \\mu^-) \\phi(K^+ K^-)$ in made extracting the decay parameters, including the $CP$-violating weak phase $\\phi_s$ and the decay width difference $\\Delta\\Gamma_s$ from a dataset of 4.9 $fb^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected in 2011 by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measured parameters are consistent with the world average values and theoretical expectations, in particular $\\phi_s$ is within 1 $\\sigma$ of the expected value in the Standard Model. This analysis is published in the Journey of High Energy physics.

  3. The Discovery of Direct CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Iconomidou-Fayard, L


    Soon after the discovery in 1964 of the non-conservation of CP symmetry in the neutral kaon system, the hunt was launched for a component arising from direct violation on top of the dominant effect due to mixing. It took almost 20 years until the first evidence of a signal was reported by NA31 and another 10 years to establish the effect with a significance of more than 5 standard deviations. This article describes the beams, detectors and analysis methods used by the two CERN experiments, NA31 and NA48, which made key contributions to these results and established new standards for precision measurements.

  4. Recent searches for lepton flavor violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D.


    No process which does not conserve lepton number has been observed. However, since this empirical information is incorporated in the standard model in an ad hoc fashion, searches for reactions which exhibit lepton flavor violation (LFV) may lead to new approaches or new constraints to further development. In this paper, limits from searches for muon-electron and muon-positron conversion in the field of a nucleus and for reactions ..-->.. eX where X is a weakly interacting boson are discussed. A summary of the status of LFV searches is given.

  5. Recent Tevatron Results on CP-Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbincius, Peter H. [Fermilab


    Using their full Tevatron Run II data sets, the CDF and D0 Experiments present measurements of CP -violating asymmetries in the charmless decays of bottom baryons Λ0 → pπ-, Λ0 → pK-, and also for B0 → K-π+, B0 → K+π-, b b s Ds → φπ± , and for single muons and like-sign dimuons in pp collisions. Except for the like-sign dimuon asymmetry, these asymmetry measurements are consistent with available predictions of the standard model.

  6. Recent Tevatron Results on CP-Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbincius, Peter H. [Fermilab


    Using their full Tevatron Run II data sets, the CDF and D0 Experiments present measurements of CP-violating asymmetries in the charmless decay of bottom baryons Lambda-b => p pi-, Lambda-b => p K-, and also for Bs0 => K- pi+, B0 => K+ pi-, Ds => phi pi, and for single muons and like-sign dimuons in p-pbar collisions. Except for the like-sign dimuon asymmetry, these asymmetry measurements are consistent with available predictions of the standard model.

  7. Exploring the CP-violating NMSSM: EDM constraints and phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. King


    Full Text Available The Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM features extra new sources for CP violation. In contrast to the MSSM CP violation can already occur at tree level in the Higgs sector. We investigate the range of possible allowed CP-violating phases by taking into account the constraints arising from the measurements of the Electric Dipole Moments (EDMs and the latest LHC Higgs data. Our analysis shows that large CP-violating phases, that are NMSSM-specific, are not in conflict with the EDMs. They are dominantly constrained by the Higgs data in this case. We use our results to investigate the prospects of measuring CP violation through the combined measurement of Higgs rates, on the one hand, and in observables based on CP-violating Higgs couplings to tau leptons on the other hand.

  8. CP violation in the K and B systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)][National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA (United States)


    Although CP violation was discovered more than thirty years ago, its origin is still unknown. In these lectures, we describe the CP- violating effects which have been seen in K decays, and explain how CP violation can be caused by the Standard Model weak interaction. The hypothesis that this interaction is indeed the origin of CP violation will be incisively tested by future experiments on B and K decays. We explain what quantities these experiments will try to determine, and how they will be able to determine them in a theoretically clean way. To clarify the physics of the K system, we give a phase-convention-free description of CP violation in this system. We conclude by briefly exploring whether electric dipole moments actually violate CP even if CPT invariance is not assumed.

  9. Tender Is the Night: romantic tragedy or the tragedy of boundary violations? (United States)

    Houlding, Sybil


    In the author's reading, Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night (1934) is a sustained investigation of the incest taboo and of the psychological pressures that can lead to its collapse in the clinical situation. This novel allows the reader privileged entry into the "case" of a clinical boundary violation in a way that no scientific paper can permit. Drawing on Chasseguet-Smirgel's (1976) concept of the illness of ideality, the author uses this novel to demonstrate why none of us is safe from the possibility of erotic involvement with a patient.

  10. СP-violating asymmetries in ¼Ã and direct СP violation searches ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... violation searches with BABAR in charmless hadronic meson decays. F Palambo BABAR Collaboration. Experimental Particle Physics Volume 62 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 591-596 ... Author Affiliations. F Palambo1 BABAR Collaboration. Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Università and INFN, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy ...

  11. CP Violation in B Meson Decays: Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanceri, Livio; /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste


    CP violation is intimately connected with the puzzle of matter-antimatter asymmetry and baryogenesis. In the Standard Model of particle physics, the observed CP violation phenomena are accounted for by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism involving a phase in the quark mixing matrix. This paper is devoted to a review of the experimental status of CP violation in the decays of B mesons.

  12. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety (United States)

    ... the children you love from burns. Key Prevention Tips To prevent burns from fires and scalding: Be " ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  13. Pre-expanded occipito-dorsal flap reconstruction for neck burns: A novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameena Hassan


    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the neck following a burn injury poses a significant challenge to reconstructive burn surgeons. Here, we report a case of successful application of pre-expanded occipito-dorsal flaps in the reconstruction of postburn scars and contractures in the neck. The patient was a 10-year-old boy who sustained scars and contractures secondary to a burn injury 4 years ago. "Super-thin" flaps were obtained through pre-expansion in the occipito-dorsal area and then transferred to the recipient site. This approach resulted in an esthetic satisfaction and a significant functional improvement, thereby having significant clinical implications in the reconstruction of soft tissue damage secondary to burn injuries in the neck.

  14. Foetal salvage by Caesarean section in a case of maternal burn injury. (United States)

    Banerjee, Tibar; Karmakar, Anirvan; Adhikari, Souvik


    Burn injury sustained during pregnancy is a serious clinical complication that requires individualisation of management. We describe the case of a 30-week pregnant woman who presented to the hospital in a state of shock with approximately 90% burn injuries. Resuscitation was carried out, and the patient's family consented to an emergency Caesarean section in view of the grave prognosis of such burn injuries. A live male infant was delivered via emergency Caesarean section. However, the mother succumbed to her injuries two days after the operation, while the baby was successfully resuscitated and discharged after ten days. This case highlights the importance of timely decision-making and coordination, which are required to salvage a near-term foetus. It also underscores that emergent resuscitation and timely operative procedures might be able to salvage a living foetus, particularly in patients with burns covering more than 60% of total body surface area.

  15. [Endoscopic treatment of chemical burns to the stomach with mucosa ulceration and necrosis]. (United States)

    Nalbandova, D A; Sogreshilin, S S; Pinchuk, T P; Klokova, T V; Il'iashenko, K K


    The prevalence of acute poisoning with caustic substances in Russia is higher than in other countries and is reported by different authors as accounting for 10-32% cases among the patients admitted to acute poisoning treatment centres. Especially unfavorable prognosis is considered for necrotizing burns to the stomach that increase the risk of severe complications leading to disability of patients. The study aimed at improving the treatment of necrotizing chemical burn to the stomach by the infusion of a 5% Mexidole solution into the edges of a burn lesion at different stages of the treatment course. The paper presents the outcomes of patients who sustained chemical burns to the stomach with mucosa ulceration and necrosis, and provides an assessment of early endoscopic treatment effect.

  16. CP violation in K- and B-meson decays

    CERN Multimedia


    These lectures will describe CP violation in K- and B-meson decays and will include the following topics:i) Grand view of the field including CKM matrix and the unitarily triangle ii) General aspects of the theoretical framework iii) Fundamentals of particle-antiparticle mixing iv) Fundamentals of CP violation v) Standard analysis of the unitarily triangle vi) The ratio e'/e including most recent developments vii) CP Violation in rare K- decays viii) Violation in B-Decays (asymmetries and other strategies) ix) A brief look beyond the Standard Model


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamil Kendall


    .... This paper discusses three violations identified as priority problems by Mexican women with HIV, illustrating these problems with cases identified during a participatory skills building workshop...

  18. Violating the Sacred Trust: Sexual Misconduct in Initial Entry Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gervais, Maria R


    .... Violation of this special trust and responsibility erodes the American public's confidence in the military, may negatively impact female recruitment, and embeds sexual harassment within Army culture...

  19. Search for CP violation in baryon decays at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The phenomenon of CP violation has been observed in the K- and B-meson systems, but not yet with any baryonic particle. We report on searches for CP violation in baryon decays at LHCb using Run I data. We find evidence for CP violation in Lambda0b -> p pi- pi+ pi- decays with a statistical significance corresponding to 3.3 standard deviations, including systematic uncertainties. This represents the first evidence of CP violation in the baryon sector. An overview of other recent results of baryon decays will be presented, along with some highlights of the charmless B-decay programme.

  20. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings (United States)

    Packer, Kathleen J.


