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Sample records for burning rate

  1. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  2. Burning Rate Studies of Energetic Double Base Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study was carried out on the combustion characteristics of CMDB propellants containing ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, RDX and PETN. While ammonium and potassium perchlorates increased burning rates, other additives maintained either the same burning rate or reduced burning rates marginally. Propellants containing these additives showed marginally higher peak temperatures, indicating interaction among the species of double base propellant decomposition and those of additives.

  3. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn

  4. Accuracy of real time radiography burning rate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Bisola

    The design of a solid propellant rocket motor requires the determination of a propellant's burning-rate and its dependency upon environmental parameters. The requirement that the burning-rate be physically measured, establishes the need for methods and equipment to obtain such data. A literature review reveals that no measurement has provided the desired burning rate accuracy. In the current study, flash x-ray modeling and digitized film-density data were employed to predict motor-port area to length ratio. The pre-fired port-areas and base burning rate were within 2.5% and 1.2% of their known values, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the method, a continuous x-ray and a solid propellant rocket motor model (Plexiglas cylinder) were used. The solid propellant motor model was translated laterally through a real-time radiography system at different speeds simulating different burning rates. X-ray images were captured and the burning-rate was then determined. The measured burning rate was within 1.65% of the known values.

  5. Burning Rate Characteristics of Magnesium Sodium Nitrate Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaskara Rao

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The combustion phenomena of Mg-NaNO/sub 3/ propellants have been studied. Results of burning rate at different mixture ratios and particle sizes indicate that the compositions containing finer particle size (50 millimicron NaNO/sub 3/ give higher burning rate at high fuel content of the mixture than at the stoichiometric ratio; whereas the compositions with coarser particle size (250 millimicron NaNO/sub 3/ show increasing burning rate with increasing oxidiser content and give a maximum at stoichiometric point. Thermal decomposition results indicate that the condensed phase heat release at the propellant surface and the reactions in the vapour phase are responsible for variations in the burning rate. The decomposition products of finer size NaNO/sub 3/, react with Mg before Mg particles acquire sufficient energy for ignition, and lead to condensed phase heat release. This heat is maximum at high fuel content and causes high burning rate with low pressure and temperature sensitivity. The increase in the oxidiser content reduces the condensed phase heat due to formation of metal agglomerates and causes lower burning rate with high pressure and temperature sensitivity. After the Mg particles acquire sufficient energy for ignition the decomposition products of coarser size NaNO/sub 3/ diffuse out along with Mg and react in the vapour phase. This causes an increase of burning rate with increase in the oxidiser content of the mixture up to the stoichiometric ratio with a pressure and temperature dependence.

  6. High Burn Rate Hybrid Fuel for Improved Grain Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel type of fuel providing high burning rate for hybrid rocket applications is proposed. This fuel maintains a hydrodynamically rough surface to...

  7. Simplified Burn-Rate Model for CMDB Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Kulkarni

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available A single model has been proposed to predict the burning rates of bimodal AP,RDX and aluminum containing CMDB propellants. This is done in terms of the respective physical constants on the basis of a recently developed model of combustion of CMDB propellants. The study has been carried out to examine the effects of changes in propellants composition, AP particle size and pressures on burning rate. Computer programs were developed for this purpose and the results obtained for typical sets of input data have been presented and compared with the actual results.

  8. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. van Leeuwen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter ha−1, tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126, temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93, boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39, pasture (n = 6, FC = 28, crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5, chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32, tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314, boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42, and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40. Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using averaged values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.

  9. Generation rate of carbon monoxide from burning charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal, often used as cooking fuel at some restaurants, generates a significant amount of carbon monoxide (CO) during its combustion. Every year in Japan, a number of cooks and waiters/waitresses are poisoned by CO emanating from burning charcoal. Although certain ventilation is necessary to prevent the accumulation of CO, it is difficult to estimate the proper ventilation requirement for CO because the generation rate of CO from burning charcoal has not been established. In this study, several charcoals were evaluated in terms of CO generation rate. Sample charcoals were burned in a cooking stove to generate exhaust gas. For each sample, four independent variables -- the mass of the sample, the flow rate of the exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the combustion time of the sample -- were measured, and the CO generation rate was calculated. The generation rate of CO from the charcoal was shown to be 137-185 ml/min/kW. Theoretical ventilation requirements for charcoals to prevent CO poisoning are estimated to be 41.2-55.6 m(3)/h/kW. PMID:21372432

  10. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical burns Burns can be the result of: House and industrial fires Car accidents Playing with matches ... hairs Burned lips and mouth Coughing Difficulty breathing Dark, black-stained mucus Voice changes Wheezing

  11. The Research on Transient Burning Rate of Solid Propellant by Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the burn rate of the solid propellant that is the important parameter of transient burning, the new method named digital image processing is presented. In the article , the principle of digital image processing is analysed; The burning face of the sample in the each time is located according the image and the coordinates of the burning face is obtained. In experiment the transient burn rate is measured by digital image processing and the accuracy is acceptable.

  12. Burn-rate Measurement on Small-scale Rocket Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Maggi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale rocket motors are widely used by propulsion industries to carry out burn ratemeasurement for a variety of needs. Several automated data-reduction procedures have beenimplemented to derive burn rate from pressure-time profiles resulting from experimentation. Evenif these are easy and fast to use, these procedures are not completely reliable in that thesemeasure only the average behaviour of a motor. A new model has recently been proposed toovercome this problem. However, it was soon noticed that the results depend on the propellantgrain production and forming processes even if the motor hardware is the same. A series ofpropellant grains has been produced to be sampled to map the local ballistic behaviour andchanges introduced by the manufacturing process. In this study, sampling and testing proceduresare reported and the results of an almost complete grain mapping are discussed.

  13. Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon burning

    CERN Document Server

    Gasques, L R; Aguilera, E F; Beard, M; Chamon, L C; Ring, P; Wiescher, M; Yakovlev, D G

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the nuclear fusion rate between equal nuclei for all five different nuclear burning regimes in dense matter (two thermonuclear regimes, two pycnonuclear ones, and the intermediate regime). The rate is determined by Coulomb barrier penetration in dense environments and by the astrophysical S-factor at low energies. We evaluate previous studies of the Coulomb barrier problem and propose a simple phenomenological formula for the reaction rate which covers all cases. The parameters of this formula can be varied, taking into account current theoretical uncertainties in the reaction rate. The results are illustrated for the example of the ^{12}C+^{12}C fusion reaction. This reaction is very important for the understanding of nuclear burning in evolved stars, in exploding white dwarfs producing type Ia supernovae, and in accreting neutron stars. The S-factor at stellar energies depends on a reliable fit and extrapolation of the experimental data. We calculate the energy dependence of the S-f...

  14. Leading Edge Flame Detachment: Effect on Burning Rate of Ammonium Perchlorate Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, E. W.; Chakravarthy, S. R.; Sambamurthi, J. K.; Sigman, R. K.

    1997-01-01

    Inner details of the transition from premixed to diffusion controlled burning are examined by considering the transition at the individual particle flamelet level. These considerations lead to prediction of observable singular burning rate behavior of bimodal AP formulations. Burning rate measurements verify the predictions, supporting the view that particle flamelets become detached and retreat to more remote premixed locations at definite (particles size dependent) pressures, revealed by the burning rate tests.

  15. The burning rate of energetic films of nanostructured porous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Andrew; Kuznetsov, Valerian; Joyner, Timothy; Shapter, Joe; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2011-12-01

    A systematic study of nanoenergetic films consisting of nanostructured porous silicon impregnated with sodium perchlorate is carried out. The explosive properties of these films are investigated as a function of thickness, porosity, and confinement. The films' burning rates are investigated using fiber-optic velocity probes, demonstrating that flame-front velocities vary between approximately 1 and 500 m s(-1) and are very sensitive to the films' structural characteristics. Analysis of the flame profile by high-speed video is also presented, suggesting that the reaction type is a deflagration rather than a detonation. A strong plume of flame is emitted from the surface, indicating the potential for this material to perform useful work either as an initiator or as a propellant. The shape of the flame front transitioned from an inverted V at thin-film thicknesses to a neat square-shaped front once the material became self-confining at 50 μm. PMID:22009919

  16. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... touching the stove This list is not all-inclusive. You can also burn your airways if you ... extinguishers in key locations at home, work, and school. Remove electrical cords from floors and keep them ...

  17. Hydrocolloid dressing in pediatric burns may decrease operative intervention rates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Fiachra T

    2010-03-01

    Partial-thickness scalds are the most common pediatric burn injury, and primary management consists of wound dressings to optimize the environment for reepithelialization. Operative intervention is reserved for burns that fail to heal using conservative methods. Worldwide, paraffin-based gauze (Jelonet) is the most common burn dressing; but literature suggests that it adheres to wounds and requires more frequent dressing change that may traumatize newly epithelialized surfaces. Hydrocolloid dressings (DuoDERM) provide an occlusive moist environment to optimize healing and are associated with less frequent dressing changes.

  18. Application of transient burning rate model of solid propellant in electrothermal-chemical launch simulation

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    Yan-jie Ni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 30 mm electrothermal-chemical (ETC gun experimental system is employed to research the burning rate characteristics of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant. Enhanced gas generation rates (EGGR of propellants during and after electrical discharges are verified in the experiments. A modified 0D internal ballistic model is established to simulate the ETC launch. According to the measured pressure and electrical parameters, a transient burning rate law including the influence of EGGR coefficient by electric power and pressure gradient (dp/dt is added into the model. The EGGR coefficient of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant is equal to 0.005 MW−1. Both simulated breech pressure and projectile muzzle velocity accord with the experimental results well. Compared with Woodley's modified burning rate law, the breech pressure curves acquired by the transient burning rate law are more consistent with test results. Based on the parameters calculated in the model, the relationship among propellant burning rate, pressure gradient (dp/dt and electric power is analyzed. Depending on the transient burning rate law and experimental data, the burning of solid propellant under the condition of plasma is described more accurately.

  19. Application of transient burning rate model of solid propellant in electrothermal-chemical launch simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-jie NI; Yong JIN; Gang WAN; Chun-xia YANG; Hai-yuan LI; Bao-ming LI

    2016-01-01

    A 30 mm electrothermal-chemical (ETC) gun experimental system is employed to research the burning rate characteristics of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant. Enhanced gas generation rates (EGGR) of propellants during and after electrical discharges are verified in the experiments. A modified 0D internal ballistic model is established to simulate the ETC launch. According to the measured pressure and electrical parameters, a transient burning rate law including the influence of EGGR coefficient by electric power and pressure gradient (dp/dt) is added into the model. The EGGR coefficient of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant is equal to 0.005 MW−1. Both simulated breech pressure and projectile muzzle velocity accord with the experimental results well. Compared with Woodley’s modified burning rate law, the breech pressure curves acquired by the transient burning rate law are more consistent with test results. Based on the parameters calculated in the model, the relationship among propellant burning rate, pressure gradient (dp/dt) and electric power is analyzed. Depending on the transient burning rate law and experimental data, the burning of solid propellant under the condition of plasma is described more accurately.

  20. Burn injury differentially alters whole-blood and organ glutathione synthesis rates: An experimental model

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    Zhe-Wei Fei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies from our laboratories revealed a reduced rate of whole-blood (WB glutathione (GSH synthesis in severely burned patients. To determine whether WB GSH metabolism is an indicator of the status of GSH metabolism in one or more of the major organs, we used a burn rabbit model to determine GSH concentrations and rates of synthesis in WB, liver, lungs, kidney, and skeletal muscle. L-[1- 13 C]-cysteine was infused intravenously for 6 h in rabbits at 3 days post-burn and in sham burn controls. WB and organ 13 C-enrichment of cysteine and GSH was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Plasma cysteine metabolic flux was increased significantly (P < 0.01 following burn injury. WB, liver, and lung GSH concentrations (P = 0.054, P < 0.05, and P < 0.05, respectively and fractional rates of GSH synthesis (P < 0.05, P< 0.01, and P< 0.05, respectively were reduced at 3 days post-burn. Kidney was unaffected. There also appears to be an increased rate of GSH transport out of the liver after burn injury. Hence, there is a differential impact of burn injury on tissue and organ GSH status, with WB qualitatively reflecting the changes in lung and liver. It will be important to determine whether these changes are due to alterations in the intrinsic capacity for GSH synthesis and/or availability of amino acid precursors of GSH.

  1. Measurement of Solid Rocket Propellant Burning Rate Using X-ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Matthew D.

    The burning rate of solid propellants can be difficult to measure for unusual burning surface geometries, but X-ray imaging can be used to measure burning rate. The objectives of this work were to measure the baseline burning rate of an electrically-controlled solid propellant (ESP) formulation with real-time X-ray radiography and to determine the uncertainty of the measurements. Two edge detection algorithms were written to track the burning surface in X-ray videos. The edge detection algorithms were informed by intensity profiles of simulated 2-D X-ray images. With a 95% confidence level, the burning rates measured by the Projected-Slope Intersection algorithm in the two combustion experiments conducted were 0.0839 in/s +/-2.86% at an average pressure of 407 psi +/-3.6% and 0.0882 in/s +/-3.04% at 410 psi +/-3.9%. The uncertainty percentages were based on the statistics of a Monte Carlo analysis on burning rate.

  2. Performance evaluation of commercial copper chromites as burning rate catalyst for solid propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Faria Diniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Copper chromites are well known as burning rate catalysts for the combustion of composite solid propellants, used as a source of energy for rocket propulsion. The propellant burning rate depends upon the catalyst characteristics such as chemical composition and specific surface area. In this work, copper chromite samples from different suppliers were characterized by chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and by surface area measurement (BET. The samples were then evaluated as burning rate catalyst in a typical composite propellant formulation based on HTPB binder, ammonium perchlorate and aluminum. The obtained surface area values are very close to those informed by the catalyst suppliers. The propellant processing as well as its mechanical properties were not substantially affected by the type of catalyst. Some copper chromite catalysts caused an increase in the propellant burning rate in comparison to the iron oxide catalyst. The results show that in addition to the surface area, other parameters like chemical composition, crystalline structure and the presence of impurities might be affecting the catalyst performance. All evaluated copper chromite samples may be used as burning rate catalyst in composite solid propellant formulations, with slight advantages for the SX14, Cu-0202P and Cu-1800P samples, which led to the highest burning rate propellants.

  3. Estimation of fuel burning rate and heating value with highly variable properties for optimum combustion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating solid residue gross burning rate and heating value burning in a power plant furnace is essential for adequate manipulation to achieve energy conversion optimization and plant performance. A model based on conservation equations of mass and thermal energy is established in this work to calculate the instantaneous gross burning rate and lower heating value of solid residue fired in a combustion chamber. Comparing the model with incineration plant control room data indicates that satisfactory predictions of fuel burning rates and heating values can be obtained by assuming the moisture-to-carbon atomic ratio (f/a) within the typical range from 1.2 to 1.8. Agreement between mass and thermal analysis and the bed-chemistry model is acceptable. The model would be useful for furnace fuel and air control strategy programming to achieve optimum performance in energy conversion and pollutant emission reduction

  4. Burning rates of hydrogen-air mixtures in containment buildings and the consequent pressure transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional flame models are often used to predict the pressure transients caused by hydrogen combustion in containments during postulated severe accidents. In the absence of data, these models account for prevailing flame acceleration mechanisms, such as initial turbulence, venting and obstacle-induced turbulence, by using arbitrarily large burning velocities that are much higher than laminar burning velocities. Using an intermediate-scale test facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment we have obtained necessary data on the effects of flame acceleration mechanisms, to estimate the safety margin in the buring velocities used in the models. So far, data have been analyzed, with a one-dimensional model, to determine effective burning velocities and burning-rate enhancement factors. The results of the analyses indicate that the effect of initial turbulence on the burning rate can be bounded only if the effect of flame-generated turbulence is included. The effect of venting can be accounted for by using two burning velocities, one for the pre-vent duration and a second increased value during the vented-combustion stage. The enhancement factors due to these two mechanisms, for the different conditions analyzed, varied up to 5.4, and the effective burning velocities varied up to 8.4 m/s

  5. The role of antioxidant micronutrients in the rate of recovery of burn patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjepong, Mary; Agbenorku, Pius; Brown, Patricia; Oduro, Ibok

    2016-01-01

    Burn injury can be detrimental to the health of individuals, meanwhile victims lose proteins and micronutrients in wound exudates. Victims also experience extensive protein catabolism. These make them prone to malnutrition. Burn patients also suffer a lot of emotional trauma that reduce nutrient intake. The aim of this paper was to review primary evidence on the effect of antioxidant micronutrients on the recovery rate of burn patients. Electronic databases such as PubMed, BioMed, and Cochrane were systematically searched between January 1, 2014, and January 30, 2014. Keywords include vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, ascorbic acid, zinc, copper, selenium, tocopherol, carotenoids, dietary intake, supplementation, wound healing, infection, recovery rate, and burn patients. The systematic search was done to retrieve all published data from 1990 to 2013. A total of 518 journal articles were obtained, and after the removal of duplicates, reviews, commentaries, and studies with non-human subjects, 11 papers were accepted for review. The review considered only papers that were published, and there might be some unpublished data that may have been omitted. Generally, the wound healing time and infection rates were reduced by the administration of the antioxidant micronutrients. The review revealed that there was no such published work in developing countries and children were excluded from most studies. It was also stated clearly that there was no uniformity in burn management; hence, there is a need for more studies on burn management in various populations. PMID:27574687

  6. Burn Rate Studies of a Titanium-Based Ptrotechnic Smoke Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Rajendran

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A pyrotechnic smoke composition producing titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 as one of the major reaciion products hasj been studied. The composition consists of titanium metal powder, hexachloroethae (C2CI6, potassium perchlorate (KCIO4 and titanium dioxide (TiO2/zinc oxide (ZnO. PyrotFcHnic aluminium was added. in small percentages to tailor the burn rate. The effect of percentage variation of KClO4. TiO21 ZnO. titanium and aluminium on the burn rate has beeninvestigated. While, the burn rate decreases as the percentage of TiO2/ZnO increases, it reaches a maximum as the percentage of KCIO4 is successively increased, but falls off on further increase. Thismaximum has been first fixbd by studying the tricomponent system containing no oxide. It corresponds td 25 per cent KClO4. Successive additions of C2Cl6 and ZnO in 1 :3 mol ratio or C2Cl6and TiO2 in 2:3 mol ratio lead to cooler compositions that burn smoothly without much flame and at lower temperatures. (Compositions containing less than 5 per cent titanium is difficult to ignite. Similarly, addition of excess titanium or small quantities of alljminium to the composition is found to increase the burn rate.

  7. Steady State Investigations of DPF Soot Burn Rates and DPF Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Lage; Ivarsson, Anders; Schramm, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    soot mass concentrations are used as model boundary conditions. An in-house developed raw exhaust gas sampling technique is used to measure the soot concentration upstream the DPF which is also needed to find the DPF soot burn rate. The soot concentration is measured basically by filtering the soot...... characteristics are used to fit model constants of soot and filter properties. Measured DPF gas conversions and soot burn rates are used to fit model activation energies of four DPF regeneration reactions using O2 and NO2 as reactants. Modeled DPF pressure drops and soot burn rates are compared to the steady...... mass of a sample gas continuously extracted from the engine exhaust pipe for 1-2 hours while also measuring the gas flow passed through the filter. A small silicon carbide wall flow DPF protected in a sealed stainless steel filter housing is used as sample filter. Measured DPF pressure drop...

