Sample records for burning technologia spalovania

  1. Burns (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  2. Burn Wise (United States)

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  3. Burning Feet (United States)

    ... be accompanied by a pins and needles sensation (paresthesia) or numbness, or both. Burning feet may also be referred to as tingling feet or paresthesia. While fatigue or a skin infection can cause ...

  4. Burning issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raloff, J.


    The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy

  5. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H


    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  6. Educational Materials - Burn Wise (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  7. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.


    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  8. Burning Mouth Syndrome (United States)

    ... Care Home Health Info Health Topics Burning Mouth Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a painful, complex condition often described ... or other symptoms. Read More Publications Cover image Burning Mouth Syndrome Publication files Download Language English PDF — Number of ...

  9. Burning issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, C.


    Coal is world`s most abundant source of energy. Turning this potential pollutant into a clean, cost-effective fuel for power production has become a matter for global concern. Some problems and their solutions are highlighted in this article. Environmental problems caused by the giant Mae Moh plant in Thailand were overcome with an extensive retrofit programme that included flue gas desulfurisation systems. For new and smaller coal-fuelled plant, boilers using circulating fluidised bed (CFB) technology provide a cost effective and efficient system which meets environmental standards. A large independent power plant at Colver, Pennsylvania, USA uses CFB technology to burn bituminous gob. AMM and Alstom can provide turnkey packages for coal-fired power plant using a modular concept based on CFB technology. 2 photos.

  10. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome". (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard


    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  11. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  12. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan


    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  13. To burn or not to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, L.


    While taking a match to an oil slick may sound like the making of a chaotic inferno, emergency response specialists say burning may be the most efficient way to remove large oil spills from the ocean's surface. But tests of this technique are being resisted by environmentalists as well as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which has final authority over the matter. The debate over test burning arose most recently in Alaska when a proposal to spill and then ignite 1,000 barrels of crude on the Arctic Ocean this past summer was rejected by the EPA. The EPA didn't object to the technique or to the notion of burning spilled oil. However, it contends that it's not necessary to spill thousands of gallons of oil to conduct tests, and unnecessarily pollute the environment, when plenty of oil is already available from accidental spills. Researchers disagree, claiming they won't be able to use the burning technique on an actual spill until it has been tested in a controlled experiment. Despite such concerns, the Canadian government is going ahead with a test burn off the coast of Newfoundland next year. Faced with a choice of test burning or the kind of shoreline contamination left in the wake of the Exxon Valdez disaster, Environment Canada opts for testing. Learning valuable lessons about rapid oil-spill cleanup is worth the relatively minor risks to the environment that test burning would pose

  14. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus


    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  15. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    . Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context......, The Burning Saints presents a highly original analysis of how mental processes can shape social and religious behaviour....

  16. Burning mouth syndrome


    K A Kamala; S Sankethguddad; S G Sujith; Praveena Tantradi


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to different...

  17. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  18. Burns and military clothing. (United States)

    McLean, A D


    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  19. Tourniquet associated chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuk Yang


    Full Text Available Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

  20. Burns (For Parents) (United States)

    ... small, and have sensitive skin that needs extra protection. Although some minor burns aren't cause for concern and can ... burns, the mildest of the three, are limited to the top layer of skin: Signs ... pain, and minor swelling. The skin is dry without blisters. Healing ...

  1. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  2. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors (United States)

    ... in 2018! Learn More For Loved Ones A burn injury doesn't just impact the survivor. Families ... to support longterm recovery, improve the quality of burn care, and prevent burn injury. Explore articles on ...

  3. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine. (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N


    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kumar Dash


    Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.

  5. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  6. American Burn Association (United States)

    ... burn-related care, prevention, education, and research. Our multidisciplinary membership enhances our ability to work toward common goals with other organizations and educational programs. Membership Being a member of ...

  7. New Fashioned Book Burning. (United States)

    Gardner, Robert


    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  8. Burn-out


    Patricia van Echtelt


    Deze publicatie is alleen elektronisch verkrijgbaar (downloaden van deze site) Burn-out (ofwel: emotionele uitputting) komt relatief vaak voor: ongeveer één op de acht werknemers in Nederland heeft er last van. Het wordt dan ook gezien als een serieus maatschappelijk probleem dat beleidsmatig aandacht vergt. Dit rapport presenteert de resultaten van twee specifieke analyses over burn-out. Ten eerste gaan we na wat het effect is van emotionele uitputting op de loopbaan van werknemers. Ten twee...

  9. Smartphone applications in burns. (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P


    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Burning mouth syndrome


    Zakrzewska, Joanna; Buchanan, John A. G.


    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and met...

  11. Burning mouth syndrome: update


    Cassol Spanemberg, Juliana; Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Ma Eugenia; Jané Salas, Enric; López López, José, 1958-


    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although ...

  12. Burning mouth syndrome


    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E.; Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Kasthuri, M.


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a...

  13. Burning mouth disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Bala


    Full Text Available Burning mouth disorder (BMD is a burning or stinging sensation affecting the oral mucosa, lips and/or tongue, in the absence of clinically visible mucosal lesions. There is a strong female predilection, with the age of onset being approximately 50 years. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. The causes of BMD are multifactorial and remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of burning mouth syndrome (BMS may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The most common sites of burning are the anterior tongue, anterior hard palate and lower lip, but the distribution of oral sites affected does not appear to affect the natural history of the disorder or the response to treatment BMS may persist for many years. This article provides updated information on BMS and presents a new model, based on taste dysfunction, for its pathogenesis.

  14. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P


    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  15. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  16. Biomass burning in Africa: As assessment of annually burned biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.A.; Loudjani, P.; Podaire, A.; Menaut, J.C.


    It is now established that biomass burning is the dominant phenomenon that controls the atmospheric chemistry in the tropics. Africa is certainly the continent where biomass burning under various aspects and processes is the greatest. Three different types of burnings have to be considered-bush fires in savanna zones which mainly affect herbaceous flora, forest fires due to forestation for shifting agriculture or colonization of new lands, and the use of wood as fuel. The net release of carbon resulting from deforestation is assumed to be responsible for about 20% of the CO 2 increase in the atmosphere because the burning of forests corresponds to a destorage of carbon from the biospheric reservoir. The amount of reactive of greenhouse gases emitted by biomass burning is directly proportional, through individual emission factors, to the biomass actually burned. This chapter evaluates the biomass annually burned on the African continent as a result of the three main burning processes previously mentioned

  17. [Surgical treatment of burns : Special aspects of pediatric burns]. (United States)

    Bührer, G; Beier, J P; Horch, R E; Arkudas, A


    Treatment of pediatric burn patients is very important because of the sheer frequency of burn wounds and the possible long-term ramifications. Extensive burns need special care and are treated in specialized burn centers. The goal of this work is to present current standards in burn therapy and important innovations in the treatment of burns in children so that the common and small area burn wounds and scalds in pediatric patients in day-to-day dermatological practice can be adequately treated. Analysis of current literature, discussion of reviews, incorporation of current guidelines. Burns in pediatric patients are common. Improvement of survival can be achieved by treatment in burn centers. The assessment of burn depth and area is an important factor for proper treatment. We give an overview for outpatient treatment of partial thickness burns. New methods may result in better long-term outcome. Adequate treatment of burn injuries considering current literature and guidelines improves patient outcome. Rational implementation of new methods is recommended.

  18. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D


    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  19. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow (United States)

    ... page: // Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...

  20. [Burns in adolescents]. (United States)

    Ortiz Rodríguez, R; Domínguez Amillo, E; Soto Beauregard, C; Díaz González, M; López Gutiérrez, J C; Ros Mar, Z; Tovar Larrucea, J A


    The aim of this study was to know the epidemiology of burns in teenagers. Burn patients over 11 years old admitted in our Institution in the last 10 years were included. Etiology, burn size, hospital stay, quirurgical interventions and long term sequelae were registered. One thousand and eight patients were admitted, 89 were over 11 years (8.8%), 70.7% were boys and 29.3% girls. Fire was the principal agent in 58 cases (65.1%), due to fireworks in 13 (22.4%), alcohol in 7 (12%), explosion of flammable containers (spray) in 4 (6.8%) and gasoline in 3 (5.2%). Fireworks injuries and spray explosions affected face and hand in 88% cases. The median hospital stay was 8 days after admission (1 to 90). 83.1% required surgical treatment with mean of 1.8 +/- 1.4 interventions and 21.3% had long-term sequelaes that required at least one surgical intervention. Fire is the main cause of burns in adolescents. Fireworks injuries represented a quarter of that lesions, and highlights paint spray explosions as new causative agents. Considering the high morbidity in this age group, with permanent functional and aesthetic sequelae, prevention campaigns are needed to reduce such accidents.

  1. Electrical Burns: First Aid (United States)

    ... local emergency number if the source of the burn is a high-voltage wire or lightning. Don't get near high-voltage ... 20 feet (about 6 meters) away — farther if wires are jumping and sparking. Don't move a person with ... breathing Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) Cardiac ...

  2. Burns - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Translations Russian (Русский) Expand Section Burn Care - Русский (Russian) Bilingual ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  3. One Burn, One Standard (United States)


    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Giretzlehner M., Haller H. L., Faucher L. D., Pressman M. A., Salinas J., Jeng J. C., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...AUVA Linz, Austria Lee D. Faucher, MD University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Melissa A. Pressman , PhD Arizona Burn Center Phoenix

  4. Burn Wise Educational Materials for Businesses (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  5. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen (United States)

    Donald A. Perala


    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  6. Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology?


    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.


    Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms re...

  7. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, Donovan S; Morgan, Penelope; Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Hudak, Andrew T


    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  8. Air-freshener burns: a new paradigm in burns etiology? (United States)

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M; Khan, M S; Tiernan, E


    We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  9. ANFO truck burn trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen von, B.; Contestabile, E. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    This report describes the investigation of a tractor-trailer explosion. A truck loaded with 18,000 kg of commercial explosives, of which 13,000 kg was ammonium nitrate with fuel oil (ANFO), caught fire when it struck a rockcut near Walden, Ontario on August 5, 1998. The fire resulted in the detonation of the load. The Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory (CERL) conducted a test program to examine the suitability of existing explosive transportation regulations. Unconfined burns of ANFO were performed. The accident was recreated in two burn trials in an attempt to identify the mechanism that led from fire to detonation. Two full-scale tests were conducted using complete tractor-trailers, each in a jack-knifed position with most of the explosives placed on the ground in front of the trailer. ANFO was used in the first test to determine its response to thermal stimulus and the likelihood of detonation or explosion. The second test involved ANFO, a slurry and an emulsion. Thermocouples and video cameras were used to observe the burning characteristics of the explosives, the truck and its components. The explosives burned steadily for 80 minutes in each test. Many truck components, such as tires, spring brake chambers and the fuel tank ruptured violently due to the heat. Although no detonation occurred in the test trials, it was concluded that under favourable conditions, many truck components, might produce fragments with enough energy to initiate heat-sensitized explosives. It was suggested that a fragment impact caused the detonation at Walden. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  10. Fungal Burn Wound Infection (United States)


    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes ( Mucor , Rhizopus).6 reduce...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and...sensitivity reports, and the patient’s sue, including one patient who required a hip disarticulation response. to control an invasive Mucor burn wound

  11. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging (United States)

    Krezdorn, N.; Limbourg, A.; Paprottka, F.J.; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R.; Vogt, P.M


    Summary Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours. PMID:28149254

  12. Burning mouth syndrome: etiology. (United States)

    Cerchiari, Dafne Patrícia; de Moricz, Renata Dutra; Sanjar, Fernanda Alves; Rapoport, Priscila Bogar; Moretti, Giovana; Guerra, Marja Michelin


    The Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is an oral mucosa pain--with or without inflammatory signs--without any specific lesion. It is mostly observed in women aged 40-60 years. This pain feels like a moderate/severe burning, and it occurs more frequently on the tongue, but it may also be felt at the gingiva, lips and jugal mucosa. It may worsen during the day, during stress and fatigue, when the patient speaks too much, or through eating of spicy/hot foods. The burning can be diminished with cold food, work and leisure. The goal of this review article is to consider possible BMS etiologies and join them in 4 groups to be better studied: local, systemic, emotional and idiopathic causes of pain. Knowing the different diagnoses of this syndrome, we can establish a protocol to manage these patients. Within the local pain group, we must investigate dental, allergic and infectious causes. Concerning systemic causes we need to look for connective tissue diseases, endocrine disorders, neurological diseases, nutritional deficits and salivary glands alterations that result in xerostomia. BMS etiology may be of difficult diagnosis, many times showing more than one cause for oral pain. A detailed interview, general physical examination, oral cavity and oropharynx inspection, and lab exams are essential to avoid a try and error treatment for these patients.

  13. Foot burns: epidemiology and management. (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T


    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  14. Community integration after burn injuries. (United States)

    Esselman, P C; Ptacek, J T; Kowalske, K; Cromes, G F; deLateur, B J; Engrav, L H


    Evaluation of community integration is a meaningful outcome criterion after major burn injury. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was administered to 463 individuals with major burn injuries. The CIQ results in Total, Home Integration, Social Integration, and Productivity scores. The purposes of this study were to determine change in CIQ scores over time and what burn injury and demographic factors predict CIQ scores. The CIQ scores did not change significantly from 6 to 12 to 24 months postburn injury. Home integration scores were best predicted by sex and living situation; Social Integration scores by marital status; and Productivity scores by functional outcome, burn severity, age, and preburn work factors. The data demonstrate that individuals with burn injuries have significant difficulties with community integration due to burn and nonburn related factors. CIQ scores did not improve over time but improvement may have occurred before the initial 6-month postburn injury follow-up in this study.

  15. Burning Mouth Syndrome


    Renton, Tara


    Bruning mouth syndrome is a burning sensation of one or several oral soft tissues with the tongue being affected the most, and may be associated with some other symptoms outside the oral structures. The oral symptoms may appear suddenly or gradually within a time course, may be persistent throughout the day or get more intense as the day progresses in a complaint-free patient in the morning. The syndrome affects mostly women and those over 50 years old, and usually caused by multiple factors....

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: An update


    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage; Jaishankar Homberhalli Puttabuddi; Purnachandrarao Naik Nunsavath


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by an oral burning sensation in the absence of any organic disorders of the oral cavity. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and is characterized by an intense burning type of pain, preferably on the tongue and in other areas of the ...

  17. Burning mouth syndrome: Present perspective


    Ramesh Parajuli


    Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of obvious visible mucosal lesions. Patient presenting with the burning mouth sensation or pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice which poses a challenge to the treating clinician. Its exact etiology remains unknown which probably has multifactorial origin. It often affects middle or old age women and it may be accompanied by xerostomia and alte...

  18. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde


    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  19. Novel burn device for rapid, reproducible burn wound generation. (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Dunham, D M; Supp, D M; Sen, C K; Powell, H M


    Scarring following full thickness burns leads to significant reductions in range of motion and quality of life for burn patients. To effectively study scar development and the efficacy of anti-scarring treatments in a large animal model (female red Duroc pigs), reproducible, uniform, full-thickness, burn wounds are needed to reduce variability in observed results that occur with burn depth. Prior studies have proposed that initial temperature of the burner, contact time with skin, thermal capacity of burner material, and the amount of pressure applied to the skin need to be strictly controlled to ensure reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to develop a new burner that enables temperature and pressure to be digitally controlled and monitored in real-time throughout burn wound creation and compare it to a standard burn device. A custom burn device was manufactured with an electrically heated burn stylus and a temperature control feedback loop via an electronic microstat. Pressure monitoring was controlled by incorporation of a digital scale into the device, which measured downward force. The standard device was comprised of a heat resistant handle with a long rod connected to the burn stylus, which was heated using a hot plate. To quantify skin surface temperature and internal stylus temperature as a function of contact time, the burners were heated to the target temperature (200±5°C) and pressed into the skin for 40s to create the thermal injuries. Time to reach target temperature and elapsed time between burns were recorded. In addition, each unit was evaluated for reproducibility within and across three independent users by generating burn wounds at contact times spanning from 5 to 40s at a constant pressure and at pressures of 1 or 3lbs with a constant contact time of 40s. Biopsies were collected for histological analysis and burn depth quantification using digital image analysis (ImageJ). The custom burn device maintained both its internal

  20. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients (United States)


    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  1. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.


    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  2. In-situ burning of Orimulsion : small scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.


    This study examined the feasibility of burning Orimulsion. In-situ burning has always been a viable method for cleaning oil spills on water because it can effectively reduce the amount of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of recovered oil. Orimulsion, however, behaves very differently from conventional oil when it is spilled because of its composition of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. In-situ burning of this surfactant-stablized oil-in-water emulsion has never been seriously considered because of the perception that Orimulsion could not be ignited, and if it could, ignition would not be sustained. In this study, burn tests were conducted on 3 scales in a Cleveland Open Cup apparatus of 5 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm diameters. Larger scale burns were conducted in specially built pans. All tests were conducted on salt water which caused the bitumen to separate from the water. The objective was to determine if sufficient vapours could be generated to ignite the Orimulsion. The study also measured if a sustained flame would result in successful combustion. Both objectives were successfully accomplished. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the Orimulsion in the specially designed pan for large scale combustion. Quantitative removal of Orimulsion was achieved in all cases, but in some burns it was necessary to re-ignite the Orimulsion. It was noted that when Orimulsion burns, some trapped water droplets in the bitumen explode with enough force to extinguish a small flame. This did not occur on large-scale burns. It was concluded that the potential for successful in-situ burning increases with size. It was determined that approximately 1 mm in thickness of diesel fuel is needed to ignite a burn. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  3. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  4. Animal Models in Burn Research (United States)

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G


    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  5. Stem Cells in Burn Eschar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; Vlig, M.; van Milligen-Kummer, F.J.; de Vries, S.I.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.


    This study compares mesenchymal cells isolated from excised burn wound eschar with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal fibroblasts in their ability to conform to the requirements for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A population of multipotent stem cells in burn eschar could be an

  6. Burning mouth syndrome: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is characterized by an oral burning sensation in the absence of any organic disorders of the oral cavity. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and is characterized by an intense burning type of pain, preferably on the tongue and in other areas of the oral mucosa. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. This article provides an overview of the literature on this syndrome with special reference to the etiological factors, clinical aspects, diagnostic criteria that should be followed and the therapeutic management with reference to the most recent studies.

  7. Fuel burning and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunan, Kristin


    Emission of soot particles and other air pollution indoors constitutes a considerable health hazard for a major part of the population in many developing countries, one of them being China. In these countries problems relating to poverty are the most important risk factors, undernourishment being the dominating reason. Number four on the list of the most serious health hazards is indoor air pollution caused by burning of coal and biomass in the households. Very high levels of soot particles occur indoors because of incomplete combustion in old-fashioned stoves and by use of low quality fuel such as sticks and twigs and straw and other waste from agriculture. This leads to an increase in a series of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. It has been pointed out in recent years that emissions due to incomplete combustion of coal and biomass can contribute considerably to climate changes

  8. Pediatric burns: Kids' Inpatient Database vs the National Burn Repository. (United States)

    Soleimani, Tahereh; Evans, Tyler A; Sood, Rajiv; Hartman, Brett C; Hadad, Ivan; Tholpady, Sunil S


    Burn injuries are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and National Burn Repository (NBR) are two large national databases that can be used to evaluate outcomes and help quality improvement in burn care. Differences in the design of the KID and NBR could lead to differing results affecting resultant conclusions and quality improvement programs. This study was designed to validate the use of KID for burn epidemiologic studies, as an adjunct to the NBR. Using the KID (2003, 2006, and 2009), a total of 17,300 nonelective burn patients younger than 20 y old were identified. Data from 13,828 similar patients were collected from the NBR. Outcome variables were compared between the two databases. Comparisons revealed similar patient distribution by gender, race, and burn size. Inhalation injury was more common among the NBR patients and was associated with increased mortality. The rates of respiratory failure, wound infection, cellulitis, sepsis, and urinary tract infection were higher in the KID. Multiple regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders demonstrated similar mortality rate but significantly longer length of stay for patients in the NBR. Despite differences in the design and sampling of the KID and NBR, the overall demographic and mortality results are similar. The differences in complication rate and length of stay should be explored by further studies to clarify underlying causes. Investigations into these differences should also better inform strategies to improve burn prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı


    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  10. Assault by burning in Jordan (United States)

    Haddadin, W.


    Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757

  11. Hair bleaching and skin burning


    Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.


    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  12. A burning question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Garth


    Converting unwanted biomass to fuel pellets four times denser than wood has local companies in Queensland, Australia excited. The well-tested 'old technology' of burning wood is going through a renaissance. There is a growing focus on producing high- density biomass pellets from feedstock that would otherwise be considered waste. Their uniform size reduces transport costs, the energy content varies, about 4-5MWh/tonne, compared to 2.8MWh/t for brown coal or 8.3MWh/t for black coal. The biomass estimates from sugarcane, other agricultural wastes and wood wastes suggest Australia has huge biomass resources, but whether or not Australia's political settings see the potential fulfilled is yet to be seen. Altus Renewables recently disclosed plans to build a biofuel pelletisation plant at Queensland's largest sawmill. Altus are very interested in the European market, the world's leading pellet consuming region, where according to the IEA, biomass represents 65% of the renewables. Cheap power provided by waste biomass could potentially power biomass converters, desalination plants, or even pump water inland to arid regions.

  13. Burning mouth syndrome. (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K; Woda, Alain


    Objective To review the clinical entity of primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS), its pathophysiological mechanisms, accurate new diagnostic methods and evidence-based treatment options, and to describe novel lines for future research regarding aetiology, pathophysiology, and new therapeutic strategies. Description Primary BMS is a chronic neuropathic intraoral pain condition that despite typical symptoms lacks clear clinical signs of neuropathic involvement. With advanced diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing of small somatosensory and taste afferents, neurophysiological recordings of the trigeminal system, and peripheral nerve blocks, most BMS patients can be classified into the peripheral or central type of neuropathic pain. These two types differ regarding pathophysiological mechanisms, efficacy of available treatments, and psychiatric comorbidity. The two types may overlap in individual patients. BMS is most frequent in postmenopausal women, with general population prevalence of around 1%. Treatment of BMS is difficult; best evidence exists for efficacy of topical and systemic clonazepam. Hormonal substitution, dopaminergic medications, and therapeutic non-invasive neuromodulation may provide efficient mechanism-based treatments for BMS in the future. Conclusion We present a novel comprehensive hypothesis of primary BMS, gathering the hormonal, neuropathic, and genetic factors presumably required in the genesis of the condition. This will aid in future research on pathophysiology and risk factors of BMS, and boost treatment trials taking into account individual mechanism profiles and subgroup-clusters.

  14. Lawn mower-related burns. (United States)

    Still, J; Orlet, H; Law, E; Gertler, C


    Lawn mower-related injuries are fairly common and are usually caused by the mower blades. Burns may also be associated with the use of power lawn mowers. We describe 27 lawn mower-related burn injuries of 24 male patients and 3 female patients. Three of the patients with burn injuries were children. Burn sizes ranged from 1% to 99% of the total body surface area (mean, 18.1%). Two of the patients died. The hospital stay ranged from 1 day to 45 days. Twenty-six injuries involved gasoline, which is frequently associated with refueling accidents. Safety measures should involve keeping children away from lawn mowers that are being used. The proper use and storage of gasoline is stressed.

  15. Modern management of paediatric burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2010 ... an area of stasis where sluggish circulation and release of inflammatory mediators will .... way to estimate medium to large burns in patients older than 10 .... on day 1 decreases stress hormone release, improves nitrogen ...

  16. Preventing Burns in Your Home (United States)

    ... clothing when you handle chemicals. Store chemicals, including gasoline, out of the reach of children. To prevent ... mild burn? What is the treatment for smoke inhalation? Resources American Red Cross, Home Fire Safety Centers ...

  17. Prescribed burning: a topical issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovio G


    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a promising technique for the prevention of forest fires in Italy. The research deepened several ecological and operative aspects. However, legal issues need to be thoroughly investigated.

  18. Burning mouth syndrome: Clinical dilemma?


    Kanchan R Patil; R S Sathawane


    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic orofacial burning pain condition usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings that affects many adults worldwide, yet its etiology and treatment remain poorly understood. Though it has been associated with numerous oral and systemic conditions, there has been no clear consensus on its etiology, pathogenesis and treatment. As a result, patients with inexplicable oral complaints are often referred from one health care professional to anoth...

  19. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master


    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  1. Treatment of Palm Burns in Children


    Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.


    The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...

  2. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  3. Impact of a Newly Implemented Burn Protocol on Surgically Managed Partial Thickness Burns at a Specialized Burns Center in Singapore. (United States)

    Tay, Khwee-Soon Vincent; Chong, Si-Jack; Tan, Bien-Keem


    This study evaluated the impact of a newly implemented protocol for superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns which involves early surgery and rapid coverage with biosynthetic dressing in a specialized national burns center in Singapore. Consecutive patients with 5% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns injury admitted to the Burns Centre at the Singapore General Hospital between August and December 2014 for surgery within 48 hours of injury were prospectively recruited into the study to form the protocol group. Comparable historical cases from the year 2013 retrieved from the burns center audit database were used to form the historical control group. Demographics (age, sex), type and depth of burns, %TBSA burnt, number of operative sessions, and length of stay were recorded for each patient of both cohorts. Thirty-nine burns patients managed under the new protocol were compared with historical control (n = 39) comparable in age and extensiveness of burns. A significantly shorter length of stay (P burns was observed in the new protocol group (0.74 day/%TBSA) versus historical control (1.55 day/%TBSA). Fewer operative sessions were needed under the new protocol for burns 10% or greater TBSA burns (P protocol for surgically managed burns patients which involves early surgery and appropriate use of biosynthetic dressing on superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns. Clinically, shorter lengths of stay, fewer operative sessions, and decreased need for skin grafting of burns patient were observed.

  4. Comparing the reported burn conditions for different severity burns in porcine models: a systematic review. (United States)

    Andrews, Christine J; Cuttle, Leila


    There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e.g. temperature and duration of exposure). This review aims to determine whether a pooled analysis of these studies can provide insight into the burn materials and conditions required to create burns of a specific severity. A systematic review of 42 porcine burn studies describing the depth of burn injury with histological evaluation is presented. Inclusion criteria included thermal burns, burns created with a novel method or material, histological evaluation within 7 days post-burn and method for depth of injury assessment specified. Conditions causing deep dermal scald burns compared to contact burns of equivalent severity were disparate, with lower temperatures and shorter durations reported for scald burns (83°C for 14 seconds) compared to contact burns (111°C for 23 seconds). A valuable archive of the different mechanisms and materials used for porcine burn models is presented to aid design and optimisation of future models. Significantly, this review demonstrates the effect of the mechanism of injury on burn severity and that caution is recommended when burn conditions established by porcine contact burn models are used by regulators to guide scald burn prevention strategies. © 2017 Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Nasri-Heir


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts. (United States)

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  7. Telemedicine and burns: an overview. (United States)

    Atiyeh, B; Dibo, S A; Janom, H H


    Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency.

  8. Introduction to burning plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu


    The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles, the critical plasma Q-value for the thermal instability, and the Cherenkov's emission are discussed. The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles is large even in DT burning plasma. The primary role of fusion-produced energetic charged particles is the heating of fuel plasma. If the charged particle heating is large, burning may be thermally unstable. A zero dimensional analysis shows that the critical plasma Q-values for this thermal instability are nearly 5 for DT burning plasma of 14 keV and 1.6 for D-He 3 burning plasma of 60 keV. These critical plasma Q-values are small as compared to that required for commercial reactors. Then, some methods of burning-control should be introduced to fusion plasma. Another feature of energetic charged particles may be Cherenkov's emission of various waves in fusion plasma. The relationship between this micro-instability and transport phenomena may be the important problem to be clarified. The fusion-produced energetic charged particles have large Larmor radii, and they may have effects on balooning mode instability. (Kato, T.)

  9. Effects of burn location and investigator on burn depth in a porcine model. (United States)

    Singer, Adam J; Toussaint, Jimmy; Chung, Won Taek; Thode, Henry C; McClain, Steve; Raut, Vivek


    In order to be useful, animal models should be reproducible and consistent regardless of sampling bias, investigator creating burn, and burn location. We determined the variability in burn depth based on biopsy location, burn location and investigator in a porcine model of partial thickness burns. 24 partial thickness burns (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm each) were created on the backs of 2 anesthetized pigs by 2 investigators (one experienced, one inexperienced) using a previously validated model. In one of the pigs, the necrotic epidermis covering each burn was removed. Five full thickness 4mm punch biopsies were obtained 1h after injury from the four corners and center of the burns and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome for determination of burn depth by a board certified dermatopathologist blinded to burn location and investigator. Comparisons of burn depth by biopsy location, burn location and investigator were performed with t-tests and ANOVA as appropriate. The mean (SD) depth of injury to blood vessels (the main determinant of burn progression) in debrided and non-debrided pigs pooled together was 1.8 (0.3)mm, which included 75% of the dermal depth. Non-debrided burns were 0.24 mm deeper than debrided burns (Plocations, in debrided burns. Additionally, there were also no statistical differences in burn depths from midline to lateral in either of these burn types. Burn depth was similar for both investigators and among biopsy locations. Burn depth was greater for caudal locations in non-debrided burns and overall non-debrided burns were deeper than debrided burns. However, burn depth did not differ based on investigator, biopsy site, and medial-lateral location. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ramos, J.; Schultz, J.; Nevins, W.N.


    A new reduced size ITER-RC superconducting tokamak concept is proposed with the goals of studying burn physics either in an inductively driven standard tokamak (ST) mode of operation, or in a quasi-steady state advanced tokamak (AT) mode sustained by non-inductive means. This is achieved by reducing the radiation shield thickness protecting the superconducting magnet by 0.34 m relative to ITER and limiting the burn mode of operation to pulse lengths as allowed by the TF coil warming up to the current sharing temperature. High gain (Q≅10) burn physics studies in a reversed shear equilibrium, sustained by RF and NB current drive techniques, may be obtained. (author)

  11. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  12. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks (United States)

    Hill, M. A.; Stacey, W. M.


    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamak reactors, in particular fusion-fission hybrid reactors, e.g. the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor. We are developing a burning plasma dynamics code to explore various aspects of burn control, with the intent to identify feedback mechanisms that would prevent power excursions. This code solves the coupled set of global density and temperature equations, using scaling relations from experimental fits. Predictions of densities and temperatures have been benchmarked against DIII-D data. We are examining several potential feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instability density limits, iii) MHD instability limits, iv) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement, v) modifications to the radial current profile, vi) ``divertor choking'' and vii) Type 1 ELMs. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-00ER54538, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  13. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts


    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also rep...

  14. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients]. (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P


    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p diet was very good, and only mild complications such as diarrhoea developed in two patients. Enteral nutrition is a suitable nutritional support method for patients with

  15. Principles of Burn Pain Management. (United States)

    James, Dominika Lipowska; Jowza, Maryam


    This article describes pathophysiology of burn injury-related pain and the basic principles of burn pain management. The focus is on concepts of perioperative and periprocedural pain management with extensive discussion of opioid-based analgesia, including patient-controlled analgesia, challenges of effective opioid therapy in opioid-tolerant patients, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The principles of multimodal pain management are discussed, including the importance of psychological counseling, perioperative interventional pain procedures, and alternative pain management options. A brief synopsis of the principles of outpatient pain management is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Air-freshener burns: A new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umran Sarwar


    Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  17. Epidemiology of Burn Injury and Demography of Burn Care Facilities (United States)


    epidemiologic surveillance, vide the nursing care required by an exten- microbiology support is required for diagno-v sively burned patient is one of the...MA. Pittsburgh bur study. 28. Purdue GF, Hunt JL, Prescott PR. Child abuse bynig an iandnci o, suspiciro JA Traumarg 1988 t Pittsburgh and Allegheny

  18. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.


    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  19. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swithenbank, Jim; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida; Pourkashanian, Mohamed


    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 o C and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by

  20. Astronaut observations of global biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.A.; Nelson, R.


    One of the most fundamental inputs for understanding and modeling possible effects of biomass burning is knowledge of the size of the area burned. Because the burns are often very large and occur on all continents (except Antarctica), observations from space are essential. Information is presented in this chapter on another method for monitoring biomass burning, including immediate and long-term effects. Examples of astronaut photography of burning during one year give a perspective of the widespread occurrence of burning and the variety of biological materials that are consumed. The growth of burning in the Amazon region is presented over 15 years using smoke as a proxy for actual burning. Possible climate effects of smoke palls are also discussed

  1. Reliability enhancement through optimal burn-in (United States)

    Kuo, W.


    A numerical reliability and cost model is defined for production line burn-in tests of electronic components. The necessity of burn-in is governed by upper and lower bounds: burn-in is mandatory for operation-critical or nonreparable component; no burn-in is needed when failure effects are insignificant or easily repairable. The model considers electronic systems in terms of a series of components connected by a single black box. The infant mortality rate is described with a Weibull distribution. Performance reaches a steady state after burn-in, and the cost of burn-in is a linear function for each component. A minimum cost is calculated among the costs and total time of burn-in, shop repair, and field repair, with attention given to possible losses in future sales from inadequate burn-in testing.

  2. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Protect the Ones You Love: Child Injuries are Preventable Note: Javascript is disabled ... ways you can help protect the children you love from burns. Key Prevention Tips To prevent burns ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    community is encouraged to study the epidemiology of burns since this important ... CONCLUSION The incidence and mortality of burn injury has remained high in this .... they are a group at risk. ... epidemiology and the compliance factors in.

  4. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical procedures in acute burns can be broadly divided into four groups: ablative (tangential or fascial ... tissue oedema due to extravasation of plasma into the interstitium. Fluid replacement will worsen the oedema, ... include airway distortion, pulmonary dysfunction, difficult vascular access, rapid blood loss, problematic ...

  5. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya


    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  6. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause (United States)

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun


    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  7. Burning effigies with Bakhtinian laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göttke, F.


    The hanging or burning of effigies as an expression of dissent is a well-established genre of playful political protest. It is enacted in a variety of ways, accessing the conventions of various traditional rituals and social practices, and can function either as a progressive force demanding change,

  8. Prescribed burning for understory restoration (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt


    Because the longleaf ecosystem evolved with and is adapted to frequent fire, every 2 to 8 years, prescribed burning is often useful for restoring understory communities to a diverse ground layer of grasses, herbs, and small shrubs. This restoration provides habitat for a number of plant and animal species that are restricted to or found mostly in longleaf pine...

  9. The treatment of extensively burned patents and β irradiational injury skin burn patients with irradiated pigskin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhongyi; Lu Xingan; Jing Ling; Qi Qiang


    Obvious therapeutic effects achieved by the covering of irradiation sterilized pigskin on burn wounds, escarectomized 3rd degree burn wounds β injured burns are discussed. The article also describes the manufacture processes of irradiated pigskins and the selection of surgical treatments of various burns. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  10. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  11. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue. (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W


    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  12. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol


    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Silicon Burning. II. Quasi-Equilibrium and Explosive Burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hix, W.R.; Thielemann, F.


    Having examined the application of quasi-equilibrium to hydrostatic silicon burning in Paper I of this series, we now turn our attention to explosive silicon burning. Previous authors have shown that for material that is heated to high temperature by a passing shock and then cooled by adiabatic expansion, the results can be divided into three broad categories, incomplete burning, normal freezeout, and α-rich freezeout, with the outcome depending on the temperature, density, and cooling timescale. In all three cases, we find that the important abundances obey quasi-equilibrium for temperatures greater than approximately 3x10 9 K, with relatively little nucleosynthesis occurring following the breakdown of quasi-equilibrium. We will show that quasi-equilibrium provides better abundance estimates than global nuclear statistical equilibrium, even for normal freezeout, and particularly for α-rich freezeout. We will also examine the accuracy with which the final nuclear abundances can be estimated from quasi-equilibrium. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  14. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.


    As a significant source of atmospheric gases, biomass burning must be addressed as a major environmental problem. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing and conversion, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The editor discusses the history of biomass burning and provides an overview of the individual chapters

  15. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S


    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  16. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  17. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem. (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S


    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  19. [Burns care following a nuclear incident]. (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T


    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries.

  20. Method for burning radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Akinori; Tejima, Takaya.


    Purpose: To completely process less combustible radioactive wastes with no excess loads on discharge gas processing systems and without causing corrosions to furnace walls. Method: Among combustible radioactive wastes, chlorine-containing less combustible wastes such as chlorine-containing rubbers and vinyl chlorides, and highly heat generating wastes not containing chloride such as polyethylene are selectively packed into packages. While on the other hand, packages of less combustible wastes are charged into a water-cooled jacket type incinerator intermittently while controlling the amount and the interval of charging so that the temperature in the furnace will be kept to lower than 850 deg C for burning treatment. Directly after the completion of the burning, the packed highly heat calorie producing wastes are charged and subjected to combustion treatment. (Yoshihara, H.)