    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  1. Burning effigies with Bakhtinian laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göttke, F.


    The hanging or burning of effigies as an expression of dissent is a well-established genre of playful political protest. It is enacted in a variety of ways, accessing the conventions of various traditional rituals and social practices, and can function either as a progressive force demanding change,

  2. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya


    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  3. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow (United States)

    ... page: // Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 2 Go to slide 2 out of ...

  4. The Burn-Out Syndrome. (United States)

    Sullivan, Ruth Christ


    An article is presented on the "burn-out" of parents, particularly those of autistic children (i.e., the exhaustion of their psychological and/or physical resources as a result of long and intense caring for their children), along with the comments and responses of five parents and professionals. (DLS)

  5. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found outside of the burns theatre. Challenges include airway distortion, pulmonary dysfunction, difficult vascular access, rapid blood loss, problematic monitoring and positioning, impaired temperature regulation, altered drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, renal dysfunction and sepsis.2 To be able to effectively ...

  6. Clinker Burning Kinetics and Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira

    dimensions, rotation velocity, temperature, gas composition, heat transfer phenomena, etc. These conditions can only be partly simulated in ordinary lab-scale experiments. Thus, the objectives of this project have been to establish test equipment to simulate the industrial clinker burning process...

  7. Antibiotics and the burn patient. (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard


    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. A standard experimental 'chemical burn'. (United States)

    Kim, J; Weibel, T J; Carter, E J; Calobrace, M B; Foldi, J F; Zawacki, B E


    To establish a standard method for producing experimental cutaneous injuries caused by contact with corrosive liquids, we modified an apparatus and method recommended by Walker and Mason in 1967 to produce experimental thermal burns. The resulting procedure proved to be safe, reproducible, humane and efficient and can be used with a wide variety of corrosive liquids.

  9. The importance of family environment for young adults burned during childhood. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Laura; Blakeney, Patricia; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Robert, Rhonda S; Meyer, Walter J


    This study examined the role of family environment for young adult burn survivors making the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Ninety-three young adults who sustained large burns as children were asked to describe their families using the Family Environment Scale (FES). When examining the difference between burn survivors and the normative sample of the FES, burn survivors did not perceive their current family environment different than the normative group. However, burn survivors endorsed more items in the areas of achievement orientation and moral-religious emphasis, and less involvement in intellectual-cultural activities. We also examined the relationship between family characteristics on the FES and psychological adjustment of burn survivors as measured by the Young Adult Self-Report (YASR). Increased conflict on the FES was positively associated with YASR total problem score, internalizing behaviors, and externalizing behaviors. In addition, participation in recreational and social activities and organization both inversely correlated with YASR total problem score. In conclusion, increased family conflict was associated with decreased psychological adjustment of burn survivors as measured by the YASR total problem score.

  10. Airbag-related chest wall burn as a marker of underlying injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monkhouse Simon J


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This case of a man who sustained an airbag-induced thoracic injury and burn, highlights the potential harm that can be caused by airbags. It also serves to illustrate that a surface burn which looks small and benign can actually be a surface marker of a more serious injury. Staff working in emergency departments need to be aware of the risk of possible airbag-associated injuries. Case presentation A 65-year-old man was the driver in a frontal collision. He was wearing a seatbelt. The airbag was activated and caused a superficial chest wall burn. Initial chest x-rays were unremarkable but following deterioration in his condition, a computed tomography scan revealed a serious sternal fracture. The location of the fracture was marked on the surface by the burn. Conclusion Airbags can cause significant chest wall injuries and burns. Surface burns at the point of impact should not be dismissed as trivial as the forces involved can cause significant injury. We recommend that all people with chest wall injuries and/or burns due to airbags should have more detailed chest imaging as initial emergency radiographs can be falsely reassuring.

  11. Muon anomaly and dark parity violation. (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Lee, Hye-Sung; Marciano, William J


    The muon anomalous magnetic moment exhibits a 3.6σ discrepancy between experiment and theory. One explanation requires the existence of a light vector boson, Z(d) (the dark Z), with mass 10-500 MeV that couples weakly to the electromagnetic current through kinetic mixing. Support for such a solution also comes from astrophysics conjectures regarding the utility of a U(1)(d) gauge symmetry in the dark matter sector. In that scenario, we show that mass mixing between the Z(d) and ordinary Z boson introduces a new source of "dark" parity violation, which is potentially observable in atomic and polarized electron scattering experiments. Restrictive bounds on the mixing (m(Z(d))/m(Z))δ are found from existing atomic parity violation results, δ2<2×10(-5). Combined with future planned and proposed polarized electron scattering experiments, a sensitivity of δ2∼10(-6) is expected to be reached, thereby complementing direct searches for the Z(d) boson.

  12. Adult perceptions of phonotactic violations in Japanese (United States)

    Fais, Laurel; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Werker, Janet; Amano, Shigeaki


    Adult Japanese speakers ``hear'' epenthetic vowels in productions of Japanese-like words that violate the canonical CVCVCV form by containing internal consonant clusters (CVCCV) [Dupoux et al., J. Exp. Psychol. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. Given this finding, this research examined how Japanese adults rated the goodness of Japanese-like words produced without a vowel in the final syllable (CVC), and words produced without vowels in the penultimate and final syllables (CVCC). Furthermore, in some of these contexts, voiceless vowels may appear in fluent, casual Japanese productions, especially in the Kanto dialect, and in some, such voiceless vowels may not appear. Results indicate that both Kanto and Kinki speakers rated CVC productions for contexts in which voiceless vowels are not allowed as the worst; they rated CVC and CVCC contexts in which voiceless vowel productions are allowed as better. In these latter contexts, the CVC words, which result from the loss of one, final, vowel, are judged to be better than the CVCC words, which result from the loss of two (final and penultimate) vowels. These results mirror the relative seriousness of the phonotactic violations and indicate listeners have tacit knowledge of these regularities in their language.

  13. Charm mixing and $CP$ violation at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Alex


    LHCb collected the world's largest sample of open charm decays during Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider. This has permitted many precision measurements of charm mixing and $CP$ violation parameters, the most precise of which being $\\Delta A_{CP}$, a measurement of the relative strength of direct, time-integrated $CP$ asymmetries between two singly-Cabibbo suppressed $D^{0}$ decays. This measurement has recently been updated using promptly-produced $D^{0}$ mesons with the full Run 1 dataset, and has a precision below the per mille level. In addition, LHCb has recently made the first observation of $D^{0}$ mixing in a multi-body $D^{0}$ decay, also measuring associated coherence parameters which can be used as input to measurements of the CKM angle $\\gamma$. LHCb has also measured the mixing parameters $x$ and $y$ with a model-independent analysis of $D^{0} \\to K_{S}^{0}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ decays, and the size of direct $CP$ violation in $D^{0} \\to K_{S}^{0}K_{S}^{0}$ decays. These four analyses will be presen...

  14. NEC violation in mimetic cosmology revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ijjas


    Full Text Available In the context of Einstein gravity, if the null energy condition (NEC is satisfied, the energy density in expanding space–times always decreases while in contracting space–times the energy density grows and the universe eventually collapses into a singularity. In particular, no non-singular bounce is possible. It is, though, an open question if this energy condition can be violated in a controlled way, i.e., without introducing pathologies, such as unstable negative-energy states or an imaginary speed of sound. In this letter, we will re-examine the claim that the recently proposed mimetic scenario can violate the NEC without pathologies. We show that mimetic cosmology is prone to gradient instabilities even in cases when the NEC is satisfied (except for trivial examples. Most interestingly, the source of the instability is always the Einstein–Hilbert term in the action. The matter stress-energy component does not contribute spatial gradient terms but instead makes the problematic curvature modes dynamical. We also show that mimetic cosmology can be understood as a singular limit of known, well-behaved theories involving higher-derivative kinetic terms and discuss ways of removing the instability.

  15. BaBar Explores CP Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karyotakis, Jean Yannis


    The most recent results obtained by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC on CP-violating asymmetries and branching fractions for neutral and charged B decays are presented here. The analysis was performed on a data sample of {approx} 88 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected between 1999 and 2002. Using b {yields} c{bar c}s decays, we measure sin2{beta} = 0.741 {+-} 0.067(stat) {+-} 0.034(syst). We also present sin2{beta} measurements from, b {yields} s{bar s}s and b {yields} c{bar c}d processes. From neutral B meson decays to two-body final states of charged pions and kaons, we derive for the CP violating parameters, S{sub {pi}{pi}} = 0.02 {+-} 0.34 {+-} 0.05 [-0.54, +0.58] and C{sub {pi}{pi}} = -0.30 {+-} 0.25 {+-} 0.04 [-0.72, +0.12]. First results for B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} and K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup 0} final states dominated by the {rho}{sup {+-}} resonance, are also presented.