  8. Heart Rate Variability as a Predictor of Death in Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loguidice, Michael J; Schutt, Robert C; Horton, Jureta W; Minei, Joseph P; Keeley, Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), a noninvasive technique used to quantify fluctuations in the interval between normal heart beats (NN), is a predictor of mortality in some patient groups. The aim of this study was to assess HRV in burn trauma patients as a predictor of mortality. The authors prospectively performed 24-hour Holter monitoring on burn patients and collected demographic information, burn injury details, and in-hospital clinical events. Analysis of HRV in the time and frequency domains was performed. A total of 40 burn patients with a mean age of 44 ± 15 years were enrolled. Mean %TBSA burn was 27 ± 22% for the overall population and was significantly higher in those who died compared with those who survived (55 ± 23% vs 19 ± 13%; P < .0001). There was a statistically significant inverse linear correlation between SD of NN intervals and %TBSA (r = -.337, R = 0.113, 95% CI = -0.587 to -0.028, two-tailed P = .034), as well as with ultra low frequency power and %TBSA burn (r = -0.351, R = 0.123, 95% CI = -0.152 to -0.009; P = .027). The receiver-operator characteristic showed the area under the curve for %TBSA as a predictor of death was 0.82 (P < .001), for SDANN was 0.94 (P < .0001), and for ultra low frequency power was 0.96 (P < .0001). Deranged HRV in the early postburn period is a strong predictor of death. PMID:26061155

  9. Plasma physics effects on thermonuclear burn rate in the presence of hydrodynamic mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua; Kagan, Grigory; McDevitt, Christopher; Srinivasan, Bhuvana

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamic mix can significantly degrade thermonuclear burn rate in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target. Successful mitigation requires a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms by which mix affects burn. Here we summarize the roles of three distinct plasma physics effects on burn rate. The first is the well-known effect of enhanced thermal energy loss from the hot spot and the mitigating role of self-generated or externally-applied magnetic field. The second is the fuel ion separation via inter-species ion diffusion driven by the powerful thermodynamic forces exacerbated by mix during the implosion process. The third is the fusion reactivity modification by fast ion transport in a mix-dominated ICF target, where hot plasma is intermingled with cold fuel.

  10. Comparison of soil infiltration rates in burned and unburned mountainous watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Deborah A.; Moody, John A.

    2001-10-01

    Steady-state infiltration measurements were made at mountainous sites in New Mexico and Colorado, USA, with volcanic and granitic soils after wildfires and at comparable unburned sites. We measured infiltration in the New Mexico volcanic soils under two vegetation types, ponderosa pine and mixed conifer, and in the Colorado granitic soils under ponderosa pine vegetation. These measurements were made within high-severity burn areas using a portable infiltrometer with a 0·017 m2 infiltration area and artificial rainfall rates ranging from 97 to 440 mm h-1. Steady-state infiltration rates were less at all burned sites relative to unburned sites. The volcanic soil with ponderosa pine vegetation showed the greatest difference in infiltration rates with a ratio of steady-state infiltration rate in burned sites to unburned soils equal to 0·15. Volcanic soils with mixed conifer vegetation had a ratio (burned to unburned soils) of at most 0·38, and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation had a ratio of 0·38. Steady-state infiltration rates on unburned volcanic and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation are not statistically different. We present data on the particle-size distribution at all the study sites and examples of wetting patterns produced during the infiltration experiments. Published in 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of Loading Densities in Closed Vessel Tests on the Burning Rate of a Propelling Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Mehta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Closed vessel firing of gun propellant at different loading densities is conducted for evaluation of its ballistic parameters. Although in actual gun applications, loading densities are higher, but for closed vessel evaluation standard loading density is taken as 0.2 g/cc for interior ballistic calculations of guns. Closed vessel evaluation of standard triple-base propellant in hepta-tubular configuration with loading density varying in the range of 0.2 g/cc to 0.3 g/cc is conducted for the evaluation of salient ballistic parameters. It is observed that maximum pressure increases with increase in loading density of propellants. As loading density increases, rate of rise of pressure also increases. Accordingly, a rise in burning rate is also observed. However, the burning rate index (α and coefficient (β of the power law of burning (r = βPα is found independent of loading density. The average values of these burning rate parameters are calculated as (α = 0.78 and (β = 0.45 for the studied propellant.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 2, March 2015, pp.126-130, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.8158

  12. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Peters, W.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Giglio, L.

    2013-01-01

    ; satellite data indicates that the majority of savannas have not burned in the past 10 yr, even in Africa, which is considered "the burning continent". Although we have not considered increased charcoal burning or changes in OH concentrations as potential causes for the elevated CO concentrations found at SPO, it is unlikely they can explain the large increase found in the CO concentrations in ice core data. Confirmation of the CO ice core data would therefore call for radical new thinking about causes of variable global fire rates over recent centuries.

  13. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2013-01-01

    current situation; satellite data indicates that the majority of savannas have not burned in the past 10 yr, even in Africa, which is considered "the burning continent". Although we have not considered increased charcoal burning or changes in OH concentrations as potential causes for the elevated CO concentrations found at SPO, it is unlikely they can explain the large increase found in the CO concentrations in ice core data. Confirmation of the CO ice core data would therefore call for radical new thinking about causes of variable global fire rates over recent centuries.

  14. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2012-08-01

    in Africa which is considered "the burning continent". Our new modelling results, together with existing literature, indicate that no definitive conclusions can be drawn about unprecedentedly high or low biomass burning rates from current data analyses.

  15. The effect of levamisole on mortality rate among patients with severe burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Fatemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn injuries are one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity throughout the world and burn patients have higher chances for infection due to their decreased immune resistance. Levamisole, as an immunomodulation agent, stimulates the immune response against infection. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Motahari Burn Center, Tehran, Iran. Patients who had second- or third-degree burn with involvement of more than 50% of total body surface area (TBSA were studied. The levamisole group received levamisole tablet, 100 mg per day. Meantime, both the levamisole and control groups received the standard therapy of the Burn Center, based on a standard protocol. Then, the outcome of the patients was evaluated. Results: 237 patients entered the study. After excluding 42 patients with inhalation injury, electrical and chemical burns, and the patients who died in the first 72 h, 195 patients remained in the study, including 110 patients in the control group and 85 in the treatment group. The mean age of all patients (between 13 to 64 years was 33.29 ± 11.39 years (Mean ± SD, and it was 33.86 ± 11.45 years in the control group and 32.57 ± 11.32 years in the treatment group. The mean percentage of TBSA burn was 64.50 ± 14.34 and 68.58 ± 14.55 for the levamisole and control groups, respectively, with the range of 50-100% and 50-95% TBSA. The mortality rate was 68 (61.8% patients in the control group and 50 (58.8% patients in the treatment group (P = 0.8. Conclusion: According to this study, there was no significant relationship between improvement of mortality and levamisole consumption.

  16. The influence of fuel mass load, oxygen supply and burning rate on emission factor and size distribution of carbonaceous particulate matter from indoor corn straw burning

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; WEI, Siye; CHEN, Yuanchen; Wang, Bing; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Ye HUANG; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; ZHAO, QIUYUE; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty in emission estimation is strongly associated with the variation in emission factor which could be influenced by a variety of factors, like fuel property, stove type, fire management and even methods used in measurements. The impacts of these factors were usually complicated and often interacted with each other. In the present study, controlled burning experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of fuel mass load, air supply and burning rate on the emission of carb...

  17. Studies on the Effects of RDX Particle Size on the Burning Rate of Gun Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.S. Pillai

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The ballistic properties of RDX-based propellants are highly dependent on the particle size of RDX used. The effect of RDX particle size on the burning rate and pressure exponent of the gun propellant was studied. Propellant formulation containing RDX to extent of 60 per cent in the composition was processed with varying particle size of RDX. Finished propellants in heptatubular and cord geometry were evaluated for ballistic aspects by closed vessel firing in a 700 cc vessel at a loading density of 0.18 g/cc. The data obtained clearly indicate that increase in particle size of RDX increases the burning rate as well as the pressure exponent.

  18. Effect of Burning Rate Modifiers on Subatmospheric Flame Temperatures of AP/HTPB Composite Solid Propellants

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S; R. D. Swami

    1998-01-01

    Using 30 um. pt and Pt 13 percent Rh thermocouples, flame temperatures of uncatalysed andcatalysed ammonium perchlorate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (AP/lffPB) composite solidpropellants were measured under subatmospheric conditions. Ferric oxide F e 2 and copper chromite(CC) were the catalysts used. The study demonstrates that Fe2O3 catalysed propellant, notwithstandingits least combustion efficiency undt;r subatmospheric conditions and weak gas-phase flame, has themaximum burning rate ...

  19. Effect of hydrogen addition on burning rate and surface density of turbulent lean premixed methane-air flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen (H2) is a clean burning component, but relatively expensive. Mixing a small amount of hydrogen with other fuels is an effective way to use H2. H2 enriched combustion significantly improves fuel efficiency and reduces pollutant (nitrogen oxide and particulate matter) emissions. This presentation discussed the effect of hydrogen addition on burning rate and surface density of turbulent lean premixed methane-air flames. The presentation discussed flame configuration; the experimental methodology using laser tomography; and results for typical images, burning velocity, ratio of turbulent to laminar burning velocities, flame surface density, curvature, flame brush thickness, and integrated flame surface area. It was concluded that the increase of turbulent burning velocity was faster than that of laminar burning velocity, which contradicted traditional theory. figs.

  20. Effect of Burning Rate Modifiers on Subatmospheric Flame Temperatures of AP/HTPB Composite Solid Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krishnan

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Using 30 um. pt and Pt 13 percent Rh thermocouples, flame temperatures of uncatalysed andcatalysed ammonium perchlorate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (AP/lffPB composite solidpropellants were measured under subatmospheric conditions. Ferric oxide F e 2 and copper chromite(CC were the catalysts used. The study demonstrates that Fe2O3 catalysed propellant, notwithstandingits least combustion efficiency undt;r subatmospheric conditions and weak gas-phase flame, has themaximum burning rate enhancement. This is argued to be due to the increased surface and subsurfacereactions caused by Fe2O3. CC-catalysed propellant burns to the least subatmospheric pressure withminimum loss in combustion efficiency indicating that this class of propellant may be more suitablefor base-bleed applications.

  1. Application of Closed Vessel Technique for the Evaluation of Burning Rates of Propellants at Low Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vittal

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available Closed vessel technique has been well established for the evaluation of burning characteristics of gun, mortar and small arms propellants at high pressures of about 750 kg/cm/sup 2/ - 3000 kg/cm/sup 2/ propellants in the pressure range up to about 200 kg/cm/sup 2/ (19.6 MPa. One of the modern trends in armaments technology is development of short range, high efficiency rockets and rocket assisted projectiles where the chamber pressure are in the range of 100 kg/cm/sup 2/ - 800 kg/cm/sup 2/ (9.8 MPa-78.5 MPa. An extension of the closed vessel technique is now presented for the measurement of rates of burning of propellants in this pressure range and a few experimental results on some conventional propellants are given.

  2. Use of Closed Vessel as a Constant Pressure Apparatus for the Measurement of the Rate of Burning of Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vittal

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for the determination of burning rates of propellants whose from function is unknown is introduced. The method consists of burning in the closed vessel, a known charge weight of the test propellant alongwith a known pressure which remains nearly constant during the burning of the test propellant whose web size is the only quantity required for the evaluation of its rate of burning. The test propellants burns at near constant pressure conditions just as in the strand burner technique. This method can be applied to any unknown propellant of any shape whose web size can be measured and very large webs also can be used. In addition, the measurement of the records and the computation are very simple.

  3. Effect of Surface Microstructure on the Temperature sensitivity of Burning Rate of Ammonium Perchlorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering Vielle's law and the new thermodynamic model which the authors have developed recently the true dependence of temperature sensitivity of burning rate of ammonium perchlorate (AP on pressure is resolved and experimentally verified for bellet burning. The value of decreases with pressure steeply in regime I' (below 20 atm, but gently in regime I (above 20 atm. The value of powder AP has been determined and it is observed that (powder > (pellet, which clearly suggests that of is innuenced by the surface temperature sensitive parameter and hence by the surface/subsurface microstructure. In powder burning, the buoyant lifting of the particles into the gas phase occurs, Which constitutes the so-called 'free board region' (FER extending just above the true surface. Consequent to the decomposition of AP particles in FER, the condensed phase heat release gets curtailed and (powder becomes larger. A general relationship for in terms of density and surface temperature is suggested, which is applicable to both pellet and powder AP.

  4. Burn Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Koray Aydemir; Mehmet Ali Taşkaynatan

    2011-01-01

    Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The t...

  5. Influence of fuel mass load, oxygen supply and burning rate on emission factor and size distribution of carbonaceous particulate matter from indoor corn straw burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guofeng Shen; Miao Xue; Siye Wei; Yuanchen Chen; Bin Wang; Rong Wang; Huizhong Shen

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty in emission estimation is strongly associated with the variation in emission factor (EF),which could be influenced bya variety of factors such as fuel properties,stove type,fire management and even methods used in measurements.The impacts of thesefactors are complicated and often interact with each other.Controlled burning experiments were conducted to investigate the influencesof fuel mass load,air supply and burning rate on the emissions and size distributions of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) fromindoor corn straw bunting in a cooking stove.The results showed that the EFs of PM (EFpM),organic carbon (EFoc) and elementalcarbon (EFEc) were independent of the fuel mass load.The differences among them under different burning rates or air supply amountswere also found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) in the tested circumstances.PM from the indoor corn straw burning was dominated byfine PM with diameter less than 2.1 μm,contributing 86.4% ± 3.9% of the total.The size distribution of PM was influenced by theburning rate and air supply conditions.On average,EFPM,EFoc and EFEC for corn straw burned in a residential cooking stove were(3.84 ± 1.02),(0.846 ± 0.895) and (0.391 ± 0.350) g/kg,respectively.EFPM,EFoc and EFEc were found to be positively correlatedwith each other (P < 0.05),but they were not significantly correlated with the EF of co-emitted CO,suggesting that special attentionshould be paid to the use of CO as a surrogate for other incomplete combustion pollutants.

  6. Development of empirically based burning rate sub-models for a natural gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer models of engine processes are valuable tools for predicting and analyzing engine performance and allow exploration of many engine design alternatives in an inexpensive fashion. At the present work, experimentally based burning rate sub-models for flame initiation and propagation periods were developed for a natural gas engine. The sub-models do not require any knowledge of the flame shape and propagation speed to calculate the burning rate. The flame initiation sub-model determines where the flame propagation period starts so that experimental spark timing can be used for the calculations. The flame initiation and propagation sub-models were used along with a Zero Dimensional (Zero-D) model to calculate cylinder pressure traces for various engine operating conditions. The Zero-D model is able to match the measured pressure data with less than 8% error in magnitudes if the computations are started at the experimental spark timing. If the flame initiation sub-model is tuned for a specific engine operating condition, then the model is able to match the measured pressure with less than 1% error in magnitudes

  7. Evaluation of Ferrocene Derivatives as Burn Rate Modifiers in AP/HTPB-Based Composite Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Gore

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Some ferrocene derivatives like 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivative of acetyl ferrocene, 1-pyrrolidinylmethyl ferrocene, di-ter-butyl ferrocene and 1,3-diferrocenyl-l-butene (DFB have been synthesised and characterised by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet, iron content, etc. To study the effect of their incorporation on performance, ammonium perchlorate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene-based composite propellants containing these derivatives have been prepared and studied for burn rates, tensile strength and percentage elongation followed by their static test evaluation. A comparison of the properties of propellant containing solid and liquid ferrocene derivatives has been made with those containing Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and n-butyl ferrocene, respectively. The data clearly indicates that these ferrocene derivatives are better than Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and n-butyl errocene. Also, DFB is the best among these derivatives. Like composite propellants, DFB increases burn rate in fuel-rich propellants also.

  8. THE IMPACT OF HELIUM-BURNING REACTION RATES ON MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION AND NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the sensitivity of presupernova evolution and supernova nucleosynthesis yields of massive stars to variations of the helium-burning reaction rates within the range of their uncertainties. The current solar abundances from Lodders are used for the initial stellar composition. We compute a grid of 12 initial stellar masses and 176 models per stellar mass to explore the effects of independently varying the 12C(α, γ)16O and 3α reaction rates, denoted Rα,12 and R3α, respectively. The production factors of both the intermediate-mass elements (A = 16-40) and the s-only isotopes along the weak s-process path (70Ge, 76Se, 80Kr, 82Kr, 86Sr, and 87Sr) were found to be in reasonable agreement with predictions for variations of R3α and Rα,12 of ±25%; the s-only isotopes, however, tend to favor higher values of R3α than the intermediate-mass isotopes. The experimental uncertainty (one standard deviation) in R3α(Rα,12) is approximately ±10%(±25%). The results show that a more accurate measurement of one of these rates would decrease the uncertainty in the other as inferred from the present calculations. We also observe sharp changes in production factors and standard deviations for small changes in the reaction rates, due to differences in the convection structure of the star. The compactness parameter was used to assess which models would likely explode as successful supernovae, and hence contribute explosive nucleosynthesis yields. We also provide the approximate remnant masses for each model and the carbon mass fractions at the end of core-helium burning as a key parameter for later evolution stages.

  9. Calibration of reaction rates for the CREST reactive-burn model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the hydrocode-based CREST reactive-burn model has had success in modelling a range of shock initiation and detonation propagation phenomena in polymer bonded explosives. CREST uses empirical reaction rates that depend on a function of the entropy of the non-reacted explosive, allowing the effects of initial temperature, porosity and double-shock desensitisation to be simulated without any modifications to the model. Until now, the sixteen reaction-rate coefficients have been manually calibrated by trial and error, using hydrocode simulations of a subset of sustained-shock initiation gas-gun experiments and the detonation size-effect curve for the explosive. This paper will describe the initial development of an automatic method for calibrating CREST reaction-rate coefficients, using the well-established Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) technique. The automatic method submits multiple hydrocode simulations for each ``particle'' and analyses the results to determine the ``misfit'' to gas-gun and size-effect data. Over ~40 ``generations,'' the PSO code finds a best set of reaction-rate coefficients that minimises the misfit. The method will be demonstrated by developing a new CREST model for EDC32, a conventional high explosive.

  10. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  11. Incidence of early burn-induced effects on liver functionas reflected by the plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green : a prospective descriptive cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Steinvall, Ingrid; Fredrikson, Mats; Bak, Zoltan; Sjöberg, Folke

    2012-01-01

    Organ dysfunction and failure are important for burned patients as they increase morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has suggested that organ injuries are occurring earlier after burns, and are more common, than previously thought. In this study we have assessed the extent to which liver function, assessed by the plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (PDRICG), is affected in patients with severe burns. This is a prospective, descriptive exploratory study at a national burn centr...