  1. Burning mouth syndrome: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra G Patil


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by chronic orofacial pain without any mucosal abnormalities or other organic disease. There are numerous synonyms for this ailment such as stomatodynia, stomatopyrosis, glossodynia, glossopyrosis, sore mouth, sore tongue, oral dysesthesia, and scalding mouth syndrome. Patients usually present with burning, stinging, or numbness on the tongue or other areas of oral mucosa. The complex etiology and lack of characteristic signs and symptoms makes the diagnosis difficult. As a result of which managing such patients become a herculean task. Moreover, lack of understanding of the disease leads to misdiagnosis and unnecessary referral of patients. In this article, the authors have described the etiopathogenesis, diagnostic algorithm and management of this confusing ailment.

  2. Burning Phosphorus under Water Safely (United States)

    Taylor, Larry C.


    A safer method for demonstrating the burning of white phosphorous under water is described. This demonstration uses 3% hydrogen peroxide solution and manganese dioxide as the oxygen source, eliminating the use of potentially explosive potassium chlorate. The oxygen generation is manually controlled by means of a stopcock on the dropping funnel. The apparatus has been designed to provide a most spectacular display, especially in the dark, lasting an hour or longer if desired, and eliminates the noxious phosphorous odor.

  3. Method of burning petrochemical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sado, I


    This invention concerns a method of burning wastes such as polyvinyl chloride or other synthetic resin products and rubbers, in which wastes are burned in a nearly smokeless and odorless state. The method is characterized by a process by which petrochemical waste products are subjected to a spontaneous combustion in a casserole state in a closed combustion room in such a way that no air is supplied whatever, and subsequently the gas so generated is sent successively in an adequate amount into a separately installed second combustion room where it is reburnt at a high temperature of more than 1000 C by a jet flame from the oil burners mounted inside the combustion room. Usually, petrochemical products emanate black smoke of Ringelmann concentration of more than five and a strong odor, but in this method, particularly in the case of polyvinyl chloride the exhaust smoke has a Ringelmann smoke concentration of less than one and is almost odorless because the plastic is completely gasified by the spontaneous combustion and completely burned at 1300 to 1400/sup 0/C with oil and air in the second combustion room. When the exhaust smoke is passed through a neutralization tank to remove the chloride compounds in the smoke, the damaging contribution of the exhaust gas or smoke to the secondary pollution can be completely eliminated.

  4. Radioactive implications from coal burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.; Manolopoulou, M.; Charalambous, S.


    Lignites burning in the Greek Coal Power Plants (CPP) contain naturally occurring radionuclides mainly arising from the uranium series. Radium-226 concentrations in lignites burning in the three Coal Power Plants of the 3.02 GW energy centre, the greatest in Greece (Valley of Ptolemais, North Greece), varied from about 30 to 132 Bq kg -1 (average 65.5 Bq kg -1 . About 1.3 % of 226 Ra is discharged to the environment in particulate form - fly ash - by the stacks of thermal power stations, burning coal at a rate 14.3 Mt (GH y) -1 . The collective effective dose equivalent (EDE) commitment to the population 44400 living in the region of these plants, due to inhalation was estimated to be 0.13 man Sv y -1 , that is an order of magnitude higher than that recommended for such a population. Doses from inhaled radon and radon progeny might cause an excess of 3-7 cancer deaths this year. (author)

  5. Development of continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code MVP-BURN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Makoto


    Burn-up calculations based on the continuous energy Monte Carlo method became possible by development of MVP-BURN. To confirm the reliably of MVP-BURN, it was applied to the two numerical benchmark problems; cell burn-up calculations for High Conversion LWR lattice and BWR lattice with burnable poison rods. Major burn-up parameters have shown good agreements with the results obtained by a deterministic code (SRAC95). Furthermore, spent fuel composition calculated by MVP-BURN was compared with measured one. Atomic number densities of major actinides at 34 GWd/t could be predicted within 10% accuracy. (author)

  6. Burns (United States)

    ... regularly. Teach children about fire safety and the danger of matches and fireworks. Keep children from climbing ... injuries of the lungs. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Burns (United States)

    ... putting a child in the bathtub. Cover unused electric outlets with safety caps, and replace damaged, frayed or brittle electrical cords. Keep fire extinguishers on every floor of your house, especially in the kitchen, and know how to use them. Do not ...

  8. Training and burn care in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamania Shobha


    Full Text Available Burn care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame burns. Burns can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame burns, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural areas. Strategies for prevention and training of burn team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the burns managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention.

  9. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria. (United States)

    Archibong, A E; Antia, U E; Udosen, J


    In a ten year retrospective study of burns in children in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, the main causes were hot water, hot soup or oil (56.6%) involving children mostly in the one to three year age group. The relative safety of the home environment seen in other forms of paediatric trauma is not observed in burns in children. A changing pattern of burns in children has emerged within the region with naked flames/bush fire coming second and affecting 22.7% of the children. Chemical burns hitherto a rare occurrence is now frequent because of the storage of caustic soda and acids in living rooms by soap making parents. Burns affecting the perineum, axilla and buttocks are difficult to keep clean and frequently lead to infections, with associated increased morbidity. Causes of childhood burns are largely preventable requiring active social/medical education and public enlightenment campaigns on the various methods of prevention.

  10. Maternal burn-out: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Séjourné, N; Sanchez-Rodriguez, R; Leboullenger, A; Callahan, S


    Maternal burn-out is a psychological, emotional and physiological condition resulting from the accumulation of various stressors characterised by a moderate but also a chronic and repetitive dimension. Little research has focused on this syndrome. The current study aims to assess maternal burn-out rate and to identify factors associated with this state of exhaustion. 263 French mothers aged between 20 and 49 years answered five scales quantifying maternal burn-out, perceived social support, parental stress, depression and anxiety symptoms and history of postnatal depression. About 20% of mothers were affected by maternal burn-out. The main factors related to maternal burn-out were having a child perceived as difficult, history of postnatal depression, anxiety, satisfaction of a balance between professional and personal life and parental stress. This research shows the need for further work on maternal burn-out to better understand and prevent this syndrome.

  11. Explosive hydrogen burning in novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiescher, M.; Goerres, J.; Thielemann, F.K.; Ritter, H.


    Recent observations (nova CrA 81 and Aql 82) reported large enhancements of element abundances beyond CNO nuclei in nova ejecta, which still wait for a clear theoretical explanation. Attempts to interprete these findings include scenarios like nova events on a O-Ne-Mg white dwarf or nuclear processing which enables the transfer of CNO material to heavier nuclei. In the present study we included all available nuclear information on proton-rich unstable nuclei, to update thermo-nuclear reaction rates in explosive hydrogen burning. They are applied in a systematic analysis of explosive hydrogen burning for a variety of temperature conditions, appropriate to nova explosions. We find that (a) for temperatures T>2 10 8 K, pre-existing material in Ne, Al, or Mg can be transferred to heavier nuclei following the flow pattern of a r(apid) p(roton-capture) process (b) for T> or approx.3.5 10 8 K CNO matter can be processed to heavier nuclei (in accordance with previous findings). On the basis of these results it seems unlikely that nova Aql 82 (which shows strong carbon and oxygen enrichment together with heavier elements) can be explained by a nova event on a bare O-Ne-Mg white dwarf but is rather a result of burning with T> or approx.3.5 10 8 K. An application to existing nova models shows a reduced 26 Al production, when compared to earlier predictions. Both conclusions, however, have to be verified by complete nova calculations which include the improved nuclear physics input, presented here. (orig.)

  12. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Perenlei Enkhbaatar, MD., PhD...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our recent findings demonstrate that burn injury significantly depleted stores of vitamin E in adipose tissue of children by nearly...oxidative stress. The objectives of our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to

  13. In-Situ Burn Gaps Analysis (United States)


    This Report) UNCLAS//Public 20. Security Class (This Page) UNCLAS//Public 21. No of Pages 76 22. Price UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | Merrick...surveillance and spotting techniques/equipment to keep responders in the heaviest oil concentrations where their operation to skim , burn, or disperse...Offshore Oil Skim And Burn System For Use With Vessels Of Opportunity. UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | Merrick, et al. Public | June 2015 In-Situ Burn Gaps

  14. Fire-fighting burning oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, Herbert; Risk, Stewart.


    A method of extinguishing burning oil wells is presented which involves dispensing liquid nitrogen to the burning site to prevent or inhibit oxygen from fuelling the flames. To carry out the method a remotely operated vehicle is described which is provided with a source of liquid nitrogen and an articulated deployment boom capable of supplying the liquid nitrogen to the site of a burning oil well. (Author)

  15. Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Cha, Y.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hassanein, A.M.; Kim, S.; Majumdar, S.; Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.


    Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options

  16. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  17. High burn rate solid composite propellants (United States)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  18. Management of acid burns: experience from Bangladesh. (United States)

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Olga, Loren; Peck, Michael; Morselli, Paolo G; Salek, A J M


    Acid burn injuries in Bangladesh primarily occur as a result of intentional attacks although there are incidences of accidental acid burns in industry, on the street, and at home. A total of 126 patients with acid burns, 95 from attacks and 31 from accidents, were studied from July 2004 to December 2012. A diagnosis of acid burn was made from history, physical examination and in some cases from chemical analysis of the patients' clothing. Alkali burns were excluded from the study. In the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, we applied a slightly different protocol for management of acid burns, beginning with plain water irrigation of the wound, which effectively reduced burn depth and the requirement of surgical treatment. Application of hydrocolloid dressing for 48-72 h helped with the assessment of depth and the course of treatment. Early excision and grafting gives good results but resultant acid trickling creates a marble cake-like appearance of the wound separated by the vital skin. Excision with a scalpel and direct stitching of the wounds are often a good option. Observation of patients on follow-up revealed that wounds showed a tendency for hypertrophy. Application of pressure garments and other scar treatments were given in all cases unless the burn was highly superficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)


    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  20. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline


    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...... patients. The most highly recommended guidelines provided clear and accurate recommendations for the nursing and medical staff on pain management in burn patients. We recommend the use of a validated appraisal tool such as the AGREE instrument to provide more consistent and evidence-based care to burn...

  1. Mouse Model of Burn Wound and Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus


    The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr) a depres......The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr...

  2. Suicide by burning: epidemiological and clinical profiles. (United States)

    Theodorou, Panagiotis; Phan, Vu T Q; Weinand, Christian; Maegele, Marc; Maurer, Christoph A; Perbix, Walter; Leitsch, Sebastian; Lefering, Rolf; Spilker, Gerald


    Self-immolation constitutes a rare form of suicide in developed countries, though it accounts for unique injury characteristics in the burn intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to present the epidemiological and clinical features of patients burned during a suicidal attempt seen in a North Rhine-Westphalia burn intensive care unit (BICU). To address this aim, we undertook a 21-year retrospective study involving patients with thermal injuries admitted to the largest burn unit in Germany. A total of 125 suicide-related burn victims were identified in the study period (9.4%). Comparing the self-immolation group with the rest burn patient cohort, suicide victims were more likely to be single and to act under the influence of alcohol. The suicidal group had a larger extent of burns, higher incidence of inhalation injury, required more surgical procedures, catecholamines, blood transfusions, and a longer BICU stay. Their clinical course was complicated by prolonged intubation period, higher rate of multiple drug-resistant bacteria acquisition and sepsis, leading to a higher mortality rate. Although the proportion of self-immolation victims among all burned patients is not high, the markedly higher severity of their burns and their poorer quality of outcomes makes them an important clinical subgroup for further study.

  3. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza


    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  4. Electrical burns of the abdomen. (United States)

    Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ritesh


    A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  5. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava


    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome: Clinical dilemma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan R Patil


    Full Text Available Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS is a chronic orofacial burning pain condition usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings that affects many adults worldwide, yet its etiology and treatment remain poorly understood. Though it has been associated with numerous oral and systemic conditions, there has been no clear consensus on its etiology, pathogenesis and treatment. As a result, patients with inexplicable oral complaints are often referred from one health care professional to another without effective management having significant emotional impact on patients. As the dental profession expands its scope of care to oral medicine and geriatrics, BMS will be more effectively diagnosed and managed by these dental surgeons. Hence, they should be more involved in evaluation and management of these patients. The present article provides updated information on BMS including possible etiological factors and current treatment options, although data on the effectiveness of these treatment modalities remain limited. Recently researchers found that treatment with a familiar nutritional supplement- lipoic acid- is of remarkable benefit with minimal adverse effects. ALA (alpha-lipoic acid may be the effective treatment modality in management of BMS.

  7. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  8. Amniotic membrane for burn trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaluddin Zainol; Hasim Mohammad


    Amniotic membranes are derived from human placentae at birth. They have two layers mainly the amniotic and the chorionic surfaces which are separated by a thin layer of connective tissues. The two layers are separated during procurement, the placenta and the chorionic side are discarded and the amnion membranes are then further processed. Amnion membranes are normally procured from placentae which are normally free of infections, i.e; the mothers are antenatally screened for sexually transmitted diseases or AlDs related diseases. Intrapartum the mother should not be having chorioamnionitis or jaundice. Sometimes the amniotic membranes are acquired from fresh elective caeserian sections. After processing, the amniotic membranes are packed in two layers of polypropylene and radiated with cobalt 60 at a dose of about 25 kGy. The amniotic membranes are clinically used to cover burn surfaces especially effective for superficial or partial thickness burns. The thin membranes adhered well to the trauma areas and peeled off automatically by the second week. No change of dressing were necessary during these times because of the close adherence, there were less chance of external contamination or infections of these wounds. Due to their flexibility they are very useful to cover difference contours of the human body for example the face, body, elbows or knees. However our experience revealed that amniotic membranes are not useful for third degree bums because the membranes dissolves by the enzymes present in the wounds

  9. Comparison of heat transfer and soil impacts of air curtain burner burning and slash pile burning (United States)

    Woongsoon Jang; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Han-Sup Han


    We measured soil heating and subsequent changes in soil properties between two forest residue disposal methods: slash pile burning (SPB) and air curtain burner (ACB). The ACB consumes fuels more efficiently and safely via blowing air into a burning container. Five burning trials with different fuel sizes were implemented in northern California, USA. Soil temperature...

  10. Ceruloplasmin and Hypoferremia: Studies in Burn and Non-Burn Trauma Patients (United States)


    ceruloplasmin; ferroxidase; iron status; oxidant stress; burn; trauma 1. Introduction Iron is an essential element for life that facilitates...899–906. 45. Shakespeare , P.G. Studies on the serum levels of iron, copper and zinc and the urinary excretion of zinc after burn injury. Burns Incl

  11. Burns education for non-burn specialist clinicians in Western Australia. (United States)

    McWilliams, Tania; Hendricks, Joyce; Twigg, Di; Wood, Fiona


    Burn patients often receive their initial care by non-burn specialist clinicians, with increasingly collaborative burn models of care. The provision of relevant and accessible education for these clinicians is therefore vital for optimal patient care. A two phase design was used. A state-wide survey of multidisciplinary non-burn specialist clinicians throughout Western Australia identified learning needs related to paediatric burn care. A targeted education programme was developed and delivered live via videoconference. Pre-post-test analysis evaluated changes in knowledge as a result of attendance at each education session. Non-burn specialist clinicians identified numerous areas of burn care relevant to their practice. Statistically significant differences between perceived relevance of care and confidence in care provision were reported for aspects of acute burn care. Following attendance at the education sessions, statistically significant increases in knowledge were noted for most areas of acute burn care. Identification of learning needs facilitated the development of a targeted education programme for non-burn specialist clinicians. Increased non-burn specialist clinician knowledge following attendance at most education sessions supports the use of videoconferencing as an acceptable and effective method of delivering burns education in Western Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Prescribed burning in the South: trends, purpose, and barriers (United States)

    Terry K. Haines; Rodney L. Busby; David A. Cleaves


    The results of a survey of fire management officials concerning historical and projected prescribed burning activity in the South are reported. Prescribed burning programs on USDA Forest Service and private and State-owned lands are described in terms of area burned by ownership and State, intended resource benefits, barriers to expanded burning, and optimum burning...

  13. Myocardial Autophagy after Severe Burn in Rats (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng


    Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe burn. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-burn in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface area 3rd degree burns. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-burn, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-burn cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-burn, occurring in 0.008 ± 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 ± 0.005% by 12 h post-burn. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-burn, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe burns and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-burn, which may contribute to post-burn cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction. PMID:22768082

  14. In-situ burning: NIST studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.


    In-situ burning of spilled oil has distinct advantages over other countermeasures. It offers the potential to convert rapidly large quantities of oil into its primary combustion products, carbon dioxide and water, with a small percentage of other unburned and residue byproducts. Because the oil is converted to gaseous products of combustion by burning, the need for physical collection, storage, and transport of recovered fluids is reduced to the few percent of the original spill volume that remains as residue after burning. Burning oil spills produces a visible smoke plume containing smoke particulate and other products of combustion which may persist for many kilometers from the burn. This fact gives rise to public health concerns, related to the chemical content of the smoke plume and the downwind deposition of particulate, which need to be answered. In 1985, a joint Minerals Management Service (MMS) and Environment Canada (EC) in-situ burning research program was begun at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This research program was designed to study the burning of large crude oil spills on water and how this burning would affect air quality by quantifying the products of combustion and developing methods to predict the downwind smoke particulate deposition. To understand the important features of in-situ burning, it is necessary to perform both laboratory and mesoscale experiments. Finally, actual burns of spilled oil at sea will be necessary to evaluate the method at the anticipated scale of actual response operations. In this research program there is a continuing interaction between findings from measurements on small fire experiments performed in the controlled laboratory environments of NIST and the Fire Research Institute (FRI) in Japan, and large fire experiments at facilities like the USCG Fire Safety and Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama where outdoor liquid fuel burns in large pans are possible

  15. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J


    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  16. Gas fireplace contact burns in young children. (United States)

    Zettel, Julie C; Khambalia, Amina; Barden, Wendy; Murthy, Trisha; Macarthur, Colin


    Contact burns from domestic appliances are common in young children. Recently, gas fireplaces have been recognized as a potential cause of contact burns in young children. We sought to quantify the frequency of gas fireplace contact burns in young children, to identify the etiology of contact, to describe the clinical presentation, and to describe clinical outcomes. Children with gas fireplace contact burn injuries presenting to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (1999-2002) were identified using three data sources: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program Database, the Burn Unit Registry, and the Rehabilitation Services Database. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were collected on all children. During the 4-year study period, 27 children presented to the hospital because of a gas fireplace contact burn (approximately 9% of all contact burns). The median age of the children was 14 months (range, 8-36 months), with 16 boys (59%). Most children were burned in their own home. With regard to etiology, 10 children (37%) lost their balance near the fireplace, 2 (7%) walked too close to the glass front, and 8 (30%) touched the glass front out of curiosity. Almost half (44%) of the children burned the palms and digits of both hands. The median total burn surface area was 1% (range, 0.2-2.5%). In total, 30% of children were admitted to hospital, and 11% required skin grafts. All children had full wound closure after 4 to 43 days. Given the etiology of these burns (loss of balance or curiosity), passive prevention, such as barriers or changes in the composition of glass panels, may be the most effective approach to combat them.

  17. Suicidal burns in Samarkand burn centers and their consequences. (United States)

    Shakirov, B M; Ahmedov, Y M; Hakimov, E A; Tagaev, K R; Karabaev, B H


    Suicide is a global public health problem, particularly in Asia where few countries with large populations have high suicide rates accounting for the majority of the world's suicides. During a 14-year period, 76 individuals, aged 17 to 66 years, committed suicide from 1995 to 2008 and were included in this report. Data was collected on each patient including, age, sex, place of injury, patient occupation, accommodation, psychiatric illness, suicidal motives, flammable substances used, place of burn, season of the year, and total body surface area (TBSA) burnt. Most suicidal cases (55 out of 76) had a history of depressive episodes and emotional unstable disorders, and 18 of them had a known history of psychiatric illness. In 5 cases alcohol intoxication was present at the moment of suicide, and 3 patients had chronic alcohol dependence together with basic psychiatric disease. It is also evident from this study that the causes of suicide in females are mainly socio-economical and psychological.

  18. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigford, T H [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  19. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.


    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  20. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food? (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won


    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  1. 7 CFR 29.6004 - Burn. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burn. 29.6004 Section 29.6004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6004 Burn. The duration of combustion or length of time that a tobacco...

  2. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G. Jeschke


    Full Text Available Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p  0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  3. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci


    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  4. Do burn centers provide juvenile firesetter intervention? (United States)

    Ahrns-Klas, Karla S; Wahl, Wendy L; Hemmila, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C


    Juvenile firesetting activity accounts for a significant number of annual injuries and property damage, yet there is sparse information on intervention in the burn literature. To quantify juvenile firesetting intervention (JFSI) in burn centers, a 23-question survey was sent to all directors listed in the American Burn Association Burn Care Facilities Directory.Sixty-four out of 112 (57%) surveys were returned. This represents responses from 79% of currently verified burn centers. When queried on interventions provided to a juvenile firesetter admitted to their unit, 38% report having their own JFSI program and 38% refer the child to fire services. Two thirds of units without a JFSI program treat pediatric patients. Units that previously had a JFSI program report lack of staffing and funding as most common reasons for program discontinuation. Almost all (95%) stated that a visual tool demonstrating legal, financial, social, future, and career ramifications associated with juvenile firesetting would be beneficial to their unit. Many burn units that treat pediatric patients do not have JFSI and rely on external programs operated by fire services. Existing JFSI programs vary greatly in structure and method of delivery. Burn centers should be involved in JFSI, and most units would benefit from a new video toolkit to assist in providing appropriate JFSI. Study results highlight a need for burn centers to collaborate on evaluating effectiveness of JFSI programs and providing consistent intervention materials based on outcomes research.

  5. Air Pollution Episodes Associated with Prescribed Burns (United States)

    Hart, M.; Di Virgilio, G.; Jiang, N.


    Air pollution events associated with wildfires have been associated with extreme health impacts. Prescribed burns are an important tool to reduce the severity of wildfires. However, if undertaken during unfavourable meteorological conditions, they too have the capacity to trigger extreme air pollution events. The Australian state of New South Wales has increased the annual average area treated by prescribed burn activities by 45%, in order to limit wildfire activity. Prescribed burns need to be undertaken during meteorological conditions that allow the fuel load to burn, while still allowing the burn to remain under control. These conditions are similar to those that inhibit atmospheric dispersion, resulting in a fine balance between managing fire risk and managing ambient air pollution. During prescribed burns, the Sydney air shed can experience elevated particulate matter concentrations, especially fine particulates (PM2.5) that occasionally exceed national air quality standards. Using pollutant and meteorological data from sixteen monitoring stations in Sydney we used generalized additive model and CART analyses to profile the meteorological conditions influencing air quality during planned burns. The insights gained from this study will help improve prescribed burn scheduling in order to reduce the pollution risk to the community, while allowing fire agencies to conduct this important work.

  6. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  7. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud


    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  8. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generated in central processing unit (CPU), graphics processing unit, hard drive, internal ... change its position. Discussion ... Suzuki, et al. reported that the critical temperature for superficial burn was 37.8°C, for deep dermal burns 41.9°C and ... The laptop should be placed on a hard surface and not on soft surfaces like.

  9. Radiator scald burns: a preventable hazard. (United States)

    Benmeir, P; Rosenberg, L; Sagi, A; Ben-Yakar, Y


    During the last 13 years 80 patients have been admitted to our department suffering from burns caused by a vehicle's radiator. Ten of them were deeply burned and had to be treated surgically. The preventive aspect of this injury is emphasized.

  10. Creating a social work link to the burn community: a research team goes to burn camp. (United States)

    Williams, Nancy R; Reeves, Patricia M; Cox, Ellen R; Call, Serena B


    Social work faculty and graduate students conducted focus groups with 52 burn-injured adolescents from three burn camps to explore perceptions of their camp experience. Three themes emerged from data analysis that suggest burn camps play an important role in participants' lives. Camp is a place where burn-injured adolescents: (1) feel "normal" and accepted; (2) acquire insight in regard to self and meaning in life; and (3) gain confidence, increase self-esteem, and develop empathy. This project highlights how the use of qualitative research methods with grassroots organizations such as burn camps can serve as a link to greater social work involvement with this community.

  11. Satisfaction with life after burn: A Burn Model System National Database Study. (United States)

    Goverman, J; Mathews, K; Nadler, D; Henderson, E; McMullen, K; Herndon, D; Meyer, W; Fauerbach, J A; Wiechman, S; Carrougher, G; Ryan, C M; Schneider, J C


    While mortality rates after burn are low, physical and psychosocial impairments are common. Clinical research is focusing on reducing morbidity and optimizing quality of life. This study examines self-reported Satisfaction With Life Scale scores in a longitudinal, multicenter cohort of survivors of major burns. Risk factors associated with Satisfaction With Life Scale scores are identified. Data from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) Burn Model System (BMS) database for burn survivors greater than 9 years of age, from 1994 to 2014, were analyzed. Demographic and medical data were collected on each subject. The primary outcome measures were the individual items and total Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) scores at time of hospital discharge (pre-burn recall period) and 6, 12, and 24 months after burn. The SWLS is a validated 5-item instrument with items rated on a 1-7 Likert scale. The differences in scores over time were determined and scores for burn survivors were also compared to a non-burn, healthy population. Step-wise regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of SWLS scores at different time intervals. The SWLS was completed at time of discharge (1129 patients), 6 months after burn (1231 patients), 12 months after burn (1123 patients), and 24 months after burn (959 patients). There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in terms of medical or injury demographics. The majority of the population was Caucasian (62.9%) and male (72.6%), with a mean TBSA burned of 22.3%. Mean total SWLS scores for burn survivors were unchanged and significantly below that of a non-burn population at all examined time points after burn. Although the mean SWLS score was unchanged over time, a large number of subjects demonstrated improvement or decrement of at least one SWLS category. Gender, TBSA burned, LOS, and school status were associated with SWLS scores at 6 months

  12. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch ... learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. ...

  13. Burn Incidence and Treatment in the U.S. (United States)

    ... News and Activities Media Contact Us Disaster Response Burn Incidence Fact Sheet Home / Who We Are / Media / ... hospitals with specialized services provided by “burn centers.” Burn Injuries Receiving Medical Treatment: 486,000 This general ...

  14. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs (United States)

    ... Safety Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs ... to learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special ...

  15. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs ... to learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special ...

  16. [Factor XIII deficiency in burns]. (United States)

    Burkhardt, H; Zellner, P R; Möller, I


    In 34 patients with severe burn injuries platelets, fibrinogen, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and factor XIII were measured daily. Half of the patients were administered 15 000 IE of heparin per 24 hours. In the first 4 days there was a rapid fall of factor XIII to a value of approximately 30%. Values remained very low during the whole observation period of up to 20 days. However, in patients treated with heparin, values tended to be 10--15% higher. After an initial decline on the tenth day, the platelets had risen to the lowest normal level. Platelets were identical in both groups. The causes for the changes in these haemostasis parameters, their significance, and possible consequences of therapy are discussed.

  17. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani


    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  18. Microbiological Monitoring and Proteolytic Study of Clinical Samples From Burned and Burned Wounded Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toema, M.A.; El-Bazza, Z.E.; El-Hifnawi, H.N.; Abd-El-Hakim, E.E.


    In this study, clinical samples were collected from 100 patients admitted to Burn and Plastic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt, over a period of 12 months. The proteolytic activity of 110 clinical samples taken from surfaces swabs which taken from burned and burned wounded patients with different ages and gender was examined. Screening for the proteolytic activity produced by pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients was evaluated as gram positive Bacilli and gram negative bacilli showed high proteolytic activity (46.4%) while 17.9% showed no activity. The isolated bacteria proved to have proteolytic activity were classified into high, moderate and weak. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients and showing proteolytic activity were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaeanae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluoresces.

  19. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.


    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  20. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting. (United States)

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered.

  1. Infections in critically ill burn patients. (United States)

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P


    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. [Burns, new challenges to take on]. (United States)

    Galí-Llàcer, Rosa; Sena-Fernández, Beatriz; Leyva-Moral, Juan Manuel


    This article concerns a transversal descriptive study which shows the characteristics of burns treated in a Primary Health Care Center in an urban environment in Barcelona from 19 July 2005 unti 11 August 2007 (N=93). Patients younger than 15 were excluded from this study. 88% (82; CI of 95% 81,47-94,59) of the burns treated were caused by a thermal agent. Kitchen cooking oil ranks first as the cause of burns (24; 27%, CI of 95% 17,99-36,01). 70% of the burns studied had signs of superficial skin damage (65, CI of 95% 60,70-79,30). 61% (57; CI of 95% 51,70-70,30) of these burns were located on upper extremities The average recorded body surface burned was 0.0076% (median = 0,005%, range = 0,0001-0,5000%). The greatest number of wounds were observed among men aged 31 to 45 (17%; 16; CI of 95% 9,38-24,62). Educational health programs which focus on prevention of, and first aid care for, burns are needed. Studies like this one may prove useful when starting preventive or educational strategies.

  3. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-tao Yang


    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  4. In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L.


    In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs

  5. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients. (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M


    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Global biomass burning. Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.


    Biomass burning is a significant source of atmospheric gases and, as such, may contribute to global climate changes. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The chapters in this volume include the following topics: remote sensing of biomass burning from space;geographical distribution of burning; combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; impacts of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions. A total of 1428 references are cited for the 63 chapters. Individual chapters are indexed separately for the data bases

  7. Post-burn scars and scar contractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Arun


    Full Text Available The mortality and morbidity from burns have diminished tremendously over the last six to seven decades. However, these do not truly reflect whether the victim could go back to society as a useful person or not and lead a normal life because of the inevitable post-burn scars, contractures and other deformities which collectively have aesthetic and functional considerations. This article gives an overview of the post-burn scars and scar contractures, especially their prevention, minimisation and principles of management.

  8. Myroides Species in a Paediatric Burn Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Soydan


    Full Text Available Members of the genus Myroides are non-motile, Gram negative bacteria that are mostly found in environmental sources such as soil and water. They are not a part of human flora. For a long time they were evaluated as low grade opportunistic pathogens causing infections in immunocompromised patients whereas a few life-threatening infections were reported in immunocompetent individuals due to Myroides species. The child having a 64% of total body surface area burn was admitted to the burn unit. Myroides spp. was isolated first in urine culture then in blood culture. This is the first time Myroides spp. is reported in a paediatric patient with serious burn.

  9. TIGER Burned Brightly in JAMIC (United States)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi


    The Transition From Ignition to Flame Growth Under External Radiation in 3D (TIGER- 3D) experiment, which is slated to fly aboard the International Space Station, conducted a series of highly successful tests in collaboration with the University of Hokkaido using Japan's 10-sec JAMIC drop tower. The tests were conducted to test engineering versions of advanced flight diagnostics such as an infrared camera for detailed surface temperature measurements and an infrared spectroscopic array for gas-phase species concentrations and temperatures based on detailed spectral emissions in the near infrared. Shown in the top figure is a visible light image and in the bottom figure is an infrared image at 3.8 mm obtained during the microgravity tests. The images show flames burning across cellulose samples against a slow wind of a few centimeters per second (wind is from right to left). These flow velocities are typical of spacecraft ventilation systems that provide fresh air for the astronauts. The samples are ignited across the center with a hot wire, and the flame is allowed to spread upwind and/or downwind. As these images show, the flames prefer to spread upwind, into the fresh air, which is the exact opposite of flames on Earth, which spread much faster downwind, or with the airflow, as in forest fires.

  10. Outcome after burns: an observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring. (United States)

    van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther


    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p burned (p  0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  11. Wound management and outcome of 595 electrical burns in a major burn center. (United States)

    Li, Haisheng; Tan, Jianglin; Zhou, Junyi; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jiaping; Peng, Yizhi; Wu, Jun; Luo, Gaoxing


    Electrical burns are important causes of trauma worldwide. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics, wound management, and outcome of electric burns. This retrospective study was performed at the Institute of Burn Research of the Third Military Medical University during 2013-2015. Data including the demographics, injury patterns, wound treatment, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. A total of 595 electrical burn patients (93.8% males) were included. The average age was 37.3 ± 14.6 y, and most patients (73.5%) were aged 19∼50 years. Most patients (67.2%) were injured in work-related circumstances. The mean total body surface area was 8.8 ± 11.8% and most wounds (63.5%) were full-thickness burns. Operation times of high-voltage burns and current burns were higher than those of low-voltage burns and arc burns, respectively. Of the 375 operated patients, 83.2% (n = 312) underwent skin autografting and 49.3% (n = 185) required skin flap coverage. Common types of skin flaps were adjacent (50.3%), random (42.2%), and pedicle (35.7%). Amputation was performed in 107 cases (18.0%) and concentrated on the hands (43.9%) and upper limbs (39.3%). The mean length of stay was 42.9 ± 46.3 d and only one death occurred (0.2%). Current burns and higher numbers of operations were major risk factors for amputation and length of stay, respectively. Electrical burns mainly affected adult males with occupational exposures in China. Skin autografts and various skin flaps were commonly used for electric burn wound management. More standardized and effective strategies of treatment and prevention are still needed to decrease amputation rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    ; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...... report of a burned patient with CS in the English language literature. CS is also highly contagious and may lead to a nosocomial outbreak. Furthermore, CS seems to have a detrimental impact on the burned patient's course of treatment. A scabicide treatment is necessary to guarantee successful treatment...

  13. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Kehlet, Henrik


    and secondary hyperalgesia. RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant increases in erythema (P burn did not differ between dexamethasone and placebo treatments (P >.6). There were no significant......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn...... model of acute inflammatory pain in humans. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo was administered on 2 separate study days. Two hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn...

  14. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Pruitt, Basil A


    Mass casualty burn disasters are potentially challenging, in part because the majority of health care providers are inexperienced in the care of thermally injured patients and in part because of the...

  15. Using Pig skin to treat Burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katebe, R.


    The paper discusses the use of irradiated Pig Skin for the treatment of Burns, traumatic dermal denudations and poorly healing Decubitus ulcers. It gives a brief history of Pig skin use its characteristics

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: an enigmatic disorder. (United States)

    Javali, M A


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa, often unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other areas of mouth. This disorder is one of the most common, encountered in the clinical practice. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin; however the exact underlying etiology remains uncertain. This article discusses several aspects of BMS, updates current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and describes the clinical features as well as the diagnosis and management of BMS patients.

  17. Treatment of burn injuries with keratinocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syring, C.; Maenig, H.J.; Von Versen, R.; Bruck, J.


    The German Institute for Cell and Tissue Replacement (DIZG) provides burned patients with skin and amnion for a temporary wound closure. Severely burned patients (>60% BSA for adults, >40% BSA for children) were supplied with autologous and allogenic grafts from cultured keratinocytes. The keratinocyte culture is done under GMP-conditions using the method of Rheinwald and Green. The 3T3 fibroblasts were irradiated with 60 Gy and used as feeder cells to produce keratinocyte sheets within 3 weeks. In this time up to 6.000 cm are available. The sheets were harvested by detachment with dispase (1,2 U/ml), fixed to gauze and transported to the hospital. The DIZG has a 3 years experience in the treatment of burns with keratinocyte sheets. The sheets were transplanted to patients in different hospitals, the total transplanted area is about 30.000 cm. This paper describes the experiences with ten severely burned patients treated with keratinocyte sheet

  18. Past In-Situ Burning Possibilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshioka, Gary


    This study evaluated the feasibility of conducting in-situ burning (ISB) using current technology on post 1967 major oil spills over 10,00 barrels in North America and over 50,00 barrels in South America and Europe...

  19. Ash and burn control through fishbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.


    The thermal alphas will accumulate in the center of the ignited thermonuclear plasma in the long pulse experiments. This accumulation increases the Z{sub eff} leading to increased synchrotron losses and decreases the effective fuel density which reduces the power output. Also the ignited plasma is burn-unstable and its temperature is expected to increase above the design point until a stable equilibrium is reached at a higher temperature. This higher operating temperature is not expected to be beneficial. Thus we are faced with the dual problem of ash accumulation and thermonuclear burn instability in the steadily burning tokamak plasma. So some means of controlling them is desirable. Several control schemes for both problems have been proposed. But it is felt that we need alternatives with more desirable characteristics. In this paper, we explore the use of fishbones' as possible scheme that will achieve the dual purpose of ash and burn control. 3 refs.

  20. Risk factors for mortality in burn children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Rosanova


    Conclusions: In this series of burn children age ≤ 4 years, Garces index score 4, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, mechanical ventilation and graft requirement were identified as independent variables related with mortality.