  16. NEC violation in mimetic cosmology revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J


    In the context of Einstein gravity, if the null energy condition (NEC) is satisfied, the energy density in expanding space-times always decreases while in contracting space-times the energy density grows and the universe eventually collapses into a singularity. In particular, no non-singular bounce is possible. It is, though, an open question if this energy condition can be violated in a controlled way, i.e., without introducing pathologies, such as unstable negative-energy states or an imaginary speed of sound. In this paper, we will re-examine the claim that the recently proposed mimetic scenario can violate the NEC without pathologies. We show that mimetic cosmology is prone to gradient instabilities even in cases when the NEC is satisfied (except for trivial examples). Most interestingly, the source of the instability is always the Einstein-Hilbert term in the action. The matter stress-energy component does not contribute spatial gradient terms but instead makes the problematic curvature modes dynamical. ...

  17. Hyperscaling violation and the shear diffusion constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar S. Kolekar


    Full Text Available We consider holographic theories in bulk (d+1-dimensions with Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating exponents z,θ at finite temperature. By studying shear gravitational modes in the near-horizon region given certain self-consistent approximations, we obtain the corresponding shear diffusion constant on an appropriately defined stretched horizon, adapting the analysis of Kovtun, Son and Starinets. For generic exponents with d−z−θ>−1, we find that the diffusion constant has power law scaling with the temperature, motivating us to guess a universal relation for the viscosity bound. When the exponents satisfy d−z−θ=−1, we find logarithmic behaviour. This relation is equivalent to z=2+deff where deff=di−θ is the effective boundary spatial dimension (and di=d−1 the actual spatial dimension. It is satisfied by the exponents in hyperscaling violating theories arising from null reductions of highly boosted black branes, and we comment on the corresponding analysis in that context.

  18. Violation of Particle Anti-particle Symmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Symmetry is a fundamental concept which can be found in the whole range of human activities e. g. from arts to science. The beauty of a statues is often related to its symmetric form. In physics, all the laws are related to some sort of symmetry. Equally important is a small breakdown ofsymmetry. Even for the case of a statue, its beauty might be enhanced by introducing small distortions. In this course, we investigate the role symmetry in the world of elementary particles. Some symmetries found there are very similar to those which can be seen in our daily life, while others are more exotic and related to the quantum nature of the elementary particles. Our particular focus ismade on symmetry and its violation between the matter and anti-matter, known as CP violation. It is experimentally well established that particleand anti-particle behave a tiny bit differently in the world of elementary particles. We discuss how this would be explained and how we can extendour knowledge. Evolution of our universe is stro...

  19. Management of post burn hand deformities


    Sabapathy S; Bajantri Babu; Bharathi R


    The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of s...

  20. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients (United States)


    PHHS-BU) in Dallas. 2. Keywords: burn, smoke inhalation, vitamin E, patients, oxidative stress, pulmonary function, ICU days 3. Accomplishments: a...Memorial Hermann Hospital (BICU-MHH) in Houston, and the Parkland Health and Hospital System Burn Unit (PHHS-BU) in Dallas. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16...Galveston, the Burn Intensive Care Unit at Memorial Hermann Hospital (BICU-MHH) in Houston, and the Parkland Health and Hospital System Burn Unit

  1. Auricular burns associated with operating microscope use during otologic surgery. (United States)

    Latuska, Richard F; Carlson, Matthew L; Neff, Brian A; Driscoll, Colin L; Wanna, George B; Haynes, David S


    To raise awareness of the potential hazard of auricular burns associated with operating microscope use during otologic surgery. Retrospective case series and summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse event reports pertaining to microscope related auricular thermal injuries. All patients who sustained auricular burns while using the operating microscope during otologic surgery at 2 tertiary academic referral centers. Surgical procedure, microscope model, intensity of illumination, length of procedure, focal length, location and severity of burn, and patient outcome. A total of 4 microscope-related auricular thermal injuries were identified from the authors' institutions. Additionally, 82 unique cases of soft tissue burns associated with the use of an operative microscope have been voluntarily reported to the FDA since 2004. A disproportionately large percent (∼ 30%) of these occurred within the field of otology, the majority of which were during tympanoplasty or tympanomastoidectomy procedures at focal length distances of 300 mm or less with xenon light source microscopes. Simultaneous advancements in light delivery technologies and lens optics have continued to improve the efficiency of the operating microscope; however, these improvements also increase the potential for thermal injuries. Although rare, a review of the FDA MAUDE database suggests that microscope-related soft tissue burns occur more frequently in otology than any other surgical specialty. A variety of factors may help explain this finding, including the unique anatomy of the external ear with thin skin and limited underlying adipose tissue. Preventative measures should be taken to decrease the risk of thermal injuries including use of the lowest comfortable light intensity, adjusting the aperture width to match the operative field, frequent wound irrigation, and covering exposed portions of the pinna

  2. Mycobacterium abscessus infection in a burn intensive care unit patient. (United States)

    Vaghaiwalla, Tanaz; Satahoo, Shevonne S; Zarifa, Rolla; Dauer, Marc; Davis, James S; Dearmas, Doreann; Namias, Nicholas; Pizano, Louis R; Schulman, Carl I


    Infection is the leading cause of death in burn patients. Historically, this was due to burn wound sepsis but pneumonia has now emerged as the most common source. In light of the increasing incidence of multi-drug-resistant organisms, the description of rare infections is paramount in continuing the fight against deadly pathogens. We aim to describe the second case of non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) reported in a burn patient. Difficulties in diagnosis and management will also be highlighted. A 70-y-old Caucasian female, with a past medical history for type 2 diabetes mellitus, was transferred to our facility after a house fire. She had sustained a 28% total body surface area (TBSA) flame burn to her neck, torso, and all four extremities. She underwent excision and grafting on hospital day five with multiple subsequent attempts at excision and grafting due to graft loss. On hospital day 14, a tracheostomy was performed. Her hospital course was complicated by ongoing respiratory failure, renal injury, and sepsis. Mycobacterium abscessus was found on blood cultures from central venous catheters and arterial line catheters as well as on tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on hospital day 86. Imaging then revealed multiple pulmonary nodular densities with patchy ground-glass opacities. After multiple adjustments to the antibiotic regimen, tigecycline, clarithromycin, and cefoxitin therapy was started. She remained on this regimen for almost 4 wks. Her other infections included Acinetobacter baumanii treated with tobramycin and colistin, as well as Candida albicans for which she received fluconazole. Ultimately, her clinical state worsened leading to withdrawal of care. Sepsis NTM is rare in burn patients with only one other case described in the English-language literature. Both cases reflect differences in diagnosis and management. This highlights the need to discuss rare infections in an attempt to broaden the clinician's awareness of such

  3. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  4. Cost of providing inpatient burn care in a tertiary, teaching, hospital of North India. (United States)

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Goswami, Prasenjit


    There is an extreme paucity of studies examining cost of burn care in the developing world when over 85% of burns take place in low and middle income countries. Modern burn care is perceived as an expensive, resource intensive endeavour, requiring specialized equipment, personnel and facilities to provide optimum care. If 'burn burden' of low and middle income countries (LMICs) is to be tackled deftly then besides prevention and education we need to have burn centres where 'reasonable' burn care can be delivered in face of resource constraints. This manuscript calculates the cost of providing inpatient burn management at a large, high volume, tertiary burn care facility of North India by estimating all cost drivers. In this one year study (1st February to 31st January 2012), in a 50 bedded burn unit, demographic parameters like age, gender, burn aetiology, % TBSA burns, duration of hospital stay and mortality were recorded for all patients. Cost drivers included in estimation were all medications and consumables, dressing material, investigations, blood products, dietary costs, and salaries of all personnel. Capital costs, utility costs and maintenance expenditure were excluded. The burn unit is constrained to provide conservative management, by and large, and is serviced by a large team of doctors and nurses. Entire treatment cost is borne by the hospital for all patients. 797 patients (208 burn were admitted with a mean age of 23.04 years (range 18 days to 83 years). The mean BSA burn was 42.26% (ranging from 2% to 100%). 378/797 patients (47.43%) sustained up to 30% BSA burns, 216 patients (27.1%) had between 31 and 60% BSA and 203 patients (25.47%) had >60% BSA burns. 258/797 patients died (32.37%). Of these deaths 16, 68 and 174 patients were from 0 to 30%, 31 to 60% and >60% BSA groups, respectively. The mean length of hospitalization for all admissions was 7.86 days (ranging from 1 to 62 days) and for survivors it was 8.9 days. There were 299 operations


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Fifteen (5.3%) occurred in vehicles following road traffic accidents. Flame constituted the largest source of burn in 147 (49.1%) patients while scald burn from hot fluids( water, soup, hot tea, pap{custard} )constituted the next large group of 108. (37,9%). Twenty patients (7.0%) were due to chemical burns while electrical ...

  6. Costs of burn care: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.J.; Polinder, S.; van der Vlies, C.H.; Middelkoop, E.; van Baar, M.E.


    Burn care is traditionally considered expensive care. However, detailed information about the costs of burn care is scarce despite the increased need for this information and the enhanced focus on healthcare cost control. In this study, economic literature on burn care was systematically reviewed to

  7. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phone have been described.[3]. We report on a case of first‑degree burn due to overheating of. Compaq Presario cq50 on the patient's left foot. So far, there have been a few case reports about portable computer causing burns, but until now burning induced in such a quick succession of time (3 days) has not been reported.

  8. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue. (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W


    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  9. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.