  12. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Peters, W.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Giglio, L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked wi

  13. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Peters, W.; Giglio, L.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked wi

  14. High Recovery Rate of Non-albicans Candida Species Isolated From Burn Patients With Candidemia in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Nazanin; Shokohi, Tahereh; Nouranibaladezaei, Seyed Zahra; Nasrolahi Omran, Ayatollah; Kondori, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood stream infections (BSIs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. Microorganisms responsible for BSI are generally bacteria; however, Candida spp. are the infection agents in as many as 8% of all cases. Burn wound colonization and infections are generally the first steps to systemic infection. Candidemia in burn patients has been associated with high mortality and a prolonged hospital stay. Objectives: Candidemia in burn patients has been defined as a preterminal event, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates among these patients. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of candidemia in burn patients in Iran. Patients and Methods: We consecutively collected 405 blood samples from 113 burn patients. The yeast isolates were identified to the species level using conventional procedures. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the Candida isolates to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin was performed using the Etest. Results: Twenty-seven samples (6.7%) of the blood cultures from 13 patients (12%) were positive for Candida species. Candida parapsilosis (38%) and C. tropicalis (38%) were the most commonly found Candida species, followed by C. albicans (15%) and C. guilliermondii (15%) in the patients. The incidence of candidemia was significantly correlated with increased duration of hospitalization, increased time of stay in the intensive care unit, and higher mortality. The antifungal susceptibility tests demonstrated that amphotericin B and voriconazole had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Candida spp. Conclusions: Non-albicans Candida should be considered as significant pathogens in burned patients with candidemia. PMID:26587207

  15. Production of 26Al, 44Ti and 60Fe in Supernovae-sensitivity to the helium burning rates

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, Clarisse; Austin, Sam M

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the sensitivity of supernova production of the gamma emitting nuclei 26Al, 44Ti and 60Fe to variations of the rates of the triple alpha and 12C(alpha, gamma) reactions. Over a range of twice their experimental uncertainties we find variations in the production of 60Fe by more than a factor of five. Smaller variations, about a factor of two to three, were observed for 26Al and 44Ti. The yields of these isotopes change significantly when the abundances of Lodders (2003) are used instead of those of Anders and Grevesse (1989). These sensitivities will limit conclusions based on a comparison of observed gamma ray intensities and stellar models until the helium burning rates are better known. Prospects for improving the helium burning rates are discussed and a new version of the Boyes rate for 12C(alpha, gamma} is presented.

  16. Revision of the 15N(p, γ)16O reaction rate and oxygen abundance in H-burning zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciolli, A.; Mazzocchi, C.; Capogrosso, V.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Elekes, Z.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Palmerini, S.; Prati, P.; Roca, V.; Rolfs, C.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Trautvetter, H. P.; Vomiero, A.

    2011-09-01

    Context. The NO cycle takes place in the deepest layer of a H-burning core or shell, when the temperature exceeds T ≃ 30 × 106 K. The O depletion observed in some globular cluster giant stars, always associated with a Na enhancement, may be due to either a deep mixing during the red giant branch (RGB) phase of the star or to the pollution of the primordial gas by an early population of massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, whose chemical composition was modified by the hot bottom burning. In both cases, the NO cycle is responsible for the O depletion. Aims: The activation of this cycle depends on the rate of the 15N(p, γ)16O reaction. A precise evaluation of this reaction rate at temperatures as low as experienced in H-burning zones in stellar interiors is mandatory to understand the observed O abundances. Methods: We present a new measurement of the 15N(p, γ)16O reaction performed at LUNA covering for the first time the center of mass energy range 70-370 keV, which corresponds to stellar temperatures between 65 × 106 K and 780 × 106 K. This range includes the 15N(p, γ)16O Gamow-peak energy of explosive H-burning taking place in the external layer of a nova and the one of the hot bottom burning (HBB) nucleosynthesis occurring in massive AGB stars. Results: With the present data, we are also able to confirm the result of the previous R-matrix extrapolation. In particular, in the temperature range of astrophysical interest, the new rate is about a factor of 2 smaller than reported in the widely adopted compilation of reaction rates (NACRE or CF88) and the uncertainty is now reduced down to the 10% level.

  17. Prediction of Storage Life of Propellants having Different Burning Rates using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Wani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Propellants, visco-elastic in nature, show time and temperature dependent behaviour on deformation. Hence, the time–temperature superposition principle may be applied to the visco-elastic properties of propellants. In the present study, dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA was used to evaluate the dynamic mechanical properties and quantify the storage life of four different propellants based on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene, aluminium and ammonium perchlorate having different burning rates ranging from 5 mm/s to 25 mm/s. Each sample was given a multi-frequency strain of 0.01 per cent at three discrete frequencies (3.5 Hz, 11 Hz, 35 Hz in the temperature range - 80 °C to + 80 °C. The storage modulus, loss modulus, tan delta and glass transition temperature (Tg for each propellant samples have been evaluated and it is observed that all the propellants have shown time (frequency and temperature dependent behaviour on deformation. A comparison of the log aT versus temperature curves (where aT is horizontal (or time shift factor for all four propellants indicate conformance to the Williams–Landel–Ferry (WLF equation. The master curves of storage modulus (log É versus log ω plots were generated for each propellant. A plot of É versus time for all propellants was generated up to 3 years, 6 years, and 10 years of time, respectively. The drop in the storage modulus below the acceptable limit with time may be used to predict the shelf life of the propellant.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(5, pp.290-294, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.2480

  18. Convective Heat Transfer Scaling of Ignition Delay and Burning Rate with Heat Flux and Stretch Rate in the Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    To better evaluate the buoyant contributions to the convective cooling (or heating) inherent in normal-gravity material flammability test methods, we derive a convective heat transfer correlation that can be used to account for the forced convective stretch effects on the net radiant heat flux for both ignition delay time and burning rate. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone heater to minimize buoyant effects while at the same time providing a forced stagnation flow on the sample, which ignites and burns as a ceiling fire. Ignition delay and burning rate data is correlated with incident heat flux and convective heat transfer and compared to results from other test methods and fuel geometries using similarity to determine the equivalent stretch rates and thus convective cooling (or heating) rates for those geometries. With this correlation methodology, buoyant effects inherent in normal gravity material flammability test methods can be estimated, to better apply the test results to low stretch environments relevant to spacecraft material selection.

  19. Recurrence rates of burn contracture ankle equinus and other foot deformities in children treated with Ilizarov fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Kelly D; Maxwell, Seth C; Calhoun, Jason H

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine recurrence rates of pediatric foot and ankle burn deformities treated with the Ilizarov method. A total of 19 patients with 29 foot and ankle deformities were studied. The most common deformity treated was equinus (23). Rocker-bottom and cavus foot deformities were each treated three times. The average age of the patient at the time of the burn injury was 3.2 years, and the average age at the time of fixation was 9.4 years. Equinus contractures averaged -34 degrees (34 degrees of plantarflexion) before surgery and +7 degrees (7 degrees of dorsiflexion) after treatment with the Ilizarov fixator. The recurrence rate for all 29 ankles and feet was 69% (20/29). The recurrence rate for equinus contractures was 74% (17/23). The average time to recurrence was 17.3 months. Only short-term follow-up was available on four of the six feet and ankles that did not recur. Deformity correction in burned feet and ankles is difficult to obtain by any means. The authors recommend using the Ilizarov method to obtain correction of moderate to severe foot and ankle deformities in pediatric burn patients, but the correction obtained is not stable and deformity will likely recur. Parents and patients should anticipate adjunctive nonoperative and operative procedures to keep their feet plantigrade as they grow. In young children, the possibility of having additional surgeries, including repeat Ilizarov procedures, should be discussed. Even older children should expect additional surgeries to prevent recurrent deformities. PMID:15958908

  20. Revision of the 15N(p,{\\gamma})16O reaction rate and oxygen abundance in H-burning zones

    CERN Document Server

    Caciolli, A; Capogrosso, V; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Corvisiero, P; Costantini, H; Elekes, Z; Formicola, A; Fulop, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyurky, Gy; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Lemut, A; Marta, M; Menegazzo, R; Palmerini, S; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Alvarez, C Rossi; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P; Vomiero, A

    2011-01-01

    The NO cycle takes place in the deepest layer of a H-burning core or shell, when the temperature exceeds T {\\simeq} 30 {\\cdot} 106 K. The O depletion observed in some globular cluster giant stars, always associated with a Na enhancement, may be due to either a deep mixing during the RGB (red giant branch) phase of the star or to the pollution of the primordial gas by an early population of massive AGB (asymptotic giant branch) stars, whose chemical composition was modified by the hot bottom burning. In both cases, the NO cycle is responsible for the O depletion. The activation of this cycle depends on the rate of the 15N(p,{\\gamma})16O reaction. A precise evaluation of this reaction rate at temperatures as low as experienced in H-burning zones in stellar interiors is mandatory to understand the observed O abundances. We present a new measurement of the 15N(p,{\\gamma})16O reaction performed at LUNA covering for the first time the center of mass energy range 70-370 keV, which corresponds to stellar temperatures...

  1. Comparison of iso-octane burning rates between single-phase and two-phase combustion for small droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawes, M.; Lee, Y. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Marquez, N. [Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo 4011 Apto. 526 (Venezuela)

    2006-02-01

    Two-phase combustion is a widespread mechanism of energy conversion that is of practical importance in gas turbines, diesel and spark ignition engines, furnaces, and hazardous environments. However, the exploration of important parameters in combustion systems of practical application is difficult, due to the multiplicity of dependent variables. In the present work, combustion rates of well-defined droplet suspensions of iso-octane have been measured using techniques employed for gaseous combustion. This required a full characterization of the aerosols produced in the combustion apparatus, which determined that the maximum droplet size produced was around 30 {mu}m. Comparisons of two-phase with single-phase laminar mixtures suggest that there were negligible differences in the burning velocity of an aerosol and a gaseous mixture at the same overall equivalence ratio and similar conditions for iso-octane. At high stretch rates, flames remained smooth and droplet enhancement was negligible. However, at lower rates of stretch, both gaseous and aerosol flames became unstable and cellular, and this cellularity, in some cases, increased the burning rate. The values of Markstein length measured for aerosol flames had trends similar to those for gaseous-phase mixtures (Markstein length decreased with equivalence ratio), but were lower than in gaseous combustion. The values of Markstein length in aerosol flames also decreased with liquid equivalence ratio and/or Sauter mean diameter. All this indicates a higher tendency to instabilities in aerosol flames compared to gaseous combustion. A qualitative explanation for the lower values of Markstein length in aerosol combustion is given. It is suggested in the present work that aerosol flames became unstable, and hence had faster burning rates, under conditions that would not result in unstable gaseous flames. Comparisons, qualitative and in terms of dimensionless groups, of two-phase with single-phase turbulent combustion also

  2. Titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (TiH1.65/KClO4) burn rates from hybrid closed bomb-strand burner experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2012-08-01

    A hybrid closed bomb-strand burner is used to measure the burning behavior of the titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic with an equivalent hydrogen concentration of 1.65. This experimental facility allows for simultaneous measurement of the closed bomb pressure rise and pyrotechnic burn rate as detected by electrical break wires over a range of pressures. Strands were formed by pressing the pyrotechnic powders to bulk densities between 60% and 90% theoretical maximum density. The burn rate dependance on initial density and vessel pressure are measured. At all initial strand densities, the burn is observed to transition from conductive to convective burning within the strand. The measured vessel pressure history is further analyzed following the closed bomb analysis methods developed for solid propellants.

  3. Investigation of Biomass Combustion Rate of Fire Radiative Energy Using Multiple-Satellite-observed Active Fires and Landsat TM Burn Severities across the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of atmospheric aerosol and greenhouse gases that substantially influence climate and regional air quality. However, the accuracy of biomass burning emissions estimated using traditional method is limited by large uncertainties in burned area and fuel loading. Alternatively, fire radiative energy (FRE) has recently been demonstrated to be linearly related to biomass combustion, which potentially improves the estimation of biomass burning emissions. The FRE-based combustion rate is 0.368-0.453 kg/MJ according to field controlled experiments while it varies from 1.37-4.5 kg/MJ derived from satellite-based bottom-up and top-down aerosol optical thickness estimates. Here we investigate the FRE combustion rate in over 1000 burn scars from 2011 to 2012 across the Continental United States (CONUS). Specifically, FRE was calculated by combining the high spatial observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the high temporal observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Biomass consumption in burn scars was modeled using Landsat TM 30m burn severities, 30m fuel loading from Fuel Characteristic Classification System, and combustion completeness compiled from recent literatures. The combustion rate was then investigated by correlating FRE to biomass consumption across CONUS and Bailey's ecoregions. Our results show that the combustion rate can be extracted from the linear relationship between biomass consumption and FRE. The combustion rate is 0.415±10% kg/MJ across CONUS, which is similar to the rate derived from field experiments. However, it varies from 0.18-1.9 kg/MJ among ecoregions. This implies that a single combustion rate could produce large uncertainty in the estimation of biomass consumption at large scales. We suggest that ecoregion specified combustion rates should help to improve the accuracy of quantifying biomass burning emissions regionally and globally.

  4. Effects of the distributions of energy or charge transfer rates on spectral hole burning in pigment-protein complexes at low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Herascu, Nicoleta; Ahmouda, Somaya; Picorel Castaño, Rafael; Seibert, Michael; Jankowiak, Ryszard J.; Zazubovich, Valter

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the distributions of excitation energy transfer (EET) rates (homogeneous line widths) on the non-photochemical (resonant) spectral hole burning (SHB) processes in photosynthetic chlorophyll-protein complexes (reaction center [RC] and CP43 antenna of Photosystem II from spinach) are considered. It is demonstrated that inclusion of such a distribution results in somewhat more dispersive hole burning kinetics. More importantly, however, inclusion of the EET rate distributions strongly...

  5. Effect of DHED on the pressure exponent of the burning rate for HMX/HTPB propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Takeshi; Hagihara, Yutaka; Hara, Yoshitaka

    1987-04-30

    Dihydrazinium ethylene dinitramine(DHED) is a kind of coolburning nitramine powders. The effect of DHED on the pressure exponent for cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) / hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene(HTPB) (90/10) propellants was tested by means of a closed bomb technique. The pressure exponent of the propellant was slightly lowered as DHED was added. Assuming the 155mm howitzer and projectile, the internal ballistic characteristics of the sample propellants DH3(DHED/HMX/HTPB, 30/60/10) were compared with those of the present propellant M30. The instaneous burning after ignition of DH3 charge was found to be rather slow, though the DHED lowered the pressure exponent. (6 figs, 2 tabs, 9 refs)

  6. Heat and mass transfer analysis for paraffin/nitrous oxide burning rate in hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Basat (Sisi), Shani; Gany, Alon

    2016-03-01

    This research presents a physical-mathematical model for the combustion of liquefying fuels in hybrid combustors, accounting for blowing effect on the heat transfer. A particular attention is given to a paraffin/nitrous oxide hybrid system. The use of a paraffin fuel in hybrid propulsion has been considered because of its much higher regression rate enabling significantly higher thrust compared to that of common polymeric fuels. The model predicts the overall regression rate (melting rate) of the fuel and the different mechanisms involved, including evaporation, entrainment of droplets of molten material, and mass loss due to melt flow on the condensed fuel surface. Prediction of the thickness and velocity of the liquid (melt) layer formed at the surface during combustion was done as well. Applying the model for an oxidizer mass flux of 45 kg/(s m2) as an example representing experimental range, it was found that 21% of the molten liquid undergoes evaporation, 30% enters the gas flow by the entrainment mechanism, and 49% reaches the end of the combustion chamber as a flowing liquid layer. When increasing the oxidizer mass flux in the port, the effect of entrainment increases while that of the flowing liquid layer along the surface shows a relatively lower contribution. Yet, the latter is predicted to have a significant contribution to the overall mass loss. In practical applications it may cause reduced combustion efficiency and should be taken into account in the motor design, e.g., by reinforcing the paraffin fuel with different additives. The model predictions have been compared to experimental results revealing good agreement.

  7. Light elements burning reaction rates at stellar temperatures as deduced by the Trojan Horse measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Sergi, M. L.

    2015-02-01

    Experimental nuclear astrophysics aims at determining the reaction rates for astrophysically relevant reactions at their Gamow energies. For charged-particle induced reactions, the access to these energies is usually hindered, in direct measurements, by the presence of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting particles or by electron screening effects, which make hard the determination of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor of interest for astrophysical codes. The use of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) appears as one of the most suitable tools for investigating nuclear processes of interest for astrophysics. Here, in view of the recent TH measurements, the main destruction channels for deuterium (2H ), for the two lithium 6,7Li isotopes, for the 9Be and the one for the two boron 10,11B isotopes will be discussed.

  8. Light elements burning reaction rates at stellar temperatures as deduced by the Trojan Horse measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Puglia, S. M. R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    Experimental nuclear astrophysics aims at determining the reaction rates for astrophysically relevant reactions at their Gamow energies. For charged-particle induced reactions, the access to these energies is usually hindered, in direct measurements, by the presence of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting particles or by electron screening effects, which make hard the determination of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor of interest for astrophysical codes. The use of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) appears as one of the most suitable tools for investigating nuclear processes of interest for astrophysics. Here, in view of the recent TH measurements, the main destruction channels for deuterium ({sup 2}H), for the two lithium {sup 6,7}Li isotopes, for the {sup 9}Be and the one for the two boron {sup 10,11}B isotopes will be discussed.

  9. Ultrasonic Technique for Burning Rate Measurement of Solid Propellant%固体推进剂燃速的超声波测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙得川; 万宏强

    2011-01-01

    为了实时测量固体推进剂燃速与燃烧室压强的关系,利用超声波数据采集卡搭建了超声波实时燃速测量系统,通过调节点火药量和密闭燃烧器容积可以调节密闭燃烧器的压强范围.经过实验得到了低压范围内的实时燃速数据以及燃速与压强的对应关系.结果表明,利用超声波燃速测量系统可以一次性获得给定压强范围内的实时燃速;燃面附近的高温层会使厚度测量值偏小,对燃速测量没有影响;在点火初期,燃面高温层建立的非稳态过程影响超声波声速;在接近试件燃尽的时刻,推进剂两个端面的回波信号产生干扰.%A burning rate measurement system based on the ultrasonic technique is established for solid propellant. The range of pressure can be adjusted by changing the mass of ignition powder and the volume of combustor. Based on the experiment, real-time burning rate of a composite propellant is measured under lower pressure, and the relation between burning rate and pressure is obtained through data processing. The burning rate of solid propellant within certain pressure range can be obtained. By using ultrasonic measurement system the high-temperature layer on burning surface has negative effect on thickness measurement but neglectable effect on burning rate measurement. In the ignition period,the unstable establishment process of high temperature thin layer affects the sound speed. And in the burning out period of the test sample, the echo pulses of both the burning surface and the couple material interface meet and interfere each other.