  1. Predicting postoperative haemoglobin changes after burn surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burn surgery is associated with significant peri-operative haemoglobin. (Hb) changes. ... operative factors predictive of an Hb <7 g/dL on the first day after surgery, which were ..... clinical judgement, taking into consideration the risk associated.

  2. Treatment of radiation burns, 1987 [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    After the accident at Chernobyl, patients with various degrees of radiation burns were given treatment at Moscow hospital No. 6. The video shows the radiation injuries as well as therapy and treatment in detail

  3. Burning nuclear wastes in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldner, H.W.; Howard, W.M.


    A study was made up of actinide burn-up in ICF reactor pellets; i.e. 14 Mev neutron fission of the very long-lived actinides that pose storage problems. A major advantage of pellet fuel region burn-up is safety: only milligrams of highly toxic and active material need to be present in the fusion chamber, whereas blanket burn-up requires the continued presence of tons of actinides in a small volume. The actinide data tables required for Monte Carlo calculations of the burn-up of /sup 241/Am and /sup 243/Am are discussed in connection with a study of the sensitivity to cross section uncertainties. More accurate and complete cross sections are required for realistic quantitative calculations. 13 refs

  4. Prescribed Burn at Pine Bluff Arsenal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peacock, Lance


    .... Abandoned fields grew up in pine or in some cases were planted in pine during the 1930's. The burning of farm stubble and woodlands was a common practice in Arkansas throughout this time period...

  5. Decontamination of burns contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vykouril, L.


    The suitability of various solutions for the decontamination of burnt skin and their efficiency were tested by experiments on rats. Tested was the decontamination of undisturbed skin, second degree skin burns and third degree skin burns. Decontamination solutions used included: distilled water, jodonal (an aqueous solution of iodine, ethoxylated nonylphenols, the copolymer of ethylene oxide with propylene oxide, and phosphoric acid) and a decontamination mixture of Sapon, Komplexon (trade names of detergents) and sodium hexametaphosphate. Decontamination efficiency was 68.4% for second degree burns and 47.1% for third degree burns. Most effective was the decontamination solution with an efficiency of 72%; the efficiency of jodonal was 67% and of water - 54%. Jodonal is the most suitable: in addition, it acts as a disinfectant and antiseptic. (M.D.)

  6. Galactorrhea and amenorrhea in burn patients. (United States)

    Goyal, Navin; Gore, Madhuri A; Shankar, Ravi


    Galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea, although uncommonly reported in post-burn patients, is a complex problem to treat. Patient is reluctant to volunteer history of these symptoms, unless asked specifically. To study profile of adult female patients with galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea in post burn period. A prospective study of all adult female patients presenting with or detected to have galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea in post burn period was conducted over 6 month's period. Detailed clinical examination, estimation of LH, FSH, Prolactin levels and X-ray of skull was done in all patients. The data collected was analyzed. Patients with hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea were treated with Bromocriptine for 3 weeks to 3 months. In all patients with amenorrhea, pregnancy was ruled out by gynecological examination and urine pregnancy test. During this period, 30 patients (15.15%) were detected to have galactorrhea and/or amenorrhoea. The extent of burn in these patients was 20-65%of body surface area. Out of 30 patients, 5 had galactorrhea and amenorrhea, 1 galactorrhea alone and 24 had amenorrhea alone. Analysis of voluntary disclosures and detection on interrogation was done. Till the end of study, 4 patients with galactorrhea had complete relief, 2 patients reported reduction in discharge. Galactorrhea was distressing for all and was always associated with high prolactine levels .The reverse was not true. All the patients had chest burns besides other body areas. Association was noted between menstrual aberration and ovulatory phase at the time of burn. Galactorrhea and menstrual disturbances do exist in female patients in reproductive age group in post burn period and patients should be especially interrogated for these symptoms by the burn care providers.

  7. Refueling and control of RFP burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel, R.; Miley, G.H.


    An earlier study of the stability of a fusion burn in a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) has been extended to include cold particle refueling. This refueling, coupled with anomalous transport, makes possible quasi-steady state operation which both flattens the wall-loading temporal dependence and significantly increases energy gain factors. This paper discusses results of these burn simulations along with parametric studies aimed at determining associated reactor scaling problems

  8. On a metastable vacuum burning phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, V.A.; Tkachev, I.I.; Kuzmin, V.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)


    Equations of motion of an interface between two phases with arbitrary equations of state are obtained. It is found that there may take place a process of metastable vacuum burning. It is shown that under some conditions the process of the new phase bubble expansion is described by the detonation wave equations. Possible cosmological consequences of the metastable phase burning effect are briefly discussed. (author)

  9. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf


    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  10. Towards more efficient burn care: Identifying factors associated with good quality of life post-burn. (United States)

    Finlay, V; Phillips, M; Allison, G T; Wood, F M; Ching, D; Wicaksono, D; Plowman, S; Hendrie, D; Edgar, D W


    As minor burn patients constitute the vast majority of a developed nation case-mix, streamlining care for this group can promote efficiency from a service-wide perspective. This study tested the hypothesis that a predictive nomogram model that estimates likelihood of good long-term quality of life (QoL) post-burn is a valid way to optimise patient selection and risk management when applying a streamlined model of care. A sample of 224 burn patients managed by the Burn Service of Western Australia who provided both short and long-term outcomes was used to estimate the probability of achieving a good QoL defined as 150 out of a possible 160 points on the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) at least six months from injury. A multivariate logistic regression analysis produced a predictive model provisioned as a nomogram for clinical application. A second, independent cohort of consecutive patients (n=106) was used to validate the predictive merit of the nomogram. Male gender (p=0.02), conservative management (p=0.03), upper limb burn (p=0.04) and high BSHS-B score within one month of burn (pburns were excluded due to loss to follow up. For clinicians managing comparable burn populations, the BSWA burns nomogram is an effective tool to assist the selection of patients to a streamlined care pathway with the aim of improving efficiency of service delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. [Combined burn trauma in the array of modern civilian and combat burns]. (United States)

    Ivchenko, E V; Borisov, D N; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Rusev, I T


    The current article positions the combined burn and non-burn injuries in the general array of civilian and combat burns. For that purpose the official state statistics and scientific medical publications, domestic as well as foreign, have been analyzed. It has been shown that in peace time the combined burn/trauma injuries are infrequent. But the same type of injury becomes routine especially among the civilian population in the conditions of the modern so called "hybrid war". And the medical service should be prepared for it.

  12. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity (United States)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.


    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  13. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn may...

  14. Photographic assessment of burn size and depth: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.; Moues, C.; Bogomolova, K.; Nieuwenhuis, M.; Oen, I.; Middelkoop, E.; Breederveld, R.; de Baar, M.


    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of using photographs of burns to assess both burn size and depth. Method: Fifty randomly selected photographs taken on day 0-1 post burn were assessed by seven burn experts and eight referring physicians. Inter-rater

  15. Camphor Burns on the Palm: An Unusual New Presentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the center), and Type 3 (a full‑thickness burn exposing the palmar fascia). Conclusion: Different types of camphor burns on the palm are described in this study. This is the first study to report ring‑shaped blisters and ring‑shaped partially thick camphor burns caused on the palm. KEYWORDS: Camphor, palm burn, ring ...

  16. Using relative humidity to predict spotfire probability on prescribed burns (United States)

    John R. Weir


    Spotfires have and always will be a problem that burn bosses and fire crews will have to contend with on prescribed burns. Weather factors (temperature, wind speed and relative humidity) are the main variables burn bosses can use to predict and monitor prescribed fire behavior. At the Oklahoma State University Research Range, prescribed burns are conducted during...

  17. [The Nutrition Care of Severe Burn Patients]. (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiu


    In addition to recent advances in burn patient care techniques such as maintaining warm circumambient temperature, the early excision of wounds, and the use of closed dressing, providing nutrition support through early feeding has proven instrumental in greatly increasing the survival rate of burn patients. Severe burns complicated by many factors initiate tremendous physiological stress that leads to postburn hypermetabolism that includes enhanced tissue catabolism, the loss of muscle mass, and decreases in the body's reservoirs of protein and energy. These problems have become the focus of burn therapy. Treating severe burns aims not only to enhance survival rates but also to restore normal bodily functions as completely as possible. Recent research evaluating the application of anabolic agents and immune-enhance formula for severe burns therapy has generated significant controversy. Inadequate caloric intake is one of the main differences among the related studies, with the effect of many special nutrients such as bran acid amides not taken into consideration. Therefore, considering the sufficiency of caloric and protein intake is critical in assessing effectiveness. Only after patients receive adequate calories and protein may the effect of special nutrients such as glutamine and supplements be evaluated effectively.

  18. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  19. Burning/Rubble Pits: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, L.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Marine, I.W.


    The Burning/Rubble Pits, located near each of the major operating areas at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), began collecting burnable waste in 1951. The waste was incinerated monthly. All Burning/Rubble Pits are currently closed except for Burning/Rubble Pit 131-1R, which has not been backfilled but is inactive. No soil cores from the Burning/Rubble Pits have been analyzed. There are four groundwater monitoring wells located around each of the pits, which have been sampled quarterly since 1984. The closure options considered for the Burning/Rubble Pits are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated. An evaluation of the environmental impacts from the Burning/Rubble Pits indicates that the relative risks to human health and ecosystems for the postulated closure options are low. The ecological assessment shows that the effects of any closure activities on river water quality and wildlife would be insignificant. The cost estimates show the waste removal and closure option to be the most expensive for all of the pits. 38 refs., 35 figs., 47 tabs

  20. Community energy plan : village of Burns Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, B.


    Climate change has a significant impact on the lives of Canadians and their economies. In northern British Columbia, the ability to grow, process and transport food will likely change. The rising cost of fuel and other natural resources will create a need for more resilient communities. This report presented a community energy plan for Burns Lake in order to provide the first steps toward building on an already resilient community. The report answered questions about Burns Lake's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the community's views on energy issues. The report provided background information on the Village of Burns Lake and discussed climate change in Burns Lake, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions. The report also described community engagement by way of a questionnaire on fuel prices, homes and public opinion in Burns Lake. A strategy was also outlined. It was concluded that the village of Burns Lake is well positioned to face challenges regarding future energy use. The community is looking to the municipality for support and leadership, in order to deliver through active opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  1. Psychiatric Assessment and Rehabilitation of Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu


    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation has gained significance owing to improved healthcare facilities for burn injuries and decreased mortality/ morbidity rates. Burn traumas may result in psychiatric signs such as denial, anger, guilt, confusion, disgrace, anxiety, distress, and nervousness. Psychiatric disorders such as delirium, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems can also be encountered. Therefore, it is necessary to look for these signs and disorders through regular sessions with burn patients and appropriate psychometric tests. This study aims at examining the process of psychological rehabilitation for burn patients in light of the current literature. Material and Methods: This study has been carried out in the light of the main and current literature review. The study intends to put forth the data observed in the course of the psychological diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of burn patients. The study has been conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration Guidelines. Results: Treatment and rehabilitation process requires a multidisciplinary teamwork that consists of physicians, dieticians, psychologists, social service specialists, and other healthcare workers who can meet the needs of burn patients and their families. It is necessary for the team to contribute both to the hospitalization process and the social environment of the patients and their families. Conclusion: It is observed that the quality of life of these patients can be considerably improved with the effective assessment of psychiatric signs that occur during or after the injury and with appropriate treatment methods.

  2. Host defence peptides in human burns. (United States)

    Kaus, Aljoscha; Jacobsen, Frank; Sorkin, Michael; Rittig, Andrea; Voss, Bruno; Daigeler, Adrien; Sudhoff, Holger; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Steinstraesser, Lars


    The goal of this study was to analyse expression profiles of human epithelial host defence peptides in burned and unburned skin tissue, samples of which were obtained during debridements and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Total RNA was isolated, and cDNA of epithelial host defence peptides and proteins (hCAP-18/LL-37, hBD1-hBD4, dermcidin, S100A7/psoriasin and RNAse7) was quantified by qRT-PCR. In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical staining localised gene expression of hCAP-18/LL-37, hBD2 and hBD3 in histological sections. Most of the analysed host defence peptides and proteins showed higher mRNA levels in partial-thickness burns than in unburned tissue. In situ hybridisation revealed expression of hCAP-18/LL-37, hBD2 and hBD3 at the surface of burns that was independent of burn depth. However, the finding of higher host defence peptide gene expression rates does not correlate with the incidence of wound infection in burns. We hypothesise that the epithelial innate immune response in burns is complex.

  3. Control of invasive weeds with prescribed burning (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Allen, Edith B.; Minnich, Ralph; Rice, Peter M.; Kyser, Guy B.


    Prescribed burning has primarily been used as a tool for the control of invasive late-season annual broadleaf and grass species, particularly yellow starthistle, medusahead, barb goatgrass, and several bromes. However, timely burning of a few invasive biennial broadleaves (e.g., sweetclover and garlic mustard), perennial grasses (e.g., bluegrasses and smooth brome), and woody species (e.g., brooms and Chinese tallow tree) also has been successful. In many cases, the effectiveness of prescribed burning can be enhanced when incorporated into an integrated vegetation management program. Although there are some excellent examples of successful use of prescribed burning for the control of invasive species, a limited number of species have been evaluated. In addition, few studies have measured the impact of prescribed burning on the long-term changes in plant communities, impacts to endangered plant species, effects on wildlife and insect populations, and alterations in soil biology, including nutrition, mycorrhizae, and hydrology. In this review, we evaluate the current state of knowledge on prescribed burning as a tool for invasive weed management.

  4. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane


    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  5. Diarrhea in severely burned children. (United States)

    Thakkar, Kalpesh; Kien, C Lawrence; Rosenblatt, Judah I; Herndon, David N


    Diarrhea is a common problem in critically ill patients. Our patients are fed a high-carbohydrate enteral formula. We hypothesized that diarrhea in our patients may be related to the osmotic effects of unabsorbed carbohydrate in the small intestine and colon. We studied 19 patients, 3 months to 17 years, with burns >40% total body surface area. Each subject was studied weekly for up to 4 weeks postburn. Breath H2 concentration was measured. For the 24-hour period before the breath H2 measurement, the enteral carbohydrate intake, stool volume, and total enteral fluid volume were recorded. At each of several weekly intervals for each subject, the times when stool volume and enteral carbohydrate intake were each maximal were noted. Maximal stool volume ranged from 12 to 69 mL/kg/d. At the time point of maximal carbohydrate intake, diarrhea (stool volume >10 mL/kg/d) occurred in 18 of 19 patients, and maximal stool volume occurred in 10 of 19. Breath H2 concentration (ppm/5% CO2; mean +/- SEM) was 5.5 +/- 3.5 at the time of maximal carbohydrate intake, and was 25 +/- 20 at maximal stool volume. There were no correlations among breath H2 concentration, stool volume, enteral fluid intake, and enteral carbohydrate intake. Almost all the subjects had diarrhea over several weeks postburn. The lack of correlation of either carbohydrate intake or breath H2 with stool volume suggests that diarrhea in these patients may be caused by factors other than carbohydrate malabsorption. These data do not support altering nutrition support because of watery diarrhea.

  6. Modulation of inflammatory and catabolic responses in severely burned children by early burn wound excision in the first 24 hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    Hypothesis: Early burn wound excision modulates the hypermetabolic response in severe pediatric burn injuries. Design: Before-after trial. Setting: A 30-bed burn referral center in a private, university-affiliated hospital. Methods: We studied 35 severely burned children who were divided into 2

  7. Accuracy of burn size estimation in patients transferred to adult Burn Units in Sydney, Australia: an audit of 698 patients. (United States)

    Harish, Varun; Raymond, Andrew P; Issler, Andrea C; Lajevardi, Sepehr S; Chang, Ling-Yun; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter


    The purpose of this study was to compare burn size estimation between referring centres and Burn Units in adult patients transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia. A review of all adults transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia between January 2009 and August 2013 was performed. The TBSA estimated by the referring institution was compared with the TBSA measured at the Burns Unit. There were 698 adults transferred to a Burns Unit. Equivalent TBSA estimation between the referring hospital and Burns Unit occurred in 30% of patients. Overestimation occurred at a ratio exceeding 3:1 with respect to underestimation, with the difference between the referring institutions and Burns Unit estimation being statistically significant (Pburn-injured patients as well as in patients transferred more than 48h after the burn (Pburn (Pburns (≥20% TBSA) were found to have more satisfactory burn size estimations compared with less severe injuries (burn size assessment by referring centres. The systemic tendency for overestimation occurs throughout the entire TBSA spectrum, and persists with increasing time after the burn. Underestimation occurs less frequently but rises with increasing time after the burn and with increasing TBSA. Severe burns (≥20% TBSA) are more accurately estimated by the referring hospital. The inaccuracies in burn size assessment have the potential to result in suboptimal treatment and inappropriate referral to specialised Burn Units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. The epidemology of burn injuries of children and the importance of modern burn centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Mohar


    Full Text Available Background: Burns represent the major percentage of injuries to children. Their incidence level, injury mechanisms and treatment often differ from the burn injuries of adults.Methods: From the medical records of the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Ljubljana Medical Centre we gathered, analyzed and compared the burn injuries of children up to the age of 15 who were admitted to hospital in the year 2003 to those who were treated as outpatients. Moreover, we compared the burn injuries of hospitalized children at the same department in the years 2003, 1993 and 1983 respectively. We compared their gender, age, the total body surface area of burns, the depth of burns, frequency of the mechanisms of injury, the affected parts of the body and the length and mode of treatment. Finally, we compared our results with the results of similar studies from other burn centres.Results: The number of children treated for burns at the department has declined. In all the years studied, the injured children were younger than 5 and the majority of them were boys. The number of children admitted with substantial total body surface areas of burns was also declining. However, there was an increase in the number of children admitted with burns less than 10 % of their total body surface area. The number of burns treated by surgery slightly increased over the years studied. There was a similar sex and age distribution among the hospitalized children and those treated as outpatients.Conclusions: The number of children hospitalized with burns is in decline. In the years 1983, 1993 and 2003, there was no significant difference in the percentage of children who were treated surgically and those who were treated conservatively (P = 0.247. The Burn Centre at the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Ljubljana Medical Centre which together with the Burn Department of the Maribor General Hospital covers the population of two million

  9. Properties and Types of Significant Thermal Skin Burn Injuries (United States)


    The deep burn category includes deep second, deep third and deep fourth-degree burns. Table 2: Burn Classification and Injury Outcome ( Rice ...Subcutaneous tissue  Entire dermis destroyed  No to low pain due to nerve destruction  Waxy white to leathery gray to charred black skin  Dry...Richard R.L. (2009) Rehabilitation of the Burned Hand. Hand Clinics, 25, 529- 541 Rice P.L. & Orgill, D.P. (2015).Classification of burns. (Ed

  10. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor


    Abdelaziz Almostafa; Guozhu Liang; Elsayed Anwer


    Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning), erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameter...

  11. Outcomes of burns in the elderly: revised estimates from the Birmingham Burn Centre. (United States)

    Wearn, Christopher; Hardwicke, Joseph; Kitsios, Andreas; Siddons, Victoria; Nightingale, Peter; Moiemen, Naiem


    Outcomes after burn have continued to improve over the last 70 years in all age groups including the elderly. However, concerns have been raised that survival gains have not been to the same magnitude in elderly patients compared to younger age groups. The aims of this study were to analyze the recent outcomes of elderly burn injured patients admitted to the Birmingham Burn Centre, compare data with a historical cohort and published data from other burn centres worldwide. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients ≥65 years of age, admitted to our centre with cutaneous burns, between 2004 and 2012. Data was compared to a previously published historical cohort (1999-2003). 228 patients were included. The observed mortality for the study group was 14.9%. The median age of the study group was 79 years, the male to female ratio was 1:1 and median Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) burned was 5%. The incidence of inhalation injury was 13%. Median length of stay per TBSA burned for survivors was 2.4 days/% TBSA. Mortality has improved in all burn size groups, but differences were highly statistically significant in the medium burn size group (10-20% TBSA, p≤0.001). Burn outcomes in the elderly have improved over the last decade. This reduction has been impacted by a reduction in overall injury severity but is also likely due to general improvements in burn care, improved infrastructure, implementation of clinical guidelines and increased multi-disciplinary support, including Geriatric physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of secondary burn wound progression in contact burns-a systematic review of experimental approaches. (United States)

    Schmauss, Daniel; Rezaeian, Farid; Finck, Tom; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Wettstein, Reto; Harder, Yves


    After a burn injury, superficial partial-thickness burn wounds may progress to deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds, if kept untreated. This phenomenon is called secondary burn wound progression or conversion. Burn wound depth is an important determinant of patient morbidity and mortality. Therefore, reduction or even the prevention of secondary burn wound progression is one goal of the acute care of burned patients. The objective of this study was to review preclinical approaches evaluating therapies to reduce burn wound progression. A systematic review of experimental approaches in animals that aim at reducing or preventing secondary burn wound progression was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The selected references consist of all the peer-reviewed studies performed in vivo in animals and review articles published in English, German, Italian, Spanish, or French language relevant to the topic of secondary burn wound progression. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar including all the articles published from the beginning of notations to the present. The search was conducted between May 3, 2012 and December 26, 2013. We included 29 experimental studies in this review, investigating agents that maintain or increase local perfusion conditions, as well as agents that exhibit an anti-coagulatory, an anti-inflammatory, or an anti-apoptotic property. Warm water, simvastatin, EPO, or cerium nitrate may represent particularly promising approaches for the translation into clinical use in the near future. This review demonstrates promising experimental approaches that might reduce secondary burn wound progression. Nevertheless, a translation into clinical application needs to confirm the results compiled in experimental animal studies.

  13. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries. (United States)

    Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M


    Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial infections in burn patients at a burn hospital in Iran. (United States)

    Ekrami, Alireza; Kalantar, Enayat


    The major challenge for a burn team is nosocomial infection in burn patients, which is known to cause over 50% of burn deaths. Most studies on infection in burn patients focus on burn wound infection, whereas other nosocomial infections in these patients are not well described. We undertook this study to determine three types of nosocomial infections viz., burn wound infection, urinary tract infection, and blood stream infection in burn patients in a burn hospital in Iran. During the one year period (May 2003 to April 2004), 182 patients were included in this study. Blood, urine and wound biopsy samples were taken 7 and 14 days after admission to Taleghani Burn hospital. Isolation and identification of microorganisms was done using the standard procedure. Disk diffusion test were performed for all the isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of the 182 patients, 140 (76.9%) acquired at least one type of infection of the 140, 116 patients (82.8%) were culture positive on day 7 while 24 (17.2%) on 14 days after admission. Primary wound infection was most common (72.5%), followed by blood stream (18.6%) and urinary tract infections (8.9 %). The microorganisms causing infections were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.2%), and Acinetobacter baumanni (10.4%). Among these isolates P. aeruginosa was found to be 100 per cent resistant to amikacin, gentamicin , carbenicillin, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin and ceftazidime; 58 per cent of S. aureus and 60 per cent of coagulase negative Staphylococcus were methicillin resistant. High prevalence of nosocomial infections and the presence of multidrug resistant bacteria, and methicillin resistant S. aureus in patients at Taleghani Burn Hospital suggest continuous surveillance of burn infections and develop strategies for antimicrobial resistance control and treatment of infectious complications.

  15. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.


    This presentation provided an overview of results from the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) funded research on in situ burning of spilled oil. The program began in 1983 to determine the limitations of this innovative response strategies. Specific physical variables evaluated were slick thickness, degree of weathering (sparging), sea state, wind velocities, air and water temperatures, degrees of emulsification and degree of ice-coverage. All of the oils tested burned with 50 to 95 percent removal ratios as long as emulsification had not occurred. Slick thickness of 3mm or thicker were required to sustain ignition and extinguishment occurred when the slick reached approximately 1mm thick. The next phase of the research involved quantitative analysis of the pollutants created by in situ burning including chemical composition of the parent oil, burn residue, and airborne constituents. These studies were conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with emphasis on particulate, and gaseous components created by the burning process. Research efforts over several years, and a variety of crude oils, yielded data which indicated that aldehydes ketones, dioxans, furans, and polyaromatic compounds (PAHS) were not formed in the burning process. The airborne pollutants reflected similar concentrations of these compounds that were present in the parent oil. Lighter molecular weight PAHs tended to be converted to higher molecular weight compounds. Heavier molecular weight compounds are considered less acutely toxic than lighter molecular weight PAHS. Predominant burn products released into the air were by weight: 75% carbon dioxide, 12% water vapor, 10% soot, 3% carbon monoxide and 0.2% other products including those listed above

  16. Cardiovascular risk profile in burn survivors. (United States)

    Leung, Becky; Younger, John F; Stockton, Kellie; Muller, Michael; Paratz, Jennifer


    Burn patients have prolonged derangements in metabolic, endocrine, cardiac and psychosocial systems, potentially impacting on their cardiovascular health. There are no studies on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after-burn. The aim of our study was to record lipid values and evaluate CVD risk in adult burn survivors. In a cross-sectional study patients ≥18 years with burn injury between 18-80% total burn surface area (TBSA) from 1998 to 2012 had total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides measured via finger prick. Means were compared to optimal ranges. Multivariate regression models were performed to assess the association of lipids with age, years after-burn and total body surface area % (TBSA). A p value Risk Score (FGCRS) was calculated. Fifty patients were included in the study. Compared to optimal values, patients had low HDL and high triglycerides. Greater %TBSA was associated with statistically significant elevation of triglycerides (p=0.007) and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (p=0.027). The median FGCRS was 3.9% (low) 10-year risk of CVD with 82% of patients in the low-risk category. Patients involved in medium/high level of physical activity had optimal values of HDL, TC/HDL and triglycerides despite the magnitude of TBSA%. Adult burn survivors had alterations in lipid profile proportional to TBSA, which could be modified by exercise, and no increase in overall formally predicted CVD risk in this cross sectional study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnicity and etiology in burn trauma. (United States)

    Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan


    The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters Burn Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in burn trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment burn prevention strategies. Data for burn patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the burn registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at burn mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural areas with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the burn injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities.

  18. [Fat grafting in facial burns sequelae]. (United States)

    Viard, R; Bouguila, J; Voulliaume, D; Comparin, J-P; Dionyssopoulos, A; Foyatier, J-L


    Fat graft is now part of the armamentarium in face plastic surgery. It is successfully used in burn scars. The aim of our study is the discussion of the value of this technique in optimizing cosmetic result of burns face sequelae. Fifteen adult patients (10 females and five males) with scars resulting from severe burns 2 to 9 years previously were selected. The patients were treated by injection of adipose tissue harvested from abdominal subcutaneous fat and processed according to Coleman's technique. Two to three injections were administered at the dermohypodermal junction. Ages, sexes, aetiology of burn, facial burn sequelae, recipient sites, quantity of fat injected, aesthetic results are discussed. Patient age ranged from 21 to 55 years (average: 38). The mean follow-up of the study was 66 months (23-118). Patients received 7.5 (5-11) facial restorative surgeries before fat graft. Patients underwent two sessions of fat transfer, 33cc average per session. We did not report any complications. The clinical appearance, discussed by three surgeons and subjective patient feelings, after a 6-month follow-up period, suggests considerable improvement in the mimic features, skin texture, and thickness. The result is good in 86% of cases and acceptable in the other cases. Burns sequelae offer local conditions which justify special cannula can cross fibrosis and explaining the value of multiplying the sessions. Indications for lipostructure include four distinct nosological situations, sometimes combined. Lipostructure can restore a missing relief, filling a localized depression, reshape a lack of face volume or smooth a scarring skin. Fat graft seems to complete and improve the results of the standard surgical approach in burned face. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Methamphetamine-related burns in the cornbelt. (United States)

    Burke, Bridget A; Lewis, Robert W; Latenser, Barbara A; Chung, Joseph Y; Willoughby, Clark; Kealey, G Patrick; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A


    Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive drug that is easily manufactured from everyday household products and chemicals found at local farm stores. The proliferation of small MA labs has led to a dramatic increase in patients sustaining thermal injury while making and/or using MA. We hypothesized that these patients have larger injuries with longer hospital stays, and larger, nonreimbursed hospital bills compared with burn patients not manufacturing or using MA. In a retrospective case-control study, all burn patients >or=16 years of age admitted to our burn center from January 2002 to December 2005 were stratified into two groups based on urine MA status. Of the 660 burn patients >or=16 years of age admitted during this 4 year period, urine drug screens were obtained at admission on 410 patients (62%); 10% of urine drug screens were MA (+). MA (+) patients have larger burns compared with MA (-) patients (9.3 vs 8.6% body surface area burns), have higher rates of inhalation injuries (20.4 vs 9.3%, P = .015), and more nonthermal trauma (13.0 vs 3.1%, P = .001). When compared with MA (-) patients, MA (+) patients require longer hospital stays (median 9.5 vs 7.0 days, P = .036), accrue greater hospital bills per day (dollars 4292 vs dollars 2797, P = .01), and lack medical insurance (66.7 vs 17.7%, P manufacture mandates that burn centers monitor patients for MA use and develop and institute protocols to ensure proper care of this increasingly costly population.

  20. Involving burn survivors in agenda setting on burn research: an added value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, J.E.W.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Van Rensen, A.J.M.L.; De Haan, M.J.M.


    Background and aim: The role of burn survivors in burn research is usually restricted to being objects of study and beneficiaries of research results, while decision-making on research is traditionally the domain of a small group of experts, mainly scientists. In this article we compare the research

  1. A new metric for quantifying burn severity: The Relativized Burn Ratio (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Gregory K. Dillon; Carol Miller


    Satellite-inferred burn severity data have become increasingly popular over the last decade for management and research purposes. These data typically quantify spectral change between pre-and post-fire satellite images (usually Landsat). There is an active debate regarding which of the two main equations, the delta normalized burn ratio (dNBR) and its relativized form...

  2. Full Core Burn-up Calculation at JRR-3 with MVP-BURN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komeda, Masao; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi


    Research reactors use a burnable poison to suppress an excess reactivity in the beginning of reactor lifetime. The JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) has used cadmium wires of radius 0.02 cm as a burnable poison. This report describes burn-up calculations of plate fuel models and full core models with MVP-BURN, which is a burn-up calculation code using Monte Carlo method and has been developed in JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As the results of calculations of plate models, between a model composed of one burn-up region along the radius direction and a model composed of a few burn-up regions along the radius direction, the effective absorption cross section of 113 Cd has had different tendency on reaching approximate 40. day (10000 MWd/t). And as results of calculations of full core model, it has been indicated that k eff is almost same till approximate 80. day (22000 MWd/t) between a model composed of one burn-up region along the vertical direction and a model composed of a few burn-up regions along the vertical direction. However difference of 113 Cd burn-up becomes pronounced and each k eff makes a difference after 80. day. (authors)

  3. Outcome after burns: An observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, M.B.A.; Vloemans, J.F.P.M.; Tuinebreijer, W.E.; van de Ven, P.M.; van Unen, E.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.; Middelkoop, E.


    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in

  4. Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: intentional burns in adults. (United States)

    Peck, Michael D


    A significant number of burns and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional burns are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized burn patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface area burned in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted burning of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by burning include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by burning are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious burn-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Beyond pediatric burns : a family perspective on the psychological consequences of burns in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.


    In this dissertation, we focused on the psychological consequences of pediatric burns on children and parents, relationships within the family (parent-child, mother-father subsystems), and potential benefits from burn camp participation. Results of a literature review study showed that many children

  6. The Parameters Controlling the Burning Efficiency of In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde


    Parameters that control the burning efficiency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water were identified by studying the influence of the initial slick thickness, vaporization order, oil slick diameter, weathering state of the oil, heat losses to the water layer and heat flux to the fuel surface...... on the burning efficiency for light and heavy crude oils. These parameters were studied in several small scale and intermediate scale experimental setups. The results showed that the heat losses to the water layer increase with increasing burning time because the components in a crude oil evaporate from volatile...... to non-volatile. Due to the relatively low heat feedback (reradiation and convection, in kW/m2) to the fuel surface of small scale pool fires, as compared to large scale pool fires, these heat losses were shown to limit the burning efficiency in small scale experiments. By subjecting small scale crude...

  7. Current issues in burn wound infections. (United States)

    Dodd, D; Stutman, H R


    As we have emphasized, the diagnosis of burn wound infections in the high-risk burned child can be difficult and depends on a very high degree of suspicion and daily clinical evaluation of the burn wound site by consistent observers. Appropriate precautions include meticulous hand-washing and the use of gloves when handling the wound site and prophylactic application of a topical antibacterial agent such as SSD cream. Wound therapy should include routine vigorous surgical débridement. Surveillance wound cultures should be done weekly to determine the emergency of colonization and aid in the selection of empiric antimicrobial regimens when these are appropriate. Wound biopsy for histological examination and quantitative culture is highly recommended in the severely ill child with an unclear etiology or site of infection. If, despite these measures, sepsis ensues, then systemic antibiotics must be started empirically as an adjuctive therapy to surgical débridement. Knowledge of the organisms colonizing a wound will prove useful in choosing an antibiotic regimen while awaiting definitive results of blood and wound biopsy cultures. Without this information, early burn sepsis therapy should focus on gram-positive organisms, while infection later in the course should raise suspicion of nosocomial pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, other enteric bacilli, and C. albicans. An initial regimen might include nafcillin plus ceftazidime or an aminoglycoside, with anaerobic coverage depending on considerations noted previously. Once the causative agent is identified, therapy must be modified accordingly. Amphotericin B and acyclovir use should be guided by positive cultures from the burn wound site along with systemic evidence of dissemination. Available studies do not yet make clear the role of empiric immunotherapy with intravenous gamma globulin in the burned child. Therefore, its use cannot be recommended at the present time, although the development of specific

  8. Adult survivors' lived experience of burns and post-burn health: A qualitative analysis. (United States)

    Abrams, Thereasa E; Ogletree, Roberta J; Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Neumeister, Michael W


    The individual implications of major burns are likely to affect the full spectrum of patients' physical, emotional, psychological, social, environmental, spiritual and vocational health. Yet, not all of the post-burn health implications are inevitably negative. Utilizing a qualitative approach, this heuristic phenomenological study explores the experiences and perceptions early (ages 18-35) and midlife (ages 36-64) adults providing insight for how participants perceived their burns in relationship to their post-burn health. Participants were interviewed using semi-structured interview questions framed around seven domains of health. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim then coded line by line, identifying dominant categories related to health. Categories were analyzed identifying shared themes among the study sample. Participants were Caucasian, seven males and one female. Mean age at time of interviews was 54.38 and 42.38 at time of burns. Mean time since burns occurred was 9.38 years with a minimum of (20%) total body surface area (TBSA) burns. Qualitative content analysis rendered three emergent health-related categories and associated themes that represented shared meanings within the participant sample. The category of "Physical Health" reflected the theme physical limitations, pain and sensitivity to temperature. Within the category of "Intellectual Health" were themes of insight, goal setting and self-efficacy, optimism and humor and within "Emotional Health" were the themes empathy and gratitude. By exploring subjective experiences and perceptions of health shared through dialog with experienced burned persons, there are opportunities to develop a more complete picture of how holistic health may be affected by major burns that in turn could support future long-term rehabilitative trajectories of early and midlife adult burn patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagabathula Durga Prasad


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND With the advances in technology, electrical injuries are becoming more common and are the leading cause of work-related traumatic death. One third of all electrical traumas and most high-voltage injuries are job related and more than 50% of these injuries result from power line contact. The management of the major burn injury represents a significant challenge to every member of the burns team. Most of electrical burns present with gangrene of toes and limbs with eschar over body parts. Their presentation is mostly due to contact with high-voltage electricity at their work places. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was made to study the clinico-social profile of patients suffering electric burns admitted into Department of General Surgery. RESULTS 92 cases were evaluated and studied. Majority of patients developed gangrene of limbs and toes. Amputations and skin grafting was done. Most patients who suffered electric burns were males of age group 21 to 40 years. All cases are accidental and mostly occurred at work places. Most electric burns are high-voltage based and caused deep burns. Major complications like acute renal failure and septicaemia were encountered. Most of them suffered 16 to 30% burns. Most commonly isolated organism from wounds is pseudomonas. Most of them suffered a hospital stay of 1 to 2 months. CONCLUSION Electric burns are a burden to the society. Prevention is the best way to deal with them. Electricity-based employees have to be trained properly regarding safety measures to be taken. General education of public regarding safety measures can prevent electrical burn injuries.