    Chitkara, D. K.; McNeela, B. J.


    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  10. Impact of obesity on body image dissatisfaction and social integration difficulty in adolescent and young adult burn injury survivors. (United States)

    Chondronikola, Maria; Sidossis, Labros S; Richardson, Lisa M; Temple, Jeff R; van den Berg, Patricia A; Herndon, David N; Meyer, Walter J


    Burn injury deformities and obesity have been associated with social integration difficulty and body image dissatisfaction. However, the combined effects of obesity and burn injury on social integration difficulty and body image dissatisfaction are unknown. Adolescent and young adult burn injury survivors were categorized as normal weight (n = 47) or overweight and obese (n = 21). Burn-related and anthropometric information were obtained from patients' medical records, and validated questionnaires were used to assess the main outcomes and possible confounders. Analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were performed to evaluate the objectives of this study. Obese and overweight burn injury survivors did not experience increased body image dissatisfaction (12 ± 4.3 vs 13.1 ± 4.4; P = .57) or social integration difficulty (17.5 ± 6.9 vs 15.5 ± 5.7; P = .16) compared with normal weight burn injury survivors. Weight status was not a significant predictor of social integration difficulty or body image dissatisfaction (P = .19 and P = .24, respectively). However, mobility limitations predicted greater social integration difficulty (P = .005) and body image dissatisfaction (P body image dissatisfaction (P = .05). Obese and overweight adolescents and young adults, who sustained major burn injury as children, do not experience greater social integration difficulty and body image dissatisfaction compared with normal weight burn injury survivors. Mobility limitations and higher weight status at burn are likely more important factors affecting the long-term social integration difficulty and body image dissatisfaction of these young people.

  11. Development of turf-type Poa pratensis l. germplasm for seed production without field burning (United States)

    Open-field burning of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) post- harvest residue, which maintains grass seed yield and stand longevity, has been eliminated in Washington and is restricted in Idaho and Oregon, USA. Our objective was to develop Kentucky bluegrass germplasm that has sustainable seed y...

  12. Response of a rare endemic, Penstemon clutei, to burning and reduced belowground competition (United States)

    Peter Z. Fule; Judith D. Springer; David W. Huffman; W. Wallace Covington


    Penstemon clutei, a rare perennial beardtongue endemic to the ponderosa pine forest of the Sunset Crater volcanic field of northern Arizona, presents an opportunity to test the hypothesis that restoration of historic ecosystem conditions may enhance the sustainability of a rare species. We tested prescribed burning and root trenching treatments as proxies for the...

  13. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study. (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J


    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  14. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim


    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  15. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  16. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.


    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  17. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  18. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang


    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  19. Agriculture: Sustainability (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  20. Musical expertise modulates early processing of syntactic violations in language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahren B. Fitzroy


    Full Text Available Syntactic violations in speech and music have been shown to elicit an anterior negativity (AN as early as 100 ms after violation onset and a posterior positivity that peaks at roughly 600 ms (P600/LPC. The language AN is typically reported as left-lateralized (LAN, whereas the music AN is typically reported as right-lateralized (RAN. However, several lines of evidence suggest syntactic processing of language and music rely on overlapping neural systems. The current study tested the hypothesis that syntactic processing of speech and music share neural resources by examining whether musical proficiency modulates ERP indices of linguistic syntactic processing. ERPs were measured in response to syntactic violations in sentences and chord progressions in musicians and nonmusicians. Violations in speech were insertion errors in normal and semantically impoverished English sentences. Violations in music were out-of-key chord substitutions from distantly and closely related keys. Phrase-structure violations elicited an AN and P600 in both groups. Harmonic violations elicited an LPC in both groups, blatant harmonic violations also elicited a RAN in musicians only. Cross-domain effects of musical proficiency were similar to previously reported within-domain effects of linguistic proficiency on the distribution of the language AN; syntactic violations in normal English sentences elicited a left-lateralized AN in musicians and a bilateral AN in nonmusicians. The late positivities elicited by violations differed in latency and distribution between domains. These results suggest that initial processing of syntactic violations in language and music relies on shared neural resources in the general population, and that musical expertise results in more specialized cortical organization of syntactic processing in both domains.

  1. Sustainable finance


    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.


    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG


    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  3. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol


    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Prescribed burning and its effect on plant biomass and species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three burning regime (fire protected, early burning, late burning) and their effects on plant biomass and species diversity in Dabagi forest Reserve of Sokoto State were investigated. Prescribed burning was carried out on randomly selected plots (10 m x 10 m) in November (early burn) and March (late burn) 2004.

  5. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.


    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  6. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  7. The NBT test in burned patients. (United States)

    Roe, E. A.; Jones, R. J.


    The number of polymorphs which stained with the dye nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT "Positive") increased sharply during the first week after burning, reaching levels 4--5 times above values for healthy volunteers. In burns of more than 20% of the body surface a second, smaller increase in the number of NBT "positives" occurred 4 to 6 weeks after burning. The high levels of NBT "positive" polymorphs occurred independently of infection on the burns. A burned patient who died from septicaemia had very low numbers of NBT "positive" polymorphs for 3 weeks before death. PMID:444418

  8. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S


    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  9. Heterotopic ossification of the elbows in a major petrol burn. (United States)

    Zaman, Shahriar Raj


    A case of a young man who developed heterotopic ossification (HO) in his elbows following an accident where he sustained petrol burns to over 60% of his body. His injuries necessitated intubation, escharotomies and a protracted intensive care unit stay that was complicated by septicaemia. Several weeks after the injury, he was diagnosed with HO in his right elbow, followed by the left elbow a week later. He was commenced on an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a long-term course of a bisphosphonate and regular physiotherapy. He is now waiting for the HO bone to mature before having definitive excision of his lesions in 12-18 months time.

  10. Electrical Burn Causing a Unique Pattern of Neurological Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Schaefer, BExSc, MBBS (Hons


    Full Text Available Summary: Neurological involvement is not uncommon in patients who sustain electrical injury. The exact mechanism of nervous system damage following electrical trauma is not fully understood. The gamut of possible neurologic manifestations following electrical injury is diverse. This case report describes a young man with a unique pattern of neurological injury following an electrical burn. The combination of brachial plexopathy, partial Horner’s syndrome, and phrenic nerve palsy secondary to electrical injury has not been previously described in the literature.

  11. Minimal flavour violation and neutrino masses without R-parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcadi, G.; Di Luzio, L.; Nardecchia, M.


    symmetry breaking all the couplings of the superpotential including the R-parity violating ones. If R-parity violation is responsible for neutrino masses, our setup can be seen as an extension of MFV to the lepton sector. We analyze two patterns based on the non-abelian flavour symmetries SU(3)(4) circle...

  12. 20 CFR 655.65 - Remedies for violations. (United States)


    ... contrary to sec. 214(c) of the INA, or this subpart. See McLaughlin v. Richland Shoe Co., 486 U.S. 128... consider the type of violation committed and other relevant factors. In determining the level of penalties... particular case will be based on the amount of the penalty in effect at the time the violation occurs. ...

  13. CP violation: the past, the present and the future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have just entered a period during which we expect considerable progress toward understanding CP violation. Here we review what we have learnt so far, and what is to be expected in the near future. To do this we cover the foundation of CP violation at a level which can be understood by physicists who are not working ...

  14. 46 CFR 67.325 - Violation of endorsement. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Violation of endorsement. 67.325 Section 67.325 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Special Provisions § 67.325 Violation of endorsement. A vessel may not be employed in...

  15. Nonverbal Expectancy Violations: Model Elaboration and Application to Immediacy Behaviors. (United States)

    Burgoon, Judee K.; Hale, Jerold L.


    Reviews factors affecting nonverbal expectancies and the consequences of violating them, comparing those consequences to other models (discrepancy-arousal, arousal-labeling, arousal-valence, sequential functional) employing similar assumptions and mediating variables. Examines an extension of nonverbal expectancy violations theory to multiple…

  16. Gender Role Violations and the Sexual Double Standard. (United States)

    Zaikman, Yuliana; Marks, Michael J; Young, Tara M; Zeiber, Jacqueline A


    The sexual double standard (SDS) suggests that women are evaluated negatively and men positively for engaging in similar sexual behaviors. According to social role theory, the SDS exists due to gender role structures. Consequently, perceived violations of women's sexual behavior are associated with the SDS. In addition to gender role violations of sexual behavior, two additional violations of gender roles exist: heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics. The current study aims to investigate whether the SDS persists for sexual orientation-violating and gender role characteristic-violating targets, and to examine which of the three gender role violations influence evaluations of others' sexual behavior. A U.S. sample of 483 participants evaluated target individuals who were either female or male, heterosexual/gay man or lesbian, feminine or masculine, and had 1 or 12 sexual partners. Results indicate that SDS persists for gender role-violating targets but is exhibited differently for targets violating heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics.

  17. A mini review on CP-violating minimal supersymmetric Standard ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Higgs boson; supersymmetry; CP violation; Large Hadron Collider. Abstract. We discuss the present status of the Higgs sector of the CP-violating minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (CPVMSSM). In the Standard ... The presence of these additional phases modifies Higgs masses, mixings and couplings significantly.