  10. Ambiguities of the Rate of Oxygen Formation During Stellar Helium Burning in the 12C(a,g) Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gai, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    The rate of oxygen formation determines the C/O ratio during stellar helium burning. It is the single most important nuclear input of stellar evolution theory including the evolution of Type II and Type Ia supernova. Yet the low energy cross section of the fusion of 4He + 12C denoted as the 12C(a,g)16O reaction still remains uncertain after forty years of extensive work. We analyze and critically review the most recent measurements of complete angular distributions of the outgoing gamma-rays at very low energies (Ecm > 1.0 MeV). Our analysis of the angular distribution measured with the EUROGAM/GANDI arrays lead us to conclude considerably larger error bars than published hence they are excluded from the current sample of "world data". We show that the current sample of "world data" of the measured E2 cross section factors below 1.7 MeV cluster to two distinct groups that lead to two distinct extrapolations of SE2(300) ~ 60 or ~ 154 keVb. We point to a much neglected discrepancy between the measured E1-E2 pha...

  11. The visual analogue thermometer and the graphic numeric rating scale: a comparison of self-report instruments for pain measurement in adults with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A E E; Bremer, M; Hofland, H W C; Schuurmans, M J; Middelkoop, E; van Loey, N E E

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the adequacy of pain management in burn care, pain measurement is essential. The visual analogue thermometer (VAT) and graphic numeric rating scale (GNRS) are frequently used self-report instruments for burn pain. To legitimise their interchangeable use in research and practice, we aimed to compare self-reports obtained by the VAT and GNRS, the ability of the scales to differentiate background from procedural pain, and to compare potential cutpoints. Adults with acute burns (N=319) participated in the study (67% male, mean age 40.3 years (SD 16), mean TBSA 9.9% (SD 10.4). Correlation coefficients between VAT and GNRS were 0.64 and 0.55 for, respectively, morning and afternoon background pain and 0.51 for procedural pain (psensitivity was reached for pain score 2 for both scales. The results suggest that the instruments cannot be used interchangeably without taking their differences into account. PMID:25262546

  12. Reducing hospital infection rates in the burn unit by adherence to infection control measures: a six-year experience

    OpenAIRE

    Zülal ÖZKURT; Ülkü ALTOPARLAK; YILMAZ, Sibel İBA; EROL, Serpil; Kemalettin ÖZDEN; AKÇAY, Müfide Nuran

    2012-01-01

    To show the effect of infection control measures (ICMs) on nosocomial infections (NIs) in a burn unit. Materials and methods: This study was conducted retrospectively at a 15-bed pediatric and adult burn unit, and 1329 hospitalized patients from 2003 to 2008 were enrolled. Detection and surveillance of NIs was performed by the infection control team (ICT), actively and prospectively, and was patient and laboratory based. Pan-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were seen in the unit in 2003. A p...

  13. Impacts of Biomass Burning on the Land Use / Land Cover Dynamics in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa and Associated Alteration of Local Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, L.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major anthropogenic event in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), which contributes 15-20% of the global annual total of particulate matter emissions from fires. This burning is mostly for agricultural, grazing or hunting purposes, and thus has a great potential for driving changes in the land use and land cover distribution in that region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have two complimentary data products to support this research: the MOD14/MYD14 active fire products measuring fire locations and strengths, and the MCD12 land cover type product, which includes the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land-cover classification system used in this analysis. More specifically, the MCD12Q1 tiled data product at 500 m was used to match against the 1 km active fire product resolution for the current analysis. Paired data between instantaneous fire measurements and the underlying land cover types for the particular year over the study period of 2003-2013 reveals a dominant burning of savanna, followed by cropland land cover type throughout the region. There are a few indications of the interchange between savanna and cropland due to burning practices. Even though the fire activity in the whole NSSA region is decreasing at a rate of 1.4%/yr during the study period, some land cover types in parts of NSSA show an increase, including local increases in sensitive land cover types such as forest and wetland, which could have serious ecological implications. The changes in the overall redistribution of biomass burning amongst the different land cover types in NSSA dictate that there is also a redistribution of biomass burning emissions. The extent of these changes will also be covered in this presentation.

  14. 球形变燃速发射药的燃气生成规律%Gas Generation Rule about Spherical Variable Burning Rate Gun Propellant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海情; 马中亮

    2016-01-01

    To establish thevs.expression, the gas generation rule about spherical variable burning rate gun propellant was theoretically analyzed.Under the precondition of following the geometric combustion law, the equation describing vs. relation of this kind of spherical variable burning rate gun propellant were derived by using its initial geometric size, burning rate ratio and density ratio of internal and external layer as the basic variables.Under the same values, the geometrical model and shape function of propellant were calculated and analyzed by using the parameters, thecurve of spherical variable burning rate gun propellant were obtained.The calculated results showed that spherical variable burning rate gun propellant can control the energy release law by using its initial geometric size, burning-rate ratio and density ratio of internal and external layer.The brisance of gas generation increased by 2.2 times when the inner and outer combustion speed ratio triplesd.%通过建立该类药型气体生成猛度与已燃发射药质量分数的理论表达式,对影响球形变燃速发射药的燃气生成规律进行理论分析。在服从几何燃烧定律的条件下,以球形变燃速发射药的初始药形尺寸以及内外层燃速比 k、密度比 y 为基本变量,推导出球形变燃速发射药的表达式。在取值相同的情况下,根据药型和形状函数分别进行了计算和分析,得到了球形变燃速发射药的计算曲线。计算结果表明:适当调节发射药的初始药形尺寸及内外层药的燃速比 k、密度比 y 的值时,可控制球形变燃速发射药的能量释放规律。当内外层燃烧比增加3倍时,气体生成猛度最大值增加约为2.2倍。

  15. Sensitivity studies on the photolysis rates calculation in Amazonian atmospheric chemistry ? Part I: The impact of the direct radiative effect of biomass burning aerosol particles

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, L. M. M.; Longo, K. M.; S. R. Freitas; Tarasova, T.; Plana Fattori, A.; Nobre, C.; Gatti, L. V.

    2005-01-01

    International audience The impact of the direct radiative effect of the aerosol particles on the calculation of the photolysis rates and consequently on the atmospheric chemistry in regional smoke clouds due to biomass burning over the Amazon basin is addressed in this work. It explores a case study for 19 September 2002 at LBA-RACCI-SMOCC (The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia ? Radiation, Cloud, and Climate Interactions ? Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climat...

  16. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The...

  17. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N

    2009-01-01

    Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently...

  18. Reaction rate for 31S(p,γ)32Cl and its influence on the SiP cycle in hot stellar hydrogen burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation energies of the proton unbound states in 32Cl have been measured in the 32S(3He,t)32Cl charge exchange reaction with high accuracy. The partial widths of the unbound levels have been calculated to derive the resonance strengths of these states in the 31S(p,γ)32Cl reaction channel. The reaction rate for the 31S(p,γ)32Cl reaction has been calculated and is compared with previous estimates. The role of this reaction for the closure of the SiP cycle is discussed in terms of the temperature and density conditions in hot stellar hydrogen burning

  19. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984-2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984-2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046-2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire in

  20. Calculation and Analysis of B/T (Burning and/or Transmutation Rate of Minor Actinides and Plutonium Performed by Fast B/T Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsodi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation and analysis of B/T (Burning and/or Transmutation rate of MA (minor actinides and Pu (Plutonium has been performed in fast B/T reactor. The study was based on the assumption that the spectrum shift of neutron flux to higher side of neutron energy had a potential significance for designing the fast B/T reactor and a remarkable effect for increasing the B/T rate of MA and/or Pu. The spectrum shifts of neutron have been performed by change MOX to metallic fuel. Blending fraction of MA and or Pu in B/T fuel and the volume ratio of fuel to coolant in the reactor core were also considered. Here, the performance of fast B/T reactor was evaluated theoretically based on the calculation results of the neutronics and burn-up analysis. In this study, the B/T rate of MA and/or Pu increased by increasing the blending fraction of MA and or Pu and by changing the F/C ratio. According to the results, the total B/T rate, i.e. [B/T rate]MA + [B/T rate]Pu, could be kept nearly constant under the critical condition, if the sum of the MA and Pu inventory in the core is nearly constant. The effect of loading structure was examined for inner or outer loading of concentric geometry and for homogeneous loading. Homogeneous loading of B/T fuel was the good structure for obtaining the higher B/T rate, rather than inner or outer loading

  1. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. T. Griffith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In October–November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC, US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR systems and whole air sampling (WAS into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4–27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3, aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13–195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The SC

  2. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. T. Griffith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In October–November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC, US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR systems and whole air sampling (WAS into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4–27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs and ~ 21% of organic aerosol (mass basis suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3, aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in the first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13–195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~ 20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The

  3. Effect of 15 N-urea rates on the rates on the accumulation of nitrogen by the sugarcane-plant in cane field renovation areas picked with and without burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this work was the evaluation of the nitrogen accumulated in the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), the contribution and the recovery of the fertilizer by the culture, both calculated by the isotopic technique . The experiment was conducted in 220-liter vase and in a open atmosphere. A randomized block design was performed with 2x4-factorial treatment arrangements with three replications. The factors were: 1) differentiated addition of two amounts of cultural wastes to the soil, equivalent to 13.2 and 19.5 t ha -1 of dry material, simulating cane-field renovation conditions in areas picked with or without burning (CQ and SQ); 2) four N-urea rates (10.082% in 15 N-atoms), equivalent to 0; 30; 60; 90 kg ha -1 . The analysis of variance of the results showed that there were no significant differences between CQ and SQ treatments. Out of the total accumulated N in the plant, an average of 20.55% was stored in the stalks; 19% in the apexes; 27% in the root system, and 33% in dry leaves. Therefore, around 80% of the nitrogen would remain in the area after the harvest without burning, which represents 40% more in relationship with the areas with burning. The accumulation of N in the root system was 70% higher in the larger rate in relation to the zero rate, being this amount a potential N source for the following cycle. Out of the total accumulated nitrogen 7 and 16% originated from the fertilizer, in function of the N-urea rates, with the use efficiency by the culture equivalent to 54%, regardless of the treatment

  4. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take steps to avoid household burns. Never leave cooking food unattended on the stove. Set your water heater’s thermostat to 120 °F or lower to prevent scalding burns. And install smoke alarms on every floor of your home. Keep yourself and your family safe from unexpected ...

  5. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  6. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, A.; Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S.; Urbanski, S.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC), US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4-27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) and ~ 21% of organic aerosol (mass basis) suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3), aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in the first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13-195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~ 20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The SC results also

  7. The effects of burns and infusion therapy on the cell death rate in rabbit skin; in-vivo measurements of the cell death rate after marking with 5[125I]-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of IDU marking of skin cells for the determination of the course of the skin cell cycle is confirmed. In the case of thermal trauma, however, an exact quantitative analysis of the cell death rate under the herein described conditions is no longer possible, because as a result of this thermal damage overlapping of various processes in the skin, for example circulation and transport disturbances, appears. The influence of an infusion treatment on the burned skin is therefore not measurable using the herein used skin cell marking. (orig.)

  8. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OralHealth > Topics > Burning Mouth Syndrome > Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning Mouth Syndrome Main Content Key Points Symptoms Diagnosis Primary and Secondary BMS Treatment Helpful Tips Key Points Burning mouth syndrome is burning pain in the mouth that may ...

  9. Prognosis and treatment of burns.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, R; Heimbach, D

    1996-01-01

    Survival rates for burn patients in general have improved markedly over the past several decades. The development of topical antibiotic therapy for burn wounds, the institution of the practice of early excision and grafting, and major advances in intensive care management have all contributed to this success. In this review we address these 3 important advances in the modern treatment of burn injuries and provide a brief historical overview of these accomplishments and others, emphasizing spe...

  10. Effects of chromium and cobalt compounds on burning rate of ammonium nitrate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene composite propellants. Shosan ammonium/HTPB kei composite suishin'yaku no nensho sokudo ni oyobosu chromium to cobalt kagobutsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagihara, Y.; Ichikawa, T.; Shinpo, H.; Suzuki, M. (The National Defense Academy, Yokosuka (Japan))

    1991-12-31

    Study was made on the effects of chromium and cobalt compounds on burning rate of AN/HTPB composite propellants by using 14 types of chromium and cobalt compounds as catalysts and it was clear that burning rate of composite propellants increases with all catalysts and increase in burning rate by ammonium dichromate and chromium (III) acetylacetone is significantly large. Pressure exponent for cobalt(II) oxide and cobalt(II) benzoate has decreased but it has increased with other catalysts. Pressure exponent has significantly increased in the case of cobalt 2-ethylhexanoate and cobalt(II) acetylacetone. Effect of compounds on slurry viscosity also has shown the decrease in the viscosity except chromium(III) oxide and cobalt(II,III) oxide, and in the case of cobalt 2-ethylhexanoate the viscosity is significantly low. Drophammer sensitivity of AN is not affected with the added compounds. 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Aggregation of erythrocytes in burn disease

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Grigory Y; Egorihina, Marpha N

    2011-01-01

    The manuscript describes experiments designed to examine factors that influence erythrocytes aggregation within the blood of burn patients. Results showed that the rate and degree of erythrocytes aggregation increased significantly in burn patients, and what is especially unfavorable for microcirculation, erythrocytes disaggregation decreased. We show that normalization of blood plasma contents completely restores erythrocytes aggregation and disaggregation of burn patients. The rate and degr...

  12. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  13. Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this

  14. The Application of Erosive Burning to Propellant Charge Interior Ballistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-lin

    2009-01-01

    Erosive burning is a common burning phenomenon of the gunpowder with inner holes. The actual combustion law of the gunpowder with inner holes can be changed by erosive burning. Pressure difference between the inner and the outer of hole caused by loading density variation of the propellant charge makes erosive burning occur at inner holes during in-bore burning. The effect of erosive burning on burning speed of the propellant is studied by using the effects of flow rate, heat transfer and erosion of the combustion gas in inner holes on burning rate. The mathematic model of erosive burning of the propellant is established. The effects of the factors such as loading density, inner hole size and grain length on erosive burning and interior ballistic performance are analyzed .The method to improve the bore pressure for small charge mass and small firing range by erosive burning is proposed.

  15. Burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

  16. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  17. 双基系推进剂平台燃速的控制因素和可使用范围%Adjustable and Available Range of Plateau Burning Rate of DB Series Propellants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江宁; 谢波; 裴江峰; 王百成; 张蕊娥

    2012-01-01

    根据正催化理论,提出了压力-燃速临界使用曲线(Pr线)的概念及定义,并以之作为燃速可调与不可调的分界线。通过分析1962N.s/kg双基推进剂,30%,50%RDX-CMDB,5%Al-CMDB和低燃速SYQu推进剂的特征Pr线变化趋势,研究了Pr线调节规律。结果表明:Pr线主要由NC和NG组成的粘合剂体系控制,且随双基组分的增加,Pr线向高燃速移动;加入Al粉Pr线升高;随着RDX增加,Pr线先降低再升高;加入降速剂聚甲醛等,Pr线降低。%The critical available burning rate curve (Pr curve) was defined to be the boundary of range of adjustable and nonadjustable lowest burning rate. The variation trend of Pr curve of 1962N. s/kg DB propellant,30% ,50% RDX-CMDB pro- pellant,5% Al-CMDB propellant and SYQu (a kind of low burning rate propellant) was analyzed. The results show that Pr curve moves to the range of high burning rate with the increasing content of NC and NG ; Pr curve is raised by adding Al; as the content of R19X in propellant increases, Pr curve is abased first and then raised ; Pr curve is abased when the speed reducing agent, such as POM, is added.

  18. Effects of various lron oxides on burning rate of ammonium perchlorate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene composite propellants. Part 1. AP/HTPB kei composite suishin'yaku no nensho sokudo ni oyobosu kakushu sankatetsu no koka. (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagihara, Y.; Ichikawa, T.; Suzuki, M.; Koga, M. (The National Defense Academy, Yokosuka (Japan))

    1991-12-31

    Effect of iron oxide catalysts on burning rate of ammonium perchlorate(AP)/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadine(HTPB) composite propellants with AP 80 % and HTPB 20 % by weight was studied combining 7 various particle sizes of iron oxide measured with scanning electron microscope within the pressure range of 0.4 MPa - 8 MPa. Burning rate has increased with the decrease of particle diameter and this decrement is in the order with the diameter 0.36{mu}m, 0.30{mu}m, 0.26{mu}m, 0.20{mu}m, 0.16{mu}m, 0.14{mu}m. Smaller the particle size the larger is the surface area and this results in the increase in the contact surface area. As a result it has been concluded that with the decrease of average diameter the burning rate is increased. Pressure exponent without catalyst is 0.46 and with catalyst it is 0.45-0.49. This has meant that catalyst does not effect pressure exponent. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Alcohol use and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J D; Barber, B; Engrav, L; Heimbach, D

    1991-01-01

    Charts of 108 consecutive adult patients with flame burns of 20% to 70% total body surface area were reviewed to determine the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication and the likelihood that intoxicated patients were chronic alcohol abusers, to assess morbidity and mortality in the alcoholic patient with burns, and to characterize the intervention used in postdischarge treatment of the alcoholic patient with burns who survives. Twenty-seven percent of patients were acutely intoxicated at the time of injury. Evidence for chronic alcohol abuse was apparent in 90% of intoxicated patients, compared to only 11% of nonintoxicated patients (p = 0.0001). Alcoholic patients with burns not only had an overall mortality rate three times that of nonalcoholics (p = 0.001) but also died of smaller burns (p less than 0.05). Surviving alcoholic patients with burns required significantly more intravenous antibiotics and a longer hospitalization. Social service evaluation of use of alcohol was made in 84% of the cases of surviving intoxicated burn victims. Further intervention was undertaken in two thirds of these cases, usually involving an outpatient treatment program. PMID:2050723

  20. Burns in diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical...

  1. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  2. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field investigations have now demonstrated that the effective, sustained combustion of spilled oil on water requires that the oil being burned be at least 2-3 mm thick. This requires a properly manipulated fire containment boom to keep the spilled oil thick enough to support combustion. There are numerous situations where controlled in-situ burning of spilled oil can be carried out quickly, safely, and effectively. Some of the more significant burn experiences, the basics of controlled burning, and several different spill scenarios in which burning could be used as an effective response technique are presented. These scenarios include offshore exploration and production operations, marine pipeline accidents, tanker accidents, and spills into rivers and streams. Environmental constraints on in-situ burning are discussed. Nomograms are included which can be used to calculate the boom capacities and burn rates. 15 refs., 10 figs

  3. 入口流量对变燃速发射药交界面位置影响数值计算%Numerical Simulation on Inlet Flow Rate for the Variable-burning Rate Propellant Interface Position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴俊; 马忠亮; 孙福花

    2015-01-01

    In the discontinuous co-extension process, the relationship between entry flow rate with the interface layer position of variable burning rate propellant was explored. Bird-Carreau equation was used to describe the rheology of single base propellant feature. The finite element method was used to simulate two kinds of melt in the extrusion of 3-D isothermal flow. Result showed that radius of inner and outer layer interface has a linear relation with the change of inner and outer layer flow ratio, especially in 501 flow rate of inner layer than out layer, the simulation results and the actual extrusion size grain section, the maximum relative error was 8. 3%. In the engineering allowable error range, it would be helpful to guide the intermittent double variable the actual production rate propellant combustion.%在间断式变燃速发射药成型工艺生产条件下,探索内外层入口流量变化及关系对发射药内外层交界面尺寸的影响,采用Bird-Carreau方程描述单基发射药的流变学特征,利用有限元方法模拟两种熔体在共挤出流道内的三维等温流动。研究表明:内外层交界面随着内芯皮料流量比值的变化呈线性关系,在501时所得模拟结果与实际挤出药粒截面尺寸的最大相对误差为8.3%,在工程允许误差范围内,可以指导间断式双层变燃速发射药的实际生产。

  4. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-01-01

    A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. ...