  10. Burning characteristics of chemically isolated biomass ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.


    This study was performed to investigate the burning characteristics of isolated fractions of a biomass species. So, woody shells of hazelnut were chemically treated to obtain the fractions of extractives-free bulk, lignin, and holocellulose. Physical characterization of these fractions were determined by SEM technique, and the burning runs were carried out from ambient to 900 o C applying thermal analysis techniques of TGA, DTG, DTA, and DSC. The non-isothermal model of Borchardt-Daniels was used to DSC data to find the kinetic parameters. Burning properties of each fraction were compared to those of the raw material to describe their effects on burning, and to interpret the synergistic interactions between the fractions in the raw material. It was found that each of the fractions has its own characteristic physical and thermal features. Some of the characteristic points on the thermograms of the fractions could be followed definitely on those of the raw material, while some of them seriously shifted to other temperatures or disappeared as a result of the co-existence of the ingredients. Also, it is concluded that the presence of hemicellulosics and celluloses makes the burning of lignin easier in the raw material compared to the isolated lignin. The activation energies can be arranged in the order of holocellulose < extractives-free biomass < raw material < lignin.

  11. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R.; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Lebel, Peter J.; Koller, Albert M.; Hinkle, C. Ross


    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases are presented that were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide (CO2) normalized emission ratios (ΔX/ΔCO2; V/V; where X is trace gas) for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHC), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak (Quercus spp) and saw palmetto (Screnoa repens) were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. We believe that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes (both small-size fuels) burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly diminished.

  12. Bilateral maculopathy following electrical burn: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Dario Faustino

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Electrical burns are an important etiology in dealing with patients suffering from burns. In situations of extensive deep lesions of multiple organs and systems affecting young and economically active people, there is a need for expensive multidisciplinary treatment, with a high socioeconomic cost for the community. Among the permanent injuries that explain this high cost, eye injuries stand out, since they are widely disabling. Although rare, lesions of the posterior segment of the eye are associated with higher incidence of major sequelae, and thus deserve special attention for dissemination and discussion of the few cases observed.CASE REPORT: The authors report the case of a patient who suffered high-voltage electrical burns and presented bilateral maculopathy, which evolved with a need for a surgical approach to repair retinal detachment and permanent low visual acuity.CONCLUSION: This report highlights the rarity of the etiology of maculopathy and the need for campaigns for prevention not only of burns in general, but also especially of electrical burns.

  13. Medical response to the radioinduced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portas, Mercedes


    For over two years the Hospital for Burns in Buenos Aires has been studying the burns caused by radiation, in accordance to an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina. The analysis of each case showed the importance of the differential diagnosis from conventional injuries, of this early diagnosis depends the possibility of treatment from the 0 (zero) hour (time at which the accident took place) and achieve the wound healing with the best possible treatment, weather it is medical or surgical in nature. The Hospital's medical staff has developed the necessary skills to recognize this type of burns from an early stage. Most patients arrive to the consultation on their own accord due to the general practitioners inability to correctly diagnose the wounds appeared after radiotherapy has been applied. In this article, we present the general guidelines that the doctors of the Hospital for Burns follow in the presence of radio inducted injuries, objectifying the ethiopathogenic differences of the various burns. (author)

  14. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Lebel, Peter J.; Winstead, Edward L.; Koller, Albert M., Jr.; Hinkle, C. Ross


    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide normalized emission ratios for carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitrous oxide were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak and saw palmetto were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. It is believed that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly deminished.

  15. Improved Survival of Patients With Extensive Burns: Trends in Patient Characteristics and Mortality Among Burn Patients in a Tertiary Care Burn Facility, 2004-2013. (United States)

    Strassle, Paula D; Williams, Felicia N; Napravnik, Sonia; van Duin, David; Weber, David J; Charles, Anthony; Cairns, Bruce A; Jones, Samuel W

    Classic determinants of burn mortality are age, burn size, and the presence of inhalation injury. Our objective was to describe temporal trends in patient and burn characteristics, inpatient mortality, and the relationship between these characteristics and inpatient mortality over time. All patients aged 18 years or older and admitted with burn injury, including inhalation injury only, between 2004 and 2013 were included. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the relationship between admit year and inpatient mortality. A total of 5540 patients were admitted between 2004 and 2013. Significant differences in sex, race/ethnicity, burn mechanisms, TBSA, inhalation injury, and inpatient mortality were observed across calendar years. Patients admitted between 2011 and 2013 were more likely to be women, non-Hispanic Caucasian, with smaller burn size, and less likely to have an inhalation injury, in comparison with patients admitted from 2004 to 2010. After controlling for patient demographics, burn mechanisms, and differential lengths of stay, no calendar year trends in inpatient mortality were detected. However, a significant decrease in inpatient mortality was observed among patients with extensive burns (≥75% TBSA) in more recent calendar years. This large, tertiary care referral burn center has maintained low inpatient mortality rates among burn patients over the past 10 years. While observed decreases in mortality during this time are largely due to changes in patient and burn characteristics, survival among patients with extensive burns has improved.

  16. Burn-related peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review. (United States)

    Tu, Yiji; Lineaweaver, William C; Zheng, Xianyou; Chen, Zenggan; Mullins, Fred; Zhang, Feng


    Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent disabling neuromuscular complication of burns. However, the insidious and progressive onset of burn neuropathy makes it often undiagnosed or overlooked. In our study, we reviewed the current studies on the burn-related peripheral neuropathy to summarize the morbidity, mechanism, detecting method and management of peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. Of the 1533 burn patients included in our study, 98 cases (6.39%) were presented with peripheral neuropathy. Thermal and electrical burns were the most common etiologies. Surgical procedures, especially nerve decompression, showed good effect on functional recovery of both acute and delayed peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. It is noteworthy that, for early detection and prevention of peripheral neuropathy, electrodiagnostic examinations should be performed on burn patients independent of symptoms. Still, the underlying mechanisms of burn-related peripheral neuropathy remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology, etiology and outcomes of burn patients in a Referral Burn Hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal


    Full Text Available Background: Burns and its complications are regarded as a major problem in the society. Skin injuries resulted from ultraviolet radiation, radioactivity, electricity or chemicals as well as respiratory damage from smoke inhalation are considered burns. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology and outcome of burn patients admitted to Motahari Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: Two hundred patients with second-degree burns admitted to Motahari Referral Center of Burn in Tehran, Iran. They were studied during a period of 12 months from May 2012 to May 2013. During the first week of treatment swabs were collected from the burn wounds after cleaning the site with sterile normal saline. Samples were inoculated in blood agar and McConkey agar, then incubation at 37 C for 48 hours. Identification was carried out according to standard conventional biochemical tests. Treatment continued up to epithelial formation and wound healing. Results of microbial culture for each patient was recorded. Healing time of the burn wounds in patients was recorded in log books. Chi-square test and SPSS Software v.19 (IBM, NY, USA were used for data analysis. Results: Our findings indicate that the most causes of burns are hot liquids in 57% of cases and flammable liquid in 21% of cases. The most cases of burns were found to be in the range of 21 to 30 percent with 17.5% and 7% in male and female respectively. Gram-negative bacteria were dominated in 85.7% and among them pseudomonas spp. with 37.5% were the most common cause of infected burns, followed by Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella spp. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the most cause of burns in both sex is hot liquid. Men were more expose to burn than women and this might be due to the fact that men are involved in more dangerous jobs than female. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism encountered in burn infection.

  18. A new incinerator for burning radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallek, H.; Laser, M.


    A new two stage incinerator for burning radioactive waste consisting of a pyrolysis chamber and an oxidation chamber is described. The fly ash is retained in the oxidation chamber by high temperature filter mats. The capacity of the installed equipment is about 100 kg/h. Waste with different composition and different calorific value were successfully burnt. The operation of the incinerator can easily be controlled by addition of a primary air stream to the pyrolysis chamber and a secondary air stream to the oxidation chamber. During continuous operation the CO and C (organic) content is below 100 ppm and 50 ppm, respectively. The burn-out of the ash is very good. After minor changes the incinerator may be suitable for burning of α-bearing waste


    Ruiz-Castilla, Mireia; Roca, Oriol; Masclans, Joan R; Barret, Joan P


    The pathophysiology of burn injuries is tremendously complex. A thorough understanding is essential for correct treatment of the burned area and also to limit the appearance of organ dysfunction, which, in fact, is a key determinant of morbidity and mortality. In this context, research into biomarkers may play a major role. Biomarkers have traditionally been considered an important area of medical research: the measurement of certain biomarkers has led to a better understanding of pathophysiology, while others have been used either to assess the effectiveness of specific treatments or for prognostic purposes. Research into biomarkers may help to improve the prognosis of patients with severe burn injury. The aim of the present clinical review is to discuss new evidence of the value of biomarkers in this setting.

  20. An overview of burning mouth syndrome. (United States)

    Salerno, Carmen; Di Stasio, Dario; Petruzzi, Massimo; Lauritano, Dorina; Gentile, Enrica; Guida, Agostino; Maio, Claudio; Tammaro, Mariasofia; Serpico, Rosario; Lucchese, Alberta


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic. Drug therapy, in addition to behavioural therapy and psychotherapy, may help to eliminate the symptoms. Considering the growing incidence of BMS in older people, further research is required to determine the true efficacy of current management strategies for patients with this disorder.

  1. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki


    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  2. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)


    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  3. Brief cognitive interventions for burn pain. (United States)

    Haythronthwaite, J A; Lawrence, J W; Fauerbach, J A


    This study tested the efficacy of 2 brief cognitive interventions in supplementing regular medical treatment for pain during burn dressing change. Forty-two burn inpatients were randomly assigned to 3 groups: sensory focusing, music distraction, and usual care. Patients reported pain, pain relief satisfaction with pain control, and pain coping strategies. The sensory focusing group reported greater pain relief compared to the music distraction group and a reduction in remembered pain compared to the usual care group, although group differences were not observed on serial pain ratings. In addition, after controlling for burn size and relevant covariates, regression analyses indicated that catastrophizing predicted pain, memory for pain, and satisfaction with pain control. Refinement of the sensory focusing intervention is warranted to reduce catastrophic thinking and improve pain relief

  4. Steroid dysregulation and stomatodynia (burning mouth syndrome). (United States)

    Woda, Alain; Dao, Thuan; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle


    Stomatodynia ( burning mouth syndrome) is characterized by a spontaneous, continuous burning pain felt in the oral mucosa typically of anxiodepressive menopausal women. Because there is no obvious organic cause, it is considered a nonspecific pain. This Focus Article proposes a hypothesis based on the following pathophysiological cascade: chronic anxiety or post traumatic stress leads to a dysregulation of the adrenal production of steroids. One consequence is a decreased or modified production of some major precursors for the neuroactive steroid synthesis occurring in the skin, mucosa, and nervous system. At menopause, the drastic fall of the other main precursor supply , the gonadal steroids, leads to a brisk alteration of the production of neuroactive steroids. This results in neurodegenerative alterations of small nerves fibers of the oral mucosa and /or some brain areas involved in oral somatic sensations. These neuropathic changes become irreversible and precipitate the burning pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia associated with stomatodynia, which all involve thin nerve fibers.

  5. [Lymphocyte metabolism in children with extensive burns]. (United States)

    Artem'ev, S A; Nazarov, I P; Kamzalakova, N I; Bulygin, G V


    The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the development of burn disease in children is accompanied by significant lymphocytic structural metabolic changes that determine the functional capabilities of cells and the immune system as a whole. There is an evident activation of the glutathione antioxidant system, a drastic activation of enzymes that ensure Krebs cycle reactions, as well as activation of anaerobic processes. The above changes are mainly caused by the activated sympathoadrenal system that is characteristic of stresses. The knowledge about the metabolic mechanisms responsible for the development of cellular reactions to burn shock and burn disease permits specification of the elements of the pathogenesis of these severe conditions and substantiation of the possibility of using metabolic correction in the complex treatment of children with the above pathology.

  6. Soil heating and impact of prescribed burning (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne


    Prescribed burning is highly uncommon in the Netherlands, where wildfire awareness is increasing but its risk management does not yet include fuel management strategies. A major exception is on two military bases, that need to burn their fields in winter and spring to prevent wildfires during summer shooting practice. Research on these very frequent burns has so far been limited to effects on biodiversity, yet site managers and policy makers have questions regarding the soil temperatures reached during these burns because of potential impact on soil properties and soil dwelling fauna. In March 2015, I therefore measured soil and litter temperatures under heath and grass vegetation during a prescribed burn on military terrain in the Netherlands. Soil and litter moisture were sampled pre- and post-fire, ash was collected, and fireline intensity was estimated from flame length. While standing vegetation was dry (0.13 g water/g biomass for grass and 0.6 g/g for heather), soil and litter were moist (0.21 cm3/cm3 and 1.6 g/g, respectively). Soil heating was therefore very limited, with maximum soil temperature at the soil-litter interface remaining being as low as 6.5 to 11.5°C, and litter temperatures reaching a maximum of 77.5°C at the top of the litter layer. As a result, any changes in physical properties like soil organic matter content and bulk density were not significant. These results are a first step towards a database of soil heating in relation to fuel load and fire intensity in this temperate country, which is not only valuable to increase understanding of the relationships between fire intensity and severity, but also instrumental in the policy debate regarding the sustainability of prescribed burns.

  7. Colloid normalizes resuscitation ratio in pediatric burns. (United States)

    Faraklas, Iris; Lam, Uyen; Cochran, Amalia; Stoddard, Gregory; Saffle, Jeffrey


    Fluid resuscitation of burned children is challenging because of their small size and intolerance to over- or underresuscitation. Our American Burn Association-verified regional burn center has used colloid "rescue" as part of our pediatric resuscitation protocol. With Institutional Review Board approval, the authors reviewed children with ≥15% TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2004, to May 1, 2009. Resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula, which was adjusted to maintain urine output. Patients requiring progressive increases in crystalloid were placed on a colloid protocol. Results were expressed as an hourly resuscitation ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). We reviewed 53 patients; 29 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone (lactated Ringer's solution [LR]), and 24 received colloid supplementation albumin (ALB). Groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, and time from injury to admission. ALB patients had more inhalation injuries and larger total and full-thickness burns. LR patients maintained a median I/O of 0.17 (range, 0.08-0.31), whereas ALB patients demonstrated escalating ratios until the institution of albumin produced a precipitous return of I/O comparable with that of the LR group. Hospital stay was lower for LR patients than ALB patients (0.59 vs 1.06 days/%TBSA, P = .033). Twelve patients required extremity or torso escharotomy, but this did not differ between groups. There were no decompressive laparotomies. The median resuscitation volume for ALB group was greater than LR group (9.7 vs 6.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, P = .004). Measuring hourly I/O is a helpful means of evaluating fluid demands during burn shock resuscitation. The addition of colloid restores normal I/O in pediatric patients.

  8. Global biomass burning - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implicati ons [Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhiliang; Teuber, K.B.


    On a global scale, the total biomass consumed by annual burning is about 8680 million tons of dry material; the estimated total biomass consumed by the burning of savanna grasslands, at 3690 million tons/year, exceeds all other biomass burning (BMB) components. These components encompass agricultural wastes burning, forest burning, and fuel wood burning. BMB is not restricted to the tropics, and is largely anthropogenic. Satellite measurements indicate significantly increased tropospheric concentrations of CO and ozone associated with BMB. BMB significantly enhances the microbial production and emission of NO(x) from soils, and of methane from wetlands

  9. Nuclear fuel burn-up economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.


    In the period 1981-1985, for the needs of Utility Organization, Beograd, and with the support of the Scientific Council of SR Srbija, work has been performed on the study entitled 'Nuclear Fuel Burn-up Economy'. The forst [phase, completed during the year 1983 comprised: comparative analysis of commercial NPP from the standpoint of nuclear fuel requirements; development of methods for fuel burn-up analysis; specification of elements concerning the nuclear fuel for the tender documentation. The present paper gives the short description of the purpose, content and results achieved in the up-to-now work on the study. (author)

  10. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, KI [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Sedlacek, AJ [Brookhaven National Laboratory


    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  11. Profile of children abused by burning. (United States)

    Mathangi Ramakrishnan, K; Mathivanan, Y; Sankar, J


    In an analysis of paediatric burn admissions to a hospital in India during the years 1992-2007, 9.3% of burn injuries were found to be secondary to abuse. These had valid documented evidence and child neglect was excluded. This incidence of child abuse has been on the rise in the last seven years and was more evident due to careful investigation by a team comprising a plastic surgeon, a paediatrician, a legal expert, a psychologist, and a social worker. As with the incidence reported by many other researchers, most of the injuries were caused by scalding.

  12. 'I have seen Königsberg burning'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Thomas Schwarz


    It is December 1944 in East Prussia, and a German mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children is fleeing from the Red Army. Some thirty years later one of her sons talks about his memories, using the phrase: ‘I have seen Königsberg burning.’ – What a sentence. The city of Immanuel Kant......, the most important philosopher of the German Enlightenment and an icon in human moral thought, is burning down. But then again, is it legitimate to take this symbolic interpretation as the proper meaning of this sentence? Drawing on Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics I present an account of historical...

  13. Effects of radiation, burn and combined radiation-burn injury on hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Benlan; Cheng Tianming; Xiao Jiasi


    Changes in hemodynamics after radiation, burn and combined radiation burn injury within eight hours post injury were studied. The results indicate: (1) Shock of rats in the combined injury group is more severe than that in the burn group. One of the reasons is that the blood volume in the combined injury group is less than that in the burn group. Radiation injury plays an important role in this effect, which enhances the increase in vascular permeability and causes the loss of plasma. (2) Decrease in cardiac output and stroke work and increase in vascular resistance in the combined radiation burn group are more drastic than those in the burn group, which may cause and enhance shock. Replenishing fluid is useful for recovery of hemodynamics. (3) Rb uptake is increased in the radiation group which indicates that compensated increase of myocardial nutritional blood flow may take place before the changes of hemodynamics and shock. Changes of Rb uptake in the combined injury group is different from that in the radiation groups and in the burn group. The results also suggest that changes of ion channel activities may occur to a different extent after injury. (4) Verapamil is helpful to the recovery of hemodynamics post injury. It is better to combine verapamil with replenishing fluid

  14. Genital burns in the national burn repository: incidence, etiology, and impact on morbidity and mortality. (United States)

    Harpole, Bethany G; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Erickson, Bradley A


    To better characterize national genital burns (GBs) characteristics using a large burn registry. We hypothesized that mortality and morbidity will be higher in patients with GBs. The National Burn Repository, a large North American registry of hospitalized burn patients, was queried for patients with GB. Burn characteristics and mechanism, demographics, mortality, and surgical interventions were retrieved. Outcomes of interest were mortality, hospital-acquired infection (HAI), and surgical intervention on the genitalia. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for outcomes were determined with binomial logistic regression controlling for age, total burn surface area, race, length of stay, gender, and inhalation injury presence. GBs were present in 1245 cases of 71,895 burns (1.7%). Patients with GB had significantly greater average total burn surface area, length of stay, and mortality. In patients with GB, surgery of the genitalia was infrequent (10.4%), with the aOR of receiving surgery higher among men (aOR 2.7, P burns (aOR 3.1, P <.002). Presence of a GB increased the odds of HAI (aOR 3.0, P <.0001) and urinary tract infections (aOR 3.4, P <.0001). GB was also an independent predictor of mortality (aOR 1.54) even after adjusting for the increased HAI risk. GBs are rare but associated with higher HAI rates and higher mortality after adjusting for well-established mortality risk factors. Although a cause and effect relationship cannot be established using these registry data, we believe this study suggests the need for special management considerations in GB cases to improve overall outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Survey of the Statewide Impact of Payer Source on Referral of Small Burns to Burn Centers. (United States)

    Penny, Rachel; Coffey, Rebecca; Jones, Larry; Bailey, J Kevin

    It is generally agreed that patients with large burns will be referred to organized burn centers, however, the referral of patients with smaller burns is less certain. A two-part survey was conducted to identify referral patterns for burn patients that meet American Burn Association referral criteria, and any effect insurance type might have on the referral patterns. The emergency departments of our state hospital association's member hospitals were contacted seeking a referral for a fictitious patient with a third-degree scald of the dominant hand. The referral sites were contacted twice, first stating that the patient had commercial insurance, next stating that the patient had Medicaid. Data collected included wait time for an appointment or reasons for denial of an appointment. Of 218 hospitals, 46 were excluded because they did not offer emergency care, and eight because they were listed as burn centers on the American Burn Association website. Of the remaining 164, 119 (73%) would refer to a burn center, 21 (13%) to a plastic surgeon, 10 (6%) to a hand surgeon, 7 (4%) to a wound center, 7 (4%) to another nonburn physician resource. There was no difference in wait time to the first available appointment with regards to insurance type (6.56 ± 4.68 vs 6.53 ± 5.05 days). Our state's referral pattern gives us insight into the regional referral pattern. This information will be used to guide a focused education and communication program to provide better service for the burn victims of our state.

  16. The Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand: progressing the evidence base for burn care. (United States)

    Cleland, Heather; Greenwood, John E; Wood, Fiona M; Read, David J; Wong She, Richard; Maitz, Peter; Castley, Andrew; Vandervord, John G; Simcock, Jeremy; Adams, Christopher D; Gabbe, Belinda J


    Analysis of data from the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ) to determine the extent of variation between participating units in treatment and in specific outcomes during the first 4 years of its operation. BRANZ, an initiative of the Australian and New Zealand Burn Association, is a clinical quality registry developed in accordance with the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Healthcare national operating principles. Patients with burn injury who fulfil pre-defined criteria are transferred to and managed in designated burn units. There are 17 adult and paediatric units in Australia and New Zealand that manage almost all patients with significant burn injury. Twelve of these units treat adult patients. Data on 7184 adult cases were contributed by ten acute adult burn units to the registry between July 2010 and June 2014.Major outcomes: In-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, skin grafting rates, and rates of admission to intensive care units. Considerable variations in unit profiles (including numbers of patients treated), in treatment and in outcomes were identified. Despite the highly centralised delivery of care to patients with severe or complex burn injury, and the relatively small number of specialist burn units, we found significant variation between units in clinical management and in outcomes. BRANZ data from its first 4 years of operation support its feasibility and the value of further development of the registry. Based on these results, the focus of ongoing research is to improve understanding of the reasons for variations in practice and of their effect on outcomes for patients, and to develop evidence-informed clinical guidelines for burn management in Australia and New Zealand.

  17. Development of the life impact burn recovery evaluation (LIBRE) profile: assessing burn survivors' social participation. (United States)

    Kazis, Lewis E; Marino, Molly; Ni, Pengsheng; Soley Bori, Marina; Amaya, Flor; Dore, Emily; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeff C; Shie, Vivian; Acton, Amy; Jette, Alan M


    Measuring the impact burn injuries have on social participation is integral to understanding and improving survivors' quality of life, yet there are no existing instruments that comprehensively measure the social participation of burn survivors. This project aimed to develop the Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation Profile (LIBRE), a patient-reported multidimensional assessment for understanding the social participation after burn injuries. 192 questions representing multiple social participation areas were administered to a convenience sample of 601 burn survivors. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to identify the underlying structure of the data. Using item response theory methods, a Graded Response Model was applied for each identified sub-domain. The resultant multidimensional LIBRE Profile can be administered via Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) or fixed short forms. The study sample included 54.7% women with a mean age of 44.6 (SD 15.9) years. The average time since burn injury was 15.4 years (0-74 years) and the average total body surface area burned was 40% (1-97%). The CFA indicated acceptable fit statistics (CFI range 0.913-0.977, TLI range 0.904-0.974, RMSEA range 0.06-0.096). The six unidimensional scales were named: relationships with family and friends, social interactions, social activities, work and employment, romantic relationships, and sexual relationships. The marginal reliability of the full item bank and CATs ranged from 0.84 to 0.93, with ceiling effects less than 15% for all scales. The LIBRE Profile is a promising new measure of social participation following a burn injury that enables burn survivors and their care providers to measure social participation.

  18. Burns in sub-Saharan Africa: A review. (United States)

    Nthumba, Peter M


    Burns are important preventable causes of morbidity and mortality, with a disproportionate incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. The management of these injuries in sub-Saharan Africa is a challenge because of multiple other competing problems such as infectious diseases (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria), terrorist acts and political instability. There is little investment in preventive measures, pre-hospital, in-hospital and post-discharge care of burns, resulting in high numbers of burns, high morbidity and mortality. Lack of data that can be used in legislation and policy formulation is a major hindrance in highlighting the problem of burns in this sub-region. An online search of publications on burns from sub-Saharan countries was performed. A total of 54 publications with 32,862 patients from 14 countries qualified for inclusion in the study. The average age was 15.3 years. Children aged 10 years and below represented over 80% of the burn patient population. Males constituted 55% of those who suffered burns. Scalds were the commonest cause of thermal injuries, accounting for 59% of all burns, while flame burns accounted for 33%. The burn mortality averaged 17%, or the death of one of every five burn victims. These statistics indicate the need for an urgent review of burn policies and related legislation across the sub-Saharan region to help reduce burns, and provide a safe environment for children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Burn prevention in Zambia: a targeted epidemiological approach. (United States)

    Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin


    The aim of this study is to assess primary burn prevention knowledge in a rural Zambian population that is disproportionately burdened by burn injuries. A 10-question survey was completed by youths, and a 15-question survey was completed by adults. The survey was available in both English and Nyanja. The surveys were designed to test their knowledge in common causes, first aid, and emergency measures regarding burn injuries. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between burn knowledge, age, school, and socioeconomic variables. A burn prevention coloring book, based on previous local epidemiological data, was also distributed to 800 school age youths. Five hundred fifty youths and 39 adults completed the survey. The most significant results show knowledge deficits in common causes of burns, first aid treatment of a burn injury, and what to do in the event of clothing catching fire. Younger children were more likely to do worse than older children. The adults performed better than the youths, but still lack fundamental burn prevention and treatment knowledge. Primary burn prevention data from the youths and adults surveyed demonstrate a clear need for burn prevention and treatment education in this population. In a country where effective and sustainable burn care is lacking, burn prevention may be a better investment to reduce burn injury than large investments in healthcare resources.

  20. How to Help a Person with a Serious Burn Injury (United States)

    ... How To Help A Person With A Serious Burn Injury Wellness For Parents Professionals Caregivers Printable Version ... volunteer to help out! Kathy Edwards is a burn survivor and professor in the Department of Communication ...

  1. Effects of certain burning treatments on veld condition in Giant's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of certain burning treatments on veld condition in Giant's Castle Game Reserve. ... Keywords: above-ground standing crop; basal cover; burning; composition change; giant's castle game reserve; natal ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Relations between soil hydraulic properties and burn severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moody, J.A.; Ebel, B.A.; Stoof, C.R.; Nyman, P.; Martin, D.A.; McKinley, R.


    Wildfire can affect soil hydraulic properties, often resulting in reduced infiltration. The magnitude of change in infiltration varies depending on the burn severity. Quantitative approaches to link burn severity with changes in infiltration are lacking. This study uses controlled laboratory

  3. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    in the small scale water basin. Boilovers were also observed during the burning of a heavy crude oil with a substantial light fraction without a water layer, however, which suggests that water is not essential for boilover occurrence. Further studies are required to determine the conditions under which......The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...

  4. Evolution of Burn Resuscitation in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Kevin K; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Wolf, Steven E; White, Chrsitopher E; Renz, Evan M; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Holcomb, John B; Barillo, David J


    ... of the burn resuscitation. Critical advances in air evacuation of the war wounded, thorough prewar planning, and sustained burn care education of deployed personnel have proven vital in the optimal care of our injured soldiers...

  5. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Almostafa


    Full Text Available Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning, erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameters affect on erosive burning. Investigate the phenomena of the erosive burning by using the 2’inch rocket motor and modified one. Different tests applied to fulfil all the parameters that calculated out from the experiments and by studying the pressure time curve and erosive burning phenomena.

  6. Explosive helium burning in white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhlov, A.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)


    Helium burning kinetics in white dwarfs has been considered at constant temperatures T >= 10/sup 9/ K and densities rho >10/sup 5/ g/cm/sup 3/. It is found, that helium detonation in white dwarfs does not lead to formation of light (A < 56) elements. Thus, helium white dwarf model for supernova 1 is inconsistent with observations.

  7. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin


    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  8. Long standing intra oral acid burn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, V.V.; Ebenezer, S.; Lobbezoo, F.


    Oral burn due to ingestion of corrosive substances can bring about debilitating consequences. It often brings mortality, and the survivors can have severe impairment of functions, especially in relation to the stomatognathic and gastrointestinal systems. This article presents a long-standing case

  9. Biomass burning and the disappearing tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, T.E.


    The author discusses the implications of reduced biological diversity as a result of slash and burn agriculture in the tropical rainforest. The importance of global management of forests to prevent a buildup of carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect is emphasized

  10. Segmentation and Classification of Burn Color Images (United States)


    SEGMENTATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF BURN COLOR IMAGES Begoña Acha1, Carmen Serrano1, Laura Roa2 1Área de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones ...2000, Las Vegas (USA), pp. 411-415. [21] G. Wyszecki and W.S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (New

  11. Initial Burn Pan (JMTF) Testing Results (United States)


    burn pan and one located high on the Ex-USS Shadwell. There were also a number of GoPro cameras (3-4) that were positioned to observe specific...locations around the test area. A remote control drone equipped with a GoPro camera was also used to video the third test. All recorded video and still

  12. Managing a patient with burning mouth syndrome (United States)

    Cheung, Danny; Trudgill, Nigel


    A 64-year-old woman presented with an increasing frequency of symptoms of heartburn and retrosternal pain over the last few months, and a constant and intense burning pain affecting her tongue tip, mouth and lips for the past 5 years. She found consuming hot drinks exacerbated the burning oral pain and chewing gum seemed to alleviate some of her symptoms. She thought these oral sensations were caused by frequently licking her finger tips to separate prints in her work in publishing. She had been previously diagnosed with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), and her heartburn symptoms had been controlled until recently with lansoprazole 15 mg daily. Her past medical history included irritable bowel syndrome and depression, for which she had been treated with mebeverine and paroxetine for a number of years. She was a non-smoker and did not consume alcohol. Clinical examination was unremarkable with no oral lesions on examination. Her routine laboratory tests, including autoimmune serology, haematinics and thyroid function tests were all within normal limits. She underwent a gastroscopy, which revealed moderate reflux oesophagitis, and following commencing omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, her heartburn resolved. However, her oral burning symptoms were not affected and a diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) was made. Following explanation and reassurance concerning the cause of her BMS symptoms, she chose not to receive treatment for this but to access cognitive behavioural therapy in the future if her symptoms worsened. PMID:28839812

  13. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update. (United States)

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride.

  14. [Treatment of burn wounds with dibunol liniment]. (United States)

    Shalonov, P M; Dadabaev, T D; Khalilov, Kh N


    In 40 burned patients with the area of damage from 10 to 40% of the body surface in local treatment with dibunol against the background of active infusion-transfusion therapy, the accelerated rejection of the necrotic crust was noted, which permitted to reduce the period of preparation for autodermoplasty. The antiinflammatory effect of dibunol was established.

  15. Cloud condensation nuclei from biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.F.; Hudson, J.G.; Zielinska, B.; Tanner, R.L.; Hallett, J.; Watson, J.G.


    In this work, the authors have analyzed biomass and crude oil smoke samples for ionic and organic species. The cloud condensation nuclei activities of the smoke particles are discussed in terms of the measured chemical compositions of the smoke samples. The implications of biomass burning to global climatic change are discussed

  16. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning (United States)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  17. Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan (United States)

    R. J. Yokelson; J. D. Crounse; P. F. DeCarlo; T. Karl; S. Urbanski; E. Atlas; T. Campos; Y. Shinozuka; V. Kapustin; A. D. Clarke; A. Weinheimer; D. J. Knapp; D. D. Montzka; J. Holloway; P. Weibring; F. Flocke; W. Zheng; D. Toohey; P. O. Wennberg; C. Wiedinmyer; L. Mauldin; A. Fried; D. Richter; J. Walega; J. L. Jimenez; K. Adachi; P. R. Buseck; S. R. Hall; R. Shetter


    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/ US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle...

  18. The Newfoundland oil spill burn experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.


    A major offshore oil-spill combustion experiment is being planned for waters off Newfoundland. The experiment is designed to answer outstanding questions on the acceptability of in-situ oil spill burning. In the experiment, variables will be controlled to allow quantitative measurement of the scientific and operational parameters that will enhance understanding of in-situ combustion as an operational oil-spill response technique. The proposed full-scale tests follow six years of testing in laboratory tanks. Analyses have shown that the high temperatures reached during efficient in-situ combustion result in relatively complete destruction of the oil. Tests have shown that the most important factor in this regard is that the oil must be thickened sufficiently before effective burning will occur. Such thickening is potentially possible in the offshore, under suitable wind and sea conditions, using fireproof containment booms. The experiment will involve measurement of emissions to the air, levels of oil in water, and operational parameters of in-situ burning. Time and location of the experiment are chosen to minimize ecological damage and for operational reasons. When suitable conditions are present in early August 1993, two 45-m 3 batches of crude oil will be released into a containment boom and ignited. The burn residue will be recovered mechanically, and a secondary containment and recovery system will be towed behind the fireproof boom to pick up any fugitive oil or residue. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh


    Full Text Available Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of and were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used.The results indicated that is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment.

  20. Emissions from burning of softwood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Maria; Kjaellstrand, Jennica


    Softwood pellets from three different Swedish manufacturers were burnt in laboratory scale to determine compounds emitted. The emissions were sampled on Tenax cartridges and assessed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. No large differences in the emissions from pellets from different manufacturers were observed. The major primary semi-volatile compounds released during flaming burning were 2-methoxyphenols from lignin. The methoxyphenols are of interest due to their antioxidant effect, which may counteract health hazards of aromatic hydrocarbons. Glowing combustion released the carcinogenic benzene as the predominant aromatic compound. However, the benzene emissions were lower than from flaming burning. To relate the results from the laboratory burnings to emissions from pellet burners and pellet stoves, chimney emissions were determined for different burning equipments. The pellet burner emitted benzene as the major aromatic compound, whereas the stove and boiler emitted phenolic antioxidants together with benzene. As the demand for pellets increases, different biomass wastes will be considered as raw materials. Ecological aspects and pollution hazards indicate that wood pellets should be used primarily for residential heating, whereas controlled large-scale combustion should be preferred for pellets made of most other types of biomass waste. (Author)

  1. An atmospheric dispersion index for prescribed burning (United States)

    Leonidas G. Lavdas


    A numerical index that estimates the atmosphere's capacity to disperse smoke from prescribed burning is described. The physical assumptions and mathematical development of the index are given in detail. A preliminary interpretation of dispersion index values is offered. A FORTRAN subroutine package for computing the index is included.

  2. Protect the Ones You Love From Burns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from burns, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  3. Burn Treatment: Annual Research Progress Report. (United States)


    with syphilis, and fermentative gram-negative bacilli representing the enteric fevers , typhoid and paratyphoid, dysentery, arid the whole realm of...activity, poor feeding and petechial or ecchymotic lesions of the eschar. A few of these animals bled from the eschar, most commonly at the burned-unburned

  4. Predicting postoperative haemoglobin changes after burn surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burn surgery is associated with significant blood loss and fluid shifts that cause rapid haemoglobin (Hb) changes during and after surgery. Understanding the relationship between intraoperative and postoperative (day 1) Hb changes may assist in avoiding postoperative anaemia and unnecessary ...

  5. Medical management of radiation burns - some experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, G.K.


    Localized exposure resulting in radiation burns are serious injuries, seen not only in this country but all over the world. All of these injuries have resulted from accidents in Industrial Radiography (non-destructive testing). In our country all these injuries have occurred in the private sectors who handle these radiography sources. These sources can be of Iridium-192 or Cobalt-60. Some of these accidents have occurred involving trained radiographers but sometimes casual workers have been exposed. Skin is highly vulnerable to the external radiation exposure. Damage of varying extent can be seen following radiotherapy and accidents involving X- and gamma-ray sources. The reaction is related to the absorbed dose, which in turn is dependent upon the energy of radiation and weather it is particulate or electromagnetic radiation. Beta particles give up their energy within a short range and hence are more hazardous. Radiation burns develop slowly and blister formation occurs usually after 4 weeks. After exposure the skin response occurs in the form of transient erythema, fixed erythema, transepidermal burns, full thickness radiation burns and epilation. In radiation accidents, particularly those involving X-ray machines, the patients may not be aware of the time of accident and the dose may not be known in those circumstances. The medical management and treatment of such patients, therefore, has its own challenges. This talk will share some experiences on treatment of radiation injuries. (author)

  6. Etiology of Burn Injuries Among 0-6 Aged Children in One University Hospital Burn Unit, Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Akansel


    Full Text Available Background; Children whose verbal communications are not fully developed are the ones at risk for burn injuries. Causes of burn injuries vary among different age groups and scald injuries are the common cause of burn injuries among children. The majority of burns result from contact with thermal agents such as flame, hot surfaces, or hot liquids.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine etiologic factors of the burn injured children Methods: Data were collected for burn injured children treated in Uludag University Medical Hospital Burn Unit between January 2001 – December 2008. Patients’ demographic variables, etiology of burn injury, TBSA(total body surface area, degree of the burn injury, duration of hospitalization was detected from medical records of the hospitalized patients.Results: The mean age of the children was 2.5±1.5 (median=2. Although 4.6 % of burned patients were under one year of age, most of the children (67.8% were between 1-3 years. All of the patients were burned as a result of accident and house environment was the place where the burn incident occurred. Burn injuries occurredmostly during summer (29.9% and spring (28.7%. Scald injuries (75.3% were mostly seen burn injury types all among other burn injuries.Conclusions: Lack of supervision and observation are usually the most common causes of burn injuries in children. Statistical differences were found among age groups according to their burn etiology (p<0.05. An effect of TBSA on patient survival was statistically significant (p<0.000 and also statistically significant results were seen among age groups according to their TBSA’s (p<0.005.