  18. 48 CFR 803.806 - Processing suspected violations. (United States)


    ... GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Limitation on the Payment of Funds to Influence Federal Transactions 803.806 Processing suspected violations. A VA employee must report suspected violations of 31 U.S.C. 1352, Limitation on Use of Appropriated Funds to Influence Certain Federal...

  19. A Boundary Mixture Approach to Violations of Conditional Independence (United States)

    Braeken, Johan


    Conditional independence is a fundamental principle in latent variable modeling and item response theory. Violations of this principle, commonly known as local item dependencies, are put in a test information perspective, and sharp bounds on these violations are defined. A modeling approach is proposed that makes use of a mixture representation of…

  20. 19 CFR 354.5 - Report of violation and investigation. (United States)


    ... director shall investigate an alleged violation that arose out of a proceeding for which the director was... violations of an administrative protective order shall serve as guidelines to each person subject to an... acts described in the guidelines has been committed, however, shall be considered by the Deputy Under...

  1. Limits on Lorentz violation from charged-pion decay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Noordmans, J.; K. Vos, K.


    Charged-pion decay offers many opportunities to study Lorentz violation. Using an effective field theory approach, we study Lorentz violation in the lepton, W-boson, and quark sectors and derive the differential pion-decay rate, including muon polarization. Using coordinate redefinitions we are able

  2. 32 CFR 935.51 - Motor vehicle violations. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle violations. 935.51 Section 935.51... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Penalties § 935.51 Motor vehicle violations. Whoever is found guilty of a... than 30 days, or suspension or revocation of his motor vehicle operator's permit, or any combination or...

  3. 17 CFR 14.4 - Violation of Commodity Exchange Act. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Violation of Commodity Exchange Act. 14.4 Section 14.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO SUSPENSION OR DISBARMENT FROM APPEARANCE AND PRACTICE § 14.4 Violation of Commodity...

  4. Constraints on relativity violations from gamma-ray bursts. (United States)

    Kostelecký, V Alan; Mewes, Matthew


    Tiny violations of the Lorentz symmetry of relativity and the associated discrete CPT symmetry could emerge in a consistent theory of quantum gravity such as string theory. Recent evidence for linear polarization in gamma-ray bursts improves existing sensitivities to Lorentz and CPT violation involving photons by factors ranging from ten to a million.

  5. Direct СP violation in neutral kaon decays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The final result of the NA48 experiment is presented and performed at the CERN SPS neutral kaon beams, on the direct CP violation parameter Re ( ′ / ) , as measured from the decay rates of neutral kaons into two pions. The data collected in the years 1997-2001 yield the evidence for the direct CP violation with Re ...

  6. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations. (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard


    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical burns in children: Aetiology and prevention. (United States)

    D'Cruz, Rachel; Pang, Tony C Y; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Chemical burns account for a small proportion of total burns in children, but may require specific first aid and different modes of prevention. A retrospective study between 2006 and 2012 of children ≤16 years treated with chemical burns at a specialist paediatric burn centre. Data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. 56 episodes of chemical burns occurred during the study period. The majority (54%) occurred in boys. There were 39 (72%) patients chemical burns occurred in the domestic setting, especially in the chemicals by an unattended child accounted for half of all (n=22, 49%) chemical burns burns in patients ≥10 years resulted from self-harm. The most common aetiological agents were household cleaners and aerosols in the younger and older age groups respectively. Chemical burns remain infrequent but potentially preventable. These burns mainly occur in the domestic setting due to non-intentional exposure of household chemicals in children burns in children <10. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Atomic physics checks of parity violation

    CERN Document Server

    Barkov, L M


    The results of the new run of measurements of the parity violation in atomic bismuth on /sup 4/S/sub 3/2/-/sup 2/D/sub 5/2/ MI-transition at lambda =648 nm are presented. The value R=Im(EI/MI) measured on F=6- F'=7 and F=6-F'=6 hyperfine structure components is found to be (-20.6+or-3.2).10/sup -8/. The average value for all the measurements (R)=(-20.2+or-2.7).10/sup -8/ is in agreement with the theoretical prediction obtained in the framework of the standard gauge model with sin/sup 2/ theta =0.25. (21 refs).

  9. Experimental hint for gravitational CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, Vahagn [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany). MDI Group


    An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Gravity dependence on rotation or spin direction is experimentally constrained only at low energies. Here a method based on high energy Compton scattering is developed to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a gravitational CP violation around 13 GeV energies, at a maximal level of 1.3±0.2% for the charge and 0.68±0.09% for the space parity. A stronger gravitational coupling to left helicity electrons relative to right helicity positrons is detected.

  10. Search for Lepton Flavour Violation at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; 10.1016/j.physletb.2011.05.023


    A search for second and third generation scalar and vector leptoquarks produced in ep collisions via the lepton flavour violating processes ep -> mu X and ep -> tau X is performed by the H1 experiment at HERA. The full data sample taken at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt{s} = 319 GeV is used for the analysis, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 245 pb^-1 of e^+ p and 166 pb^-1 of e^- p collision data. No evidence for the production of such leptoquarks is observed in the H1 data. Leptoquarks produced in e^+- p collisions with a coupling strength of lambda=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to leptoquark masses of 712 GeV and 479 GeV, respectively.

  11. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner


    If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ →ℓ‧ γ but rather ℓ →ℓ‧ X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z‧ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ →ℓ‧ + inv , but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ → eX , X → γγ , ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  12. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck


    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  13. Five-year experience with burns from glass fireplace doors in the pediatric population. (United States)

    Baryza, Mary Jo; Hinson, Michelle; Conway, Jennifer; Ryan, Colleen M


    Burns from contact with glass doors of gas fireplaces have been previously reported. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence and severity of this injury in our population. Patients were identified for inclusion in the retrospective chart review study using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS) and our local outpatient database. Criteria for inclusion were burn injuries sustained from contact with fireplace glass doors treated at our pediatric burn center from 2007 through 2011. Fifty children met these criteria, including two children whose burns were caused by electric fireplace glass doors. BSA burned was 1.5 ± 1.5% (mean ± SD), range 0.5 to 10%. Age was 27.2 ± 27.3 months, range 8 months to 13 years. Forty-five children (90%) had hand burns; of these, 18 children had bilateral hand involvement. Facial burns were found in three children (6%), and eight children (16%) had other areas burned. One patient developed cellulitis. Two patients required surgery. Six children (12%) required hospitalization; mean length of stay was 5.8 ± 5 days, range 1 to 5 days. Although the number of inpatient admissions was relatively few, 329 outpatient visits and 309 rehabilitation visits were required for treatment of these children. Nineteen patients (38%) required splints and six patients (12%) required scar treatment with pressure garments. Burns from contact with fireplace glass doors are a recurring problem. Toddlers are most at risk. Directed preventive strategies including parent education, safety warnings, and design modifications such as temperature sensors and barrier screens could be potentially helpful in reducing the incidence of this injury.

  14. Barriers and facilitators to work reintegration and burn survivors' perspectives on educating work colleagues. (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Tram; Lorrain, Mélyssa; Pognon-Hanna, Joe Nayima; Elfassy, Caroline; Calva, Valerie; de Oliveira, Ana; Nedelec, Bernadette


    Work reintegration constitutes a major milestone in the rehabilitation process of adults who have sustained a burn. Research studies with other conditions demonstrated that open, explicit communication about the worker's condition and potential limitations may facilitate this transition. However, the best approach to enable this discussion to occur has yet to be described. The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to investigate burn survivors' and clinicians' perspectives of the barriers and facilitators to work reintegration that could be addressed through education of work colleagues, which information to communicate to the workplace and the most effective method to disseminate this knowledge. Five semi-structured focus groups were conducted with three groups of informants including: (1) 13 burn survivors who had already returned to work; (2) 7 who were planning on returning; and (3) 9 burn care professionals. Qualitative data were inductively analyzed employing constant comparative techniques. Key barriers and facilitators that were identified included residual impairments, individual characteristics, support from the social environment, work accommodations and resources from the healthcare and compensation systems. Burn survivors agreed that return to work efforts were not adequately supported and that education should be provided to work colleagues about the burn and rehabilitation process, but that information on residual impairments should be communicated judiciously as it may be used prejudiciously against those seeking new employment. In the latter case, it is preferable to inform the workplace of their strengths and abilities. Extensive literature demonstrating the benefits of educational programs for the peers and teachers of pediatric burn survivors when they return to school already exists. This study provides evidence that there is a need for a similar process for adult burn survivors returning to work. The educational material must be

  15. [Burns care following a nuclear incident]. (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T


    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries.

  16. Pediatric hand burns: thermal, electrical, chemical. (United States)

    Choi, Mark; Armstrong, Milton B; Panthaki, Zubin J


    Young children often use their hands for exploration of their surroundings, and this often leads to the hand being the primary site of injury. Because of this and many associated factors, burns of the pediatric hands are relatively common, with thermal injuries being the most frequent. Electrical and chemical etiologies contribute a minor portion of the burn injuries in the pediatric population. Some key differences should be considered in the management of hand burns in a pediatric patient versus an adult. In general, minor superficial burns will heal satisfactorily only with topical care. Deeper partial-thickness and full-thickness burns, however, require surgical interventions. Special care should always be taken in the management of electrical and chemical burns because the pathophysiology of these injuries are unique. Treatment of pediatric hand burns should also involve close and thorough follow-up to assess not only for healing and restoration of function of the injury but also for psychologic and emotional trauma.