  5. Explosive hydrogen burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although an impressive quantity of work has been devoted to understanding nucleosynthesis during explosive hydrogen burning, much work remain to be done. Reactions which occur in novae, x-ray bursts, and supernovae are discussed. Much attention is given to the reactions of hot CNO cycles and of reactions in the rp-process. The many reactions described in this review are not all of the reactions which may be of interest to nuclear physicists, although the rates of those reactions not discussed are essentially unknown. 123 refs., 9 figs

  6. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  7. The Correlation Between the Burning Features, the Burning Agent and Motivation in Burn Victims Attending Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran During 2009: letter to Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning is one of the commonest causes of death. Due to the high rate of death among burn victims epidemiological investigation of burning, burning agents and the relevant motivations can be of great preventive value.1 In this cross-sectional study all the hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital at Tehran city in the year 2009 were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 17 software. Out of the 1548 hospitalized patients for burn, 1134 (73.3% left hospital in good conditions, 47 (3% left in relatively good conditions, 289 (18.7% died and 78 (5% persons left the Hospital satisfactorily on their own volition. About two-thirds of the patients were men. The mean age of the burn victims was 27.9±18.3 years, 16% of them being 5 years old or younger. The highest percentage of burn area was 30% of the total body surface which was seen in 20 to 30-year old patients. 58.7% of burns had been caused by fire. 94% of the burns had happened accidentally, 5% by suicidal and 1% by homicidal acts. The highest percentage of burn was observed in patients in whom the burn agent was fire. Six (4% persons had first degree, 820 (53% persons had second degree and 722 (46.6% had third degree burns. In patients who had committed suicide third degree burns were higher than second degree burns (7.7% vs. 2%. 24.4% of women and 16.6% of men died due to the burns. The rate of death in patients less than 50 years of age was 18% but the figure increased to 24% in those above 50. A burn area less than or more than 10% was, respectively correlated with 2.1% and 22.1% of deaths. 34.8% of the patients with third degree burns and 4.6% of those with second and first degree burns died. 58.3% of the suicidal patient died due to the severity of the burns relative to 16.7% due to other causes. 89 (5.7% patients had respiratory tract burns and the death rate was 58.4% among these patients while the death rate was 16.2% in patients without

  8. 烧伤早期损害的防治措施对提高烧伤存活率的作用%Clinical analysis of measures for preventing early postburn damage in improving survival rate of burn patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄跃生; 杨宗城; 肖光夏; 汪仕良; 黎鳌

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨烧伤早期损害综合防治措施对提高第3阶段我所烧伤存活率的作用。方法 将我所收治的12 568例烧伤病人按时间顺序分为3个阶段,回顾性分析3个阶段病人的面积分布、存活率和烧伤休克、全身性感染、内脏并发症发生率及第3阶段主要的防治措施。结果 与第1阶段及第2阶段比较,第3阶段各面积组休克发生率、全身性感染发生率、内脏并发症发生率均显著降低,总存活率、不同烧伤面积存活率均显著提高;延迟快速复苏、早期一次性大面积切痂、早期肠道喂养及吸入性损伤、肠源性感染等治疗组内脏损害发生率均显著低于相应对照组。结论 烧伤早期损害综合防治措施对提高我所第3阶段烧伤存活率起了重要作用。%Objective To study the effects of measures for preventing early postburn damage in improving survival rate of burn patients during the third stage. Methods 12 568 burn cases admitted to our institute were chronically divided into three groups (1958-1980;1981-1990;1991-2000). Total burn surface area (TBSA), survival rate, incidence of burn shock, systemic infection and organ damage as well as the main treatments adopted in the recent decade were retrospectively analyzed. Results Incidence of burn shock, systemic infection and organ damage were significantly lower, and the total survival rate and the survival rate in patients with different TBSA were markedly higher in the third group as compared with those in the first and the second group. Incidence of organ damage in patients treated with delayed fast fluid infusion, early escharectomy en masse, early enteral feeding, early prevention of inhalation injury and gut bacterial translocation were also significantly lower than in the control. Conclusion Measures taken in the third group for preventing early postburn damage play an important role in improving the survival rate of burn patients.

  9. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, A.; Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S.; Urbanski, S.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured the trace gas emission factors from 7 prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analyses. The fires were intended to emulate high-intensity burns as they were lit during the dry season and in most cases represented stands that had not been treated with prescribed burns in 10+ years, if at all. A total of 97 trace gas species are reported here from both airborne and ground-based platforms making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements included the first data for a suite of monoterpene compounds emitted via distillation of plant tissues during real fires. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of ~0.40% of CO (molar basis), ~3.9% of NMOC (molar basis), and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis), suggests that they impacted post-emission formation of ozone, aerosol, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes. The variability in the terpene emissions in South Carolina (SC) fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds was surprisingly different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that the slightly different ecosystems, time of year and the precursor variability all contributed to the variability in plume chemistry observed in this study and in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, is fairly consistent at 0.9 ± 0.06 % for airborne fire measurements in coniferous-dominated ecosystems further confirming the value of HCN as a good biomass burning indicator/tracer. The SC results also support an earlier finding that C3-C4 alkynes may be of use as biomass burning indicators on the time-scale of

  10. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-01-01

    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  11. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Treating and Preventing Burns Page Content Article Body Burns ... home, out of children’s reach, and away from heat or ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your ...

  12. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and tend to be more severe and cover a larger portion of the body than other scald burns. 9 10 11 A survey found that only 8 percent of adults felt ...

  13. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  14. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  15. Hypnosis for the treatment of burn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, D R; Everett, J J; Burns, G L; Marvin, J A

    1992-10-01

    The clinical utility of hypnosis for controlling pain during burn wound debridement was investigated. Thirty hospitalized burn patients and their nurses submitted visual analog scales (VAS) for pain during 2 consecutive daily wound debridements. On the 1st day, patients and nurses submitted baseline VAS ratings. Before the next day's would debridement, Ss received hypnosis, attention and information, or no treatment. Only hypnotized Ss reported significant pain reductions relative to pretreatment baseline. This result was corroborated by nurse VAS ratings. Findings indicate that hypnosis is a viable adjunct treatment for burn pain. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:1383302

  16. Burn wound coverage and burn wound closure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konigová, R.; Matoušková, Eva; Brož, L.

    2000. s. 9. [International Symposium and Course on Burns and Fire Desaster Management. Jerusalem Meeting /3./. 13.02.2000-16.02.2000, Jerusalem] R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ4368 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. 檫树、米槠、木荷板材燃烧热释放率研究%Study on Burning Heat Release Rate of Sassafras tzumu, Castanopsis Carlesii, Schima Superba Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓东; 刘雁; 刘武

    2001-01-01

    In order to select qualified fire retardant lumber, the burning heat release rate of Sassafras tzu mu, Castanopsis Carlesii and Schima Superba lumber was measured with HRR3 system produced by AT LAS company, and the fire-retardancy of lumber of the species was appraised according to Airworthiness Approval Tag US Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administation.%采用美国阿特拉斯公司生产的HRR3热释放率系统,按照美国航空局(FAA)的标准要求测试檫树、米槠、木荷板材燃烧的热释放率(HRR),为阻燃板材选择合格基材。

  18. Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

  19. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  20. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

  1. Perineal Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh AEmmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Perineal burns are not common in childhood but when they occur, they can produce severe complications. Conservative management by open wound care and topical agents is effective in most cases. However, in deep burns and when control of infection proves problematic, diverting colostomy may be necessary to control infection and achieve wound healing and graft take. Burns wound excision and skin grafting may be required in such cases. Contractures of various forms may develop and require plastic...

  2. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  3. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-tao Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  4. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-tao YANG; Yu-xiang LI; San-jiu YING

    2014-01-01

    Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  5. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  6. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  7. Regional Changes in Charcoal-Burning Suicide Rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: A Time Trend Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Every year, almost one million people die by suicide globally; suicide is the fifth leading cause of death in women aged 15–49 and the sixth leading cause of death in men in the same age group. Most people who take their own life are mentally ill. For others, stressful events (the loss of a partner, for example) have made life seem worthless or too painful to bear. Strategies to reduce suicide rates include better treatment of mental illness and programs that help ...

  8. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion...

  9. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  10. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  11. 采用核素法研究犬烧伤休克口服补液时胃排空率的变化%Study on the rate of gastric emptying with emission scanning tomography in oral resuscitation of burn shock in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段中响; 欧阳巧洪; 胡泉; 沈小鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes in the gastric emptying of dogs before and after burn, in order to provide the experimental basis for oral resuscitation of burn shock. Methods: Fighteen male Beagle dogs with 35% TBSA full-thickness degree burn in the back and limbs were randomly divided into two groups: hypertonic electrolyte glucose solution group ( HFGS group) and Mosapride + hypertonic electrolyte glucose solution group (MHEGS group). Gastric emptying rate of each group was measured before and after burn injury. In the HEGS group,2 ml · kg-1 · 1%TBSA-1 of hypertonic electrolyte-glucose solution and 99m Tc_DTPA were gavaged through stomach-tube after burn injury (fast for 8 hours before burn). In the MHFGS group, hypertonic electrolyte-glucose solution and Mosapride (0. 25 mg · kg-1 · h-1 ) were gavaged instead of hypertonic electrolyte-glucose solution alone. Gastric emptying rate and 50% gastric emptying time of the two groups were measured by detecting the radioactivity of intragastric 99m Tc_DTPA with emission scanning tomography ( ECT). Results : Gastric emptying rate of MHEGS group was obviously higher than that of HEGS group before burn injury ( P<O. 01). After burn injury gastric emptying time was obviously lower in HEGS group than that of before injury and also MHEGS group after injury (P<O. 01). In the MHEGS group, gastric emptying rate after burn was similar to that before burn injury (P>O. 05). The 50% gastric emptying time was prolonged after burn in HEGS group (P<O. 01), but it was shorter in MHEGS group after burn ( P<O. 01). Conclusion : The gastric emptying rate is obviously prolonged after 35% TBSA full-thickness burn injury, and the administration of Mosapride can expedite gastric emptying.%目的:研究犬烧伤前后胃排空的变化,为临床烧伤休克口服补液复苏提供实验依据.方法:采用成年雄性Beagle犬18只,均用凝固汽油造成背部及四肢35%TBSA Ⅲ度烧伤,随机分为高渗液组和

  12. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons. PMID:27088728

  13. Nutrition and Metabolic Support in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Ergin Özcan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury results in a dramatic increase of the basal metabolic rate. Severe burn injury nearly doubles resting energy expenditure and hypermetabolism associated with burn results in a loss of body fat stores and a loss of visceral and structural protein mass. The clinical effects of these changes include immunosuppression, delayed wound healing, and generalized muscle weakness. Post burn, the metabolic and catabolic responses are prolonged in severity and time course, lasting weeks to months in contrast to the days and weeks observed in other injuries. Nutrition support provides the substrates and nutrients to prevent the complications of deficiencies as well as supporting wound healing, and recovery from hormonal and metabolic abnormalities after thermal injury. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 21-5

  14. [The Nutrition Care of Severe Burn Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiu

    2016-02-01

    In addition to recent advances in burn patient care techniques such as maintaining warm circumambient temperature, the early excision of wounds, and the use of closed dressing, providing nutrition support through early feeding has proven instrumental in greatly increasing the survival rate of burn patients. Severe burns complicated by many factors initiate tremendous physiological stress that leads to postburn hypermetabolism that includes enhanced tissue catabolism, the loss of muscle mass, and decreases in the body's reservoirs of protein and energy. These problems have become the focus of burn therapy. Treating severe burns aims not only to enhance survival rates but also to restore normal bodily functions as completely as possible. Recent research evaluating the application of anabolic agents and immune-enhance formula for severe burns therapy has generated significant controversy. Inadequate caloric intake is one of the main differences among the related studies, with the effect of many special nutrients such as bran acid amides not taken into consideration. Therefore, considering the sufficiency of caloric and protein intake is critical in assessing effectiveness. Only after patients receive adequate calories and protein may the effect of special nutrients such as glutamine and supplements be evaluated effectively. PMID:26813059

  15. Minor burn injuries in children: inpatient versus outpatient treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, G. A.; Fyfe, A. H.; Drainer, I. K.

    1983-01-01

    Seventy-two children with minor superficial burns presented at our casualty department over a 5-month period. Half were treated as inpatients and the other half as outpatients. The colonisation rates were similar in the two groups. Colonised and sterile burns treated as inpatients showed no significant difference in healing rates. The healing time, however, was prolonged in colonised outpatient treated burns. Cosmetic results were satisfactory overall. In the absence of a definite benefit from inpatient treatment, outpatient care of a child with a minor burn should therefore be used if circumstances allow. PMID:6357035

  16. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  17. Epidemiologic study of scald burns in victims in Tehran burn hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Damages caused by scald burns are common and can cause severe complications and death. The purpose of this study was to define risk groups and then methods of prevention and treatment is designed to fit. Methods: Data for this retrospective study of hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran from 2007-2011 were compiled. Data including age, sex, cause of burn, and degree of burn and ultimate fate of the victims were collected from scald burns. Burns caused by boiling water and hot food (Scald , in two age groups : 12 and under 12 years ( children and more than 12 years ( adults were compared in terms of statistics . Results: A total of 1150 patients consisting of males (57.9% and females (42.1% were studied. The most common age was 1 year old and 50% of patients were under 3 years of age. 87.9% burned with boiling water and 12.1% had experienced burns with hot food. Incentive to burn was 0.3% cross burning and 99.7% incident. A maximum number of burns in children 12 years and younger males (42.1% and a minimum number in men over 12 years (15.7% were observed. Mean percentage of burns was 11% in over 12 years group and 30.9% in 12 and under 12 years group. The average hospital stay was 11.4 days and the mortality rate was 4.8%. The final status of the patients was as fallows: full recovery 904 cases (78.6%, partial recovery 134 (11.7%, clearance with personal consent 41 (3.6%, death 55 (4.8% and 16 cases (3.1% were among other reasons. Conclusion: In general it can be said, scald burns incidence in individuals aged 12 and younger were more than the older ones and the mean of burns was lower in individuals with over 12 years old. There was a sexual preference for males under 12 years. Mortality rate in the two groups has not any statistically significant difference. There was no statistically significant association between sex and mortality rate. Some of our findings are depending on cultural, social and economic

  18. A Burning Question

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ As heaping piles of garbage grow in cities and communities across China,a divide has formed over two possible solutions to this smelly problem: Should excessive mounds of trash be burned,or should it be buried?

  19. Radioactive implications from coal burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignites burning in the Greek Coal Power Plants (CPP) contain naturally occurring radionuclides mainly arising from the uranium series. Radium-226 concentrations in lignites burning in the three Coal Power Plants of the 3.02 GW energy centre, the greatest in Greece (Valley of Ptolemais, North Greece), varied from about 30 to 132 Bq kg-1 (average 65.5 Bq kg-1. About 1.3 % of 226 Ra is discharged to the environment in particulate form - fly ash - by the stacks of thermal power stations, burning coal at a rate 14.3 Mt (GH y)-1. The collective effective dose equivalent (EDE) commitment to the population 44400 living in the region of these plants, due to inhalation was estimated to be 0.13 man Sv y-1, that is an order of magnitude higher than that recommended for such a population. Doses from inhaled radon and radon progeny might cause an excess of 3-7 cancer deaths this year. (author)

  20. Advances in burn treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoda, LU; Vogt, PM

    2006-01-01

    The German-speaking burn specialist, organized in the DAV (Deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Verbrennungsmedizin) held their yearly meeting in 2004 in Rottach-Egern, Bavaria. Participants from Switzerland, Germany and Austria found a high standing, very well organized and thorough program summoned by the host, Dr. Guido Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck, Munich. The topics consisted of reconstructive surgery, skin substitutes and replacement, advances in burn medicine over the last 10 years and bu...

  1. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Jimson; Rajesh, E.; R Jayasri Krupaa; M. Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and met...