  7. Burn Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [burn_preapproval_area_LOSCO_2000 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ burning, according...

  8. Vaporization order and burning efficiency of crude oils during in-situ burning on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    furthermore showed that the vaporization was diffusion-limited. Analysis of the heat transfer balance for the crude oils indicated that the energy available for evaporation decreased over time due to increasing heat losses, which were caused by the volatility controlled vaporization order. Presumably, larger......In order to improve the understanding of the burning efficiency and its observed size dependency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water, the vaporization order of the components in crude oils was studied. The vaporization order of such multicomponent fuels was assessed by studying the surface...... these results. The crude oils did not show any steady state behavior, but instead had an increasing surface temperature and decreasing burning rate and flame height, indicating a volatility controlled vaporization order. An increasing concentration gradient from the medium to heavy fraction in the burn residues...

  9. Calculation using MVP and MVP-BURN in JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komeda, Masao; Kato, Tomoaki; Murayama, Yoji; Yamashita, Kiyonobu


    MVP is the particle-transport Monte Carlo code that has been developed in JAEA. MVP-BURN is an added function to do burn-up calculation. It is easy to built complex structure like core for MVP. And it is easy to do calculations of keff, any reaction rate, flux, burn-up and so on. In this report, it is introduced MVP and MVP-BURN. And some sample calculations of JRR-3 are shown. (author)

  10. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome


    Bilgen Erdoğan; Murat Yılmaz


    Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  11. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgen Erdoğan


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  12. The burning and smoke release rates of sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.


    The burning rates and smoke release fractions of sodium pool fires have been measured over the pool temperature range 250 0 C to 750 0 C. A theoretical model is derived which satisfactorily predicts the burning rate over the above temperature range. The theory further predicts that the burning rate should be independent of pool diameter, a prediction supported by a comparison of burning rate data from this study and available data from other studies. (author)

  13. Music therapy for children with severe burn injury


    Edwards, Jane


    peer-reviewed Music therapy for children with severe burns is a developing field of practice and research interest in pediatric music therapy. The following article presents an overview of the nature of severe burn injury and provides a rationale for the use of music therapy in the Burn Unit. The application of song writing techniques to address needs of children receiving care for severe burns in a hospital setting is presented.

  14. Posttraumatic Stress and Cognitive Processes in Patients with Burns


    Sveen, Josefin


    A severe burn is one of the most traumatic injuries a person can experience. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common after burns, and can be devastating for the individual’s possibilities for recovery. The principal aims were to gain knowledge regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms and cognitive processes after burn and to evaluate methods for assessing symptoms of PTSD up to one year after burn. The psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Impact of Event Scale-...

  15. Accelerant-related burns and drug abuse: Challenging combination. (United States)

    Leung, Leslie T F; Papp, Anthony


    Accelerants are flammable substances that may cause explosion when added to existing fires. The relationships between drug abuse and accelerant-related burns are not well elucidated in the literature. Of these burns, a portion is related to drug manufacturing, which have been shown to be associated with increased burn complications. 1) To evaluate the demographics and clinical outcomes of accelerant-related burns in a Provincial Burn Centre. 2) To compare the clinical outcomes with a control group of non-accelerant related burns. 3) To analyze a subgroup of patients with history of drug abuse and drug manufacturing. Retrospective case control study. Patient data associated with accelerant-related burns from 2009 to 2014 were obtained from the British Columbia Burn Registry. These patients were compared with a control group of non-accelerant related burns. Clinical outcomes that were evaluated include inhalational injury, ICU length of stay, ventilator support, surgeries needed, and burn complications. Chi-square test was used to evaluate categorical data and Student's t-test was used to evaluate mean quantitative data with the p value set at 0.05. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate factors affecting burn complications. Accelerant-related burns represented 28.2% of all burn admissions (N=532) from 2009 to 2014. The accelerant group had higher percentage of patients with history of drug abuse and was associated with higher TBSA burns, ventilator support, ICU stay and pneumonia rates compared to the non-accelerant group. Within the accelerant group, there was no difference in clinical outcomes amongst people with or without history of drug abuse. Four cases were associated with methamphetamine manufacturing, all of which underwent ICU stay and ventilator support. Accelerant-related burns cause significant burden to the burn center. A significant proportion of these patients have history of drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights

  16. Partial-thickness burn wounds healing by topical treatment


    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Faeze; Lashkari, Ardalan Pasdaran; Lahiji, Hossein Ghavvami; Mobayyen, Mohammadreza; Heidarzade, Abtin; Golchai, Javad


    Abstract Background: Burns are common event and associated with a high incidence of death, disability, and high costs. Centella asiatica (L.) is a medicinal herb, commonly growing in humid areas in several tropical countries that improve wound healing. On the basis of previous studies, we compared the efficacy of Centiderm versus silver sulfadiazine (SSD) in partial thickness burning patients. Methods: Study population comprised burn victims referred to Velayat Burning Hospital at Rasht, Iran...

  17. Survival after burn in a sub-Saharan burn unit: Challenges and opportunities (United States)

    Tyson, Anna F.; Boschini, Laura P.; Kiser, Michelle M.; Samuel, Jonathan C.; Mjuweni, Steven N.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Charles, Anthony G.


    Background Burns are among the most devastating of all injuries and a major global public health crisis, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, aggressive management of burns continues to lower overall mortality and increase lethal total body surface area (TBSA) at which 50% of patients die (LA50). However, lack of resources and inadequate infrastructure significantly impede such improvements in developing countries. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to the burn center at Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi between June 2011 and December 2012. We collected information including patient age, gender, date of admission, mechanism of injury, time to presentation to hospital, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, comorbidities, date and type of operative procedures, date of discharge, length of hospital stay, and survival. We then performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with increased mortality. Results A total of 454 patients were admitted during the study period with a median age of 4 years (range 0.5 months to 79 years). Of these patients, 53% were male. The overall mean TBSA was 18.5%, and average TBSA increased with age—17% for 0–18 year olds, 24% for 19–60 year olds, and 41% for patients over 60 years old. Scald and flame burns were the commonest mechanisms, 52% and 41% respectively, and flame burns were associated with higher mortality. Overall survival in this population was 82%; however survival reduced with increasing age categories (84% in patients 0–18 years old, 79% in patients 19–60 years old, and 36% in patients older than 60 years). TBSA remained the strongest predictor of mortality after adjusting for age and mechanism of burn. The LA50 for this population was 39% TBSA. Discussion Our data reiterate that burn in Malawi is largely a pediatric disease and that the high burn mortality and relatively low LA50 have modestly improved

  18. Methoxyphenols in smoke from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaellstrand, J


    Wood and other forest plant materials were burned in laboratory experiments with the ambition to simulate the natural burning course in a fireplace or a forest fire. Smoke samples were taken and analysed with respect to methoxyphenols, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Different kinds of bio pellets, intended for residential heating were studied in the same way. The aim of a first study was to establish analytical data to facilitate further research. Thirty-six specific methoxyphenols were identified, and gas chromatographic retention and mass spectrometric data were determined for these. In a subsequent study, the methoxyphenol emissions from the burning of wood and other forest plant materials were investigated. Proportions and concentrations of specific methoxyphenols were determined. Methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, formed from the decomposition of lignin and cellulose respectively, were the most prominent semi-volatile compounds in the biomass smoke. The methoxyphenol compositions reflected the lignin structures of different plant materials. Softwood smoke contained almost only 2-methoxyphenols, while hardwood smoke contained both 2-methoxyphenols and 2,6-dimethoxyphenols. The methoxyphenols in smoke from pellets, made of sawdust, bark and lignin, reflected the source of biomass. Although smoke from incompletely burned wood contains mainly methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, there is also a smaller amount of well-known hazardous compounds present. The methoxyphenols are antioxidants. They appear mainly condensed on particles and are presumed to be inhaled together with other smoke components. As antioxidants, phenols interrupt free radical chain reactions and possibly counteract the effect of hazardous smoke components. Health hazards of small-scale wood burning should be re-evaluated considering antioxidant effects of the methoxyphenols.

  19. Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsin, H.; Stephanazzi, J.; Lambert, F.; Curet, P.M.; Gourmelon, P.


    Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents. After a severe burn, the injured person is weakened by a risk of infection and a general inflammation. The necrotic tissues have to be removed because they are toxic for the organism. The injured person also needs to be covered by a cutaneous envelope, which has to be done by a treatment centre for burned people. The different techniques are the following: - auto grafts on limited burned areas; - cutaneous substitutes to cover temporary extended burned areas. Among them: natural substitutes like xenografts (pork skin, sheep skin,..) or allografts (human skin), - treated natural substitutes which only maintain the extracellular matrix. Artificial skins belong to this category and allow the development of high quality scars, - cell cultures in the laboratory: multiplying the individual cells and grafting them onto the patient. This technique is not common but allows one to heal severely injured patients. X-ray burns are still a problem. Their characteristics are analysed: intensive, permanent, antalgic resistant pain. They are difficult to compare with heat burns. In spite of a small number of known cases, we can give some comments and guidance on radio necrosis cures: the importance of the patients comfort, of ending the pain, of preventing infection, and nutritional balance. At the level of epidermic inflammation and phlyctena (skin blisters), the treatment may be completed by the use of growth factors. At the level of necrosis, after a temporary cover, an auto graft can be considered only if a healthy basis is guaranteed. The use of cellular cultures in order to obtain harmonious growth factors can be argued. (author)

  20. Predictors of Discharge Disposition in Older Adults With Burns: A Study of the Burn Model Systems. (United States)

    Pham, Tam N; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Martinez, Erin; Lezotte, Dennis; Rietschel, Carly; Holavanahalli, Radha; Kowalske, Karen; Esselman, Peter C


    Older patients with burn injury have a greater likelihood for discharge to nursing facilities. Recent research indicates that older patients discharged to nursing facilities are two to three times as likely to die within a 3-year period relative to those discharged to home. In light of these poor long-term outcomes, we conducted this study to identify predictors for discharge to independent vs nonindependent living status in older patients hospitalized for burns. We retrospectively reviewed all older adults (age ≥ 55 years) who were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal multicenter study of outcomes from 1993 to 2011. Patient, injury, and treatment outcomes data were analyzed. Recognizing that transfer to inpatient rehabilitation may have impacted final hospital discharge disposition: we assessed the likelihood of inpatient rehabilitation stay, based on identified predictors of inpatient rehabilitation. We subsequently performed a logistic regression analysis on the clustered, propensity-matched cohort to assess associations of burn and injury characteristics on the primary outcome of final discharge status. A total of 591 patients aged ≥55 years were treated and discharged alive from three participating U.S. burn centers during the study period. Mean burn size was 14.8% (SD 11.2%) and mean age was 66.7 years (SD 9.3 years). Ninety-three patients had an inpatient rehabilitation stay before discharge (15.7%). Significant factors predictive of inpatient rehabilitation included a burn >20% TBSA, mechanical ventilation, older age, range of motion deficits at acute care discharge, and study site. These factors were included in the propensity model. Four hundred seventy-one patients (80%) were discharged to independent living status. By matched propensity analysis, older age was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of discharge to nonindependent living (P burn centers need to be elucidated to better understand discharge disposition status in older

  1. Coagulopathy and its management in patients with severe burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, G. J.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Schultz, M. J.


    Severe burn injury is associated with systemic coagulopathy. The changes in coagulation described in patients with severe burns resemble those found patients with sepsis or major trauma. Coagulopathy in patients with severe burns is characterized by procoagulant changes, and impaired fibrinolytic

  2. Epidermal-dermal crosstalk during burn wound scar maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. Hakvoort (Eveline)


    textabstractBurn injuries arc among the worst traumas which can happen to man. The larger a burn injury, the more severe the consequences and the highcr the chance of an adverse outcome or even death. In The Netherlands each year 40,000 people visit a general practitioner for treatment of a burn

  3. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Age Group Special Needs Space and Place Home Risks Burns and Scalds Type Video Audience Parents You are here Home Safety Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch ...

  4. Prevention of Infections Associated with Combat-Related Burn Injuries (United States)


    microbial flora and wound colonization in burned patients. Burns. 2004;30:357–361. 20. Barret JP, Herndron DN. Effects of burn wound excision on bacterial...Biobrane versus 1% silver sulfadiazine. Ann Emerg Med. 1990;19:121–124. 57. Barret JP, Dziewulski P, Ramzy PI, Wolf SE, Desai MH, Herndon DN

  5. Surgical management and hypermetabolic modulation of pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret Nerín, Juan Pedro


    The purpose of the present thesis is to test the hypothesis that immediate burn wound excision of massive pediatric burns is safe and efficacious, presenting with negligible postoperative complications and with salutary effects on the inflammatory and catabolic response after burn injury.

  6. Towards a national burns disaster plan | Rogers | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Society for Burns Injuries (ISBI) has published guidelines for the management of multiple or mass burns casualties, and recommends that 'each country has or should have a disaster planning system that addresses its own particular needs. The need for a national burns disaster plan integrated with ...

  7. The trend of acute burns pre-hospital management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Hamdiya


    Conclusions: Burn injuries are common in our settings, a more reason for all to know the immediate intervention to give to victims of such accidents. The kind of first aid administered to burns victims possibly affects the burns management outcome. Thus, the earlier the right intervention implemented, the lesser the complications.

  8. Epidemiology of burn injuries in Mekele Town, Northern Ethiopia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Epidemiological study on burn injuries and exploration of the risk factors in different settings is important for effective intervention. Very little is known about burn injuries in Ethiopia. Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the annual incidence of burn injuries and to describe the local knowledge about ...

  9. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn what you need ... burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | Visit our YouTube ...

  10. A review of campfire burns in children: The QLD experience. (United States)

    Okon, O; Zhu, L; Kimble, R M; Stockton, K A


    Campfire burns in children are a significant health issue. It is imperative that the extent of the problem is examined and strategies discussed to inform future prevention campaigns. A retrospective review of data from the Queensland Paediatric Burns Registry for all children presenting with campfire burns between January 2013 and December 2014 (inclusive). Information collected included patient demographics, detail regarding mechanism of injury, first aid, Total Body Surface Area (TBSA), burn depth, and treatment. Seventy-five children with campfire burns were seen in our paediatric burns centre during this 2-year period. The median age of patients was 3 years (range 10 days-14 years). The hands and feet were the areas most commonly affected. Eleven percent of patients suffered flame burns, whilst 89% suffered contact burns from the hot coals or ashes. Of the latter group, approximately half experienced burns from campfires that had been extinguished for at least one night. Thirteen percent of patients underwent split thickness skin grafting. The incidence of burns was increased during school holiday months. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of targeted campaigns in reducing the incidence of campfire burns. A significant portion of patients sustained burns from incorrectly extinguished campfires. These injuries are likely to be preventable with ongoing public awareness campaigns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. New Scientific Aspects of the "Burning Candle" Experiment (United States)

    Massalha, Taha


    The "burning candle" experiment is used in middle school education programs to prove that air contains a component that is essential to burning (i.e., oxygen). The accepted interpretation taught by teachers in middle school is this: when burning occurs, oxygen is used up, creating an underpressure that causes a rise in water level inside…

  12. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning. (United States)


    ... storage units that store mixtures of hazardous waste and the primary fuel to the boiler or industrial... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace...

  13. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T.T.; van der Werf, G.R.; Hoffmann, A.A.; Detmers, R.G.; Ruecker, G.; French, N.H.F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho Jr., J.A.; Cook, G.D.; de Groot, J.W.; Hely, C.; Kasischke, E.S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J.L.; Pettinari, M.L.; Savadogo, P.


    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions.

  14. Scheduling prescribed burns for hazard reduction in the southeast (United States)

    Stephen S. Sackett


    Twelve-year studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain revealed that pine stands should be burned every three years to reduce natural fuels and thus forestall damage from possible wildfires. Rates of overstory growth were not significantly different in burned and unburned stands. Guidelines for prescribed burning of pine stands in this region are presented.

  15. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Hospitalized Burn Patients in Gaza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUNG: Burns are serious health problems and leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This study aimed to overview the epidemiological profile and to present outcomes among hospitalized burn patients in AL Alamy burn center in Gaza. METHODS: This was a ...

  16. Axial profiles of burned and fraction of holes for calculations of criticality with credit for BWR fuel burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado Sanchez, C.; Rubio Oviedo, P.


    This paper presents a method to define surround profiles of burning and fraction of holes suited for use in applications of credit to burning of BWR fuel from results obtained with the module STARBUCS of SCALE. (Author)

  17. Bacteriological profile of burn wound isolates in a burns center of a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amankwa Richcane


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of burn wound isolates.Methods: Swabs were taken from burn wound of patients admitted to Ward D2C and Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU from December 2014 to November 2015. Samples were processed at the Microbiology Laboratory for identification and sensitivity. Bacteria isolated were identified using their morphological characteristics, Gram staining reaction and biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Questionnaires were also administered to study participants to obtain information on demography, kind of first aid received, antibiotics received prior to culture and sensitivity.Results: A total of 86 patients comprising 45 patients from Ward D2C and 41 from BICU participated in the study. Males were 51(59.3% and females 35 (40.7%. Age of participants ranged from 0–56+ years. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest pathogen isolated 26(30.2%, followed by Pseudomonas spp. 21(24.4%, Escherichia coli 17(19.8%, Klebsiella spp. 12(14.0%. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus accounted for 2(2.3%. Overall prevalence of infection in the study was 90.7%.Conclusions: Burn wound infection continues to be a major challenge in burn centers. Regular surveillance of commonly identified pathogens in the ward and their antimicrobial susceptibility will guide proper empiric selection of antibiotics for management of burn wounds.

  18. The effect of burn rehabilitation massage therapy on hypertrophic scar after burn: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Soo; Jeon, Jong Hyun; Hong, Aram; Yang, Hyeong Tae; Yim, Haejun; Cho, Yong Suk; Kim, Do-Hern; Hur, Jun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chun, Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Seo, Cheong Hoon


    To evaluate the effect of burn rehabilitation massage therapy on hypertrophic scar after burn. One hundred and forty-six burn patients with hypertrophic scar(s) were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. All patients received standard rehabilitation therapy for hypertrophic scars and 76 patients (massage group) additionally received burn scar rehabilitation massage therapy. Both before and after the treatment, we determined the scores of visual analog scale (VAS) and itching scale and assessed the scar characteristics of thickness, melanin, erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum, and elasticity by using ultrasonography, Mexameter(®), Tewameter(®), Sebumeter(®), and Cutometer(®), respectively. The scores of both VAS and itching scale decreased significantly in both groups, indicating a significant intragroup difference. With regard to the scar characteristics, the massage group showed a significant decrease after treatment in scar thickness, melanin, erythema, TEWL and a significant intergroup difference. In terms of scar elasticity, a significant intergroup difference was noted in immediate distension and gross skin elasticity, while the massage group significant improvement in skin distensibility, immediate distension, immediate retraction, and delayed distension. Our results suggest that burn rehabilitation massage therapy is effective in improving pain, pruritus, and scar characteristics in hypertrophic scars after burn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Fungal Urinary Tract Infection in Burn Patients‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Yousuf Aldorkee


    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common hospital-acquired infection. Fungal species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. Burn patients are susceptible to nosocomial infections owing to the immunocompromising effects of burn injury, cutaneous and respiratory tract injury, prolonged intensive care unit stays and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Objective: The study population includes adult patients of both genders who presented with different percentages of body burns. Urine sample was collected from each patient at the time of admission and weekly thereafter for 6 weeks and sent for general urine examination and urine culture to test for the possibility of fungal growth. Those who found to develop fungal UTI by urine culture during their hospitalization and had no infection at the time of admission were selected as subjects for our study. Results: 28 (18.6% patients had positive fungal culture during their hospitalization, 11 of them were males and 17 were females, the most common age of presentation was 41-50 years and the mean age ± SD was (44.4 ± 10.7 years. The most common isolated fungi were Candida albicans (64.3%, followed by Candida glabrata (21.4% and Candida tropicalis (7.1%. The majority of patients developed infection within the 2nd and 3rd weeks of hospitalization, however, those who presented with total body surface area burned > 40% developed an earlier infection within the 1st week. Female gender, urethral catheterization and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with higher risk of infection as the P values were 0.03, 0.005 and 0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fungal urinary tract infection occurred in 18.6% of burn patients. The most common causative fungi are candida species. Advanced age, female gender, high percentage of

  20. Importance of proper initial treatment of moderate and major burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulović Dejan


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Burns are common injuries with frequency depending on human factors, development of protection, industry and traffic, eventual wars. Organized treatment of major burn injuries has tremendous medical, social and economic importance. The aim of this study was to analyze initial treatment of major and moderate burns, to compare it with the current recommendations and to signify the importance of organized management of burns. Methods. In a prospective study 547 adult patients with major burns were analyzed, covering a period of eight years, with the emphasis on the initial hospital admission and emergency care for burns greater than 10% of total body surface area (TBSA. Results. In the different groups of major burns, the percentage of hospital admission was: 81.5 in burns greater than 10% TBSA, 37.7 in burns of the functional areas, 54.5 in the III degree burns, 81.6 in electrical burns, 55.9 in chemical burns, 61.9 in inhalation injury, 41.0 in burns in patients with the greater risk and 100 in burns with a concomitant trauma. In the group of 145 patients with burns greater than 10% TBSA, intravenous fluids were given in 87 patients, analgesics in 45, corticosteroids in 29, antibiotics in 23 and oxygen administration in 14. In the same group, wound irrigation was done in 14.4%, removing of the clothing and shoes in 29.6%, elevation of the legs in 8.9% and prevention of hypothermia in 7.6% of the victims. There were no initial estimations of burn extent (percentage of a burn, notes about the patient and injury and tetanus immunizations. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is concluded that there should be much more initial hospital admissions of major burns, and also, necessary steps in the emergency care of burns greater than 10% TBSA should be taken more frequently. On the other side, unnecessary or wrong steps should be avoided in the initial burn treatment.

  1. Knowledge of childhood burn risks and burn first aid: Cool Runnings. (United States)

    Burgess, Jacqueline D; Watt, Kerrianne A; Kimble, Roy M; Cameron, Cate M


    The high incidence of hot beverage scalds among young children has not changed in the past 15 years, but preventive campaigns have been scarce. A novel approach was used to engage mothers of young children in an app-based hot beverage scald prevention campaign 'Cool Runnings'. This paper provides baseline data for this randomised controlled trial (RCT). Queensland-based mothers aged 18+ years with at least one child aged 5-12 months were recruited via social media to Cool Runnings, which is a two-group, parallel, single-blinded RCT. In total, 498 participants from across Queensland completed the baseline questionnaire. The most common source of burn first aid information was the internet (79%). One-third (33%) correctly identified hot beverage scalds as the leading cause of childhood burns, 43% knew the age group most at risk. While 94% reported they would cool a burn with water, only 10% reported the recommended 20min duration. After adjusting for all relevant variables, there were two independent predictors of adequate burn first aid knowledge: first aid training in the past year (OR=3.32; 95% CI 1.8 to 6.1) and smoking status (OR=0.17; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.7). In this study, mothers of young children were largely unaware how frequently hot beverage scalds occur and the age group most susceptible to them. Inadequate burn first aid knowledge is prevalent across mothers of young children; there is an urgent and compelling need to improve burn first aid knowledge in this group. Given the high incidence of hot beverages scalds in children aged 6-24 months, it is important to target future burn prevention/first aid campaigns at parents of young children. ACTRN12616000019404; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Protocol for a systematic review of quantitative burn wound microbiology in the management of burns patients. (United States)

    Kwei, Johnny; Halstead, Fenella D; Dretzke, Janine; Oppenheim, Beryl A; Moiemen, Naiem S


    Sepsis from burn injuries can result from colonisation of burn wounds, especially in large surface area burns. Reducing bacterial infection will reduce morbidity and mortality, and mortality for severe burns can be as high as 15 %. There are various quantitative and semi-quantitative techniques to monitor bacterial load on wounds. In the UK, burn wounds are typically monitored for the presence or absence of bacteria through the collection and culture of swabs, but no absolute count is obtained. Quantitative burn wound culture provides a measure of bacterial count and is gaining increased popularity in some countries. It is however more resource intensive, and evidence for its utility appears to be inconsistent. This systematic review therefore aims to assess the evidence on the utility and reliability of different quantitative microbiology techniques in terms of diagnosing or predicting clinical outcomes. Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction. Bibliographic databases and ongoing trial registers will be searched and conference abstracts screened. Studies will be eligible if they are prospective studies or systematic reviews of burn patients (any age) for whom quantitative microbiology has been performed, whether it is compared to another method. Quality assessment will be based on quality assessment tools for diagnostic and prognostic studies and tailored to the review as necessary. Synthesis is likely to be primarily narrative, but meta-analysis may be considered where clinical and methodological homogeneity exists. Given the increasing use of quantitative methods, this is a timely systematic review, which will attempt to clarify the evidence base. As far as the authors are aware, it will be the first to address this topic. PROSPERO, CRD42015023903.

  3. [Influence of three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns treatment in Anhui province on treatment effects of burn children]. (United States)

    Xia, Z G; Zhou, X L; Kong, W C; Li, X Z; Song, J H; Fang, L S; Hu, D L; Cai, C; Tang, Y Z; Yu, Y X; Wang, C H; Xu, Q L


    Objective: To explore the influence of three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns in Anhui province on treatment effects of burn children. Methods: The data of medical records of pediatric burn children transferred from Lu'an People's Hospital and Fuyang People's Hospital to the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2014 to December 2015 and January 2016 to September 2017 (before and after establishing three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns treatment) were analyzed: percentage of transferred burn children to hospitalized burn children in corresponding period, gender, age, burn degree, treatment method, treatment result, occurrence and treatment result of shock, and operative and non-operative treatment time and cost. Rehabilitation result of burn children transferred back to local hospitals in 2016 and 2017. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher's exact test. Results: (1) Percentage of burn children transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 was 34.3% (291/848) of the total number of hospitalized burn children in the same period of time, which was close to 30.4% (210/691) of burn children transferred from January 2016 to September 2017 ( χ (2)=2.672, P >0.05). (2) Gender, age, burn degree, and treatment method of burn children transferred from the two periods of time were close ( χ (2)=3.382, Z =-1.917, -1.911, χ (2)=3.133, P >0.05). (3) Cure rates of children with mild, moderate, and severe burns transferred from January 2016 to September 2017 were significantly higher than those of burn children transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 ( χ (2)=11.777, 6.948, 4.310, P burns transferred from the two periods of time were close ( χ (2)=1.181, P >0.05). (4) Children with mild and moderate burns transferred from the two periods of time were with no shock. The incidence of shock of children with severe burns transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 was 6

  4. Assessment of burn-specific health-related quality of life and patient scar status following burn. (United States)

    Oh, Hyunjin; Boo, Sunjoo


    This study assessed patient-perceived levels of scar assessment and burn-specific quality of life (QOL) in Korean burn patients admitted to burn care centers and identified differences in scar assessment and QOL based on various patient characteristics. A cross-sectional descriptive study using anonymous paper-based survey methods was conducted with 100 burn patients from three burn centers specializing in burn care in South Korea. Mean subject age was 44.5 years old, and 69% of the subjects were men. The overall mean QOL was 2.91 out of 5. QOL was lowest for the work subdomain (2.25±1.45) followed by the treatment regimen subdomain (2.32±1.16). The subjects' mean total scar assessment score was 35.51 out of 60, and subjects were most unsatisfied with scar color. Subjects with low income, flame-source burns, severe burns, visible scars, and scars on face or hand reported significantly lower QOL. Subjects with severe burn degree and burn range perceived their burn scar condition to be worse than that of others. The results show that burn subjects experience the most difficulties with their work and the treatment regimen. Subjects with severe burn and visible scarring have a reduced QOL and a poor scar status. Scar management intervention may improve QOL of burn patients especially those with severe burn and visible scars. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the relationship between scar assessment and QOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning (United States)

    Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Mei-Huey


    A database for the spatial and temporal distribution of the amount of biomass burned in tropical America, Africa, and Asia during the late 1970s is presented with a resolution of 5° latitude × 5° longitude. The sources of burning in each grid cell have been quantified. Savanna fires, shifting cultivation, deforestation, fuel wood use, and burning of agricultural residues contribute about 50, 24, 10, 11, and 5%, respectively, of total biomass burned in the tropics. Savanna fires dominate in tropical Africa, and forest fires dominate in tropical Asia. A similar amount of biomass is burned from forest and savanna fires in tropical America. The distribution of biomass burned monthly during the dry season has been derived for each grid cell using the seasonal cycles of surface ozone concentrations. Land use changes during the last decade could have a profound impact on the amount of biomass burned and the amount of trace gases and aerosol particles emitted.

  6. An overview of acute burn management in the Emergency Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaira Landry


    Full Text Available Despite the frequency and severity of burns in Low Income Countries, including many in Africa, there is a paucity of research and funding for these populations to aid in prevention, treatment and recovery of burn patients. The objectives of this paper are four-fold. First, by addressing the pathophysiology of burns the reader may strengthen understanding of the clinical progression of burns. Second, through describing proper assessment of burn patients one will learn how to decide if patients can be discharged, admitted or transferred to burn centre. Third, the inclusion of treatments solidifies the steps necessary to manage a patient in a hospital setting. Lastly, the overall goal of the paper, is to raise awareness that more research, publication and funding is required to create a better understanding of burns in Africa and why they continue to be devastating social and economic burdens.

  7. Core burn-up calculation method of JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Kiyonobu


    SRAC code system is utilized for core burn-up calculation of JRR-3. SRAC code system includes calculation modules such as PIJ, PIJBURN, ANISN and CITATION for making effective cross section and calculation modules such as COREBN and HIST for core burn-up calculation. As for calculation method for JRR-3, PIJBURN (Cell burn-up calculation module) is used for making effective cross section of fuel region at each burn-up step. PIJ, ANISN and CITATION are used for making effective cross section of non-fuel region. COREBN and HIST is used for core burn-up calculation and fuel management. This paper presents details of NRR-3 core burn-up calculation. FNCA Participating countries are expected to carry out core burn-up calculation of domestic research reactor by SRAC code system by utilizing the information of this paper. (author)

  8. [Etiological analysis of subambient temperature burn in 351 cases of Hefei area]. (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Qi, Weiwei; Xu, Qinglian; Zhou, Shunying; Wang, Guobao


    To study the preventive measure of the subambient temperature burn by analysing the pathogenesis feature. The clinical data were analysed from 351 cases of subambient temperature burn between February 2004 and February 2009, including age, sex, burn season, burn factors, burn position, burn area, burn degree, treatment way, and wound healing. Subambient temperature burn occurred in every age stage. The susceptible age stages included infant, children, and the elderly. Female patients were more than male patients. The common burn reasons were hot-water bottle burn, honey warm keeper burn, and heating device burn. The peak season was winter. Lower limb was the most common site of the subambient temperature burn. The deep II degree to III degree were the most common level, and the burn area was always small, often time safety awareness should be strengthened so as to decrease the incidence rate of subambient temperature burn and the injury degree.

  9. Nuclear Burning Wave Modular Fast Reactor Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodochigov, N.G.; Sukharev, Yu.P.


    The necessity to provide nuclear power industry, comparable in a scope with power industry based on a traditional fuel, inspired studies of an open-cycle fast reactor aimed at: - solution of the problem of fuel provision by implementing the highest breeding characteristics of new fissile materials of raw isotopes in a fast reactor and applying accumulated fissile isotopes in the same reactor, independently on a spent fuel reprocessing rate in the external fuel cycle; - application of natural or depleted uranium for makeup fuel, which, with no spent fuel reprocessing, forms the most favorable non-proliferation conditions; - application of inherent properties of the core and reactor for safety provision. The present report, based on previously published papers, gives the theoretical backgrounds of the concept of the reactor with a nuclear burning wave, in which an enriched-fuel core (driver) is replaced by a blanket, and basic conditions for nuclear burning wave initiating and keeping are shown. (author)

  10. Light hydrocarbon emissions from African savanna burnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonsang, B.; Lambert, G.; Boissard, C.C.


    A study was undertaken in West Africa to determine the background mixing ratio of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) during the dry season and to measure the composition of savanna burnings. The experiment was conducted from 13 to 22 January 1989 in the experimental station located at the border of the tropical rainforest and savanna. Samples were collected during aircraft flights at 2,400 m in the free troposphere, at 400 m in the haze layer and in a smoke plume at 200 m altitude. Samples representing the ground-level evolution of the local background were collected at 10 m altitude. Fire samples were collected at a short distance from the fires during the intensive experiments. Results are presented in tables and indicate that the effect of NMHC produced by biomass burning on the tropospheric photochemistry is limited to a few species, namely, C 2 -C 4 alkenes

  11. Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dignon, J.


    Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout most of the history of our planet. Ice core studies have been very beneficial in paleoclimate studies and constraining the budgets of biogeochemical cycles through the past 160,000 years of the Vostok ice core. Although to date there has been no way of determining cause and effect, concentration of greenhouse gases directly correlates with temperature in ice core analyses. Recent ice core studies on Greenland have shown that significant climate change can be very rapid on the order of a decade. This chapter addresses the coupled evolution of our planet's atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate

  12. Healing of cornea following an electric burn. (United States)

    Chaudhry, Tanveer Anjum; Shaikh, Farheen; Ahmad, Khabir


    Electrical injuries have become a significant health problem in developing countries because of increase in access to electricity in the last few decades and lack of adequate safety measures. Electrical injuries of eyes are relatively uncommon. A case report of a rapid and complete corneal healing accompanied by satisfactory visual recovery after an electric burn event in a 20-year-old male is reported. The patient had accidental exposure to high voltage live wire while he was repairing it, resulting in severe ocular and superficial body burn. He was not wearing any protective equipment at the time of injury. On examination, the best-corrected visual acuity was counting fingers in the left eye with severe corneal epithelial loss and diffuse corneal oedema. The patient was treated medically, with a rapid corneal healing and resolution of oedema over the next few days. Visual acuity in the worse eye (left) improved to 20/25 from counting fingers.

  13. Pain Part 8: Burning Mouth Syndrome. (United States)

    Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management.

  14. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles


    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  15. Research on burning of biomass fuels, KTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, U.; Zoukatas, N.; Kutscher, E.; Megas, L.


    The three main principles of combustion, namely burning over the fuel bed, under the bed, and the inverted flame have been investigated. Combustion under the fuel bed rendered the lowest emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, benzopyrene, particulates and tar. Emission is also reduced by preheating the primary incoming air. Burning of pine gives variable emissions whereas birch tree and lying log gives satisfactory combustion. High flame intensity and Reynolds number of the flame zone in the interval 5 to 8 x 10/sup 3/ also give low emission. A conventional wood burner with its flame over the fuel bed and with a water cooled combustion chamber produces 100 times more carbon monoxide than an advanced construction.

  16. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fear, helplessness, concerns and expectations of “being-in-the-world”. Conclusion: respect, understanding and care from the health team were fundamental for the adaptation and the confrontation demanded by the consequent suffering of the event.

  17. Study of nuclear fuel burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelescu, M.; Borza, M.


    The authors approach theoretical treatment of isotopic composition changement for nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors. They show the difficulty of exhaustive treatment of burn-up problems and introduce the principal simplifying principles. Due to these principles they write and solve analytically the evolution equations of the concentration for the principal nuclides both in the case of fast and thermal reactors. Finally, they expose and comment the results obtained in the case of a power fast reactor. (author)

  18. Multi-Accuracy-Level Burning Plasma Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Huynh, P.; Huysmans, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Johner, J.; Scheider, M.