  17. Lepton number violation, lepton flavor violation, and baryogenesis in left-right symmetric model (United States)

    Borgohain, Happy; Das, Mrinal Kumar


    We did a model independent phenomenological study of baryogenesis via leptogenesis, neutrinoless double beta decay (NDBD) and charged lepton flavor violation (CLFV) in a generic left-right symmetric model (LRSM) where neutrino mass originates from the type I +type II seesaw mechanism. We studied the new physics contributions to NDBD coming from the left-right gauge boson mixing and the heavy neutrino contribution within the framework of LRSM. We have considered the mass of the RH gauge boson to be specifically 5 TeV, 10 TeV, and 18 TeV and studied the effects of the new physics contributions on the effective mass and baryogenesis and compared with the current experimental limit. We tried to correlate the cosmological baryon asymmetry of the universe from resonant leptogenesis with the low energy observables, notably, NDBD and lepton flavor violation with a view to finding a common parameter space where they coexist.

  18. Experimental violation of multipartite Bell inequalities with trapped ions. (United States)

    Lanyon, B P; Zwerger, M; Jurcevic, P; Hempel, C; Dür, W; Briegel, H J; Blatt, R; Roos, C F


    We report on the experimental violation of multipartite Bell inequalities by entangled states of trapped ions. First, we consider resource states for measurement-based quantum computation of between 3 and 7 ions and show that all strongly violate a Bell-type inequality for graph states, where the criterion for violation is a sufficiently high fidelity. Second, we analyze Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of up to 14 ions generated in a previous experiment using stronger Mermin-Klyshko inequalities, and show that in this case the violation of local realism increases exponentially with system size. These experiments represent a violation of multipartite Bell-type inequalities of deterministically prepared entangled states. In addition, the detection loophole is closed.

  19. Burning mouth syndrome: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra G Patil


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by chronic orofacial pain without any mucosal abnormalities or other organic disease. There are numerous synonyms for this ailment such as stomatodynia, stomatopyrosis, glossodynia, glossopyrosis, sore mouth, sore tongue, oral dysesthesia, and scalding mouth syndrome. Patients usually present with burning, stinging, or numbness on the tongue or other areas of oral mucosa. The complex etiology and lack of characteristic signs and symptoms makes the diagnosis difficult. As a result of which managing such patients become a herculean task. Moreover, lack of understanding of the disease leads to misdiagnosis and unnecessary referral of patients. In this article, the authors have described the etiopathogenesis, diagnostic algorithm and management of this confusing ailment.

  20. Repeated expansion in burn sequela. (United States)

    Pitanguy, Ivo; Gontijo de Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Radwanski, Henrique N; Lintz, José Eduardo


    This paper presents a retrospective study of the use of 346 expanders in 132 patients operated at the Ivo Pitanguy Clinic, between the period of 1985 and 2000. The expanders were used in the treatment of burn sequela. In the majority of cases, more than one expander was used at the same time. In 42 patients, repeated tissue expansion was done. The re-expanded flaps demonstrated good distension and viability. With the increase in area at each new expansion, larger volume expanders were employed, achieving an adequate advancement of the flaps to remove the injured tissue. The great advantage of using tissue re-expansion in the burned patient is the reconstruction of extensive areas with the same color and texture of neighboring tissues, without the addition of new scars.

  1. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerneni LK


    growth of human keratinocyte stem cells capable of producing epithelia for large-scale grafting in burns and maintain long-term functionality as a self-renewing tissue. The normal functioning of such an in vitro constructed graft under long-term artificial growth conditions is limited by the difficulties of maintaining the epidermal stem cell compartment. An apparent answer to this problem of stem cell depletion during autograft preparation would be to start with a pure population of progenitor stem cells and derive sustainable autograft from them. We have been aiming to this solution and currently attempting to isolate a pool of epidermal progenitor cells using Mebiol gel, which is a Thermo-Reversible Gelation polymer and was shown by others to support the growth of multi-potent skin-derived epithelial progenitor-1 cells. Additionally, the usefulness of Mebiol gel in maintaining epidermal stem cell compartment without FBS and/or animal origin feeder cells is being investigated by our group.

  2. Flavor violating top decays and flavor violating quark decays of the Higgs boson (United States)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran; Zorik, Anas


    In the Standard Model, flavor violating decays of the top quark and of the Higgs boson are highly suppressed. Further, the flavor violating decays of the top and of the Higgs are also small in MSSM and not observable in current or in near future experiment. In this work, we show that much larger branching ratios for these decays can be achieved in an extended MSSM model with an additional vector-like quark generation. Specifically, we show that in the extended model, one can achieve branching ratios for t → h0c and t → h0u as large as the current experimental upper limits given by the ATLAS and the CMS Collaborations. We also analyze the flavor violating quark decay of the Higgs boson, i.e. h0 → sb¯ + b¯s and h0 → bd¯ + b¯d. Here again, one finds that the branching ratio for these decays can be as large as O(1)%. The analysis is done with inclusion of the CP phases in the Higgs sector, and the effect of CP phases on the branching ratios is investigated. Specifically, the Higgs sector spectrum and mixings are computed involving quarks and mirror quarks, squarks and mirror squarks in the loops consistent with the Higgs boson mass constraint. The resulting effective Lagrangian with inclusion of the vector-like quark generation induce flavor violating decays at the tree level. In the analysis, we also include the experimental constraints from the flavor changing quark decays of the Z boson. The test of the branching ratios predicted could come with further data from LHC13 and such branching ratios could also be accessible at future colliders such as the Higgs factories where the Higgs couplings to fermions will be determined with greater precision.

  3. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns


    Medi Eslani; Alireza Baradaran-Rafii; Asadolah Movahedan; Djalilian, Ali R.


    Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts wit...

  4. Burn Treatment for the Unburned (United States)


    5. Prasad JK, Feller I, Thomson PD: Use of amnion for the treatment of dressing is more rapid in patients with TEN-simple loss of Stevens - Johnson ...dermatologists, increases the risk of infection, Heimbach et al and other pediatricians, neurologists ( phenytoin [Dilantin] is a common authors quite... syndrome . J Trauma 1986;26:945-946. the epidermis is not the equivalent of a burn. As is the case in 6. Halebian PH, Madden MR, Finklestein JL, et al

  5. Parity violation in electron scattering; Violation de parite en diffusion d'electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D


    The elaboration of the electroweak standard model from the discovery of parity violation to the weak neutral current is described in the first chapter. In the second chapter the author discusses the 2 experimental approaches of the parity violation experiments. In the first approach the weak neutral current can be assumed to be well known and can be used as a probe for the hadronic matter. The second approach consists in measuring the weak neutral current between 2 particles with known internal structure in order to test the predictions of the standard model in the low energy range. The chapters 3 and 4 are an illustration of the first approach through the HAPPEx series of experiments that took place in the Jefferson Laboratory from 1998 to 2005. The HAPPEx experiments aimed at measuring the contribution of strange quarks in the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon through the violation of parity in the elastic scattering at forward angles. The last chapter is dedicated to the E158 experiment that was performed at the Slac (California) between 2000 and 2003. The weak neutral current was measured between 2 electrons and the high accuracy obtained allowed the physics beyond the standard model to be indirectly constraint up to a few TeV. (A.C.)

  6. Masses, flavor mix and CP violation; Masses, melange des saveurs et violation de CP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaussard, L


    The author describes the relationships between masses, mixing of flavors and CP violation. This document is divided into 4 chapters: 1) fermions' masses, 2) mixing of flavors and CP violation, 3) beauty physics and 4) neutrino physics. In chapter 1 an attempt is made to explain what is behind the concepts of lepton mass and quark mass. As for neutrinos, the only neutral fermion, Dirac's and Majorana's views are exposed as well as their consequences. Fermion flavors are mixed in the process of mass generation and this mix is responsible for the breaking of CP and T symmetries. In chapter 2 the author shows how the analysis of particle oscillations from neutral mesons (K{sup 0}, D{sup 0}, B{sub d}{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0}) and from neutrinos can shed light on CP violation. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the contribution of beauty physics to the determination of the unitary triangle, through the oscillations of beauty mesons. In chapter 4 the author reviews the experimental results obtained recently concerning neutrino mass and neutrino oscillations and draws some perspectives on future neutrino experiments. (A.C.)

  7. CP violation in bilinear R-parity violation and its consequences for the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheriguene, Asma; Porod, Werner [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik; Liebler, Stefan [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    Supersymmetric models with bilinear R-parity violation (BRpV) provide a framework for neutrino masses and mixing angles to explain neutrino oscillation data. We consider CP violation within the new physical phases in BRpV and discuss their effect on the generation of neutrino masses and the decays of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), being a light neutralino with mass ∝100 GeV, at next-to-leading order. The decays affect the lepton and via sphaleron transitions the baryon asymmetry in the early universe. For a rather light LSP, asymmetries generated before the electroweak phase transition via e.g. the Affleck-Dine mechanism are reduced up to two orders of magnitude, but are still present. On the other hand, the decays of a light LSP themselves can account for the generation of a lepton and baryon asymmetry, the latter in accordance to the observation in our universe, since the smallness of the BRpV parameters allows for an out-of-equilibrium decay and sufficiently large CP violation is possible consistent with experimental bounds from the non-observation of electric dipole-moments.