  2. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  3. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

  4. [Invasive yeast infections in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau, Ana Isabel; García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies on candidaemia in the severely burned patient. These patients share the same risk factors for invasive fungal infections as other critically ill patients, but have certain characteristics that make them particularly susceptible. These include the loss of skin barrier due to extensive burns, fungal colonisation of the latter, and the use of hydrotherapy or other topical therapies (occasionally with antimicrobials). In addition, the increased survival rate achieved in recent decades in critically burned patients due to the advances in treatment has led to the increase of invasive Candida infections. This explains the growing interest in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, as well as more effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality of candidaemia in severe burned patients. A review is presented on all aspects of the burned patient, including the predisposition and risk factors for invasive candidiasis, pathogenesis of candidaemia, underlying immunodeficiency, local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility, evolution and prognostic factors, as well as other non-Candida yeast infections. Finally, we include specific data on our local experience in the management of candidaemia in severe burned patients, which may serve to quantify the problem, place it in context, and offer a realistic perspective. PMID:27395025

  5. Burn size determines the inflammatory and hypermetabolic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Mlcak, Ronald P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Norbury, William B; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N

    2007-01-01

    Background Increased burn size leads to increased mortality of burned patients. Whether mortality is due to inflammation, hypermetabolism or other pathophysiologic contributing factors is not entirely determined. The purpose of the present study was to determine in a large prospective clinical trial whether different burn sizes are associated with differences in inflammation, body composition, protein synthesis, or organ function. Methods Pediatric burned patients were divided into four burn size groups: 80% TBSA burn. Demographic and clinical data, hypermetabolism, the inflammatory response, body composition, the muscle protein net balance, serum and urine hormones and proteins, and cardiac function and changes in liver size were determined. Results One hundred and eighty-nine pediatric patients of similar age and gender distribution were included in the study (80% TBSA burn, n = 21). Patients with larger burns had more operations, a greater incidence of infections and sepsis, and higher mortality rates compared with the other groups (P 80% TBSA group, followed by the 60–79% TBSA burn group (P 80% burns lost the most body weight, lean body mass, muscle protein and bone mineral content (P < 0.05). The urine cortisol concentration was highest in the 80–99% and 60–79% TBSA burn groups, associated with significant myocardial depression and increased change in liver size (P < 0.05). The cytokine profile showed distinct differences in expression of IL-8, TNF, IL-6, IL-12p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P < 0.05). Conclusion Morbidity and mortality in burned patients is burn size dependent, starts at a 60% TBSA burn and is due to an increased hypermetabolic and inflammatory reaction, along with impaired cardiac function. PMID:17716366

  6. The FLUORINE-17(PROTON, PHOTON)NEON-18 and Oxygen -14(ALPHA Particle, PROTON)FLUORINE-17 Reaction Rates and the Structure of NEON-18 (NEON-18, FLUORINE-17, Oxygen -14, Astrophysical Hydrogen Burning)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kevin Insik

    1993-01-01

    The 14O(alpha,p) 17F and ^ {17}F(p,gamma)18Ne reactions play crucial roles in the advanced stages of astrophysical hydrogen burning. The ^{14 }O(alpha,p)^ {17}F(p,gamma) ^ {18}Ne(beta^+nu) 18F(p,alpha)^ {15}O reaction sequence can provide a path around the relatively slow positron decay of 14O in the HCNO cycle, while the similar reaction sequence, ^{14 }O(alpha ,p) 17F(p,gamma)^ {18}Ne(beta ^+nu) 18F(p,gamma)^ {19}Ne, can provide an alternate path from the HCNO cycle to the rp-process. The 17F(p,gamma)18Ne reaction rate could provide the principal source of 18O. Under some astrophysical conditions, the ^{14 }O(alpha,p)^ {17}F reaction is expected to compete with the 15O(alpha, gamma)19Ne reaction in providing a path through which nuclei involved in the HCNO cycle can be transformed into heavier nuclei with Z >= 10.. In order to better determine the rates of these two reactions, we measured the properties of the resonances in 18Ne; the excitation energies, the spins, and the partial and total widths of the relevant resonances. By comparing the previously observed states in 18Ne to the well-studied isospin mirror nucleus, ^{18 }O, it is clear that there are a number of missing levels in 18Ne in the region rm Ex > 4 MeV. These missing states in ^ {18}Ne could be important in determining the 17F(p, gamma)18rm Ne and 14O(alpha ,p)17F reaction rates. We have studied the ^{12 }C(12C,^6He)^{18 }Ne, 20rm Ne(p{,}t)18Ne, and 16O(^3He{, }n)18Ne reactions to measure new nuclear structure information of ^{18 }Ne. From our experiments, we have the following major results: (a) an evidence of the 3^+ Funck et al. and Wiescher et al. have based on theoretical predictions and incomplete experimental information about the level structure of 18 Ne in the energy region of rm E_ {x} > 5.0 MeV. On the basis of the nuclear structure information for 18 Ne measured in our experiments, we have improved the calculation of the ^{14 }O(alpha,p)17F reaction rate.

  7. ALGORITHM FOR POST-BURN BACTERIAL SEPSIS DIAGNOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Guzenko, B. V.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In patients with extensive deep burns the most severe of all infectious and inflammatory complications is sepsis which causes high death rate.The purpose of our work was to develop the algorithm of bacterial sepsis diagnosis in patients with severe burn disease.Materials and methods. The study involved 140 burned patients divided into two groups: Group 1 – 78 patients who underwent necrectomy within 3-7 days after the burn, Group 2  (control) – 62 patients with necrectomy perfor...

  8. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  9. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup Çil; Hamza Yıldız; Özlem Karabudak Abuaf

    2012-01-01

    Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7)

  10. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  11. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  12. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  13. Management of acute burns and burn shock resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faldmo, L; Kravitz, M

    1993-05-01

    Initial management of minor and moderate, uncomplicated burn injury focuses on wound management and patient comfort. Initial management of patients with major burn injury requires airway support, fluid resuscitation for burn shock, treatment for associated trauma and preexisting medical conditions, management of adynamic ileus, and initial wound treatment. Fluid resuscitation, based on assessment of the extent and depth of burn injury, requires administration of intravenous fluids using resuscitation formula guidelines for the initial 24 hours after injury. Inhalation injury complicates flame burns and increases morbidity and mortality. Electrical injury places patients at risk for cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria. Circumferential full-thickness burns to extremities compromise circulation and require escharotomy or fasciotomy. Circumferential torso burns compromise air exchange and cardiac return. Loss of skin function places patients at risk for hypothermia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and systemic sepsis. The first 24 hours after burn injury require aggressive medical management to assure survival and minimize complications. PMID:8489882

  14. Peculiar Features of Burning Alternative Motor Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some peculiar features of air-hydrogen mixture combustion process in a modeling combustion chamber are given in the paper. Dependences of burning duration of various fuel types on initial pressure have been obtained. The paper considers dynamics of changes in pressure and ignition rate of some fuel types in the combustion chamber.

  15. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up. PMID:26811412

  16. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, KI [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Sedlacek, AJ [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  17. Burning clean and green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new style of oil burner has been developed for use on exploration platforms offshore. The design improves oil combustion through enhanced air induction, producing stable flames in the clean burn region which do not generate smoke and oil fallout. Successful tests have led to it now being ready for commercial exploitation. (UK)

  18. Accumulative eschar after burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fushun

    2016-02-01

    Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb-bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:26862412

  19. Accumulative eschar after burn

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Fushun

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb‐bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome.

  20. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  1. Back Bay Wilderness burning support

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum concerning prescribed burns between members of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It states that burning should be supported...

  2. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, B.; Winter, U.J.; Mahrle, G.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers.

  3. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  4. [Burn injuries and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmu, Raimo; Vuola, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Currently a large proportion of patients with severe burn injuries survive. This gives increasing challenges also for psychological recovery after the trauma. More than half of burn patients have mental disorders already before the burn injury but also patients who previously had no mental disorders may suffer from them. Some of the hospitalize burn patients have injuries due to suicidal attempts. Only a small proportion of burn patients receive appropriate psychiatric care although psychosocial interventions specifically planned for burn victims exist. More frequent screening of symtoms of mental disorders and psychiatric consultation, also after acute care in hospital, could lead to better management of post-burn psychiatric care as well as better management of the burn treatment and rehabilitation itself. PMID:27089616

  5. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns. PMID:24468505

  6. Systemic Responses to Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Barış; YEĞEN, Berrak Ç.

    2004-01-01

    The major causes of death in burn patients include multiple organ failure and infection. It is important for the clinician to understand the pathophysiology of burn injury and the effects it will have on the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The local and systemic inflammatory response to thermal injury is extremely complex, resulting in both local burn tissue damage and deleterious systemic effects on all other organ systems distant from the burn area itself. Thermal injury initiates systemic infl...

  7. Friction Burns: Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A; Raibagkar, S.C.; Vora, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    This epidemiological study deals with 60 patients with friction burns between January 2004 and January 2006. The age group most affected was that between 21 and 30 years, with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of friction burns (56 patients), and the lower limb was the most frequently affected part of the body. Patient management was performed according to the degree of the burn injury. It is suggested that most friction burn injuries are neglected on admissio...

  8. Diffusive Nuclear Burning on Neutron Star Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, P

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the rate of hydrogen burning for neutron stars (NSs) with hydrogen atmospheres and an underlying reservoir of nuclei capable of proton capture. This burning occurs in the exponentially suppressed diffusive tail of H that extends to the hotter depths of the envelope where protons are rapidly captured. This process, which we call diffusive nuclear burning (DNB), can change the H abundance at the NS photosphere on timescales as short as $10^{2-4}$ years. In the absence of diffusion, the hydrogen at the photosphere (where $T\\approx 10^6 {\\rm K}$ and $\\rho\\sim 0.1 {\\rm g cm^{-2}}$) would last for far longer than a Hubble time. Our work impacts the understanding of the evolution of surface abundances of isolated NSs, which is important to their thermal spectrum and their effective temperature-core temperature relation. In this paper, we calculate the rate of H burning when the overall consumption rate is controlled by the nuclear timescales, rather than diffusion timescales. The immediate application i...

  9. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  10. Burns and beauty nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  11. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    The Anastenaria are Orthodox Christians in Northern Greece who observe a unique annual ritual cycle focused on two festivals, dedicated to Saint Constantine and Saint Helen. The festivals involve processions, music, dancing, animal sacrifices, and culminate in an electrifying fire-walking ritual....... Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context of the...... Greek fire-walking rituals. As a cognitive ethnography, the book aims to identify the social, psychological and neurobiological factors which may be involved and to explore the role of emotional and physiological arousal in the performance of such ritual. A study of participation, experience and meaning...

  12. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  13. Burns and beauty nails

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Bélanger; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. T...

  14. Burns: Treatment and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Burns can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft t...

  15. Technology of straw burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the example of application of straw as fuel for a power plant with capacity of 1 MW, which is reconstructed from an old coal power plant. The article shows the advantages of straw as a source of energy, analyses the physical and chemical characteristics and temperature parameters, typical for straw. Moreover it indicates the specific circumstances of the straw burning processes. The paper focuses also on preparation and storing of straw for public use and in the energy sector. Comparing with fossil fuel, straw is a low-caloric natural source, whose energy value reached to 14-19 MJ/kg. This value depends partly on the kind of straw and its water or moisture content (MC). To the basic characteristics of energy aspects belong: - energy or heating value (HV) MJ/kg (in LPG it is MJ/ m3); - burning temperature; - melting point - temperature of ash; - weight kg/m3; - density; - Energy density MWh /m3; - Energy potential GJ/t; - Size-homogeneity of straw; - Water or Moisture Content (MC). The above mentioned characteristics have an influence on technical parameters of straw-burning boiler. These parameters define conditions process of straw preparation. (author)

  16. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  17. Waste: energy to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinerated, transformed into fuel or a gas, waste is a versatile source of energy. It is as once a problem and a resource that is increasingly the focus of green policies. According to the 2009 World Waste Survey, between 3.4 and 4 billion tons of waste are produced each year worldwide. Leading the pack is China, with 300 million tons produced in 2005, followed closely by the United States, with 238 million tons. But the United States wins the per capita count with 760 kg of waste produced per year per inhabitant; Australia comes in second. In Europe, 500 kg of waste is produced per capita per year for a total of 2 billion tons generated annually, and a growth rate of 10% in ten years' time. Between 2/3 and 3/4 of these waste materials are sorted, and a portion of them is recycled. The rest is either carted away to a dumping ground, or incinerated. But this waste is primarily domestic, and still contains energy, energy that can be recovered. The added bonus is two-fold: an additional source of energy is created by transforming waste, called waste-to- wheel or waste-to-energy (WTE), and the decomposition of organic waste does not give off GHGs. Two ways are known today to transform wastes into energy: the thermal process, where heat is extracted from the waste (and sometimes converted into electricity), and the non-thermal process, which comprises collecting energy in a chemical form (biogas, biofuel). Both technologies depend on the type of waste to be treated: plastic materials, household refuse, fermentable elements, sludge residue from sewage treatment plants, agricultural waste, forestry industry waste, etc. The thermal process is by far the most widely employed. 74% of waste is incinerated in Japan, and around 30 to 55% in most European countries. The second process does not burn waste and is better suited to wet and organic matter, i.e., to waste that contains quantities of biomass: fermentable waste, sludge, agricultural waste and the gas given off at

  18. Determination of PM10 and its ion composition emitted from biomass burning in the chamber for estimation of open burning emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillapapiromsuk, Sopittaporn; Chantara, Somporn; Tengjaroenkul, Urai; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Prapamontol, Tippawan

    2013-11-01

    Biomass samples including agricultural waste (rice straw and maize residue) and forest leaf litter were collected from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand for the burning experiment in the self-designed stainless steel chamber to simulate the emissions of PM10. The burning of leaf litter emitted the highest PM10 (1.52±0.65 g kg(-1)). The PM10-bound ions emitted from the burning of rice straw and maize residue showed the same trend, which was K(+)>Cl(-)>SO4(2-)>NH4(+)>NO3(-). However, the emissions from maize residue burning were ~1.5-2.0 times higher than those from the rice straw burning. The ion content emitted from leaf litter burning was almost the same for all ion species. Noticeably, K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations were ~2-4 times lower than those emitted from agricultural waste burning. It can be deduced that K(+) and Cl(-) were highly emitted from agricultural waste burning due to the use of fertilizer and herbicides in the field, respectively. Based on emission values obtained from the chamber, the pollutant emission rate from open burning was calculated. Burned areas in Chiang Mai Province were 3510 and 866 km(2) in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Forest burning was 71-88%, while agricultural land burning accounted for 12-29% (rice field: crop field=1:3) of total burned area. Therefore, emissions of PM10 from open burning in Chiang Mai were 3051 ton (2010) and 705 ton (2011). Major ions emitted from agricultural waste burning were found to be K(+) and Cl(-), while those from forest burning were SO4(2-) and K(+). PMID:23891258

  19. Tokamak burn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research of the fusion plasma thermal instability and its control is reviewed. General models of the thermonuclear plasma are developed. Techniques of stability analysis commonly employed in burn control research are discussed. Methods for controlling the plasma against the thermal instability are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications to tokamak confinement concepts. Additional research which extends the results of previous research is suggested. Issues specific to the development of control strategies for mid-term engineering test reactors are identified and addressed. 100 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Complicated Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David T

    2016-10-01

    More than 4 decades after the creation of the Brooke and Parkland formulas, burn practitioners still argue about which formula is the best. So it is no surprise that there is no consensus about how to resuscitate a thermally injured patient with a significant comorbidity such as heart failure or cirrhosis or how to resuscitate a patient after an electrical or inhalation injury or a patient whose resuscitation is complicated by renal failure. All of these scenarios share a common theme in that the standard rule book does not apply. All will require highly individualized resuscitations. PMID:27600129

  1. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shaw, Milton S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition and Growth concept, introduced by Lee and Tarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homogeneized burn rate needs to account for three mesoscale physical effects (i) the density of burnt hot spots, which depends on the lead shock strength; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by hot spots, which depends on the local deflagration speed; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent hot spots. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable {lambda}(t) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t)/{ell}{sub hs}, rather than by xpecifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale {ell}{sub hs} is the average distance between hot spots, which is proportional to [N{sub hs}(P{sub s})]{sup -1/3}, where N{sub hs} is the number density of hot spots activated by the lead shock. The reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t) = {line_integral}{sub 0}{sup t} D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single hot spot, where D is the deflagration speed and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. They have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  2. Pathogenic alteration in severe burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Xie, Bing; Ben, DaoFeng; Lv, KaiYang; Zhu, ShiHui; Lu, Wei; Tang, HongTai; Cheng, DaSheng; Ma, Bing; Wang, GuangYi; Xiao, ShiChu; Wang, GuangQing; Xia, ZhaoFan

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims to define the trend of time related changes with local bacterial alteration of bacterial resistance in severe burns in our burn center during a 12-year period. Retrospective analysis of microbiological results on severely burned wounds between 1998 and 2009 was carried out. A study of 3615 microbial isolates was performed. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated pathogen (38.2%) followed by A. baumannii (16.2%), Streptococcus viridans (11.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.4%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 9.2%). The species ratios of S. aureus and A. baumannii increased significantly from 1st to 8th week of hospitalization, while those of Streptococcus viridans, P. aeruginosa and coagulase-negative staphylococci decreased during the same period. Bacterial resistance rates were compared between the periods 1998-2003 and 2004-2009. Vancomycin remained as the most sensitive antibiotic in S. aureus including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). It was very likely that the majority of infections caused by Streptococcus viridans, P. aeruginosa and coagulase-negative staphylococci occurred in the early stage of burn course and the majority of infections caused by A. baumannii occurred 4 weeks after admission. The use of different antibiotics was probably the major contributor to these trends. PMID:22100426

  3. Topical agents in burn care

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injure...

  4. Animal Models in Burn Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the...

  5. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    OpenAIRE

    Procter Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns...

  6. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Shareen; Basavarajappa; Hanumanthappa

    2015-01-01

    A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1) OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the a...

  7. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  8. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from these fires indicates that 6 x 1013 g C of gas phase hydrocarbons and 8 x 1014 g CO may be released annually from biomass burning. These emissions contribute significantly to the global budgets of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

  9. A numerical study of Li-SF6 wick combustion - Forced and mixed convective burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaso, R. C.; Chen, L.-D.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study is conducted to study Li-SF6 wick diffusion flames under mixed convective burning conditions at a pressure of 0.01 MPa. Both planar and cylindrical wicks are considered. The model is based on a conserved scalar approach. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of particular parameters on the burning rate and heat transfer. The flat-plate solution yields a fuel mass burning rate per unit surface area following the x exp -1/2 dependence of the classical similarity solution, where x is the streamwise distance. Cylindrical wick geometries yield enhanced burning rates over planar wicks. For the case of mixed convective burning, the burning rate results approach either the forced or natural convective burning limits as ambient streamwise velocity is changed. Critical Richardson numbers specifying these burning limits are determined for a given condition. Reducing gravity results in a lower burning rate because the influence of natural convection is diminished. Under reduced gravity of 1/1000 of the sea-level value, mixed convective burning nearly resembles forced convection.

  10. Importance of the slick thickness for effective in-situ burning of crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.;

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the potential of in-situ burning (ISB), the importance of the oil slick thickness on two pure oils (n-octane and dodecane) and two fresh crude oils (Grane and REBCO) was studied in relation to the regression rate, boilover tendency, mass loss rate, burning efficiency and flame...... height. The experiments were performed in a new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), which has been developed to study ISB of oil on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The regression rate, average mass loss rate and burning...... above 75% for the crude oils, showing that it only has a limited effect on the burning efficiency as higher burning efficiencies have been reported for larger scales. Furthermore, the results showed that the burning mechanisms differ for pure and crude oil, indicating that the hydrocarbon mixture...

  11. Bacteremia in burned patients admitted to Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Saleh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in burn wards is infection, and it is the major reason of death in burn injuries. There are several reasons that make burn victims predisposed to infection. The current study aimed to investigate the role of different factors that have an effect on bacteremia occurrence in burn patients and factors which are relevant to mortality in these patients. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study conducted in a 1 year period in Sina Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, and 81 burn were included. We collected patients’ data about their age, body weight, cause of burn, lesion color, place and percentage of burn by getting history and studying of their files. Then we documented all interventions. Blood tests and cultures and colonies criteria were recorded. Results: In this study, 39 patients were male (48.1%, and 42 was female (51.9%. Mean age was 32.06 ± 17.46 years. In patients without bacteremia, 57 patients did not need catheterization (89.1%, however in patients with bacteremia 9 patients demanded catheter insertion (52.9%. In patients with bacteremia 12 patients survived (70.9%, however in the without bacteremia group 56 patients survived (92.2%. Then, the relationship between type of burn, wound infection and bacterial species investigated, (P = 0.650, P = 0.210 and P = 0.110 respectively. Conclusion: We concluded, invasive interventions increased bacteremia susceptibility in our studied burned patients. Mortality rate is directly related to bacteremia prevalence and increased by extent of burn area in these patients. The three most frequent microbial agents responsible for bacteremia were Pseudomona aeruginosa, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  13. In-situ burning of Orimulsion : small scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the feasibility of burning Orimulsion. In-situ burning has always been a viable method for cleaning oil spills on water because it can effectively reduce the amount of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of recovered oil. Orimulsion, however, behaves very differently from conventional oil when it is spilled because of its composition of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. In-situ burning of this surfactant-stablized oil-in-water emulsion has never been seriously considered because of the perception that Orimulsion could not be ignited, and if it could, ignition would not be sustained. In this study, burn tests were conducted on 3 scales in a Cleveland Open Cup apparatus of 5 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm diameters. Larger scale burns were conducted in specially built pans. All tests were conducted on salt water which caused the bitumen to separate from the water. The objective was to determine if sufficient vapours could be generated to ignite the Orimulsion. The study also measured if a sustained flame would result in successful combustion. Both objectives were successfully accomplished. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the Orimulsion in the specially designed pan for large scale combustion. Quantitative removal of Orimulsion was achieved in all cases, but in some burns it was necessary to re-ignite the Orimulsion. It was noted that when Orimulsion burns, some trapped water droplets in the bitumen explode with enough force to extinguish a small flame. This did not occur on large-scale burns. It was concluded that the potential for successful in-situ burning increases with size. It was determined that approximately 1 mm in thickness of diesel fuel is needed to ignite a burn. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Factors influencing resilience in patients with burns during rehabilitation period

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Yang; Jun-qiao Wang; Bao-zhen Zhang; Yu Zeng; Hai-ping Ma

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors that influence levels of resilience in patients with burns during rehabilitation, and to provide theoretical guidance for psychological crisis prevention and intervention. Methods: A total of 129 patients with burns and undergoing rehabilitation were investigated using a demographic questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), and the Simplified Coping Styles Questionnaire. Results: The overall...