    The design of a reactor grade tokamak is based on a hierarchy of tools. We present here three codes that are presently used for the simulations of burning plasmas. At the first level there is a 0-dimensional code that allows to choose a reasonable range of global parameters; in our case the HELIOS code was used for this task. For the second level we have developed a mixed 0-D / 1-D code called METIS that allows to study the main properties of a burning plasma, including profiles and all heat and current sources, but always under the constraint of energy and other empirical scaling laws. METIS is a fast code that permits to perform a large number of runs (a run takes about one minute) and design the main features of a scenario, or validate the results of the 0-D code on a full time evolution. At the top level, we used the full 1D1/2 suite of codes CRONOS that gives access to a detailed study of the plasma profiles evolution. CRONOS can use a variety of modules for source terms and transport coefficients computation with different level of complexity and accuracy: from simple estimators to highly sophisticated physics calculations. Thus it is possible to vary the accuracy of burning plasma simulations, as a trade-off with computation time. A wide range of scenario studies can thus be made with CRONOS and then validated with post-processing tools like MHD stability analysis. We will present in this paper results of this multi-level analysis applied to the ITER hybrid scenario. This specific example will illustrate the importance of having several tools for the study of burning plasma scenarios, especially in a domain that present devices cannot access experimentally. (Author)

  19. Contact radiator burn subsequent to spinal anaesthesia. (United States)

    Sever, C; Aysal, B K; Sahin, C; Kulahci, Y


    An unusual case is reported in which a patient sustained a third-degree burn of the plantar surface of the right foot as the result of contact with a heating radiator. This occurred when the patient fell asleep in his hospital bed after knee surgery. Spinal anaesthesia is easy to perform, and the risk factors, though present, are not serious. Such accidents are not infrequent and care should be taken to prevent them.

  20. Ecological consequences of shifting the timing of burning tallgrass prairie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gene Towne

    Full Text Available In the Kansas Flint Hills, grassland burning is conducted during a relatively narrow window because management recommendations for the past 40 years have been to burn only in late spring. Widespread prescribed burning within this restricted time frame frequently creates smoke management issues downwind. A potential remedy for the concentrated smoke production in late spring is to expand burning to times earlier in the year. Yet, previous research suggested that burning in winter or early spring reduces plant productivity and cattle weight gain while increasing the proportion of undesirable plant species. In order to better understand the ecological consequences of burning at different times of the year, plant production and species abundance were measured for 20 years on ungrazed watersheds burned annually in autumn, winter, or spring. We found that there were no significant differences in total grass production among the burns on either upland or lowland topographic positions, although spring burned watersheds had higher grass culm production and lower forb biomass than autumn and winter burned watersheds. Burning in autumn or winter broadened the window of grass productivity response to precipitation, which reduces susceptibility to mid-season drought. Burning in autumn or winter also increased the phenological range of species by promoting cool-season graminoids without a concomitant decrease in warm-season grasses, potentially widening the seasonal window of high-quality forage. Incorporating autumn and winter burns into the overall portfolio of tallgrass prairie management should increase the flexibility in managing grasslands, promote biodiversity, and minimize air quality issues caused by en masse late-spring burning with little negative consequences for cattle production.

  1. Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model (United States)

    Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila


    There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153

  2. Tracking the daily availability of burn beds for national emergencies. (United States)

    Barillo, David J; Jordan, Marion H; Jocz, Richard J; Nye, Donna; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Holcomb, John B


    Medical planning for Operation Iraqi Freedom included predictive models of expected number of burn casualties. In all but the best-case scenario, casualty estimates exceeded the capacity of the only Department of Defense burn center. Examination of existing federal-civilian disaster plans for military hospital augmentation revealed that bed availability data were neither timely nor accurate. Recognizing the need for accurate knowledge of burn bed availability, the Department of Defense requested assistance from the American Burn Association (ABA). Directors of burn centers in the United States were queried for interest in participation in a mass casualty plan to provide overflow burn bed capacity. A list of 70 participating burn centers was devised based upon proximity to planned military embarkation points. A computer tracking program was developed. Daily automated e-mail messages requesting bed status were sent to burn center directors at 6 am Central time with responses requested before 11 am. The collated list of national overflow burn bed capacity was e-mailed each day to the ABA Central Office and to federal and military agencies involved with burn patient triage and transportation. Once automated, this task required only 1-2 hours a day. Available burn-bed lists were generated daily between March 17 and May 2, 2003 and then every other day until May 9, 2003. A total of 2151 responses were received (mean, 43 burn centers per day). A system to track daily nationwide burn bed availability was successfully implemented. Although intended for military conflict, this system is equally applicable to civilian mass casualty situations. We advocate adoption of this or a similar bed tracking system by the ABA for use during burn mass casualty incidents.

  3. U.S. Burning Plasma Organization Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, Raymond J.


    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: (1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; (2) activation of the advisory Council; (3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; (4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; (5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  4. [Ischemic cholangiopathy induced by extended burns]. (United States)

    Cohen, Laurence; Angot, Emilie; Goria, Odile; Koning, Edith; François, Arnaud; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe


    Ischemic cholangiopathy is a recently described entity occurring mainly after hepatic grafts. Very few cases after intensive care unit (ICU) for extended burn injury were reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman consulting in an hepatology unit, for a jaundice appearing during a hospitalisation in an intensive care unit and increasing from her leaving from ICU, where she was treated for an extended burn injury. She had no pre-existing biological features of biliary disease. Biological tests were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of biliary tracts pointed out severe stenosing lesions of diffuse cholangiopathy concerning intrahepatic biliary tract, mainly peri-hilar. Biopsie from the liver confirmed the diagnosis, showing a biliary cirrhosis with bile infarcts. This case is the fourth case of ischemic cholangiopathy after extended burn injury, concerning a patient without a prior history of hepatic or biliary illness and appearing after hospitalisation in intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-esteem in severely burned adults. (United States)

    Imran Haider Zaidi, Syed Muhammad; Yaqoob, Nazia; Noreen, Sidra


    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the level of and gender difference in self-esteem among adult victims of severe burn injuries. Severely burned adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in this investigation from March 2015 to April 2016 in five hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahore. Purposive sampling technique was used and a self-esteem scale was used to assess different dimensions of self-esteem. Out of 40 patients, there were 25 men (62.5%) and 15 women (37.5%) with mean age of 28.28±4.60 years (range: 20-40 years). A significant positive relationship between subscales of self-esteem scale were found: self-acceptance and self-competence r=0.55, pself-acceptance and academic self-competence r=0.47, pself-acceptance and social and physical acceptance r=0.57, pself-competence and academic self-competence r=0.48, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.50, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.45, pself-competence among severely burned men and women (t=2.18; pself-competency component of self-esteem among women victims.

  6. Biomass Burning: Major Uncertainties, Advances, and Opportunities (United States)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Veres, P. R.; Hatch, L. E.; Barsanti, K. C.; Liu, X.; Huey, L. G.; Ryerson, T. B.; Dibb, J. E.; Wisthaler, A.; Müller, M.; Alvarado, M. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Toon, O. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.


    Domestic and open biomass burning are poorly-understood, major influences on Earth's atmosphere composed of countless individual fires that (along with their products) are difficult to quantify spatially and temporally. Each fire is a minimally-controlled complex phenomenon producing a diverse suite of gases and aerosols that experience many different atmospheric processing scenarios. New lab, airborne, and space-based observations along with model and algorithm development are significantly improving our knowledge of biomass burning. Several campaigns provided new detailed emissions profiles for previously undersampled fire types; including wildfires, cooking fires, peat fires, and agricultural burning; which may increase in importance with climate change and rising population. Multiple campaigns have better characterized black and brown carbon and used new instruments such as high resolution PTR-TOF-MS and 2D-GC/TOF-MS to improve quantification of semi-volatile precursors to aerosol and ozone. The aerosol evolution and formation of PAN and ozone, within hours after emission, have now been measured extensively. The NASA DC-8 sampled smoke before and after cloud-processing in two campaigns. The DC-8 performed continuous intensive sampling of a wildfire plume from the source in California to Canada probing multi-day aerosol and trace gas aging. Night-time plume chemistry has now been measured in detail. Fire inventories are being compared and improved, as is modeling of mass transfer between phases and sub-grid photochemistry for global models.

  7. [Electrical burns suffered by copper thieves]. (United States)

    Belmir, R; Fejjal, N; Achbouk, H; El Mazouz, S; Gharib, N; Abassi, A; Belmahi, A


    Thefts of copper appear to have been on the increase for some time owing to its high resale price. This has led to an increase in the number of high-voltage electrical accidents (HVEA). Such accidents are very serious because they cause deep burns along the neurovascular axis. A report is presented describing a series of nine patients presenting HVEA admitted to the Ibn Sina Hospital Plastic Surgery and Burns Division in Rabat, Morocco, with a study of the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects. The patients all belonged to the young and active sector of the population. The burns were secondary to contact with high-voltage cables occurring during the attempted stealing of copper by stripping electric conductors in transformers (67% of the cases) and in attempts to cut overhead lines supplying electric trains on the railway network (33%). Electrothermal treatment of the lesions required repeated surgery with amputation and disarticulation of necrotic limb segments (67% of the cases), the consequences of which were marked by disabling functional sequelae. Preventing this type of HVEA remains fundamental.

  8. Best available control measures for prescribed burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.M.; Stoneman, C.S.


    Section 190 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) as amended in 1990 requires the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue guidance on Best Available Control Measures (BACM) of PM 10 (particulate matter with a nominal aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers) from urban fugitive dust, residential wood combustion, and prescribed silvicultural and agricultural burning (prescribed burning). The purpose of this guidance is to assist states (especially, but not exclusively, those with PM 10 nonattainment areas which have been classified as serious) in developing a control measure for these three source categories. This guidance is to be issued no later than May 15, 1992 as required under the CAA. The guidance will be issued in the form of a policy guidance generic to all three BACM and in the form of Technical Information Documents (TIDs) for each of the three source categories. The policy guidance will provide the analytical approach for determining BACM and the TID will provide the technical information. The purpose of this paper is to present some insight from the forthcoming TID on what BACM might entail for prescribed burning in a serious PM 10 nonattainment area

  9. Current concepts on burn wound conversion – a review of recent advances in understanding the secondary progressions of burns (United States)

    Salibian, Ara A.; Del Rosario, Angelica Tan; De Almeida Moura Severo, Lucio; Nguyen, Long; Banyard, Derek A.; Toranto, Jason D.; Evans, Gregory R.D.; Widgerow, Alan D.


    Burn wound conversion describes the process by which superficial partial thickness burns convert into deeper burns necessitating surgical intervention. Fully understanding and thus controlling this phenomenon continues to defy burn surgeons. However, potentially guiding burn wound progression so as to obviate the need for surgery while still bringing about healing with limited scarring is the major unmet challenge. Comprehending the pathophysiologic background contributing to deeper progression of these burns is an essential prerequisite to planning any intervention. In this study, a review of articles examining burn wound progression over the last five years was conducted to analyze trends in recent burn progression research, determine changes in understanding of the pathogenesis of burn conversion, and subsequently examine the direction for future research in developing therapies. The majority of recent research focuses on applying therapies from other disease processes to common underlying pathogenic mechanisms in burn conversion. While ischemia, inflammation, and free oxygen radicals continue to demonstrate a critical role in secondary necrosis, novel mechanisms such as autophagy have also been shown to contribute affect significantly burn progression significantly. Further research will have to determine whether multiple mechanisms should be targeted when developing clinical therapies. PMID:26787127

  10. Physical functional outcome assessment of patients with major burns admitted to a UK Burn Intensive Care Unit. (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Dziewulski, Peter


    Determining the discharge outcome of burn patients can be challenging and therefore a validated objective measure of functional independence would assist with this process. We developed the Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score to measure burn patients' functional independence. FAB scores were taken on discharge from ICU (FAB 1) and on discharge from inpatient burn care (FAB 2) in 56 patients meeting the American Burn Association criteria for major burn. We retrospectively analysed prospectively collected data to measure the progress of patients' physical functional outcomes and to evaluate the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome. Mean age was 38.6 years and median burn size 35%. Significant improvements were made in the physical functional outcomes between FAB 1 and FAB 2 scores (pburn patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Burn Pit Emissions Exposure and Respiratory and Cardiovascular Conditions Among Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry Participants. (United States)

    Liu, Jason; Lezama, Nicholas; Gasper, Joseph; Kawata, Jennifer; Morley, Sybil; Helmer, Drew; Ciminera, Paul


    The aim of this study was to determine how burn pit emissions exposure is associated with the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. We examined the associations between assumed geographic and self-reported burn pit emissions exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes in participants of the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry. We found significant dose-response associations for higher risk of self-reported emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with increased days of deployment within 2 miles of selected burn pits (P-trend = 0.01) and self-reported burn pit smoke exposure (P-trend = 0.0005). We found associations between burn pit emissions exposure and higher incidence of post-deployment self-reported respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, but these findings should be interpreted with caution because the surrogate measurements of burn pit emissions exposure in this analysis may not reflect individual exposure levels.

  12. Retrospective analysis of patients with burn injury treated in a burn center in Turkey during the Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Yuce


    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the management of burn injuries that occured in the Syria civil war, which were referred to our burn center. Methods: Forty-three patients with burns, injured in the civil war in Syria and whom were referred to Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Educating and Training Hospital Burn Centre of İstanbul, Turkey between 2011-2015 were analyzed in a retrospective study. Results: Most of our patients were in major burn classification (93%; 40/43 and most of them had burns >15% total on body surface area. Most of them were admitted to our center late after first management at centers with improper conditions and in cultures of these patients unusual and resistant strains specific to the battlefield were produced. Conclusion: Immediate transfer of the patients from the scene of incidence to burn centers ensures early treatment, this factor may be effective on the outcome of these patients.

  13. Prestudy of burn control in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.


    The present report describes our ongoing work on a number of selected topics, and the plans for the nearest future. In chapter 2 we have specialized the system of the previous report to form an easily tractable, second-order system. In this case one can give an explicit, analytical condition for stability. A code providing quick answers regarding stability, time scales and eigenvectors has been written and tested. The zerodimensional modelling of a burning plasma described by space dependent equations is often done in a heuristic way, with no clear relation between the two systems of equations. We have tried to put the approximation procedure involved in the transition to 0-D models on a more formal basis. This is the topic of chapter 3. The 1-D equilibrium solution is also investigated with respect to its stability properties, which are shown to be the same as those derived from the simplest 0-D space averaged model. Chapter 4 contains a few emerging thoughts on burn control. First, the limited swing of the auxiliary heating gives rise to limitations on the possibilities to intervene against temperature excursions by an auxiliary heating modulation. This problem becomes severe when one operates at high Q values. Another analysis concerns the problem of selecting a proper control action when a temperature profile differs from the equilibrium shape. A couple of alternative schemes for burn control, minor radius alterations and dynamic stabilization are tentatively discussed; no definite answers on their feasibility are obtained. The problem of diagnosing the plasma with respect to burn conditions is the topic of chapter 5. The influence on the energy distribution of control actions and the reliability of neutron measurements are discussed, and the question of how to handle sawteeth is briefly revisited. Chapter 6 is a description of process identification and how it could be used for burn control. A particular advantage is that it can be combined with physical

  14. Is there a threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury? (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R.; Amini-Nik, Saeid


    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care. PMID:26803373

  15. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  16. A comparative study of the ignition and burning characteristics of after burning aluminum and magnesium particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Hwan; Lee, Sang Hyup; Yoon, Woong Sup


    Ignition and the burning of air-born single aluminum and magnesium particles are experimentally investigated. Particles of 30 to 106 μm-diameters were electrodynamically levitated, ignited, and burnt in atmospheric air. The particle combustion evolution was recorded by high-speed cinematography. Instant temperature and thermal radiation intensity were measured using two-wavelength pyrometry and photomultiplier tube methods. Ignition of the magnesium particle is prompt and substantially advances the aluminum particle by 10 ms. Burning time of the aluminum particles is extended 3 to 5 times longer than the magnesium particles. Exponents of a power-law fit of the burning rates are 1.55 and 1.24 for aluminum and magnesium particles, respectively. Flame temperature is slightly lower than the oxide melting temperature. For the aluminum, dimensionless flame diameter is inert to the initial particle size, but for the magnesium inversely proportional to the initial diameter.

  17. A comparative study of the ignition and burning characteristics of after burning aluminum and magnesium particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Hwan; Lee, Sang Hyup; Yoon, Woong Sup [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Ignition and the burning of air-born single aluminum and magnesium particles are experimentally investigated. Particles of 30 to 106 μm-diameters were electrodynamically levitated, ignited, and burnt in atmospheric air. The particle combustion evolution was recorded by high-speed cinematography. Instant temperature and thermal radiation intensity were measured using two-wavelength pyrometry and photomultiplier tube methods. Ignition of the magnesium particle is prompt and substantially advances the aluminum particle by 10 ms. Burning time of the aluminum particles is extended 3 to 5 times longer than the magnesium particles. Exponents of a power-law fit of the burning rates are 1.55 and 1.24 for aluminum and magnesium particles, respectively. Flame temperature is slightly lower than the oxide melting temperature. For the aluminum, dimensionless flame diameter is inert to the initial particle size, but for the magnesium inversely proportional to the initial diameter.

  18. Evaluation of burn injuries related to liquefied petroleum gas. (United States)

    Tarim, Mehmet Akin


    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a fuel that is widely used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. LPG is also commonly used in restaurants, industries, and cars; however, the home continues to be the main site for accidents. In Turkey, the increased usage of LPG as a cooking or heating fuel has resulted in many burn injuries from LPG mishaps. Between January 2000 and June 2011, 56 LPG-burned patients were compared with 112 flame-burned patients. There were no significant differences with respect to the mean age, sex, hospitalization time, and mortality in both groups. In the LPG-caused burn cases, 41 burns (73.2%) occurred at home, seven (12.5) were work-related mishaps, and eight (14.3) were associated with car accidents. The majority of the LPG burns (82%, 46 patients) resulted from a gas leak, and 18% of them were related to the failure to close LPG tubes in the patients' kitchens (10 patients). Burns to the face and neck (82 vs 67%, P = .039) and upper (62 vs 23%, P = .000) and lower (70 vs 45%, P = .002) extremities were significantly higher in LPG-caused burn cases than flame-burned cases. General awareness regarding the risk of LPG and first aid for burns appears to be lacking. The LPG delivery system should be standardized throughout countries that widely use LPG.

  19. Burn wound: Pathophysiology and its management by herbal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik


    Full Text Available In human body, wound healing is a normal biological phenomenon. Burns may be acute or chronic depending upon the source and its time of exposure. Burn wounds may be superficial, partial or full thickness wounds. When skin comes in contact with higher temperature, protein denaturation takes place due to which the plasma membrane integrity is lost. When skin is burned, a number of inflammatory mediators and releasing agents such as histamine, nitric oxide, oxygen free radicals, eicosanoid products, tumor necrosis factors, and interleukins etc., are released at the site. For wound healing mechanism, the keratinocytes has to move from uninjured site to the burned area. For deeper burns this process takes a long time. By some unknown mechanisms, burn wounds may convert from one form to another form. So burn wound depth must be accurately measured before starting the treatment to prevent the complications. Burns can be induced in experimental animals by using different models. Many treatments such as herbal drugs, topical agents, gene therapy, volume therapy, and rehabilitation can be employed. This review article mainly deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of burn wound healing. Some burn wound healing plants with their chemical constituents, plant part used, uses and animal models are described here.

  20. Camphor Burns on the Palm: An Unusual New Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Ramesh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Camphor burns on the palm are uncommon and rarely encountered by a plastic surgeon. Aim: This study aims to analyze different patterns of camphor burns on the palm. Methods: Five women and one man presented with camphor burns on their palm. All patients had burns on their right palm. The shape of camphor, the duration of contact with the ignited camphor on the palm, and post-burn treatments were evaluated. Results: Three types of camphor burns were noted: Type 1 (a ring-shaped or a dome-shaped blister with unburned skin in the center, Type 2 (an oval-shaped partially thick burn with unburned skin in the center, and Type 3 (a full-thickness burn exposing the palmar fascia. Conclusion: Different types of camphor burns on the palm are described in this study. This is the first study to report ring-shaped blisters and ring-shaped partially thick camphor burns caused on the palm.

  1. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon D. Cohen


    Full Text Available Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0% had burns involving less than 20% of the body surface area. Cause of the burns was scald in 190 patients (67.4%, fire in 80 patients (28.4%, chemical in 8 patients (2.8%, and explosion in 2 patients (0.7%. Two female patients (0.7% aged 11 and 17 years died of their burns that were caused by fire. The mean length of hospitalization was 9.8 days. Pediatric burn injury has become a significant public health problem in the Bedouin population of the Negev. To reduce the burden of burn injury, it is necessary to increase current efforts in prevention of burns.

  2. Analysis of Parallel Burn Without Crossfeed TSTO RLV Architectures and Comparison to Parallel Burn With Crossfeed and Series Burn Architectures (United States)

    Smith, Garrett; Phillips, Alan


    There are currently three dominant TSTO class architectures. These are Series Burn (SB), Parallel Burn with crossfeed (PBw/cf), and Parallel Burn without crossfeed (PBncf). The goal of this study was to determine what factors uniquely affect PBncf architectures, how each of these factors interact, and to determine from a performance perspective whether a PBncf vehicle could be competitive with a PBw/cf or SB vehicle using equivalent technology and assumptions. In all cases, performance was evaluated on a relative basis for a fixed payload and mission by comparing gross and dry vehicle masses of a closed vehicle. Propellant combinations studied were LOX: LH2 propelled orbiter and booster (HH) and LOX: Kerosene booster with LOX: LH2 orbiter (KH). The study conclusions were: 1) a PBncf orbiter should be throttled as deeply as possible after launch until the staging point. 2) a detailed structural model is essential to accurate architecture analysis and evaluation. 3) a PBncf TSTO architecture is feasible for systems that stage at mach 7. 3a) HH architectures can achieve a mass growth relative to PBw/cf of ratio and to the position of the orbiter required to align the nozzle heights at liftoff. 5 ) thrust to weight ratios of 1.3 at liftoff and between 1.0 and 0.9 when staging at mach 7 appear to be close to ideal for PBncf vehicles. 6) performance for all vehicles studied is better when staged at mach 7 instead of mach 5. The study showed that a Series Burn architecture has the lowest gross mass for HH cases, and has the lowest dry mass for KH cases. The potential disadvantages of SB are the required use of an air-start for the orbiter engines and potential CG control issues. A Parallel Burn with crossfeed architecture solves both these problems, but the mechanics of a large bipropellant crossfeed system pose significant technical difficulties. Parallel Burn without crossfeed vehicles start both booster and orbiter engines on the ground and thus avoid both the risk of

  3. Burns at KCMC: epidemiology, presentation, management and treatment outcome. (United States)

    Ringo, Y; Chilonga, K


    About 90% of the global burden of burns occurs in the low and middle income countries. In Africa it is estimated that between 17,000 and 30,000 children under five die each year due to burns. In Tanzania there are no specialized burn centers. Burn patients are often managed in the general surgical wards in most hospitals. Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre is one of the four tertiary referral hospitals in Tanzania. This study aimed to review the epidemiology presentation management and outcome of burn patients in this challenging environment. A cross-sectional prospective study involving 41 patients was undertaken from October 2011 to April 2012. 65.9% were males. The largest age group was below 5 years (36.6%). 19.5% were epileptic. More than half of the burns were due to open flame. 80.5% had second degree burns. 56.1% had a BSA of 15% or less and 56.1% had an APACHE score of 10 or less. It was found that 73.2% of burns occurred at home. The commonest prehospital first aid applied was honey. Only 41.5% arrived in hospital within the first 24h after burn. Among the 14.6% who had skin grafting, none had early excision of burn wound. 53.7% developed wound sepsis while 24.4% developed contractures. The mortality rate was 26.8%. Children under five are the worst affected by burns. Most patients had second degree burn wounds. Inappropriate management of the burn wound started just after injury and continued even in hospital. Mortality and complication rates are high. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns. (United States)

    Diaz, Eva C; Herndon, David N; Lee, Jinhyung; Porter, Craig; Cotter, Matthew; Suman, Oscar E; Sidossis, Labros S; Børsheim, Elisabet


    Following a major burn, skeletal muscle protein synthesis rate increases but is often insufficient to compensate for massively elevated muscle protein breakdown rates. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that muscle protein synthesis rate would be chronically elevated in severely burned children. The objectives of this study were to characterize muscle protein synthesis rate of burned children over a period of 24 months after injury and to identify predictors that influence this response. A total of 87 children with 40% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) burned were included. Patients participated in stable isotope infusion studies at 1, 2, and approximately 4 weeks after burn and at 6, 12, and 24 months after injury to determine skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate. Generalized estimating equations with log link normal distribution were applied to account for clustering of patients and control for patient characteristics. Patients (8 ± 6 years) had large (62, 51-72% TBSA) and deep (47% ± 21% TBSA third degree) burns. Muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was elevated throughout the first 12 months after burn compared with established values from healthy young adults. Muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was lower in boys, in children older than 3 years, and when burns were greater than 80% TBSA. Muscle protein synthesis is elevated for at least 1 year after injury, suggesting that greater muscle protein turnover is a component of the long-term pathophysiologic response to burn trauma. Muscle protein synthesis is highly affected by sex, age, and burn size in severely burned children. These findings may explain the divergence in net protein balance and lean body mass in different populations of burn patients. Prognostic study, level III.

  5. Targeting burn prevention in Ukraine: evaluation of base knowledge in burn prevention and first aid treatment. (United States)

    Gamelli, Liza; Mykychack, Iryna; Kushnir, Antin; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy


    Burn prevention has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a topic in need of further investigation and education throughout the world, with an increased need in low-income countries. It has been noted that implementing educational programs for prevention in high income countries has aided in lowering the rate of burn injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current education level of knowledge of prevention and first aid treatment of scald burns. A prevention campaign will target these educational needs as a part of an outreach program to improve burn care in Ukraine. The research team evaluated the current health structure in Ukraine and how it could benefit from the increased knowledge of burn prevention and first aid. A test was designed to assess the baseline level of knowledge with regard to first aid and scald prevention in parents, pregnant woman, and healthcare and daycare providers. A total of 14,456 tests were sent to pediatric clinics, obstetrician clinics, and daycare facilities to test respondents. A total of 6,120 completed tests were returned. Doctors presented with the highest level of knowledge averaging 77.0% on prevention and 67.5% on first aid while daycare workers presented the largest gap in knowledge at 65.0% in prevention and 54.3% in first aid. Interest in further educational materials was reported by 92% of respondents. The results of this study clearly show a lack of knowledge in first aid and prevention of scald burn injury in all the populations tested.

  6. Firefighter burn injuries: predictable patterns influenced by turnout gear. (United States)

    Kahn, Steven A; Patel, Jignesh H; Lentz, Christopher W; Bell, Derek E


    Approximately 100 firefighters suffer fatal injuries annually and tens of thousands receive nonfatal injuries. Many of these injuries require medical attention and restricted activity but may be preventable. This study was designed to elucidate etiology, circumstances, and patterns of firefighter burn injury so that further prevention strategies can be designed. In particular, modification of protective equipment, or turnout gear, is one potential strategy to prevent burn injury. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was conducted with records of firefighters treated for burn injury from 2005 to 2009. Data collected included age, gender, TBSA, burn depth, anatomic location, total hospital days per patient, etiology, and circumstances of injury. Circumstances of injury were stratified into the following categories: removal/dislodging of equipment, failure of equipment to protect, training errors, and when excessive external temperatures caused patient sweat to boil under the gear. Over the 4-year period, 20 firefighters were treated for burn injury. Mean age was 38.9 ± 8.9 years and 19 of 20 patients were male. Mean burn size was 1.1 ± 2.7% TBSA. Eighteen patients suffered second-degree burns, while two patients suffered first-degree burns. Mean length of hospitalization was 2.45 days. Scald burns were responsible for injury to 13 firefighters (65%). Flame burns caused injury to four patients (20%). Only three patients received contact burns (15%). The face was the site most commonly burned, representing 29% of injuries. The hand/wrist and ears were the next largest groups, with 23 and 16% of the injuries, respectively. Other areas burned included the neck (10%), arm (6.5%), leg (6.5%), knees (3%), shoulders (3%), and head (3%). Finally, the circumstance of injury was evaluated for each patient. Misuse and noncontiguous areas of protective equipment accounted for 14 of the 20 injuries (70%). These burns were caused when hot steam

  7. Acute pavement burns: a unique subset of burn injuries: a five-year review of resource use and cost impact. (United States)

    Silver, Andrew G; Dunford, Gerrit M; Zamboni, William A; Baynosa, Richard C


    This study focuses on the hospital care of a rare subset of burn injuries caused by contact with environmentally heated pavement, to further understand the required use of resources. This article aims to show that pavement burns are typically more severe than their flame/scald counterparts. A retrospective review of patients admitted to the burn center with injuries suffered from contact with hot pavement was performed. Patients were stratified on the presence or absence of altered mental status (AMS) and additional inciting factors. A representative sample of similarly sized flame and scald wounds treated in the same time period was compiled for comparison. Those with pavement burns had a significantly greater requirement for operative intervention, repetitive debridements, overall cost/percent burned, and lengthier hospital stays than those with flame/scald burns. Pavement burn victims with AMS were significantly more likely to require an operation, a greater cost/percent burned, and longer hospital stays than those without AMS. Pavement burns are significantly worse than similarly sized scald/flame burns with regards to length of stay and total hospital costs, and the necessity of initial and repetitive operative intervention. These discrepancies are even greater in patients with AMS as a concomitant inciting factor. It is apparent that these wounds often continue to deepen during a patient's stay, likely because of continued pressure on the wounds while recumbent. As such, this article highly recommends pressure off-loading beds and more aggressive debridement in the treatment of these unique injuries.

  8. Outpatient presentations to burn centers: data from the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand outpatient pilot project. (United States)

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Watterson, Dina M; Singer, Yvonne; Darton, Anne


    Most studies about burn injury focus on admitted cases. To compare outpatient and inpatient presentations at burn centers in Australia to inform the establishment of a repository for outpatient burn injury. Data for sequential outpatient presentations were collected at seven burn centers in Australia between December 2010 and May 2011 and compared with inpatient admissions from these centers recorded by the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand for the corresponding period. There were 788 outpatient and 360 inpatient presentations. Pediatric outpatients included more children burns (39% vs 24%). Adult outpatients included fewer males (58% vs 73%) and intentional injuries (3.3% vs 10%), and more scald (46% vs 30%) and contact burns (24% vs 13%). All pediatric, and 98% of adult, outpatient presentations involved a %TBSAburns presenting to burn centers differed to inpatient admission data, particularly with respect to etiology and burn severity, highlighting the importance of the need for outpatient data to enhance burn injury surveillance and inform prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. In situ oil burning in the marshland environment : soil temperatures resulting from crude oil and diesel fuel burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, N.P.; Walton, W.D.; Twilley, W.H.; Roadarmel, G.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Lin, Q.; Mullin, J.V.


    The unique challenge associated with oil spill cleanups in sensitive marsh environments was discussed. Mechanical recovery of crude or refined hydrocarbons in wetlands may cause more damage to the marsh than the oil itself. This study evaluated whether in situ burning of oiled marshlands would provide a less damaging alternative than mechanical recovery. This was done through a series of 6 crude oil and 5 diesel fuel burns conducted in a test tank to examine the impact of intentional burning of oil spilled in a wetlands environment. There are several factors which may influence how well such an environment would recover from an in situ oil burn, such as plant species, fuel type and load, water level, soil type, and burn duration. This paper focused on soil, air and water temperatures, as well as total heat fluxes that resulted when 3 plant species were exposed to full-scale in situ burns that were created by burning diesel fuel and crude oil. The soil temperatures were monitored during the test burn at three different soil/water elevations for 700 second burn exposures. A total of 184 plant sods were harvested from marshlands in southern Louisiana and were subjected to the burning fuel. They were instrumental in characterizing the thermal and chemical stress that occur during an in-situ burn. The plants were inserted into the test tanks at various water and soil depths. The results indicated that diesel fuel and crude oil burns produced similar soil temperature profiles at each of three plant sod elevations. Although in-situ burning did not appear to remediate oil that had penetrated into the soil, it did effectively remove floating oil from the water surface, thereby preventing it from potentially contaminating adjacent habitats and penetrating the soil when the water recedes. The regrowth and recovery of the plants will be described in a separate report. 25 refs., 7 tabs., 15 figs

  10. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars (United States)

    Keek, L.


    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes thermonuclear burning in the neutron star envelope, creating carbon and heavier elements. The fusion process may proceed in an unstable manner, resulting in a thermonuclear runaway. Within one second the entire surface is burned, which is observable as a sharp rise in the emitted X-ray flux: a type I X-ray burst. Afterwards the neutron star surface cools down on a timescale of ten to one hundred seconds. During these bursts the surface of an accreting neutron star can be observed directly, which makes them instrumental for studying this type of stars. We have studied rare kinds of X-ray bursts. One such rare burst is the superburst, which lasts a thousand times longer than an ordinary burst. Superbursts are thought to result from the explosive burning of a thick carbon layer, which lies deeper inside the neutron star, close to a layer known as the crust. A prerequisite for the occurrence of a superburst is a high enough temperature, which is set by the temperature of the crust and the heat conductivity of the envelope. The latter is lowered by the presence of heavy elements that are produced during normal X-ray bursts. Using a large set of observations from the Wide Field Camera's onboard the BeppoSAX satellite, we find that, at high accretion rate, sources which do not exhibit normal bursts likely have a longer superburst recurrence time, than the observed superburst recurrence time of one burster. We analyze in detail the first superburst from a transient source, which went into outburst only 55 days before the superburst. Recent models of the neutron star crust predict that this is too small a time to heat the crust sufficiently for superburst ignition, indicating

  11. An unusual electrical burn caused by alkaline batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyng-Luen Roan


    Full Text Available Electrical burns caused by low-voltage batteries are rarely reported. We recently encountered a male patient who suffered from a superficial second-degree burn over his left elbow and back. The total body surface area of the burn was estimated to be 6%. After interviewing the patient, the cause was suspected to be related to the explosion of a music player on the left-side of his waist, carried on his belt while he was painting a bathroom wall. Elevated creatine kinase levels and hematuria indicated rhabdomyolysis and suggested an electrical burn. Initial treatment was done in the burn intensive care unit with fluid challenge and wound care. The creatine kinase level decreased gradually and the hematuria was gone after 4 days in the intensive care unit. He was then transferred to the general ward for further wound management and discharged from our burn center after a total of 11 days without surgical intervention.

  12. Development of strand burner for solid propellant burning rate studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A; Mamat, R; Ali, W K Wan


    It is well-known that a strand burner is an apparatus that provides burning rate measurements of a solid propellant at an elevated pressure in order to obtain the burning characteristics of a propellant. This paper describes the facilities developed by author that was used in his studies. The burning rate characteristics of solid propellant have be evaluated over five different chamber pressures ranging from 1 atm to 31 atm using a strand burner. The strand burner has a mounting stand that allows the propellant strand to be mounted vertically. The strand was ignited electrically using hot wire, and the burning time was recorded by electronic timer. Wire technique was used to measure the burning rate. Preliminary results from these techniques are presented. This study shows that the strand burner can be used on propellant strands to obtain accurate low pressure burning rate data

  13. [Risk factors for development of hypomagnesemia in the burned patient]. (United States)

    Durán-Vega, Héctor César; Romero-Aviña, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Salgado, Jorge Eduardo; Silva-Díaz, Teresita; Ramos-Durón, Luis Ernesto; Carrera-Gómez, Francisco Javier


    Electrolyte abnormalities are common in the severely burned patient. There is little information with regard to the frequency and magnitude of hypomagnesemia, as well as on risk factors for this condition. We performed an observational, retrospective analysis of 35 burned patients treated at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service at the Hospital Central Sur PEMEX, Mexico City. We determined serum magnesium behavior and divided patients into two groups: the first included 11 patients with burns and hypomagnesemia, and the second, 24 patients with burns but without hypomagnesemia. Risk factor identification was performed. We found patient at risk was the one with more than 40% of 2nd or 3rd degree total burned body area, in day 4 or 10 after the burn, and with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or both, and without intravenous (i.v.) supplementation of magnesium. The best way to prevent or avoid major complications is to identify the high-risk patient, or to diagnose earlier.

  14. Outcomes of patients who commit suicide by burning. (United States)

    Castana, O; Kourakos, P; Moutafidis, M; Stampolidis, N; Triantafyllou, V; Pallantzas, Ath; Filippa, E; Alexandropoulos, C


    Cases in which people use fire when attempting or committing suicide are not common but nevertheless constitute a cause of admission to burns units worldwide. Usually these people are suffering from stress and have been diagnosed as mentally ill. Schizophrenia, depression, and personality disorders are the most frequently diagnosed conditions. The psychological problems appear to have been overlooked by the family or not to have been presented to them. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features, characteristics, and outcomes of patients burned during a suicide attempt. The role of the psychiatrist is important, starting in the emergency room. The incidence of patients committing self-injury by burning appears to be higher in women burn patients. Deceased patients usually have a larger extent of burns and a higher incidence of other injuries and require more surgical procedures and longer hospitalization times. The problems for burn unit staff and qualified psychiatric care are discussed.