  8. Epidemiologic evaluation of patients with major burns and recommendations for burn prevention. (United States)

    Ciftçi, Ilhan; Arslan, Kemal; Altunbaş, Zeynep; Kara, Fatih; Yilmaz, Hüseyin


    Burns are an important health problem in our country and in the world. In our study, we aimed to epidemiologically analyze the patients who were hospitalized in a burn unit that serves 3 million individuals in Central Anatolia. Records of 457 patients who had been hospitalized in the burn unit during the period 2008-2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were assessed in terms of gender, age, burn area, burn depth, admission time to the health center, burn region, and factors causing burns. Most (44.6%) of the patients were in the 0-5 age group. Burn surface area was detected as 11.6 +/- 8.5%. Patients had reached the health center in 252.8 +/- 892.5 minutes. While 82.7% of the patients had second degree bums, 17.3% had third degree burns. Most burns were on the extremities (39.6%). The most common burn agent was scalds with hot liquids (54.1%). In our study, children in the 0-5 age group were found to be the most commonly affected group with respect to indoor burns. The basic contributing factor is that children spend more time in the house and are more active. Scalding burns may be prevented when greater care is taken when using hot liquids that may lead to indoor burns. Informing parents on this issue is of first priority.

  9. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano


    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  10. Sustainability Evaluation. (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz


    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  11. The slash-and-burn agriculture: a system in transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Novaes Pedroso Júnior


    Full Text Available Slash-and-burn agriculture has been practiced for thousands of years in the forests around the world, especially in the tropics, where it provides for the livelihood of countless poor rural populations. Characterized by an array of techniques based on crop diversification and shifting land use, this cultivation system has on the utilization of forest decomposing vegetation´s energetic capital its main asset. Many studies claim that slash-and-burn agriculture is sustainable only when performed under conditions of low human demographic density and maintenance or even increase of local biodiversity. However, it is growing in the academic literature, as well as in development debates, the concern regarding the role that this system has been playing in the deforestation of the planet´s tropical forests. This process appears to be closely linked to changes in land use patterns (agricultural intensification and urban and rural demographic growth. On the thread of these concerns, this article presents a critical review of the international and national academic literature on slash-and-burn agriculture. Thus, this review intend to draw a broad scenario of the current academic debate on this issue, as well as to identify the main alternatives strategies proposed to maintain or replace this cultivation system.

  12. Firefighters’ Physical Activity across Multiple Shifts of Planned Burn Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Chappel


    Full Text Available Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a quantify firefighters’ physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods and across planned burn shifts; and (b examine whether firefighters’ activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Time spent sedentary (SED and in light- (LPA, moderate- (MPA and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA were derived using validated cut-points. Multilevel analyses (shift, participant were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models. Firefighters spent the majority of a planned burn shift (average length 10.4 h or 2-h period engaged in LPA (69% and 70%, respectively. No significant associations were observed between SED and physical activity levels between consecutive planned burned shifts or 2-h periods. The physical activity that a firefighter engaged in during one shift (or 2-h period did not subsequently affect their physical activity levels in the subsequent shift (or 2-h period. Further research is needed to establish how workers in physically demanding populations are able to sustain their activity levels over long periods of time.

  13. Chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid. (United States)

    Dahlin, Jakob; Engfeldt, Malin; Svedman, Cecilia; Mowitz, Martin; Zimerson, Erik; Isaksson, Marléne; Hindsén, Monica; Bruze, Magnus


    Trifluoroacetic acid is a very strong carboxylic acid. The acid has been suspected to have similar toxic effects as hydrofluoric acid on skin contact. Hydrofluoric acid is highly toxic, owing to skin penetration by fluoride ions. A spill of hydrofluoric acid on the skin may be fatal. As trifluoroacetic acid contains fluorine, patients with chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid have been given particular attention when treated in the hospital. To gather the known cases of trifluoroacetic acid burns from our department to give an overview of how they were exposed, the clinical presentation, and treatment. Five patients with chemical skin burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid were reviewed with regard to the extent of the burn, treatment, blood samples taken, and systemic effects. The chemical burns reported were limited (burns healed as expected for chemical burns caused by acids. None of the patients showed any symptoms or signs that are typical for hydrofluoric acid burns. Localized chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid should be regarded as being similar to burns from other acids, with the exception of hydrofluoric acid. To our knowledge, there are no indications that trifluoroacetic acid causes the same toxic effects as hydrofluoric acid. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept (United States)

    Menikoff, R.; Shaw, M. S.

    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i) the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t) = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps) = [Nbc(Ps)]-1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t) = ∫t0 D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P) is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  15. Risk factors for kerosene stove explosion burns seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. (United States)

    Ombati, Alex N; Ndaguatha, Peter L W; Wanjeri, Joseph K


    The kerosene stove is a common cooking appliance in lower and middle income households in Kenya and if it explodes, life threatening thermal burn injuries may be sustained by those using the appliance. Women tend to be victims more frequently since traditionally they are the ones who are involved in cooking. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors predisposing to kerosene stove explosion burns seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Forty-eight patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study over a period of 6 months from November 2010 to April 2011 and the data was collected using a structured questionnaire. The analysis, using SPSS version 17.0 was done by associating occurrence of injury to: age, sex, socioeconomic status and level of education of patient. Charts and tables were used to present the results. The mean age of patients who sustained kerosene stove explosion burns was 23.6 years (SD ± 11.7) with the commonest age group being 20-39 years. More females were affected than males by a ratio of 7:3 and ninety two percent of those who sustained these burns were either from poor or lower middle socio-economic class. Stove explosions occurred mainly during cooking and when kerosene refill was being done. Most of the patients (63%) reported having bought kerosene from fuel vendors and almost all explosions were caused by the wick type of stove (98%). Young females from poor socioeconomic background were found to be at a higher risk for kerosene stove explosion burns. The wick stove is a common cause of burns especially when users unwittingly refill it with kerosene when already lit resulting in an explosion. Prevention can be done through evidence based public health education targeting the groups at risk and enactment of relevant laws. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon production on accreting neutron stars in a new regime of stable nuclear burning (United States)

    Keek, L.; Heger, A.


    Accreting neutron stars exhibit Type I X-ray bursts from both frequent hydrogen/helium flashes as well as rare carbon flashes. The latter (superbursts) ignite in the ashes of the former. Hydrogen/helium bursts, however, are thought to produce insufficient carbon to power superbursts. Stable burning could create the required carbon, but this was predicted to only occur at much larger accretion rates than where superbursts are observed. We present models of a new steady-state regime of stable hydrogen and helium burning that produces pure carbon ashes. Hot CNO burning of hydrogen heats the neutron star envelope and causes helium to burn before the conditions of a helium flash are reached. This takes place when the mass accretion rate is around 10 per cent of the Eddington limit: close to the rate where most superbursts occur. We find that increased heating at the base of the envelope sustains steady-state burning by steepening the temperature profile, which increases the amount of helium that burns before a runaway can ensue.

  17. A thematic study of the role of social support in the body image of burn survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie Hodder


    Full Text Available There is evidence that social support is important for the development and mainte- nance of body image satisfaction for people who have sustained burn injuries. This qualitative study explored the specific mechanisms by which social support impacts the body image satisfaction of burn survivors, drawing on nine participants’ in depth accounts. Participants were recruited through a burns unit at a public hospital in South Australia. Interviews were conducted with nine female burn survivors aged between 24 and 65 (mean age 44.6. Participants described their perceptions about their appearance post burn and their social support experiences. Four themes were identified: acceptance, social comparison, talking about appearance concerns, and the gaze of others. Results indicate that for these participants, social support was an important factor in coming to terms with changes in appearance, specifically support that helps to minimise feelings of difference. Unhelpful aspects of social support were also identified included feeling that suffering was being dismissed and resenting the perceived expectation from supports to be positive. Social supports are important to consider in relation to body image for those working with people who have survived burn injuries.

  18. Major burn injuries associated with Christmas celebrations: a 41-year experience from Switzerland. (United States)

    Rohrer-Mirtschink, S; Forster, N; Giovanoli, P; Guggenheim, M


    In Switzerland it is customary to light candles on Christmas trees and advent wreaths. This tradition leads to an increased risk of home fires. We reviewed the records of patients who sustained burn injuries from a lit Christmas tree or advent wreath during the Christmas holidays between January 1971 and January 2012. We treated 28 patients and observed 4 fatalities (mortality rate: 14%). 61% of the patients were male, 39% were female. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6.5 points in the group of the survivors and 10.8 points in the group of the non-survivors. The mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) for survivors was 18.9%, with 14.1% having full thickness burns; for the non-survivors the mean TBSA was 45.2%, with 38% having full thickness burns. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between the survivors and the fatalities concerning the mean total and full thickness burned body surface area (p value 0.009 and 0.012). More than sixty percent of the fires occurred in January and the most severe accidents were seen after January 4th. Despite Christmas decoration-associated fires being relatively uncommon, they tend to cause more serious injuries than regular household fires. We recommend that in countries where it is customary to set up flammable Christmas decorations, state-issued information pamphlets with instructions on fire safety conduct should be distributed.