  15. Fuel burning and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission of soot particles and other air pollution indoors constitutes a considerable health hazard for a major part of the population in many developing countries, one of them being China. In these countries problems relating to poverty are the most important risk factors, undernourishment being the dominating reason. Number four on the list of the most serious health hazards is indoor air pollution caused by burning of coal and biomass in the households. Very high levels of soot particles occur indoors because of incomplete combustion in old-fashioned stoves and by use of low quality fuel such as sticks and twigs and straw and other waste from agriculture. This leads to an increase in a series of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. It has been pointed out in recent years that emissions due to incomplete combustion of coal and biomass can contribute considerably to climate changes

  16. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  17. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  18. Proposing "the burns suite" as a novel simulation tool for advancing the delivery of burns education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. We explored this concept in a burns scenario in a novel, low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment (referred to as distributed simulation). This contextualized simulation/distributed simulation combination was named "The Burns Suite" (TBS). A pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was selected after high trainee demand. It was designed on Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns principles and refined using expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. TBS contained "realism" props, briefed nurses, and a simulated patient. Novices and experts were recruited. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's α was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twelve participants completed TBS scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.6 and 4.5, respectively; range, 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed that participants felt 1) the experience was "real" and they were "able to behave as if in a real resuscitation environment," and 2) TBS "addressed what Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns didn't" (including the efficacy of incorporating nontechnical skills). TBS provides a novel, effective simulation tool to significantly advance the delivery of burns education. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize simulation training. This low-cost approach also has major implications for surgical education, particularly during increasing financial austerity. Alternative scenarios and/or procedures can be recreated within TBS, providing a diverse educational immersive simulation experience. PMID:23877145

  19. Burns injury in children: Is antibiotic prophylaxis recommended?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is the most frequent complication in burn patients. There is a lack of guidelines on the use of systemic antibiotics in children to prevent this complication. Patients and Methods: A prospective study is carried out on 80 patients to evaluate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the control of infections. Results: The mean age was 34 months (9 months to 8 years. There was a male predominance with sex ratio of 1.66. The mean burn surface size burn was 26.5% with total burn surface area ranging from 5% to 33%, respectively. According to American Burn Association 37% (30/80 were severe burns with second and third degree burns >10% of the total surface body area in children aged <10 years old. Scalds represented 76.2% (61/80 of the burns. Burns by hot oil were 11 cases (13.7%, while 8 cases (10% were flame burns. The random distribution of the groups was as follow: Group A (amoxicilline + clavulanic acid = 25 cases, Group B (oxacilline = 20 cases and Group C (no antibiotics = 35 cases. Total infection rate was 20% (16/80, distributed as follow: 8 cases (50% in Group C, 5 cases (31.2% in Group A and 3 cases in Group B (18.7%. Infection rate in each individual group was: 22.9% (8 cases/35 in Group C, 20% (5 cases/25 in Group A and 15% (3 cases/20 in Group B (P = 0.7. They were distributed as follow: Septicaemia 12 cases/16 (75%, wound infection 4 cases/16 (25%. Bacteria isolated were with a decreasing order: Staphylococcus aureus (36.3%, Pseudomonas (27.2%, Escherichia coli (18.1%, Klebsiella (9% and Enterobacteria (9%. There is a tendency to a delayed cicatrisation (P = 0.07 in case of hot oil burns (65.18 ± 120 days than by flame (54.33 ± 19.8 days than by hot water (29.55 ± 26.2 days. Otherwise no toxic shock syndrome was recorded in this study. Conclusion: It is concluded that adequate and careful nursing of burn wounds seems to be sufficient to prevent complications and to obtain cicatrisation. Antibiotics are

  20. Burn prevention mechanisms and outcomes: pitfalls, failures and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Costagliola, Michel; Hayek, Shady N

    2009-03-01

    -risk groups. Depending on the population of the country, burns prevention could be a national programme. This can ensure sufficient funds are available and lead to proper coordination of district, regional, and tertiary care centres. It could also provide for compulsory reporting of all burn admissions to a central registry, and these data could be used to evaluate strategies and prevention programmes that should be directed at behavioural and environmental changes which can be easily adopted into lifestyle. Particularly in LMICs, the emphasis in burn prevention should be by advocating change from harmful cultural practices. This needs to be done with care and sensitivity. The present review is a summary of what has already been accomplished in terms of burn prevention highlighting some of the successes but above all the numerous pitfalls and failures. Recognizing these failures is the first step towards development of more effective burn prevention strategies particularly in LMICs in which burn injury remains endemic and associated with a high mortality rate. Burn prevention is not easy, but easy or not, we have no options; burns must be prevented. PMID:18926639

  1. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  2. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  3. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  4. Simulation of burning tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To simulate dynamical behaviour of tokamak fusion reactors, a zero-dimensional time-dependent particle and power balance code has been developed. The zero-dimensional plasma model is based on particle and power balance equations that have been integrated over the plasma volume using prescribed profiles for plasma parameters. Therefore, the zero-dimensional model describes the global dynamics of a fusion reactor. The zero-dimensional model has been applied to study reactor start-up, and plasma responses to changes in the plasma confinement, fuelling rate, and impurity concentration, as well as to study burn control via fuelling modulation. Predictions from the zero-dimensional code have been compared with experimental data and with transport calculations of a higher dimensionality. In all cases, a good agreement was found. The advantage of the zero-dimensional code, as compared to higher-dimensional transport codes, is the possibility to quickly scan the interdependencies between reactor parameters. (88 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs.)

  5. E P I DEMIOLOGY OF PAEDIATRIC BURNS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangpreet Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burn injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. These are the third most common injury causing death in children, following motor vehicle accidents and drowning accidents. AIM: To study the Epidemiological parameters for assessment of morbidity & mortality rate in pediatric burns and to form effective preventive strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was done at the Department of Surgery, PIMS, Jalandhar. Total 50 patients (n=50 up to age of 12 years, were included in the study retrospectively. Data regarding age, sex, demographic distribution, seasonal variation, Total body surface area (TBSA involved, type and place of burn injury, parent’s occupation, family size and mortality rate were noted and analysed. RESULT S: Total 50 patients (n =50 of which 32 were males and 18 females were included in the study. Mean age of burn injuries was 3.6 years. Scalds burns were the most common cause of burns followed by thermal burns. It involved mostly upper limbs (67%, anterio r trunk (56%, lower limbs (53%, face (4%, and posterior trunk including buttocks (16% . The time lapse from injury to presentation to hospital ranged from 1 hour to 3 weeks. Total body surface area burnt was ranged from 2 – 60%. Mean hospital duration was 12 . 4 days. Complications ranged from wound sepsis in 11 patients (22%, contractures of fingers in 3 patients ( 6 % and hypertrophic scarring in 8 patients (16% . After healing of wounds, patients were advised pressure garments and oil massage and night splint age regularly for six months. CONCLUSION: Children constitute a vulnerable group of burns. Most injuries occur in the home setting where effective control measures can be adopted. Advances have also made in resuscitation, intensive care, antimicrobi als, vascular access, nutritional support, and skin banking. Splintage, physiotherapy, massage and pressure garments also help in reducing the morbidity and overall long term burden over

  6. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  7. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs .At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  8. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan Çizmeci; Samet Vasfi Kuvat

    2011-01-01

    Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are generea...

  9. DIFFERENTIATING PERIMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  10. Benchmarking Outcomes in the Critically Injured Burn Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B.; Goverman, Jeremy; Hayden, Douglas L.; Fagan, Shawn P.; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Alexander, Andrew K.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Arnoldo, Brett; Wispelwey, Bram; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Honari, Shari E.; Mason, Philip H.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Herndon, David N.; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine and compare outcomes with accepted benchmarks in burn care at six academic burn centers. Background Since the 1960s, U.S. morbidity and mortality rates have declined tremendously for burn patients, likely related to improvements in surgical and critical care treatment. We describe the baseline patient characteristics and well-defined outcomes for major burn injuries. Methods We followed 300 adults and 241 children from 2003–2009 through hospitalization using standard operating procedures developed at study onset. We created an extensive database on patient and injury characteristics, anatomic and physiological derangement, clinical treatment, and outcomes. These data were compared with existing benchmarks in burn care. Results Study patients were critically injured as demonstrated by mean %TBSA (41.2±18.3 for adults and 57.8±18.2 for children) and presence of inhalation injury in 38% of the adults and 54.8% of the children. Mortality in adults was 14.1% for those less than 55 years old and 38.5% for those age ≥55 years. Mortality in patients less than 17 years old was 7.9%. Overall, the multiple organ failure rate was 27%. When controlling for age and %TBSA, presence of inhalation injury was not significant. Conclusions This study provides the current benchmark for major burn patients. Mortality rates, notwithstanding significant % TBSA and presence of inhalation injury, have significantly declined compared to previous benchmarks. Modern day surgical and medically intensive management has markedly improved to the point where we can expect patients less than 55 years old with severe burn injuries and inhalation injury to survive these devastating conditions. PMID:24722222

  11. Temporal Cytokine Profiles in Severely Burned Patients: A Comparison of Adults and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N; Gamelli, Richard; Gibran, Nicole; Klein, Matthew; Silver, Geoff; Arnoldo, Brett; Remick, Daniel; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2008-01-01

    A severe burn leads to hypermetabolism and catabolism resulting in compromised function and structural changes of essential organs. The release of cytokines has been implicated in this hypermetabolic response. The severity of the hypermetabolic response following burn injury increases with age, as does the mortality rate. Due to the relationship between the hypermetabolic and inflammatory responses, we sought to compare the plasma cytokine profiles following a severe burn in adults and in chi...

  12. The CREST reactive-burn model for explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswaran M-A.; Lambourn B.; James H.; Whitworth N.; Handley C.

    2011-01-01

    CREST is an innovative reactive-burn model that has been developed at AWE for simulating shock initiation and detonation propagation behaviour in explosives. The model has a different basis from other reactive-burn models in that its reaction rate is independent of local flow variables behind the shock wave e.g. pressure and temperature. The foundation for CREST, based on a detailed analysis of data from particle-velocity gauge experiments, is that the reaction rate depends only on the local ...

  13. MSFR TRU-burning potential and comparison with an SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorina, C.; Cammi, A. [Politecnico di Milano: Via La Masa 34, 20136 Milan (Italy); Franceschini, F. [Westinghouse Electric Company LL: 1000 Westinghouse Dr., Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Krepel, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI WEST, 5234 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) potential benefits in terms of transuranics (TRU) burning through a comparative analysis with a sodium-cooled FR. The comparison is based on TRU- and MA-burning rates, as well as on the in-core evolution of radiotoxicity and decay heat. Solubility issues limit the TRU-burning rate to 1/3 that achievable in traditional low-CR FRs (low-Conversion-Ratio Fast Reactors). The softer spectrum also determines notable radiotoxicity and decay heat of the equilibrium actinide inventory. On the other hand, the liquid fuel suggests the possibility of using a Pu-free feed composed only of Th and MA (Minor Actinides), thus maximizing the MA burning rate. This is generally not possible in traditional low-CR FRs due to safety deterioration and decay heat of reprocessed fuel. In addition, the high specific power and the lack of out-of-core cooling times foster a quick transition toward equilibrium, which improves the MSFR capability to burn an initial fissile loading, and makes the MSFR a promising system for a quick (i.e., in a reactor lifetime) transition from the current U-based fuel cycle to a novel closed Th cycle. (authors)

  14. A Survey of Suicide by Burning in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhredin Taghaddosinejad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify the characteristics of completed suicide by burning in Tehran. A retrospective analysis of data obtained from Tehran's Legal Medicine Organization and judiciary system over 5-years (from 2002 to 2006. During the 5 years, 374 decedents (64.2% female and 35.8% male were diagnosed as suicide by self-burning, and the annual incidence rate was 0.9 per 100,000 general population-years. The most at risk group was young females. Sixty-five decedents (17.4% had died at the scene of incidents. The location at the time of attempted suicide in all female victims and 75.4% of male decedents was home. Sixty-one percent of decedents were married and 26.2% of them had no education. Most victims were residents of suburban areas. The annual incidence rate of self-burning suicide in Tehran was found to be lower than other Iran's geographic areas, although it was higher than developed countries. Self-burning was more frequent in females than in males and was noted mainly in young age groups' residents of suburban areas with low level of education. These characteristics suggest that social factors are the main drive leading to an unacceptably high rate of suicide by self-burning among women in Tehran.

  15. Burn Depth Estimation Using Thermal Excitation and Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1998-12-17

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5{degrees} Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  16. Men, fire, and burns: Stories of fighting, healing, and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakrar, Sulaye; Hunter, Tevya A; Medved, Maria I; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Brockmeier, Jens; Sareen, Jitender; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2015-12-01

    Burn recovery is a difficult process full of physical and psychological challenges. With increasing survival rates, there has been renewed interest in the psychological aspects of burn recovery. As men represent over 70% of all burn patients, it is particularly important to study how men experience and interpret this process. We interviewed a purposeful sample of ten adult male burn survivors from different age and cultural groups in the first 16 weeks of their recovery and asked them to discuss the problems they faced. Narrative analysis was used to interpret the interviews. In their narratives, the men tended to emphasize gains in their physical recovery; that is, they often used metaphors of "fighting" to demonstrate how committed they were to their healing. Further, they put less emphasis on the emotional aspects of their recovery. In our discussion, we compare these complex storylines to coping strategies identified in the literature and discuss why men may choose these strategies. Based on our findings we argue that it is important for health care providers to be aware of societal pressures which may influence burn survivors to minimize affective elements of burn recovery. Additionally, we encourage exploring and capitalizing on men's "fighting" stories during rehabilitation in order to foster an active role which men can take in their recovery. PMID:26188886

  17. Impact of deforestation on biomass burning in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fires are widely used for various land use practices in tropical countries. Large amounts of trace gases and aerosol particles are produced during the fires. It is important to assess the potential impact of these gases and particulate matter on the chemistry of the atmosphere and global climate. One of the largest uncertainties in quantifying the effects is the lack of information on the source strengths. The authors quantify the amount of biomass burned due to deforestation in each tropical country on basis of the deforestation rate, the above ground density, and the fraction of above ground biomass burned. Approximately 725 Tg of biomass were burned in 1980 and 984 Tg were burned in 1990. The 36% increase took place mostly in Latin America and tropical Asia. The largest source was Brazil, contributing about 29% of the total biomass burned in the tropics. The second largest source was Indonesia accounting for 10%, followed by Zaire accounting for about 8%. The burning of biomass due to increased deforestation has resulted in an additional 33 Tg CO and 2.5 Tg CH4 emitted annually to the atmosphere from 1980 to 1990

  18. Paediatric suicidal burns: A growing concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segu, Smitha; Tataria, Rachana

    2016-06-01

    An alarming rise in rates of paediatric population committing self-immolation acts is a growing social and medical problem. In recent times there seems to be a rising concern in paediatric population. A study was conducted at a government tertiary care burn centre over 5 years in paediatric age group of peer pressure leaving them vulnerable. A multidisciplinary care involving medical, psychological and social support is required. Identifying children at risk and proper counselling and support can form an important strategy at prevention rather than cure. PMID:26803366

  19. Review of Burn Research for Year 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2015-01-01

    Management of burn injuries requires treatments and interventions from many disciplines. Worldwide, burn patients suffer from physical and psychological challenges that impact their lives socially and economically. In this review, we will highlight a handful of the numerous articles published in multiple areas of burn care. The areas of burn care addressed in the article are: epidemiology; burn resuscitation, critical care, and infection; nutrition and metabolism; pain and rehabilitation; prevention and firefighter safety; psychology; and reconstruction and wounds. PMID:26204384

  20. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  1. Cardiovascular Dysfunction Following Burn Injury: What We Have Learned from Rat and Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley N. Guillory

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn profoundly affects organs both proximal and distal to the actual burn site. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a well-documented phenomenon that increases morbidity and mortality following a massive thermal trauma. Beginning immediately post-burn, during the ebb phase, cardiac function is severely depressed. By 48 h post-injury, cardiac function rebounds and the post-burn myocardium becomes tachycardic and hyperinflammatory. While current clinical trials are investigating a variety of drugs targeted at reducing aspects of the post-burn hypermetabolic response such as heart rate and cardiac work, there is still a paucity of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms that induce cardiac dysfunction in the severely burned. There are many animal models of burn injury, from rodents, to sheep or swine, but the majority of burn related cardiovascular investigations have occurred in rat and mouse models. This literature review consolidates the data supporting the prevalent role that β-adrenergic receptors play in mediating post-burn cardiac dysfunction and the idea that pharmacological modulation of this receptor family is a viable therapeutic target for resolving burn-induced cardiac deficits.

  2. Cardiovascular Dysfunction Following Burn Injury: What We Have Learned from Rat and Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Ashley N.; Clayton, Robert P.; Herndon, David N.; Finnerty, Celeste C.

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn profoundly affects organs both proximal and distal to the actual burn site. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a well-documented phenomenon that increases morbidity and mortality following a massive thermal trauma. Beginning immediately post-burn, during the ebb phase, cardiac function is severely depressed. By 48 h post-injury, cardiac function rebounds and the post-burn myocardium becomes tachycardic and hyperinflammatory. While current clinical trials are investigating a variety of drugs targeted at reducing aspects of the post-burn hypermetabolic response such as heart rate and cardiac work, there is still a paucity of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms that induce cardiac dysfunction in the severely burned. There are many animal models of burn injury, from rodents, to sheep or swine, but the majority of burn related cardiovascular investigations have occurred in rat and mouse models. This literature review consolidates the data supporting the prevalent role that β-adrenergic receptors play in mediating post-burn cardiac dysfunction and the idea that pharmacological modulation of this receptor family is a viable therapeutic target for resolving burn-induced cardiac deficits. PMID:26729111

  3. Jet Fuel Burns Profits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANUXIN

    2005-01-01

    Last month, China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) raised the price of jet fuel to 4,620 yuan (US$513) per ton, a 10.3 percent rise over the 4,190 yuan (US$505) per ton rate set in August last year, itself a 10.6 percent mark-up. This is the third rise since 2003.