  15. PROSCARA Inc. in-situ burning summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In-situ burning as a viable response tactic in the event of an oil spill, was discussed. Key factors which influence a decision to use burning were enumerated, including a detailed analysis of the environmental effects of in-situ burning on soils. The critical parameters were time, soil heating and extent of oil penetration into the soil. It was noted that on water-saturated and frozen soil in-situ burning had no adverse effects. The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ burning vis-a-vis conventional mechanical recovery were discussed. Factors that do, and factors that do not support decisions in favour of in-situ burning were listed. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention. (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier


    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcomes of patients who commit suicide by burning (United States)

    Castana, O.; Kourakos, P.; Moutafidis, M.; Stampolidis, N.; Triantafyllou, V.; Pallantzas, Ath.; Filippa, E.; Alexandropoulos, C.


    Summary Cases in which people use fire when attempting or committing suicide are not common but nevertheless constitute a cause of admission to burns units worldwide. Usually these people are suffering from stress and have been diagnosed as mentally ill. Schizophrenia, depression, and personality disorders are the most frequently diagnosed conditions. The psychological problems appear to have been overlooked by the family or not to have been presented to them. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features, characteristics, and outcomes of patients burned during a suicide attempt. The role of the psychiatrist is important, starting in the emergency room. The incidence of patients committing self-injury by burning appears to be higher in women burn patients. Deceased patients usually have a larger extent of burns and a higher incidence of other injuries and require more surgical procedures and longer hospitalization times. The problems for burn unit staff and qualified psychiatric care are discussed. PMID:23966897

  18. Predictors of PTSD symptoms in caregivers of pediatric burn survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Del Carmen Quezada Berumen


    Full Text Available Facing a severe injury in the children is one of the most devastating experiences that parents may face. The aim of this study was to explore the role of resilience showed by fathers and mothers of children with burns, the TBSA burned, age at the time of the burn and time since the burn in PTSD symptoms in caregivers. It was a cross-sectional study where fathers, mothers and guardians of 51 burn patients were evaluated. Results showed that the higher strength and confidence in caregivers, less severity in PTSD symptoms. The post-burn reactions of parents and guardians can affect the responses and welfare of their children. Therefore, a better understanding of factors related to the adaptation in caregivers, better attention by health services.

  19. Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.


    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 μg m−3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 μg mg−1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  20. Determination of nuclear fuel burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristak, J.; Vobecky, M.


    Samples containing a known content of 235 U were irradiated with several different neutron doses and activities were determined of radionuclides including 125 Sb, 144 Ce, 134 Cs, 154 Eu, 103 Ru, 95 Zr. The values thus obtained were divided by the 137 Cs activity value. The resulting neutron dose-dependent value is plotted into a calibration graph. The degree of nuclear fuel burn-up is obtained from the graph using an experimentally determined ratio of the activities of the above radionuclides. (B.S.)

  1. [Burning mouth syndrome - a joint biopsychosocial approach]. (United States)

    Arpone, Francesca; Combremont, Florian; Weber, Kerstin; Scolozzi, Paolo


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a medical condition that is often refractory to conventional diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Patients suffering from BMS can benefit from a biopsychosocial approach in a joint, medical-psychological consultation model. Such a consultation exists at Geneva University Hospitals, involving the collaboration of the maxillo-facial and oral surgery division and the division of liaison psychiatry and crisis intervention, in order to take into account the multiple factors involved in BMS onset and persistence. This article will describe BMS clinical presentation, and present an integrate approach to treat these patients.

  2. Amazonia: Burning and global climate impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molion, L.C.B.


    In recent years, humans have been playing a major role in reducing the natural forest cover in the tropics through different forms of slash and burn. The most serious destruction, it is said, is occurring in the Amazon, which is the largest expanse of tropical forest remaining on the planet. This chapter reviews briefly the causes and the extent of Amazonian deforestation and focuses on its global and local climate impacts. In addition, the effects of loss of diversity and need to preserve Indian cultures and societies are briefly discussed

  3. Delayed dermal burns caused by dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovak, A J; Payne, A R


    A chemical operator handling dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) developed delayed and pain-free burns on one of his feet 2 days after a supposed spillage of DMAD. The injuries were confirmed to be associated with DMAD by chemical analysis of the operator's safety boot and patch tests. DMAD easily penetrates some protective clothing and dilute solutions can still be hazardous: the toxic effect is compounded by being delayed and painless. The lachrymatory irritant properties of undiluted DMAD are not adequate warning of its presence or spillage in quantities sufficient to cause significant skin damage.

  4. [Nitrogen balance assessment in burn patients]. (United States)

    Beça, Andreia; Egipto, Paula; Carvalho, Davide; Correia, Flora; Oliveira, Bruno; Rodrigues, Acácio; Amarante, José; Medina, J Luís


    The burn injury probably represents the largest stimulus for muscle protein catabolism. This state is characterized by an accelerated catabolism of the lean or skeletal mass that results in a clinical negative balance of nitrogen and muscle wasting. The determination of an appropriate value for protein intake is essential, since it is positively related to the nitrogen balance (NB) and accordingly several authors argue that a positive NB is the key parameter associated with nutritional improvement of a burn patient. Evaluation of the degree of protein catabolism by assessment of the Nitrogen Balance; Defining of nutritional support (protein needs) to implement in patients with burned surface area (BSA) = 10%. We prospectively evaluated the clinical files and scrutinized the clinical variables of interest. The NB was estimated according to three formulae. Each gram of nitrogen calculated by the NB was then converted into grams of protein, subtracted or added to protein intake (or administered enteric or parenterically) and divided by kg of reference Weight (kg Rweight), in an attempt to estimate the daily protein needs. The cohort consisted of 10 patients, 6 females, with average age of 58(23) years old, a mean of BSA of 21.4(8.4)%, ranging from a minimum of 10.0% and máximum of 35.0%. On average, patients were 58 (23) years old. The average number of days of hospitalization in the burn unit was 64.8(36.5) days. We observed significant differences between the 3 methods used for calculating the NB (p = 0.004), on average the NB was positive. When the formula A was used the average value of NB was higher. Regarding the attempt to estimate the needs of g prot/kg Rweight/day most of the values did not exceed, on average, 2.6 g Prot/kg Rweight/day and no significant differences between patients with a BSA% of 10-20% and with BSA% > 20% were found. Despite being able to estimate the protein catabolism through these formulas and verifying that most values were above zero

  5. Burns first aid treatment in remote Northern Australia. (United States)

    Read, David J; Tan, Swee Chin; Ward, Linda; McDermott, Kathleen


    It is well demonstrated that adequate burns first aid treatment (BFAT) improves clinical outcomes for the injured but adequacy remains low in many studies. This study presents a twelve month assessment of the adequacy of burns first aid treatment for patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH). Prospective study design of all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital. Data were collated from two sources; RDH Burns Registry, and the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). Inclusion criterion was all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital for the period 1 January 2014-31 December 2014. Variables collected and analysed include: demographics, burn mechanism, burn wound depth and adequacy of and circumstances around first aid. Overall 310 cases were analysed. Most injuries involved adults (68%), 19% Indigenous persons and 70% of all patients had their burn injury occur in the urban region. Adequate BFAT occurred in 41% of cases. Adults, contact burns and those where the burn injury occurred in the remote regions were less likely to receive adequate BFAT. Indigenous persons were less likely to attempt any BFAT at all and when they did receive BFAT it was more likely applied by an emergency responder or health professional. Overall adequacy of BFAT is low in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Remote dwellers and Indigenous persons are at increased risk of not applying or receiving adequate BFAT. The poor level of adequate BFAT demonstrated in this study suggests that the Top End community particularly remote and Indigenous persons would benefit from targeted BFAT education programs that are delivered in a culturally and linguistically appropriate fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Static or feedback stabilization of the burn in a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.


    The control of the burn in an ignited Tokamak using a space and time dependent external vertical magnetic field is discussed. It is shown that a static field, suitably shaped in space, is able to stabilize the burn for a certain range of the plasma parameters of physical interest. An oscillating magnetic field with constant frequency and amplitude fixed by the initial plasma parameters stabilizes the burn in all situations. (orig.)



    Hesham Galal Mahran; Ashraf Hassan Mohammed; Shimaa Nabil Aboelazm


    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome is considered the most common compression neuropathy of the upper extremity. It may lead to work disability and functional impairment. Burns are associated with swelling and eschar which forms a tight band constricting the circulation distally. Purpose: To investigate the effect of shockwave therapy on the carpal tunnel syndrome post burn. Subjects: Thirty male and female patients selected with manifestation of carpal tunnel syndrome post burn evaluated by e...

  8. A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Excess Propellants (United States)


    2013 - 06/01/2016 A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Excess Propellants Michael Walsh USA CRREL USA CRREL 72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755...Army Alaska XRF X-Ray Florescence vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Project ER-201323, A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Gun Propellants, was a very...contamination problem while allowing troops to train as they fight, we have developed a portable training device for burning excess gun propellants. 1.1

  9. [Burn injuries to military personnel during the Six Day War]. (United States)

    Dreyfuss, U Y


    About 2500 soldiers were injured during the Six Day War (June 1967) of whom 115 suffered from burns. In 34 of them 15% or more of their body surface was involved and 11 died. Typical features of these burn cases were supplementary injuries, a high rate of infection, and long periods of hospitalization. Prophylactic antibiotics were not useful. The general condition of many deteriorated during the first week after injury, indicating the importance of treating severe burns in specialized facilities.

  10. Burned bones forensic investigations employing near infrared spectroscopy


    Cascant, Mari Merce; Rubio, Sonia; Gallello, Gianni; Pastor, Agustin; Garrigues, Salvador; De la Guardia, Miguel


    The use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated, by using chemometric tools, for the study of the environmental impact on burned bones. Spectra of internal and external parts of burned bones, together with sediment samples, were treated by Principal Component Analysis and cluster classification as exploratory techniques to select burned bone samples, less affected by environmental processes, to properly carry out forensic studies. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis was used ...

  11. An arthropod survival strategy in a frequently burned forest (United States)

    Jane Dell; Joseph O' Brien; Lydia Doan; Lora Richards; Lee Dyer


    The sound of burning stems and leaves filled our ears and smoke swirled as we marched into the longleaf pine forest to assess the experimental burn. As we walked over the ash of burned vegetation, seedbanks and plant parts lay beneath our feet waiting to grow. But what we couldn’t see were the arthropods fleeing the fire. How are these invertebrates adapted to fire?...

  12. Initial evaluation and management of the critical burn patient. (United States)

    Vivó, C; Galeiras, R; del Caz, Ma D P


    The major improvement in burn therapy is likely to focus on the early management of hemodynamic and respiratory failures in combination with an aggressive and early surgical excision and skin grafting for full-thickness burns. Immediate burn care by first care providers is important and can vastly alter outcomes, and it can significantly limit burn progression and depth. The goal of prehospital care should be to cease the burning process as well as prevent future complications and secondary injuries for burn shock. Identifying burn patients appropriate for immediate or subacute transfer is an important step in reducing morbidity and mortality. Delays in transport to Burn Unit should be minimized. The emergency management follows the principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support Guidelines for assessment and stabilization of airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure and environment control. All patients with suspected inhalation injury must be removed from the enclosure as soon as possible, and immediately administer high-flow oxygen. Any patient with stridor, shortness of breath, facial burns, singed nasal hairs, cough, soot in the oral cavity, and history of being in a fire in an enclosed space should be strongly considered for early intubation. Fibroscopy may also be useful if airway damage is suspected and to assess known lung damage. Secondary evaluation following admission to the Burn Unit of a burned patient suffering a severe thermal injury includes continuation of respiratory support and management and treatment of inhalation injury, fluid resuscitation and cardiovascular stabilization, pain control and management of burn wound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of acute burn blisters in unscheduled care settings. (United States)

    Payne, Sarah; Cole, Elaine


    Many patients with minor burns present at emergency departments and urgent care centres, where their management is often undertaken by experienced nurses rather than experts in treating burns. This article describes a small study of the clinical decision making that underpins nurses' management of minor burns in these non-specialist settings. The results suggest that, due to a lack of relevant research, nurses base their decisions on previous experience or expert colleagues' opinions and advice rather than on the evidence.

  14. Root Disease, Longleaf Pine Mortality, and Prescribed Burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otrosina, W.J; C.H. Walkinshaw; S.J. Zarnoch; S-J. Sung; B.T. Sullivan


    Study to determine factors involved in decline of longleaf pine associated with prescribed burning. Trees having symptoms were recorded by crown rating system based upon symptom severity-corresponded to tree physiological status-increased in hot burn plots. Root pathogenic fungi widespread throughout the study site. Histological studies show high fine root mortality rate in the hot burn treatment. Decline syndrome is complexed by root pathogens, soil factors, root damage and dysfunction.

  15. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran


    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza


    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 ...

  16. A systematic review of quantitative burn wound microbiology in the management of burns patients. (United States)

    Halstead, Fenella D; Lee, Kwang Chear; Kwei, Johnny; Dretzke, Janine; Oppenheim, Beryl A; Moiemen, Naiem S


    The early diagnosis of infection or sepsis in burns are important for patient care. Globally, a large number of burn centres advocate quantitative cultures of wound biopsies for patient management, since there is assumed to be a direct link between the bioburden of a burn wound and the risk of microbial invasion. Given the conflicting study findings in this area, a systematic review was warranted. Bibliographic databases were searched with no language restrictions to August 2015. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed in duplicate using pre-defined criteria. Substantial heterogeneity precluded quantitative synthesis, and findings were described narratively, sub-grouped by clinical question. Twenty six laboratory and/or clinical studies were included. Substantial heterogeneity hampered comparisons across studies and interpretation of findings. Limited evidence suggests that (i) more than one quantitative microbiology sample is required to obtain reliable estimates of bacterial load; (ii) biopsies are more sensitive than swabs in diagnosing or predicting sepsis; (iii) high bacterial loads may predict worse clinical outcomes, and (iv) both quantitative and semi-quantitative culture reports need to be interpreted with caution and in the context of other clinical risk factors. The evidence base for the utility and reliability of quantitative microbiology for diagnosing or predicting clinical outcomes in burns patients is limited and often poorly reported. Consequently future research is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemistry of burning the forest floor during the FROSTFIRE experimental burn, interior Alaska, 1999. (United States)

    J.W. Harden; J.C. Neff; D.V. Sandberg; M.R. Turetsky; R. Ottmar; G. Gleixner; T.L. Fries; K.L. Manies


    Wildfires represent one of the most common disturbances in boreal regions, and have the potential to reduce C, N, and Hg stocks in soils while contributing to atmospheric emissions. Organic soil layers of the forest floor were sampled before and after the FROSTFIRE experimental burn in interior Alaska, and were analyzed for bulk density, major and trace elements, and...

  18. Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatano, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo


    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg -1 for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg -1 for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM 1 fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  19. Gold standards for primary care of burn management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Zor


    Full Text Available Every year, about 2.5 million people are affected from burns in the world. In our country there is no reliable database related to this subject. There are ongoing studies about the epidemiology of burns in Turkey. After burn injury had represent many various complications, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac deficiency, acute hypertension, endocarditis, thromboembolism, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, respiratuar failure, renal failure, gastric ulcus, ileus, sepsis, coagulopathy and anemia. Such complications can preventable or treatable. In this respect, preventive management in the first step burn treatment had very importantly in burn cases. Skin is a barrier which protects evaporative heat loss. In cases of acute burn, hypothermia occurs related to skin loss. For these cases, care must be taken to keep the patient warm. In addition fluid resuscitation is very important in these cases. Furthermore, the damaged tissues are highly susceptible to infection in burned patients. Burn care and rehabilitation includes challenging and complex procedures. Briefly, treatments of burn cases require a multidisciplinary and meticulous approach.

  20. Pattern of burn injury at north of Jordan. (United States)

    Bataineh, Ziad A; Al Quran, Thekraiat M; Al Balas, Hamzeh; Khammash, Muhmammad R


    To the best of our knowledge, pattern of burn injury was not reported yet at our region, our hospital considered the only tertiary referral center with the only burn unit at the region since 2001 till date, a retrospective analysis of our computerized filing system recorded 527 burn patients between 2001-2016, mean age was 26 years; 1.27:1 was the male to female ratio, 79 patients were found to have major burns, 46% of admissions were below 20 years' age, 92% was at domestic site of affection and 65% due to flame burn followed by scald burn in about 23%. The limbs were the most affected body site, majority of patients were below 15% TBSA and partial thickness, 77 patients found to have inhalational injury. Our mean hospital stay was 16 days and mortality was 8.2%. Mortality was associated with high TBSA affection, depth and flame type. This study shows the pattern of burn at north of Jordan, preventive measures by education and observation will reduce the incidence of burn and its sequel, non-flammable cook plates and stoves will probably help in decrease burn morbidity and mortality.

  1. Epidemiology of Burns in Rural Bangladesh: An Update (United States)

    He, Siran; Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Sharmin, Shumona; Islam, Irteja; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Arifeen, Shams El


    Each year, approximately 265,000 deaths occur due to burns on a global scale. In Bangladesh, around 173,000 children under 18 sustain a burn injury. Since most epidemiological studies on burn injuries in low and middle-income countries are based on small-scale surveys or hospital records, this study aims to derive burn mortality and morbidity measures and risk factors at a population level in Bangladesh. A household survey was conducted in seven rural sub-districts of Bangladesh in 2013 to assess injury outcomes. Burn injuries were one of the external causes of injury. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors were described using descriptive as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 2 deaths and 528 injuries per 100,000 populations. Females had a higher burn rate. More than 50% of injuries were seen in adults 25 to 64 years of age. Most injuries occurred in the kitchen while preparing food. 88% of all burns occurred due to flame. Children 1 to 4 years of age were four times more likely to sustain burn injuries as compared to infants. Age-targeted interventions, awareness of first aid protocols, and improvement of acute care management would be potential leads to curb death and disability due to burn injuries. PMID:28379160

  2. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review. (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra


    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended.

  3. Study of Alterations in Lipid Profile After Burn Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Asha Khubchandani


    Full Text Available Introduction: After burn injury, changes in lipid profile occur in body. Dyslipidemia after burn injury is one of the important alterations. Objective: To check alterations in lipid profile after burn injury. Materials and Method: It was cross sectional study which was carried out on 250 burns patients of both sex, with an age group of 18-45 years, and varying burns percentage of 20-80% of total body surface area (TBSA. Serum cholesterol, serum LDL, serum HDL and serum triglyceride level were measured on XL-640 fully-auto biochemical analyser. Serum LDL and HDL were measured by Accelerator Selective Detergent Method. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride were measured by Trindor’s method. Results: Results showed decrease in serum cholesterol, serum LDL and serum HDL, while increase in serum triglyceride level in burns patients compared to normal subjects. Conclusion: This study clearly showed the importance of measuring serum cholesterol, TG, LDL and HDL in burn patients and targeting changes that occur in their levels along the burns course, which may have beneficial effect in protection from organ damage, increasing survival rates and improving burn outcome.

  4. Emergency department management of patients with thermal burns [digest]. (United States)

    Tolles, Juliana; Gupta, Nachi; Nusbaum, Jeffrey


    Thermal burn injuries are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to treatment of the burns, emergency clinicians must assess for inhalation injury, exposure to toxic gases, and related traumatic injuries. Priorities for emergency resuscitation include stabilization of airway and breathing, intravenous fluid administration, pain control, and local wound care. Special populations, including children and pregnant women, require additional treatment considerations. Referral to specialized burn care for select patients is necessary to improve long-term outcomes. This article reviews thermal burn classification and evidence-based treatment strategies. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice.].

  5. River ecosystem response to prescribed vegetation burning on Blanket Peatland. (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Palmer, Sheila M; Aspray, Katie L; Holden, Joseph


    Catchment-scale land-use change is recognised as a major threat to aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning globally. In the UK uplands rotational vegetation burning is practised widely to boost production of recreational game birds, and while some recent studies have suggested burning can alter river water quality there has been minimal attention paid to effects on aquatic biota. We studied ten rivers across the north of England between March 2010 and October 2011, five of which drained burned catchments and five from unburned catchments. There were significant effects of burning, season and their interaction on river macroinvertebrate communities, with rivers draining burned catchments having significantly lower taxonomic richness and Simpson's diversity. ANOSIM revealed a significant effect of burning on macroinvertebrate community composition, with typically reduced Ephemeroptera abundance and diversity and greater abundance of Chironomidae and Nemouridae. Grazer and collector-gatherer feeding groups were also significantly less abundant in rivers draining burned catchments. These biotic changes were associated with lower pH and higher Si, Mn, Fe and Al in burned systems. Vegetation burning on peatland therefore has effects beyond the terrestrial part of the system where the management intervention is being practiced. Similar responses of river macroinvertebrate communities have been observed in peatlands disturbed by forestry activity across northern Europe. Finally we found river ecosystem changes similar to those observed in studies of wild and prescribed forest fires across North America and South Africa, illustrating some potentially generic effects of fire on aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Impact of prescribed burning on a heathland inhabiting spider community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause, Rolf Harald


    Full Text Available Heathlands can provide refuge for many stenotopic and endangered arthropods, if habitat management practices are applied. A management measure that is rarely being used today, but which has the potential to support diversity of arthropod communities, is prescribed burning. In this study we investigated the effects of prescribed burning on spider assemblages on a burned site with Calluna vulgaris in the nature reserve Lueneburg Heath, northwest Germany. We used pitfall trapping with a sampling design of 39 traps over a period of one year and 17 sampling intervals on a burned and a control site. We compared overall species richness, activity abundance patterns and community composition of the two sites, with a particular focus on stenotopic and endangered species. We collected 5116 adult spiders and 99 species altogether in a relatively small sampling area. This number of species represents nearly one third of the regional species pool of heathland spider species. Twelve species occurred exclusively on the burned site in contrast to 28 species exclusively found on the unburned site. Although we found more than twice as many spider individuals and higher mean species richness on the control site than on the burned site, the species richness of red-listed spiders was higher on the burned site. Especially the fact that we found 24 endangered species on the burned site and only 20 on the control site indicates that the applied measure of prescribed burning can foster certain endangered spider species and contribute to preserving the overall biodiversity of heathland ecosystems.

  7. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem (United States)

    Mazurek, Monica A.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.


    During the boreal forest burn studied, the ambient concentrations for the particle carbon smoke aerosol are highest for the full-fire burn conditions and vary significantly throughout the burn. Collection strategies must accordingly define ranges in the smoke aerosol concentrations produced. While the highest elemental C concentrations are observed during full-fire conditions, the great majority of smoke aerosol particles are in the form of organic C particles irrespective of fire temperature. The formation of organic C light-scattering particles was a significant process in the burn studied.

  8. Car radiator burns: a report on 72 cases. (United States)

    al-Baker, A A; Attalla, M F; el-Ekiabi, S A; al Ghoul, A


    Seventy-two cases of car radiator burns (CRB) were treated in the Burns Unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, over a 6-year period (1982-87). All the patients were males and most were between 20 and 40 years old. Chest wall, face and right upper limb were the commonest sites involved. Most of the patients suffered from relatively minor scalds. The scenario of the accidents as well as the topography of the burned areas were characteristic to this particular type of injury. The exceptionally high temperatures in the summer months were significantly related to the incidence of this type of burn.

  9. Burning Rate Emulator Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental Investigation of Emulated Burning Rate at Various Gravity Levels Support for the initial development stages of a novel experimental apparatus, the...

  10. Fancy a cup of scald? - The role of hot beverage burns in paediatric burns admissions in Ireland. (United States)

    McGuire, F; Hegarty, M; Jennings, P; Marsden, P; Smith, L


    Burns and scalds are preventable injuries in children that typically occur in the home. This study aimed to examine the role of hot beverage scalds in paediatric burn admissions in order to identify key target audiences for future safety strategies. Using the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry System (HIPE) a retrospective study of paediatric burn admissions in 2014 examined demographics, cause and severity of injury and location of occurrence. There were 233 paediatric discharges (age 0-18 yrs.) with a principal diagnosis of burn injury; 57% of these occurred in children under three years and 95% of these occurred in the home. Scalds caused 74% of burn injuries; hot beverages accounted for least 33% of these of which 77% were partial thickness and 73% were upper body burns. Effective hot beverage scald prevention strategies, targeted towards caregivers in the home, are required.

  11. Unsupervised Spatio-Temporal Data Mining Framework for Burned Area Mapping (United States)

    Boriah, Shyam (Inventor); Kumar, Vipin (Inventor); Mithal, Varun (Inventor); Khandelwal, Ankush (Inventor)


    A method reduces processing time required to identify locations burned by fire by receiving a feature value for each pixel in an image, each pixel representing a sub-area of a location. Pixels are then grouped based on similarities of the feature values to form candidate burn events. For each candidate burn event, a probability that the candidate burn event is a true burn event is determined based on at least one further feature value for each pixel in the candidate burn event. Candidate burn events that have a probability below a threshold are removed from further consideration as burn events to produce a set of remaining candidate burn events.

  12. Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H


    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani1, Hemmat Maghsoudi2, Mohsen Soudmand-Niri3, Fatemeh Ranjbar4, Hossein Mashadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, Statistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health and Nutrition, 2Department of Surgery, 3School of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5National Public Health Management Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: A burn injury can be a traumatic experience with tremendous social, physical, and psychological consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and predictors of PTSD Checklist score initially and 3 months after injury in burns victims admitted to the Sina Burn Center in north-west Iran.Methods: This prospective study examined adult patients aged 16–65 years with unintentional burns. The PTSD Checklist was used to screen for PTSD.Results: Flame burns constituted 49.4% of all burns. Mean PTSD score was 23.8 ± 14.7 early in the hospitalization period and increased to 24.2 ± 14.3, 3 months after the burn injury. Twenty percent of victims 2 weeks into treatment had a positive PTSD screening test, and this figure increased to 31.5% after 3 months. The likelihood of developing a positive PTSD screening test increased significantly after 3 months (P < 0.01. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors independently predicting PTSD score were found to be age, gender, and percentage of total body surface area burned.Conclusion: PTSD was a problem in the population studied and should be managed appropriately after hospital admission due to burn injury. Male gender, younger age, and higher total body surface area burned may predict a higher PTSD score after burn injury. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, burn injury, predictors, Iran

  13. Burn-related factors affecting anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Jain, M; Khadilkar, N; De Sousa, A


    Burns are physically, psychologically and economically challenging injuries, and the factors leading to them are many and under-studied. The aim of the current study was to assess level of anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients, and look at various burn-related variables that affect them. This cross-sectional study included 100 patients with burn injuries admitted to a tertiary care private hospital in an urban metropolis in India. The patients were assessed for anxiety, depression and self-esteem using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg self-esteem scale respectively. Assessment was carried out within 2-8 weeks of injury following medical stabilization. The data was tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study sample was predominantly male (54%), married (69%), with a mean age of 34.1 ± 10.8 years. Accidental burns (94%) were the most common modality of injury. The majority (46%) suffered burns involving 20-59% total body surface area (TBSA), and facial burns were present (57%). No significant association was found between TBSA and anxiety, depression or self-esteem, and the same was true for facial burns. Deep burns, however, were significantly associated with anxiety (p=0.03) and depression (p=0.0002). High rates of anxiety and depression are associated with burn injuries and related to burn depth. Adjustment and recovery in these patients depends on various other factors like the patient's psychological status, nature/extent of the injury and ensuing medical care. Further research is warranted to reveal the magnitude and predictors of psychological problems in burn patients.

  14. Microbiological and quantitative analysis of burn wounds in the burn unit at a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir

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    Tahir Saleem Khan


    Full Text Available Background: The burn wound represents a susceptible site for opportunistic colonization by organisms of endogenous and exogenous origin. The present study was undertaken to analyze the microflora of burn wounds of the burn patients from a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir, India. Materials sand Methods: The study included all patients with acute burns admitted from January 2010 to December 2011 (2 years. The standard techniques, as practiced during collection of microbiological specimens, were used during wound swab/biopsy collection. Results: 74.19% of swab cultures yielded single isolates. On swab culture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonly isolated organism (46.86%. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate isolated during 1st postburn week (30.86%. 258/288 (89.58% blood cultures were sterile. 8/58 (13.79% blood cultures were positive during the second postburn week. S. aureus was the most common organism grown on blood culture (44.44%. P. aeruginosa was mostly sensitive to polymyxin B (86.0%, amikacin (40.0%, and ciprofloxacin (37.3%, respectively. S. aureus was most commonly sensitive to linezolid (85.0% and vancomycin (78.8%% whereas Acinetobacter spp. was sensitive to polymyxin B (65.3%, piperacillin/tazobactam (44.9%, and amikacin (38.8%. Patients (27.27% who showed local signs of burn wound infection and positive blood culture were subjected to burn wound biopsy. 93.33% of patients who had counts >105 colony-forming unit/g of tissue showed significant association with local signs of burn wound infection and positive blood culture for any organism. Conclusion: The microbiological surveillance of burn wounds needs to be continued for a rational antibiotic policy and prevention of emergence of resistant organisms. Burn wound biopsy culture is an effective tool for quantitative analysis of burn wounds; however, subjecting this biopsy to histological examination is more predictable of burn wound infection and its correlation

  15. Improved survival with an innovative approach to the treatment of severely burned patients: development of a burn treatment manual


    Morisada, S.; Nosaka, N.; Tsukahara, K.; Ugawa, T.; Sato, K.; Ujike, Y.


    The management of severely burned patients remains a major issue worldwide as indicated by the high incidence of permanent debilitating complications and poor survival rates. In April 2012, the Advanced Emergency & Critical Care Medical Center of the Okayama University Hospital began implementing guidelines for severely burned patients, distributed as a standard burn treatment manual. The protocol, developed in-house, was validated by comparing the outcomes of patients with severe extensive b...

  16. Energy poverty, shack fires and childhood burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Kimemia


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a persisting challenge in South Africa. Energy poverty, prevalent in under-resourced communities, is a key contributor to the problem. The energy-poor rely on solid fuels and flammable hydrocarbons, such as paraffin, for energy services. The fuels are burnt in inefficient, leaky and unstable appliances, leading to health losses from pollutant emissions, burns, and conflagrations. Within cramped informal home settings, using flammable fuels and risky combustion technologies, the situation can become devastating, especially for young children. Those who survive fiery incidents have to contend with trauma and property losses that may lead to further impoverishment. Proactive intervention strategies are required and should include the broadening of access to safe and sustainable energy. We advocate greater enforcement of home appliance standards and targeted support for the distribution of proven alternative energy technologies, such as liquefied petroleum gas and solar power. Support and advocacy from professional and citizen groups would be necessary to ensure that government prioritises the safe energy requirements of poor citizens.

  17. Catastrophizing in Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is an idiopathic painful condition which manifests with burning sensations in the oral cavity in patients with clinically normal oral mucosa and without any local and/or systemic causative factor. Catastrophizing is defined as an exaggerated negative orientation toward pain stimuli and pain experience. The aim of this study was to examine the association between catastrophizing and clinical parameters of BMS, and to examine the association between catastrophizing and the quality of life in patients with BMS. Materials and methods: Anonymous questionnaire consisting of 3 parts (demographic and clinical data with 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS, Croatian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14 scale and Croatian version of the Pain Catastrophizing scale (PC, was distributed to 30 patients diagnosed with BMS. Results: A higher level of catastrophizing was clinically significant in 30% of the patients. Total catastrophizing score and all three subcomponents of catastrophizing significantly correlated with the intensity of symptoms, but did not correlate with the duration of symptoms. Gender and previous treatment did not affect the catastrophizing. Conclusion: Obtaining the information about catastrophizing could help a clinician to identify patients with negative behavioural patterns. Additional psychological intervention in these individuals could reduce/eliminate negative cognitive factors and improve coping with chronic painful condition such as BMS.

  18. Establishing a PWR burn-up library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, D.C.


    Starting out from data file ENDF/B IV /1/, a cross-section library has been established for the calculation of operating conditions in pressurized water reactors of the type used in BIBLIS B. The library includes macroscopic, homogenized 2-group cross-sections for all types of fuel elements used in this reactor, including those equipped with boron glass rods. For their calculation the previous irradiation of the fuel has been taken into consideration by approximation. Information on fuel consumption from cell burn-up calculations has been stored in a separate data file. It was designed as a base for the determination of cross sections to be used in the calculation of the incident ''main-steam pipe fracture''. For this library the description of cross sections as a function of the moderator status chose the water densities at 300 0 C/155 bar, 190 0 C/140 bar and 100 0 C/100 bar as fixed values. The burn-up library has been tested by a three-dimensional calculation for the 1sup(st) cycle of the BIBLIS B-reactor using program QUABOX /2/. This showed variances with the anticipated course concerning critically, which can be explained almost quantitatively by known deficiencies of the ENDF/b-IV library. (orig.) [de

  19. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece. (United States)

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O


    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  20. Epidemiology of burns undergoing hospitalization to the National Burns Unit in the Sultanate of Oman: a 25-year review. (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Bulushi, Taimoor


    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of burns admitted to the National Burns Unit (NBU) in the Sultanate of Oman between 1987 and 2011. This is a retrospective review of burn patients admitted to Oman's National Burns Unit (NBU) between 1987 and 2011. The data extracted from the national burn registry. The study describes the admission rate by gender and age groups, occupation, causes of burns, time-to-admission, length of stay and in-hospital mortality of burns between 1987 and 2011. During a 25-year from 1987 to 2011, there were 3531 burn patients admitted to the National Burns Unit in Oman. The average admission rate to NBU is 7.02 per 100,000 persons per year. On average, males were more likely to be admitted to the NBU than females during the study period (P value Oman. Children are disproportionately over-represented in this study. Prevention programmes are urgently needed to address this "silent and costly epidemic." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancing TRU burning and Am transmutation in Advanced Recycling Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Kochendarfer, Richard A.; Moriwaki, Hiroyuki; Kunishima, Shigeru


    Research highlights: → This ARR is an oxide fueled sodium cooled reactor based on innovative technologies to destruct TRU. → TRU burning core is designed to burn TRU at 28 kg/TW th h, adding moderator pins of B 4 C (Enriched B-11). → Am transmutation core can transmute Am at 34 kg/TW th h, adding uranium free AmN blanket to TRU burning core. → The TRU burning core improves TRU burning by 40-50% than the previous core. → The Am transmutation core can transmute Am effectively, keeping the void reactivity acceptable. - Abstract: This paper presents about conceptual designs of Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) focusing on enhancement in transuranics (TRU) burning and americium (Am) transmutation. The design has been conducted in the context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) seeking to close nuclear fuel cycle in ways that reduce proliferation risks, reduce the nuclear waste in the US and further improve global energy security. This study strives to enhance the TRU burning and the Am transmutation, assuming the development of related technologies in this study, while the ARR based on mature technologies was designed in the previous study. It has followed that the provided TRU burning core is designed to burn TRU at 28 kg/TW th h, by adding moderator pins of B 4 C (Enriched B-11) and the Am transmutation core will be able to transmute Am at 34 kg/TW th h, by locating Am blanket of AmN around the TRU burning core. It indicates that these concepts improve TRU burning by 40-50% than the previous core and can transmute Am effectively, keeping the void reactivity acceptable.

  2. Epidemiology of burns in teaching hospital of Northern India

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    Mumtazudin Wani


    Full Text Available Background: There is no information on the pattern of outcomes among burn patients in relation to clinical aspects in India. Hence, the present study was undertaken in a burn unit to determine selected epidemiological variables, assess the clinical aspects (etiology, extent and anatomical location and finally to analyze the outcomes in cases of burn injury. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was undertaken to analyze the patients admitted to the Burn Unit of Government Medical college Srinagar. The study was carried over a period 2 years from January 2013 to December 2014. Various variables including age and sex distribution, nature of burn injuries, Anatomical location, percentage of total body surface area burnt, depth of burns, Survival of expired patients and mortality were recorded and analyzed. Results: Highest incidence of burns was in the age group between 21 and 40 years; 61% patients were females and 39% were males; majority of our patients had burns in the range of 20 to 40% TBSA (total body surface area; mortality rate in our study was 36.82%; most common site of the burn injury was upper limb(30.19%;among patients who died those with TBSA burn of >60%, 41 to 60% and 31 to 40% succumbed within three, six and nine days respectively. Age ranged from 6 months to 93 years. Mean age of the patients was 31 years. Eighty percent patients belonged to rural areas and 20% belonged to Urban locality. Conclusion: People with low educational qualification should be taught about the proper and safe usage of modern appliances based on electricity, LPG or kerosene. People with psychiatric problems or low intelligence quotient (I.Q should be helped by their care takers in avoiding the burn injuries and also devices with alarms should be used in their households. Fuel or electric devices should be checked by a trained person regularly (e.g once in month to avoid usage of faulty devices.