  19. Use of preputial skin for coverage of post-burn contractures of fingers in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Zaroo


    Full Text Available Objective: Hand burns are common injuries. Children frequently sustain burn injuries, especially to their hands. Contractures are a common sequel of severe burns around joints. The prepuce, or foreskin, has been used as a skin graft for a number of indications. We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of utilising the preputial skin for the management of post-burn contractures of fingers in uncircumcised male children. Materials and Methods: Preputial skin was used for the coverage of released contractures of fingers in 12 patients aged 2-6 years. The aetiology of burns was "Kangri" burn in eight patients and scalding in four patients. Six patients had contracture in two fingers, four patients in one finger, and two patients had contractures in three fingers. Results: None of the patients had graft loss, and all the wounds healed within 2 weeks. All patients had complete release of contractures without any recurrence. Hyperpigmentation of the grafts was observed over a period of time, which was well accepted by the parents. Conclusions: Preputial skin can be used successfully for male children with mild-to-moderate contractures of 2-3 fingers for restoration of the hand function, minimal donor site morbidity.

  20. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.


    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  1. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...

  2. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Abstract. This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-. 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in.

  3. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  4. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich


    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  5. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.


    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  6. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.


    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  7. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine


    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  8. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong


    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  9. Beyond Flint: National Trends in Drinking Water Quality Violations (United States)

    Allaire, M.; Wu, H.; Lall, U.


    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the U.S. represents an emerging challenge. Aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances may increase vulnerability of water systems to quality violations. In the aftermath of Flint, there is a great need to assess the current state of U.S. drinking water quality. How widespread are violations? What are the spatial and temporal patterns in water quality? Which types of communities and systems are most vulnerable? This is the first national assessment of trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. In 2015, 9% of community water systems violated health-related water quality standards. These non-compliant systems served nearly 23 million people. Thus, the challenge of providing safe drinking water extends beyond Flint and represents a nationwide concern. We use a panel dataset that includes every community water system in the United States from 1981 to 2010 to identify factors that lead to regulatory noncompliance. This study focuses on health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act. Lasso regression informed selection of appropriate covariates, while logistic regressions modeled the probability of noncompliance. We find that compliance is positively associated with private ownership, purchased water supply, and greater household income. Yet, greater concentration of utility ownership and violations in prior years are associated with a higher likelihood of violation. The results suggest that purchased water contracts, which are growing among small utilities, could serve as a way to improve regulatory compliance in the future. However, persistence of violations and ownership concentration deserve attention from policymakers. Already, the EPA has begun to prioritize enforcement of persistent violators. Overall, as the revitalization of U.S. water infrastructure becomes a growing priority area, results of this study are intended to inform investment and

  10. Topical and systemic antimicrobial agents in burns. (United States)

    Ollstein, R N; McDonald, C


    Infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in burns. Burn wound infection is defined as burn wound bacterial proliferation in a density equal to or greater than 10(5) bacteria per gram of tissue. Gram-negative bacteria, notably Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as staphylococci and fungal opportunists, have been identified as prominent invaders. Topical and systemic antimicrobial agents are essential adjuncts in the prevention and treatment of burn wound infection. Topical antimicrobial therapy is indicated in all hospitalized burn patients. Short-term use of systemic antimicrobials for prophylaxis and treatment is required in all moderate and major burns, specifically for early prophylaxis, perioperative prophylaxis, and clinical infection. Antimicrobial choice is based on specific patient or environmental bacteriological data.

  11. arXiv Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenik, J.F.


    These notes represent a summary of three lectures on flavour and CP violation, given at the CERNs European School of High Energy Physics in 2014. They cover flavour physics within the standard model, phenomenology of CP violation in meson mixing and decays, as well as constraints of flavour observableson physics beyond the standard model. In preparing the lectures (and consequently this summary) I drew heavily from several existing excellent and exhaustive sets of lecture notes and reviews on flavour physics and CP violation [1]. The reader is encouraged to consult those as well as the original literature for a more detailed study.

  12. Hadronic parity violation in few-body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Girlanda, R. Schiavilla, M. Viviani, A. Kievsky, L.E. Marcucci


    Recent interest, both from experimental and theoretical point of view, on hadronic parity violation is reviewed, with particular emphasis on an effective theory description. After discussing the minimal form of the parity-violating NN contact e ective Lagrangian, we concentrate on the calculation of the neutron spin rotation in vec n - d scattering at zero energy. We find that this observable is sensitive to the long-range component of the parity-violating NN pontential due to the pion exchange, and that it is expected to be one order of magnitude larger than in vec n - p scattering.

  13. Atomic Parity Violation and Related Physics in Ytterbium


    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri Robert


    Atomic parity violation has been observed in the 408 nm 1S0--3D1 forbidden transition of ytterbium. The parity violating amplitude is 8.7(1.4)e-10 ea0, two orders of magnitude larger than in cesium, where the most precise experiments to date have been performed. This is in accordance with theoretical predictions and constitutes the largest atomic parity violating amplitude yet observed. This also opens the way to future measurements of neutron skins and anapole moments by comparing parity-vio...

  14. Maximal violation of Bell inequalities under local filtering. (United States)

    Li, Ming; Qin, Huihui; Wang, Jing; Fei, Shao-Ming; Sun, Chang-Pu


    We investigate the behavior of the maximal violations of the CHSH inequality and Vèrtesi's inequality under the local filtering operations. An analytical method has been presented for general two-qubit systems to compute the maximal violation of the CHSH inequality and the lower bound of the maximal violation of Vértesi's inequality over the local filtering operations. We show by examples that there exist quantum states whose non-locality can be revealed after local filtering operation by the Vértesi's inequality instead of the CHSH inequality.

  15. Search for Charged Lepton Flavour Violation at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Swagata


    Lepton flavour is a conserved quantity in the standard model of particle physics, but it does not follow from an underlying gauge symmetry. After the discovery of neutrino oscillation, it has been established that lepton flavour is not conserved in the neutral sector. Thus the lepton sector is an excellent place to look for New Physics, and in this perspective the Charged Lepton Flavour Violation is interesting. Various extensions of the standard model predict lepton flavour violating decays that can be observed at LHC. This talk presents several searches for lepton flavour violation with data collected by the CMS detector.

  16. Low Energy Lorentz Violation from Modified Dispersion at High Energies. (United States)

    Husain, Viqar; Louko, Jorma


    Many quantum theories of gravity propose Lorentz-violating dispersion relations of the form ω=|k|f(|k|/M⋆), with recovery of approximate Lorentz invariance at energy scales much below M⋆. We show that a quantum field with this dispersion predicts drastic low energy Lorentz violation in atoms modeled as Unruh-DeWitt detectors, for any f that dips below unity somewhere. As an example, we show that polymer quantization motivated by loop quantum gravity predicts such Lorentz violation below current ion collider rapidities.

  17. Discriminating sterile neutrinos and unitarity violation with C P invariants (United States)

    Päs, Heinrich; Sicking, Philipp


    We present a new method to analyze upcoming results in the search for C P violating neutrino oscillations. The C P violating amplitudes Aαβ k j provide parametrization independent observables, which will be accessible by experiments soon. The strong prediction of a unique Aαβ k j (the Jarlskog invariant) in case of the standard three neutrino model does not hold in models with new physics beyond the standard model. Nevertheless there are still correlations among the amplitudes depending on the specific model. Due to these correlations it is possible to reject specific new physics models by determining only 3 of the C P violating amplitudes.

  18. Experimental Design for Testing Local Lorentz Invariance Violations in Gravity (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Fen; Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang


    Local Lorentz invariance is an important component of General Relativity. Testing for Local Lorentz invariance can not only probe the foundation stone of General Relativity but also help to explore the unified theory for General Relativity and quantum mechanics. In this paper, we search the Local Lorentz invariance violation associated with operators of mass dimension d=6 in the pure-gravity sector with short-range gravitational experiments. To enlarge the Local Lorentz invariance violation signal effectively, we design a new experiment in which the constraints of all fourteen violation coefficients may be improved by about one order of magnitude

  19. Micronutrients after burn injury: a review. (United States)

    Nordlund, Megan J; Pham, Tam N; Gibran, Nicole S


    Supplementation of micronutrients after burn injury is common practice in order to fight oxidative stress, support the immune system, and optimize wound healing. Assessing micronutrient status after burn injury is difficult because of hemodilution in the resuscitation phase, redistribution of nutrients from the serum to other organs, and decreases in carrier proteins such as albumin. Although there are many preclinical data, there are limited studies in burn patients. Promising research is being conducted on combinations of micronutrients, especially via the intravenous route.

  20. Infection control in severely burned patients


    Coban, Yusuf Kenan


    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...