  3. The relation between forest structure and soil burn severity (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham; David S. Pilliod


    A study funded through National Fire Plan evaluates the relation between pre-wildfire forest structure and post-wildfire soil burn severity across three forest types: dry, moist, and cold forests. Over 73 wildfires were sampled in Idaho, Oregon, Montana, Colorado, and Utah, which burned between 2000 and 2003. Because of the study’s breadth, the results are applicable...

  4. Determinants of burn first aid knowledge: Cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Wallace, Hilary J; O'Neill, Tomas B; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W; Rea, Suzanne M


    This study investigated demographic factors, experience of burn/care and first aid course attendance as factors influencing burn first aid knowledge. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using convenience sampling of members of sporting and recreation clubs. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct responses to multiple-choice questions relating to four burn scenarios: (1) scald, (2) contact burn, (3) ignited clothing, and (4) chemical burn. A total of 2602 responses were obtained. Large gaps (30-50% incorrect answers) were identified in burn first aid knowledge across all scenarios. 15% more individuals gave correct answers if they had attended a first aid course compared to those who had not (pfirst aid knowledge. Gender and age were significant predictors of first aid course attendance, with males and younger (≤25 years) and older (≥65 years) age-groups less likely to have attended a first aid course. In this sample, first aid training undertaken within the last 5 years with a specific burns component was associated with enhanced burn first aid knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Chinese medical herbs- burn liniment on deep second ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods: The animals were divided into four groups including control group, model group,1% silver sulfadiazine (SSD) group and BL group. On days 0,3,7,14 and 21,animal weight ... activity in rats. Keywords: Burn Liniment; Deep second degree; Burn wound; Anti-inflammatory; Antibacterial; Toxicological test ...

  6. Planning for prescribed burning in the inland northwest. (United States)

    Robert E. Martin; John D. Dell


    Fire has historically played a role in forests and ranges of the inland Northwest. This guide has been prepared to help managers understand the role of fire and the potential uses of fire and to plan for fire use in managing these lands. Sections deal with these topics, and steps in planning a prescribed burn are outlined. A sample burning situation illustrates the...

  7. Identifying individual fires from satellite-derived burned area data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S


    Full Text Available An algorithm for identifying individual fires from the Modis burned area data product is introduced for southern Africa. This algorithm gives the date of burning, size of fire, and location of the centroid for all fires identified over 8 years...

  8. Burn severity mapping using simulation modeling and satellite imagery (United States)

    Eva C. Karau; Robert E. Keane


    Although burn severity maps derived from satellite imagery provide a landscape view of fire impacts, fire effects simulation models can provide spatial fire severity estimates and add a biotic context in which to interpret severity. In this project, we evaluated two methods of mapping burn severity in the context of rapid post-fire assessment for four wildfires in...

  9. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns (United States)

    Objectives: Following a major burn, muscle protein synthesis rate increases but in most patients, this response is not sufficient to compensate the also elevated protein breakdown. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that skeletal muscle prot...

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn wound infection in a dedicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a major cause of morbidity in burns patients. There is a paucity of publications dealing with this infection in the paediatric population. We describe the incidence, microbiology and impact of P. aeruginosa infection in a dedicated paediatric burns unit. Methods.

  11. Nutritional management of the burn patient | Prins | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burn injury, the most severe type of injury from a metabolic point of view, is characterised by the most profound alterations in basal metabolic rate and urinary nitrogen excretion. In addition, requirements for and/or metabolism of macro- and micronutrients are altered or increased. The major improvement in burn survival can ...

  12. Evaluation of burned aspen communities in Jackson Hole, Wyoming (United States)

    Charles E. Kay


    Aspen has been declining in Jackson Hole for many years, a condition generally attributed to the fact that lightning fires have been aggressively suppressed since the early 1900s. It is also believed that burning will successfully regenerate aspen stands despite high elk numbers. To test this hypothesis, I evaluated 467 burned and 495 adjacent, unburned aspen stands at...

  13. Working group report: methane emissions from biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.A.; Ahuja, D.


    Biomass burning is a significant source of atmospheric methane. Like most other sources of methane, it has both natural and anthropogenic causes, although anthropogenic causes now predominate. Most of the estimates of methane emissions from biomass burning in the past have relied on a uniform emission factor for all types of burning. This results in the share of trace gas emissions for different types of burning being the same as the amounts of biomass burned in those types. The Working Group endorsed the extension of an approach followed for Africa by Delmas et al. (1991) to use different emission factors for different types of biomass burning to estimate national emissions of methane. This is really critical as emission factors present important variations. While the focus of discussions of the Working Group was on methane emissions from biomass burning, the Group endorsed the IPCC-OECD methodology of estimating all greenhouse related trace gases from biomass burning. Neither the IPCC-OECD nor the methodology suggested here applies to estimation of trace gas emissions from the processing of biomass to upgraded fuels. They must be estimated separately. The Group also discussed technical options for controlling methane emissions from biomass. 12 refs

  14. An overview of burning mouth syndrome for the dermatologist. (United States)

    Lewis, A K; Prime, S S; Cohen, S N


    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an idiopathic burning pain affecting the oral mucosa, with no clinically apparent changes. It can present to a variety of health professionals including dermatologists. This article summarizes the important aspects of the condition, including theories of pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Comparison of burning characteristics of live and dead chaparral fuels (United States)

    L. Sun; X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise


    Wildfire spread in living vegetation, such as chaparral in southern California, often causes significant damage to infrastructure and ecosystems. The effects of physical characteristics of fuels and fuel beds on live fuel burning and whether live fuels differ fundamentally from dead woody fuels in their burning characteristics are not well understood. Toward this end,...

  16. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    Survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with...

  17. Acute burns of the hands – physiotherapy perspective.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of KwaZulu-Natal, Occupational therapy Department. Abstract: ... trajectory of the trauma care continuum. Keywords: Burns ... challenges during their recovery process.1 Hand burn in- ... major teaching institutions situated within a metropolitan area and .... education and motivation and provide basic counselling.

  18. 40 CFR 49.131 - General rule for open burning. (United States)


    ... houses or lodges; (3) Except during a burn ban under paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section, fires... burn ban under paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section and with prior permission from the Regional... cleaners, or photographic reagents; stored linoleum, plastics, rubber, tires, or insulated wire; or...

  19. Unplanned readmission after hospital discharge in burn patients in Iran. (United States)

    Jafaryparvar, Zakiyeh; Adib, Masoomeh; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Leyli, Ehsan Kazemnezhad


    Burns are considered as one of the most serious health problems throughout the world. They may lead to adverse consequences and outcomes. One of these outcomes is unplanned readmission. Unplanned readmission has been commonly used as a quality indicator by hospitals and governments. This study aimed to determine the predictors of unplanned readmission in patients with burns hospitalized in a burn center in the North of Iran (Guilan province, Rasht). This retrospective analytic study has been done on the medical records of hospitalized patients with burns in Velayat Sub-Specialty Burn and Plastic Surgery Center, Rasht, Iran during 2008-2013. In general, 703 medical records have been reviewed but statistical analysis was performed on 626 medical records. All data were entered in SPSS (version 16) and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Among 626 patients with burns, the overall readmission rate was 5.1%. Predictors of readmission included total body surface area (OR 1.030, CI 1.011-1.049), hypertension (OR 2.923, CI 1.089-7.845) and skin graft (OR 7.045, CI 2.718-18.258). Considering the outcome, predictors following burn have a crucial role in the allocation of treatment cost for patients with burns and they can be used as one of the quality indicators for health care providers and governments.

  20. Burn Rehabilitation and Research: Proceedings of a Consensus Summit (United States)


    projectsperceivedasneeding investigation.Multicenter re- search initiatives are highly encouraged. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Carol Raymond, Maria Chapa, Travis...Engrav LH, Nakamura DY, Dutcher KA, Heimbach DM, Vedder NB. Treatment of fourth-degree hand burns. J Burn Care Rehabil 1995;16:36–42. 42. Mendez

  1. Burn-up measurements coupling gamma spectrometry and neutron measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toubon, H.; Pin, P. [AREVA/CANBERRA, 1 rue des Herons, 78182 St Quentin-en-Yvelines Cedex (France); Lebrun, A. [IAEA, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Oriol, L.; Saurel, N. [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Gain, T. [AREVA/COGEMA Reprocessing Business Unit, La Hague, 50444 Beaumont Hague Cedex (France)


    The need to apply for burn-up credit arises with the increase of the initial enrichment of nuclear fuel. When burn-up credit is used in criticality safety studies, it is often necessary to confirm it by measurement. For the last 10 years, CANBERRA has manufactured the PYTHON system for such measurements. However, the method used in the PYTHON itself uses certain reactor data to arrive at burn-up estimates. Based on R and D led by CEA and COGEMA in the framework of burn-up measurement for burn-up credit and safeguards applications, CANBERRA is developing the next generation of burn-up measurement device. This new product, named SMOPY, is able to measure burn-up of any kind of irradiated fuel assembly with a combination of gamma spectrometry and passive neutron measurements. The measurement data is used as input to the CESAR depletion code, which has been developed and qualified by CEA and COGEMA for burn-up credit determinations. In this paper, we explain the complementary nature of the gamma and neutron measurements. In addition, we draw on our previous experience from PYTHON system and from COGEMA La Hague to show what types of evaluations are required to qualify the SMOPY system, to estimate its uncertainties, and to detect discrepancies in the fuel data given by the reactor plant to characterize the irradiated fuel assembly. (authors)

  2. Periodic Burning In Table Mountain-Pitch Pine Stands (United States)

    Russell B. Randles; David H. van Lear; Thomas A. Waldrop; Dean M. Simon


    Abstract - The effects of multiple, low intensity burns on vegetation and wildlife habitat in Table Mountain (Pinus pungens Lamb.)-pitch (Pinus rigida Mill.) pine communities were studied in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Treatments consisted of areas burned from one to four times at 3-4 year...

  3. History of burns: The past, present and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Chear Lee


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are one of the most common and devastating afflictions on the human body. In this article we look back at how the treatment of burns has evolved over the centuries from a primarily topical therapy consisting of weird and wonderful topical concoctions in ancient times to one that spans multiple scientific fields of topical therapy, antibiotics, fluid resuscitation, skin excision and grafting, respiratory and metabolic care and nutrition. Most major advances in burn care occurred in the last 50 years, spurred on by wars and great fires. The use of systemic antibiotics and topical silver therapy greatly reduced sepsis related mortality. This along with the advent of antiseptic surgical techniques, burn depth classification and skin grafting allowed the excision and coverage of full-thickness burns which resulted in greatly improved survival rates. Advancements in the methods of assessing the surface area of burns paved way for more accurate fluid resuscitation, minimising the effects of shock and avoiding fluid over-loading. The introduction of metabolic care, nutritional support and care of inhalational injuries further improved the outcome of burn patients. We also briefly discuss some future directions in burn care such as the use of cell and pharmalogical therapies.

  4. Soil an-d nutrient loss following site preparation burning (United States)

    E.A. Carter; J.P. Field; K.W. Farrish


    Sediment loss and nutrient cpncentrations in runoff were evaluated to determine the effects of site preparation burning on a recently harvested loblolly pine (Pinur taeda L.) site in east Texas. Sediment and nutrient losses prior to treatment were approximately the same from control plots and pretreatment burn plots. Nutrient analysis of runoff samples indicated that...

  5. Soil and Nutrient Loss Following Site Preparation Burning (United States)

    J.P. Field; E.A. Carter


    Sediment loss and nutrient cpncentrations in runoff were evaluated to determine the effects of site preparation burning on a recently harvested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) site in east Texas. Sediment and nutrient losses prior to treatment were approximately the same from control plots and pretreatment burn plots. Nutrient analysis of runoff...

  6. Coverage of extensive tibial bone exposure in burn patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Covering tibial bone exposure from third degree burns to the lower limbs is a challenging task for the plastic surgeon. We present our experience of covering tibial exposure from burns in three different patients, where four limbs were involved and three muscular flaps were used in conjunction with one another; i.e. the ...

  7. Socio-Economic And Psychological Implications Of Burn Injury In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burn is a global problem with a magnitude of chains of psychological effects on surviving victims and socio economic implications for the individual, the immediate family and the society at large. This paper seeks to highlight the major consequences of burn injuries in the Nigerian society. There is a growing evidence of ...

  8. Caregivers' perspective of school reintegration in children survivors of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, R.; Santos, B.D.; Van Loey, N.E.E.; Geenen, R.; Rossi, L.A.; Nascimento, L.C.

    Introduction: Pediatric burns are an important reason of treatment and hospitalization. Children victims of burns may interrupt or even abandon school activities. The process of school reintegration of this population has become a point of attention. Aim: To analyze the caregivers’ perspective of

  9. Terminal Maturation of Orthochromatic Erythroblasts Is Impaired in Burn Patients. (United States)

    Hasan, Shirin; Mosier, Michael J; Conrad, Peggie; Szilagyi, Andrea; Gamelli, Richard L; Muthumalaiappan, Kuzhali


    Mechanisms of erythropoietin (Epo)-resistant anemia in burn patients are poorly understood. We have recently found that administering a nonselective beta 1,2-adrenergic blocker propranolol (PR) was effective in reversing myelo-erythroid commitment through MafB regulation and increase megakaryocyte erythrocyte progenitors in burn patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived ex vivo culture system. Having known that Epo-dependent proliferation of early erythroblasts is intact after burn injury, here we inquired whether or not Epo-independent maturation stage of erythropoiesis is affected by burn injury and the relative role of PR on late-stage erythropoiesis. While majority of erythropoiesis occurs in the bone marrow, maturation into reticulocytes is crucial for their release into sinusoids to occupy the peripheral circulation for which enucleation is vital. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from burn patients were extended beyond commitment and proliferation stages to late maturation stage in ex vivo culture to understand the role of PR in burn patients. Burn impedes late maturation of orthochromatic erythroblasts into reticulocytes by restricting the enucleation step. Late-stage erythropoiesis is impaired in burn patients irrespective of PR treatment. Further, substituting the microenvironment with control plasma (homologous) in place of autologous plasma rescues the conversion of orthochromatic erythroblasts to reticulocytes. Results show promise in formulating interventions to regulate late-stage erythropoiesis, which can be used in combination with PR to reduce the number of transfusions.

  10. Prescribed burning with spot fires in the Georgia Coastal Plain (United States)

    R. W. Johansen


    The use of prescribed fire in the management of pine forests is common throughout much of the South, but one recurring problem that worries the forest landowner is not having enough suitable burning weather to satisfactorily complete all scheduled fires. Being able to burn areas considerably faster, without causing undue damage, could be a solution.

  11. An experimental prescribed burn to reduce fuel hazard in chaparral (United States)

    Lisle R. Green


    The feasibility of reducing fuel hazard in chaparral during safe weather conditions was studied in an experimental prescribed burn in southern California. Burning was done under fuel and weather conditions when untreated brush would not bum readily. Preparatory treatment included smashing of brush on strips with a bulldozer, and reduction of moisture content of leaves...

  12. Outcome of Conservative Management of Burns: Critical Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Management of burn continues to be a great challenge. Dressing and ... The state of depression was assessed using Beck classification of ... depression. Conclusion: Conservative management of burns is associated with more wound complications. Sudan Joural of Medical Studies Vol. 2 (1) 2007: pp. 25-28 ...

  13. Burn-up measurements coupling gamma spectrometry and neutron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toubon, H.; Pin, P.; Lebrun, A.; Oriol, L.; Saurel, N.; Gain, T.


    The need to apply for burn-up credit arises with the increase of the initial enrichment of nuclear fuel. When burn-up credit is used in criticality safety studies, it is often necessary to confirm it by measurement. For the last 10 years, CANBERRA has manufactured the PYTHON system for such measurements. However, the method used in the PYTHON itself uses certain reactor data to arrive at burn-up estimates. Based on R and D led by CEA and COGEMA in the framework of burn-up measurement for burn-up credit and safeguards applications, CANBERRA is developing the next generation of burn-up measurement device. This new product, named SMOPY, is able to measure burn-up of any kind of irradiated fuel assembly with a combination of gamma spectrometry and passive neutron measurements. The measurement data is used as input to the CESAR depletion code, which has been developed and qualified by CEA and COGEMA for burn-up credit determinations. In this paper, we explain the complementary nature of the gamma and neutron measurements. In addition, we draw on our previous experience from PYTHON system and from COGEMA La Hague to show what types of evaluations are required to qualify the SMOPY system, to estimate its uncertainties, and to detect discrepancies in the fuel data given by the reactor plant to characterize the irradiated fuel assembly. (authors)

  14. Scaling of the burning efficiency for multicomponent fuel pool fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Farahani, Hamed Farmahini; Rangwala, Ali S.

    In order to improve the validity of small scale crude oil burning experiments, which seem to underestimate the burning efficiency obtained in larger scales, the gasification mechanism of crude oil was studied. Gasification models obtained from literature were used to make a set of predictions for...... an external heat source to simulate the larger fire size are currently in process....

  15. Changes in Zinc metabolism after burns : observations, explanations, clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de K.E.C.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Hamer, van den C.J.A.; Boxma, H.; Groot, de C.J.


    Zinc in plasma and urine and serum albumin and alpha 2-macroglobulin were measured in 48 patients with burns. Mean total burned surface area amounted to 18%, ranging from 2 to 55%, and mean hospitalization time amounted to 35 days, ranging from 10 to 124 days. All parameters showed a decrease during

  16. Postfire soil burn severity mapping with hyperspectral image unmixing (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; Sarah A. Lewis; Denise Y. M. Laes; Andrew T. Hudak; Raymond F. Kokaly; Joseph A. Zamudio


    Burn severity is mapped after wildfires to evaluate immediate and long-term fire effects on the landscape. Remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery has the potential to provide important information about fine-scale ground cover components that are indicative of burn severity after large wildland fires. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and ground data were collected after...

  17. Pediatric Burns: A Single Institution Retrospective Review of Incidence, Etiology, and Outcomes in 2273 Burn Patients (1995-2013). (United States)

    Lee, Christina J; Mahendraraj, Krishnaraj; Houng, Abraham; Marano, Michael; Petrone, Sylvia; Lee, Robin; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    Unintentional burn injury is the third most common cause of death in the U.S. for children age 5 to 9, and accounts for major morbidity in the pediatric population. Pediatric burn admission data from U.S. institutions has not been reported recently. This study assesses all pediatric burn admissions to a State wide Certified Burn Treatment Center to evaluate trends in demographics, burn incidence, and cause across different age groups. Demographic and clinical data were collected on 2273 pediatric burn patients during an 18-year period (1995-2013). Pediatric patients were stratified by age into "age 0 to 6," "age 7 to 12," and "age 13 to 18." Data were obtained from National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons and analyzed using standard statistical methodology. A total of 2273 burn patients under age 18 were treated between 1995 and 2013. A total of 1663 (73.2%) patients were ages 0 to 6, 294 (12.9%) were 7 to 12, and 316 (13.9%) were age 13 to 18. A total of 1400 (61.6%) were male and 873 (38.4%) were female (male:female ratio of 1.6:1). Caucasians had the highest burn incidence across all age groups (40.9%), followed by African-Americans (33.6%), P burns occurred at home, P burned was 8.9%, with lower extremity being the most common site (38.5%). Scald burns constituted the majority of cases (71.1%, n = 1617), with 53% attributable to hot liquids related to cooking, including coffee or tea, P burns were the dominant cause (53.8%). Overall mean length of stay was 10.5 ± 10.8 days for all patients, and15.5 ± 12 for those admitted to the intensive care unit, P burn injuries are scald burns that occur at home and primarily affect the lower extremities in Caucasian and African-American males. Among Caucasian teenagers flame burns predominate. Mean length of stay was 10 days, 23% of patients required skin grafting surgery, and mortality was 0.9%. The results of this study highlight the need for primary prevention programs focusing on avoiding

  18. Radioisotopic studies on pulmonary function in experimental burn shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, W.; Barcikowski, S.; Maziarz, Z.; Zajgner, J.; Markiewicz, A.


    Disturbances in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, which can initiate severe complications, often lead to many therapeutic failures in burn shock. Early recognition of respiratory disturbances is often required to improve results of treatment of burn shock. The authors investigated changes in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in napalm-burnt rabbits using 133 Xe. Simultaneously, they determined effect of treatment with cytochrome C on pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in animals burnt with napalm. It was found that in napalm-burnt rabbits burn shock was accompanied by a significant deterioration in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion. The most marked changes were observed one and two days after burn. It was also found a beneficial effect of treatment with cytochrome C on alveolar ventilation. The authors pointed out the usefulness of radioisotopic investigations of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in burn shock. (author)

  19. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)


    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  20. [Reconstruction of the ear in the burns patient]. (United States)

    Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl

    Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. TRIGA criticality experiment for testing burn-up calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, Andreja; Ravnik, Matjaz; Zagar, Tomaz


    A criticality experiment with partly burned TRIGA fuel is described. 20 wt % enriched standard TRIGA fuel elements initially containing 12 wt % U are used. Their average burn-up is 1.4 MWd. Fuel element burn-up is calculated in 2-D four group diffusion approximation using TRIGLAV code. The burn-up of several fuel elements is also measured by reactivity method. The excess reactivity of several critical and subcritical core configurations is measured. Two core configurations contain the same fuel elements in the same arrangement as were used in the fresh TRIGA fuel criticality experiment performed in 1991. The results of the experiment may be applied for testing the computer codes used for fuel burn-up calculations. (author)

  2. Skin bioengineering and stem cells for severe burn treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lataillade, J.J.; Trouillas, M.; Alexaline, M.; Brachet, M.; Bey, E.; Duhamel, P.; Leclerc, T.; Bargues, L.


    Severely burned patients need definitive and efficient wound coverage. The outcome of massive burns has improved with cultured epithelial auto-grafts (CEA). In spite of its fragility, percentage of success, cost of treatment and long-term tendency to contracture, this surgical technique has been developed in some burn centres. The first improvements involved combining CEA and dermis-like substitutes. Cultured skin substitutes provide faster skin closure and satisfying functional results. These methods have been used successfully in massive burns. A second improvement was to enable skin regeneration by using epidermal stem cells. Stem cells can differentiate into keratinocytes, to promote wound repair and to regenerate skin appendages. Human mesenchymal stem cells foster wound healing and were used in cutaneous radiation syndrome. Skin regeneration and tissue engineering methods remain a complex challenge and offer the possibility of new treatment for injured and burned patients. (authors)

  3. In search of a better burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, D; Anderson, I; Cross, M


    The versatility of coal as a fuel is examined. Many technologies for burning coal are far less polluting and more efficient than those used at present but few are commercial yet. The US Clean Coal Technology Program is supporting the development of advanced technologies including magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The benefits of MHD are assessed but its practical difficulties are also noted. Other approaches such as combined-cycle power plants and chemical cleaning are noted as well as new methods for drying brown coals. Developments in fuel cells which can be combined with coal gasification are also described. Increased efficiency will reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emitted but not eliminate it. One of the constraints on the the adoption of advanced technology is the conservation of the electric power industry.

  4. Emissions from Biomass Burning in the Yucatan (United States)

    Yokelson, R.; Crounse, J. D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Karl, T.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Campos, T.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; hide


    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle species were measured from 20 deforestation and crop residue fires on the Yucatan peninsula. This included two trace gases useful as indicaters of BB (HCN and acetonitrile) and several rarely, or never before, measured species: OH, peroxyacetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methane sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid. Crop residue fires emitted more organic acids and ammonia than deforestation fires, but the emissions from the main fire types were otherwise fairly similar. The Yucatan fires emitted unusually amounts of SO2 and particle chloride, likely due to a strong marine influence on the peninsula.

  5. US plans for burning plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.


    The first US burning plasma experiment will be the TFTR at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The initial start-up with hydrogen is expected in December, 1983. The experiment by D-T reaction will begin in 1986. Because of the lack of shielding capability, later experiment is not yet defined. The informal scientific interaction with JET (European project) is kept. The design work on the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) continues, but is delayed. US fusion laboratories collaborated with IPP-Garching on the conceptual design of Zephyr experiment. The US continues to participate in INTOR activities, and will investigate into the critical issues relevant to both INTOR and FED in coming years. (Kato, T.)

  6. Transition to thermonuclear burn in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.


    An analytical investigation is made of the time evolution of the 1-D temperature profile in a fusion reactor plasma where the nonlinear energy balance equation is dominated by alpha-particle heating and thermal conduction losses. Special emphasis is given to the problem of establishing sufficient conditions for the transition to thermonuclear burn for given initial temperature profiles. In particular, it is demonstrated that for strongly nonlinear alpha-particle heating, temperature profiles initially peaked on-axis are more easily ignited than profiles similar in form to the equilibrium profile of the energy balance equation. Simple analytical criteria for ignition are established and are shown to compare favourably with results of numerical calculations. (author)

  7. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L


    stimuli may be more reproducible. A methodological study also demonstrated that habituation to experimental pain developed as the study proceeded. Habituation is common in experimental pain models, and dividing analgesics and placebo evenly between the study days is one way of eliminating the effects......Human experimental pain models are important tools in pain research. The primary aims of pain research in normal man is 1) to provide insight in pain mechanisms, 2) to provide a rational basis for clinical trials of pain relieving interventions, and 3) to confirm the anti-nociceptive effects...... demonstrated in animal models. Most often clinical pain is due to tissue damage leading to acute inflammation and hyperalgesia, but only few human pain models have examined pain responses in injured tissues. Therefore, models with controlled and reversible tissue trauma are needed. The human burn model...

  8. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerneni LK


    Full Text Available Ever since man invented fire he has been more frequently burning himself by this creation than by the naturally occurring bushfires. It is estimated that over 1.152 million people in India suffer from burn injuries requiring treatment every year and majority of them are women aged between 16-40 years and most of them occur in the kitchen. The treatment for burns basically involves autologous skin grafting, which originated in India more than two thousand years ago (Sushruta Samhita, is still the gold standard for the wound resurfacing, although, autografting is difficult where graftable donor sites are limited. Although, Cadaver skin, porcine or bovine xenografts are used alternatively over the past thirty years, modern approaches like the Bioengineering of skin substitutes emerged during the past 20 years as advanced wound management technologies with no social impediment. They can be broadly categorized as Acellular and Cellular biotechnological products. The acellular products like Alloderm (LifeCell Corporation, Integra (Integra Life Sciences act like template and depend on natural regeneration, while the cellular ones are either ‘Off-the-Shelf’ products like Apligraf (Organogenesis Inc and Orcel (Ortec International have allogenic elements and ‘home grown’ autologous cell products like Cultured Epithelial Autograft (CEA and epidermal-dermal composite skin use synthetic or natural non-human matrices. The CEA is based on the ex-vivo epidermal stem cell-expansion and our laboratory has been engaged in CEA technique development with innovative cost-effective approach and yielded promising preliminary clinical success. The basic methodological approach in CEA technique which is still clinically adopted by several developed countries involves the use of growth arrested mouse dermal fibroblasts as growth supportive matrix and is thus considered a drawback as a whole. Additionally, there is no superior enough method available to augment the

  9. An assessment of mass burn incineration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.R.; Scutter, J.N.; Sutton, A.M.


    This study comprises the third and final part of a cost assessment exercise of waste-to-energy options. The specific objectives of this particular study were: to determine the capital and operating costs of three generic types of mass burn waste-to-energy systems, for waste inputs of 200,000 and 400,000 t/y of municipal solid waste (MSW); to verify the mass and energy balances of the systems; to develop a computer cost model to manipulate the data as required; to carry out sensitivity checks on the computer model of changes to key parameters; and to conduct the study in a manner approximating as closely as possible to a real commercial situation. (author)

  10. Full MOX high burn-up PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Tsutomu; Kugo, Teruhiko; Shimada, Shoichiro; Araya, Fumimasa; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    As a part of conceptual investigation on advanced light water reactors for the future, a light water reactor with the high burn-up of 100 GWd/t, the long cycle operation of 3 years and the full MOX core is being studied, aiming at the improvement on economical aspects, the reduction of the spent fuel production, the utilization of Plutonium and so forth. The present report summarizes investigation on PWR-type reactors. The core with the increased moderation of the moderator-to-fuel volume ratio of 2.6 {approx} 3.0 has been proposed be such a core that accomplishes requirements mentioned above. Through the neutronic and the thermo-hydrodynamic evaluation, the performances of the core have been evaluated. Also, the safety designing is underway considering the reactor system with the passive safety features. (author)

  11. Explosive He4 burning: I. kinetics of burning at constant temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, A.M.; Ergma, E.V.


    The kinetics of He 4 burning at a constant temperature T> 10 9 0 K and a density rho> 10 5 g/cm 3 is considered. The regions of formation of iron group elements and lighter nuclides during He 4 burning are indicated in the rho, T plane. The dependence of the mean atomic number of the nuclides formed on the temperature and the density is determined. For the temperature T ≥4.10 9 0 K a ''neutron flash'' is found, which can lead to a change in the isotopic composition of the r- and s-process elements present. The range of rho and T in which the formation of an excess number of the elements beyond the iron peak is found

  12. [Burning sensation in oral cavity--burning mouth syndrome in everyday medical practice]. (United States)

    Gerlinger, Imre


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) refers to chronic orofacial pain, unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women. BMS is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, typically on the tongue or in other areas of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by other sensory disorders such as dry mouth or taste alterations. Probably of multifactorial origin, and often idiopathic, with a still unknown etiopathogenesis in which local, systemic and psychological factors are implicated. Currently there is no consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. This study reviews the literature on this syndrome, with special reference to the etiological factors that may be involved and the clinical aspects they present. The diagnostic criteria that should be followed and the therapeutic management are discussed with reference to the most recent studies.

  13. The Newfoundland in-situ Oil Burn Experiment - NOBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Li, K.; Ackerman, F.; Bissonnette, M.C.; Lambert, P.; Halley, G.; Nelson, R.; Belanger, J.; Pare, J.R.P.; Campagna, P.R.


    A group of over 25 Canadian and US agencies conducted a major offshore oil spill burn near Newfoundland. Over 20 vesels, 7 aircraft, and 230 people were involved in this test, the largest of its kind ever conducted. The burn involved release of two oil spills of ca 50 tons each into a towed fireproof boom. Each burn lasted over an hour. The burn plume was sampled using remote-controlled helicopters and a blimp, and air emissions were monitored downwind from remote controlled boats which also took water samples and temperatures. Over 200 sensors or samplers were used; these will yield data on over 2,000 parameters or substances. Preliminary results are reported. Burning occurred outside the boom due to some initial oil splashover, but this did not result in sheening or significant oil loss. The scaling of burns from test tanks to on-sea burns did not always hold true. Quantitative analytical data showed that emissions from this in-situ fire were less than expected; all measured compounds and parameters were below health concern levels beyond ca 150 m from the fire and very little was detected beyond 500 m. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were found to be lower in the soot than in the starting oil and were consumed by the fire to a large degree. Particulates were found to be of concern only up to 150 m downwind at sea level. Combustion gases did not reach levels of concern and volatile organics were in high concentrations but less than those emitted from a non-burning spill. No compounds of concern could be detected in the water samples. Burn residue samples had lower PAH levels than the starting oil. Generally, burning oil spills at sea was found to be feasible and practical. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Does fire severity influence shrub resprouting after spring prescribed burning? (United States)

    Fernández, Cristina; Vega, José A.; Fonturbel, Teresa


    Prescribed burning is commonly used to reduce the risk of severe wildfire. However, further information about the associated environmental effects is required to help forest managers select the most appropriate treatment. To address this question, we evaluated if fire severity during spring prescribed burning significantly affects the resprouting ability of two common shrub species in shrubland under a Mediterranean climate in NW Spain. Fire behaviour and temperatures were recorded in tagged individuals of Erica australis and Pterospartum tridentatum during prescribed burning. The number and length of resprouted shoots were measured three times (6, 12 and 18 months) after the prescribed burning. The influence of a series of fire severity indicators on some plant resprouting vigour parameters was tested by canonical correlation analysis. Six months and one year after prescribed burning, soil burn severity (measured by the absolute reduction in depth of the organic soil layer, maximum temperatures in the organic soil layer and the mineral soil surface during burning and the post-fire depth of the organic soil layer) reduced the resprouting vigour of E. australis and P. tridentatum. In contrast, direct measurements of fire effects on plants (minimum branch diameter, duration of temperatures above 300 °C in the shrub crown and fireline intensity) did not affect the post-fire plant vigour. Soil burn severity during spring prescribed burning significantly affected the short-term resprouting vigour in a mixed heathland in Galicia. The lack of effects eighteen months after prescribed burning indicates the high resilience of these species and illustrates the need to conciliate fire prevention and conservation goals.

  15. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt


    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L in the fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5% water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07% of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  16. Chemistry of burning the forest floor during the FROSTFIRE experimental burn, interior Alaska, 1999 (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Sandberg, D.V.; Turetsky, M.R.; Ottmar, R.; Gleixner, G.; Fries, T.L.; Manies, K.L.


    Wildfires represent one of the most common disturbances in boreal regions, and have the potential to reduce C, N, and Hg stocks in soils while contributing to atmospheric emissions. Organic soil layers of the forest floor were sampled before and after the FROSTFIRE experimental burn in interior Alaska, and were analyzed for bulk density, major and trace elements, and organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon, nutrients, and several major and trace elements were significantly altered by the burn. Emissions of C, N, and Hg, estimated from chemical mass balance equations using Fe, Al, and Si as stable constituents, indicated that 500 to 900 g C and up to 0 to 4 ?? 10-4 g Hg/M2 were lost from the site. Calculations of nitrogen loss range from -4 to +6 g/m2 but were highly variable (standard deviation 19), with some samples showing increased N concentrations post-burn potentially from canopy ash. Noncombustible major nutrients such as Ca and K also were inherited from canopy ash. Thermogravimetry indicates a loss of thermally labile C and increase of lignin-like C in char and ash relative to unburned counterparts. Overall, atmospheric impacts of boreal fires include large emissions of C, N and Hg that vary greatly as a function of severe fire weather and its access to deep organic layers rich in C, N, and Hg. In terrestrial systems, burning rearranges the vertical distribution of nutrients in fuels and soils, the proximity of nutrients and permafrost to surface biota, and the chemical composition of soil including its nutrient and organic constituents, all of which impact C cycling. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Perfusion of burn wounds assessed by Laser Doppler Imaging is related to burn depth and healing time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenberg, FWH; Beerthuizen, GIJM; ten Duis, H. J.

    Average perfusion in various burn wounds was assessed using Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI). The time necessary for a complete healing of the wound was compared to the results of the LDI measurements. A certain depth of burn was associated with a typical pattern of perfusion in the course of time. There

  18. The relationship of field burn severity measures to satellite-derived Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps (United States)

    Andrew Hudak; Penelope Morgan; Carter Stone; Pete Robichaud; Terrie Jain; Jess Clark


    Preliminary results are presented from ongoing research on spatial variability of fire effects on soils and vegetation from the Black Mountain Two and Cooney Ridge wildfires, which burned in western Montana during the 2003 fire season. Extensive field fractional cover data were sampled to assess the efficacy of quantitative satellite image-derived indicators of burn...

  19. Perineal burn contractures: An experience in tertiary hospital of a Himalayan state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep


    Full Text Available Perineal burn contracture is a rare burn sequel. We conducted a retrospective analysis of cases with perineal burn contractures managed in a tertiary care centre of a Himalayan state. We found that all cases sustained burn injury from burning firewood and the time of presentation was two to six years after the burn injury. We analyzed our treatment method and have classified these contractures into two types.

  20. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea


    The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, burning on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and national authorities need to have in their disposal accurate and updated spatial information concerning the size of the burned area as well as the burn severity patterns. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns is necessary to effectively support the decision-making process in what concerns strategic (long-term) planning with the definition of post-fire actions at European and national scales. Although a comprehensive archive of burnt areas exists at the European Forest Fire Information System, the analysis of the severity of the areas affected by forest fires in the region is not yet available. Fire severity is influenced by many variables, including fuel type, topography and meteorological conditions before and during the fire. The analysis of fire severity is essential to determine the socio-economic impact of forest fires, to assess fire impacts, and to determine the need of post-fire rehabilitation measures. Moreover, fire severity is linked to forest fire emissions and determines the rate of recovery of the vegetation after the fire. Satellite imagery can give important insights about the conditions of the live fuel moisture content and can be used to assess changes on vegetation structure and vitality after forest fires. Fire events occurred in Greece, Portugal and Spain during the fire season of 2009 were recorded and analyzed in a GIS environment. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) were calculated from 8-days composites MODIS/TERRA imagery from March to October 2009. In