  4. Biomass burning: A significant source of nutrients for Andean rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P. F.; Rollenbeck, R.; University Of Marburg, Germany

    2010-12-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park,on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes,has been carried out since 2002.The samples,accumulated over about 1-week intervals,were analysed for pH,conductivity,and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3-, PO4 3- ).Annual deposition rates of these ions which, due to poor acidic soils with low mineralization rates,constitute the dominant nutrient supply to the mountaineous rainforests, and major ion sources could be determined using back trajectories,along with satellite data. While most of the Na, Cl, and K as well as Ca and Mg input was found to originate from natural oceanic and desert dust sources,respectively (P.Fabian et al.,Adv.Geosci.22,85-94, 2009), NO3, NH4, and about 90% of SO4 (about 10 % is from active volcanoes) are almost entirely due to anthropogenic sources,most likely biomass burning. Industrial and transportation emissions and other pollutants,however,act in a similar way as the precursors produced by biomass burning.For quantifying the impacts of biomass burning vs. those of anthropogenic sources other than biomass burning we used recently established emission inventories,along with simplified model calculations on back trajectories.First results yielding significant contributions of biomass burning will be discussed.

  5. Skin graft fixation in severe burns: use of topical negative pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Kamolz, L.P.; Lumenta, D.B.; Parvizi, D.; Wiedner, M.; Justich, I.; Keck, M.; Pfurtscheller, K.; Schintler, M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, the evolution of burn care has led to a significant decrease in mortality. The biggest impact on survival has been the change in the approach to burn surgery. Early excision and grafting has become a standard of care for the majority of patients with deep burns; the survival of a given patient suffering from major burns is invariably linked to the take rate and survival of skin grafts. The application of topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy devices has demonstrated ...

  6. A One-Dimensional Global-Scaling Erosive Burning Model Informed by Blowing Wall Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    A derivation of turbulent flow parameters, combined with data from erosive burning test motors and blowing wall tests results in erosive burning model candidates useful in one-dimensional internal ballistics analysis capable of scaling across wide ranges of motor size. The real-time burn rate data comes from three test campaigns of subscale segmented solid rocket motors tested at two facilities. The flow theory admits the important effect of the blowing wall on the turbulent friction coefficient by using blowing wall data to determine the blowing wall friction coefficient. The erosive burning behavior of full-scale motors is now predicted more closely than with other recent models.

  7. The effect of rotation on the stability of nuclear burning in accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Keek, L; Zand, J J M in 't

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen and/or helium accreted by a neutron star from a binary companion may undergo thermonuclear fusion. At different mass accretion rates different burning regimes are discerned. Theoretical models predict helium fusion to proceed as a thermonuclear runaway for accretion rates below the Eddington limit and as stable burning above this limit. Observations, however, place the boundary close to 10% of the Eddington limit. We study the effect of rotationally induced transport processes on the stability of helium burning. For the first time detailed calculations of thin helium shell burning on neutron stars are performed using a hydrodynamic stellar evolution code including rotation and rotationally induced magnetic fields. We find that in most cases the instabilities from the magnetic field provide the dominant contribution to the chemical mixing, while Eddington-Sweet circulations become important at high rotation rates. As helium is diffused to greater depths, the stability of the burning is increased, such...

  8. Combustion control of a wood burning stove with afterburner. Final report; Verbrennungsregelung an einer Stueckholzfeuerung fuer Ofensetzer. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiquet, C. [Unes Handels AG, Ormalingen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-15

    For the oven building trade, an electronic controller was adapted for wood burning stoves with afterburners, to regulate burn rate and emissions output. The controller utilizes Fuzzy-Technology to reduce emissions and optimize burning efficiency. The controller also offers a significant improvement in operating ease and safety. The rate of burning can be reduced to 50% of full capacity, therefore allowing 35 kg of wood to burn safely for nine hours without additional supervision. Additionally, the CO-emissions remain below 500 mg/Nm{sup 3} during the stationary burning phase. This new technology allows the oven builder to construct ovens with large enough fuel capacities, for use in conjunction with heat exchangers, to heat whole houses and buildings. With simpler operation and increased safety, this controller can further the functionality and popularity of wood burning energy systems. (author) figs., tabs.

  9. Advanced tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new reduced size ITER-RC superconducting tokamak concept is proposed with the goals of studying burn physics either in an inductively driven standard tokamak (ST) mode of operation, or in a quasi-steady state advanced tokamak (AT) mode sustained by non-inductive means. This is achieved by reducing the radiation shield thickness protecting the superconducting magnet by 0.34 m relative to ITER and limiting the burn mode of operation to pulse lengths as allowed by the TF coil warming up to the current sharing temperature. High gain (Q≅10) burn physics studies in a reversed shear equilibrium, sustained by RF and NB current drive techniques, may be obtained. (author)

  10. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Maxwell; Stacey, Weston

    2013-10-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamaks, especially those used as a neutron source for fusion-fission hybrid reactors, such as the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept. At Georgia Tech, we are developing a new burning plasma dynamics code to investigate passive safety mechanisms that could prevent power excursions in tokamak reactors. This code solves the coupled set of balance equations governing burning plasmas in conjunction with a two-point SOL-divertor model. Predictions have been benchmarked against data from DIII-D. We are examining several potential negative feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instabilities, iii) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement resulting from ripples in the toroidal field, iv) modifications to the radial current profile, v) ``divertor choking'' and vi) Type 1 ELMs.

  11. Epidemiology of severe burn injuries in a Tertiary Burn Centre in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Barzelighi, H.; Alaghehbandan, R.; Motevallian, A.; Alinejad, F.; Soleimanzadeh-Moghadam, S.; Sattari, M.; A R Lari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized burn patients in a tertiary burn centre in Tehran, Iran. A hospital-based cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with burn injuries was conducted in Motahari Burn and Reconstruction Center in Tehran from August to December 2010. Medical records of all hospitalized burn patients were reviewed and pertinent information was captured. A total of 135 patients with severe burns requiring hospitalizat...

  12. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  13. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; Werf, van der G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    [1] In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires ofte

  14. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 oC and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by increasing

  15. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  16. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  17. To Burn or not to Burn: Making the Burning of Chocolate Hills of Bohol, Philippines Carbon Neutral

    OpenAIRE

    Nathaniel T. Bantayan; Margaret M Calderon; Flocencia B. Pulhin; Canesio D. Predo; Rose Ann C. Baruga

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current management regime of burning vis-à-vis burning with carbon offsets for the Chocolate Hills Natural Monument (CHNM) in Bohol, Philippines. The current scheme of burning to maintain the grass-covered (tree-less) and brown hills to sustain tourist arrivals is seen as environmentally unsound and inconsistent with existing environmental laws. The study estimated the carbon loss from burning and compared the carbon loss value with the tourism income ...

  18. OPTIMIZED FLUID MANAGEMENT IMPROVES OUTCOMES OF PEDIATRIC BURN PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Leonard, Katrina R; Jeschke, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major determinants for survival of severely burned patients is appropriate fluid resuscitation. At present, fluid resuscitation is calculated based on bodyweight or body surface area, burn size, and urinary output. However, recent evidence suggests that fluid calculation is inadequate and that over- and under-resuscitation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that optimizing fluid administration during the critical initial phase using a transcardiopulmonary thermo-dilution monitoring device (PiCCO) would have beneficial effects on the outcome of burned patients. Methods A cohort of seventy-six severely burned pediatric patients with burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA) who received adjusted fluid resuscitation using the PiCCO (P) system were compared to 76 conventionally monitored patients (C). Clinical hemodynamic measurements, organ function (DENVER2 score), and biomarkers were recorded prospectively for the first 20 days after burn injury. Results Both cohorts were similar in demographic and injury characteristics. Patients in the PiCCO group received significantly less fluids (p<0.05) with similar urinary output, resulting in a significantly lower positive fluid balance (p<0.05). The central venous pressure (CVP) in the P group was maintained in a more controlled range (p<0.05), associated with a significantly lower heart rate and significantly lower incidence of cardiac and renal failure, p<0.05. Conclusions Fluid resuscitation guided by transcardiopulmonary thermo-dilution during hospitalization represents an effective adjunct and is associated with beneficial effects on post-burn morbidity. PMID:22703982

  19. Effect of fusion burn cycle on first wall swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical simulation of first wall swelling has been performed for stainless steel under a hypothetical duty cycle of 50 sec burn, 50 sec cool. In most instances steady state nucleation conditions were not established during the burn cycle, thereby necessitating the use of transient nucleation theory. The effects of transmutation helium and of surface active impurities were modelled in an approximate way. Both kinds of impurity were found to give large increases in the void nucleation rate. Suggestions for refining and extending the calculations are also given

  20. Chorioretinal burn: body temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiance thresholds for chorioretinal damage in rhesus monkeys vary linearly with core temperatures between 34 and 390C. Damage results from the combined thermal effects of retinal irradiation and the body temperature. Visible damage is calculated to occur at a tissue temperature of 42.50C. Fever increases the retina's susceptibility to burns from the sun, lasers, and other radiant energy sources

  1. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. PMID:20510518

  2. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients. PMID:22360959

  3. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  4. Burning mouth syndrome: Present perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Parajuli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of obvious visible mucosal lesions. Patient presenting with the burning mouth sensation or pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice which poses a challenge to the treating clinician. Its exact etiology remains unknown which probably has multifactorial origin. It often affects middle or old age women and it may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Objective: To review the current concepts regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Methods and methodology: A literature review was conducted on PubMed/Medline and Google scholar about the burning mouth syndrome and the representative articles were selected and reviewed. Conclusion: There is no universal consensus regarding diagnosis, etiology and treatment of BMS. BMS is a diagnosis of exclusion which probably has multifactorial origin. Various pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments are available but it is difficult to achieve curative treatment so reassurance is of great importance while treating the patients. Combination of cognitive behavioral therapy, alpha lipoic acid and/or clonazepam has shown promising results.

  5. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  6. Effects of various iron hydroxides on burning rate of ammonium phercholate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene composite propellants. AP/HTPB kei suishin'yaku no nensho sokudo ni oyobosu kakushu suisanka dai 2 tetsu no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, M.; Suzuki, M.; Hagihara, Y. (The National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-12-25

    Researches are being moved forward on combustion catalysts for ammonium perchlorate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (AP/HTPB) composite propellants. The previous paper has reported that various iron oxide catalysts with the larger the specific surface area exhibit larger effect of increasing combustion rates. This paper investigates subsequently ferric hydroxides with still smaller specific surface area than iron oxides for their effects of increasing combustion rates when used as a catalyst. As a result, it was found that ferric hydroxide with the larger the specific surface area shows larger effects of increasing combustion rates as in iron oxides. Compared with iron oxide with the largest specific surface area of 22.8 m[sup 2]/g among the iron oxides used in the previous report, ferric hydroxide used in this experiment with more than four times as much specific surface area of 87 to 104 m[sup 2]/g showed larger effects. It was thought that specific surface areas govern the catalytic effect and accelerate thermal decomposition in solid phase. 6 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Analysis of combustion process of dual burning rate grain with series embedded metal wires and calculation of motor internal ballistics%嵌金属丝串装双燃速药柱燃烧分析及发动机内弹道计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明; 熊波; 涂四华; 曹晓利

    2016-01-01

    The combustion process of dual burning rate grain with series embedded metal wires was analysed and the basic law of combustion area variation was obtained.Based on the PRO/E,the complex burning area of the grain was calculated precisely.To calculate the internal ballistics for the special structure of the motor,a group of differential equation was established and solved by the Runge-Kutta method.The calculation results agree with test data very well.The calculation method of the complex internal ballis-tics is precise and reliable,which could meet the engineering requirements.%针对嵌金属丝、串装双燃速装药燃烧过程进行了分析,得到了燃面变化的基本规律。基于PRO/E软件,实现了嵌多根金属丝、双燃速推进剂串装药柱复杂燃面的精确推移计算。为精确计算发动机复杂的内弹道,建立了内弹道微分方程组,并通过Runge-Kutta法进行了求解。结果表明,该数值计算方法计算结果与实测数据吻合度较高,计算方法精确可靠,满足工程预示要求。

  8. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  9. A new Experimental Rig for Oil Burning on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne;

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), has been developed to study in-situ burning of crude and pure oils spilled on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The parameters and phenomena studied for an asphaltic crude oil...... was found to be nearly 100% for n-Octane and of dodecane, whereas the crude oil burning efficiency ranged between 35% and 65%. The main reason for this variation proved to be the onset of an extremely violent boilover, which occurs for oils with relatively high boiling temperatures when the water sub layer...... is superheated. When the initial crude oil layer thickness exceeded 20 mm the oil became solid and no boilover occurred. The heat-loss to the water sub-layer also had an effect on the burning efficiency and the regression rate was found to reach a constant value after increasing continuously as the oil...

  10. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shohei Ohgi; Shouzhi Gu

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Sc...

  11. Clinical profile of burn injured patients

    OpenAIRE

    Efstathiou, Flora; Svardagalou, Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Burn injury is a severe systemic disease with social implications. Aim: The recording of patient’s clinical profile with burn injury worldwide and in Greece, the outcome and impact of the injury on the patient’s mental health and social, professional and family life. Methods: There were collected surveys and reports concerned burn victims, men and women, teenagers and adults of all types and severities of burns in the world and in Greece. The inf...

  12. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. Fahimi; H. Hajimehdipoor; Abdollahi, M.; S.A. Mortazavi

    2015-01-01

    Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended trea...

  13. Early Enteral Nutrition for Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Samuel P.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to burn injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support.

  14. Calculation of the linear heat generation rates which violate the thermomechanical limit of plastic deformation of the fuel cladding in function of the burn up of a BWR fuel rod type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear heat generation rates (LHGR) for a BWR type generic fuel rod, as function of the burnup that violate the thermomechanical limit of circumferential plastic deformation of the can (canning) in nominal operation in stationary state of the fuel rod are calculated. The evaluation of the LHGR in function of the burnt of the fuel, is carried out under the condition that the deformation values of the circumferential plastic deformation of the can exceeds in 0.1 the thermomechanical value operation limit of 1%. The results of the calculations are compared with the generation rates of linear operation heat in function of the burnt for this fuel rod type. The calculations are carried out with the FEMAXI-V and RODBURN codes. The results show that for exhibitions or burnt between 0 and 16,000 M Wd/tU a minimum margin of 160.8 W/cm exists among LHGR (439.6 W/cm) operation peak for the given fuel and maximum LHGR of the fuel (calculated) to reach 1.1% of circumferential plastic deformation of the can, for the peak factor of power of 1.40. For burnt of 20,000 MWd/tU and 60,000 MWd/tU exist a margin of 150.3 and 298.6 W/cm, respectively. (Author)

  15. Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.C.

    1995-11-01

    Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b{sub 559} and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Q{sub y}-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of {approximately} 1 cm{sup -1}/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.

  16. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  17. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  18. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  19. Burn-induced stimulation of lysosomal enzyme synthesis in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A localized burn injury to a rat hindlimb results in atrophy of soleus muscle (in the absence of cellular damage) which is attributable to an increase in muscle protein breakdown. Previous work has shown that lysosomal enzyme activities (cathepsins B, H, L, and D) are elevated in muscle from the burned leg by 50% to 100%. There is no change in endogenous neutral protease activity (+/- Ca++). The increase in protease activity can not be attributed to changes in endogenous protease inhibitors. The latency [(Triton X100 treated - control)/triton treated] of lysosomal enzymes is approximately 50% and is not altered by burn injury. The rate of sucrose uptake is also not altered by burn. These experiments suggest that the rate of substrate supply to the lysosomal apparatus via endocytosis or autophagocytosis is not altered by burn. When muscles are preincubated with 3H-phenylalanine or 3H-mannose burn increased incorporation into protein of the fraction containing lysosomes by 100%. Preincubation in the presence of tunicamycin (an inhibitor of glycoprotein synthesis) inhibited incorporation of both labels into a microsomal fraction of the muscle from the burned leg, but has little effect on incorporation in the control muscle. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the burn-induced increase in protein breakdown is caused by an increase in lysosomal protease synthesis

  20. Efficacy of silver sulfadiazine phonophoresis on wound healing in acute burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Ghada Said Mohammed

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of SSD phonophoresis approaches (continuous and pulsed modes on the rate of healing following acute burn injury . forty female patients with second degree burn in thrir anterior aspect of the dominant foream were divided randomly into ...... phonophoresis might be valuable for enhance acute burn healing and the pulsed SSD phonophoresis is more effective for accelerating the acute burn wound healing......The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of SSD phonophoresis approaches (continuous and pulsed modes on the rate of healing following acute burn injury . forty female patients with second degree burn in thrir anterior aspect of the dominant foream were divided randomly into...... frequency of 1 MHz , and intensity of 1 W/cm2 . the parameters investigated inclding 1.burn surface area measured by tracing the burn wound parameters , and 2.determination of glycosaminoglycan in urine by using cetylpyridinuin chloride turbidity method . both parameters are measured 24 hours post...

  1. A clinico-epidemiologic study of 892 patients with burn injuries at a tertiary care hospital in Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To analyze the causes, demographic and socio-cultural aspects, and the magnitude of burn injuries prospectively and to evaluate the outcome of treatment of patients admitted to burns ICU of tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods : A total of 892 burn patients admitted over a period of 6 years from January 2002 to December 2007 at tertiary care hospital in Punjab, India, were analyzed. Results : 54% patients were males. A majority of the patients, 704(79%, were in the age group of 15-45 years. Six hundred and thirty-four patients (72% sustained flame burns, while 17% and 7% sustained electrical and scald burns, respectively. A total of 470(53% patients sustained major two to three degree flame burns involving more than 45% of total body surface area (TBSA. The mortality rate was 40%, i.e. 357 patients died of burns and its related problems, in our study. Six hundred and thirty-nine patients (72% sustained burns in closed space of which 331 patients (52% sustained burns in kitchen. Seven hundred and seventy-nine patients sustained accidental burns. Burn victims were mainly Hindus and Sikhs. The mean hospital stay varied depending upon the percentage of burns. On an average, a patient with >45% TBSA burns received 15 whole blood transfusions. Split skin grafting was done in 416 patients. Most common complication encountered during their hospital stay was wound infection which was seen in 671 patients, followed by ARDS in 221 patients. The most common organisms causing wound infection were Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Conclusion : Developing country like India need an aggressive public education program so that people become more literate about various etiological factors causing burns and means of preventing them. Also needed are burn care hospitals which are easily accessible and affordable.

  2. Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

    1983-06-01

    A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

  3. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  4. Epidemiology of paediatric burns in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Montevalian, A.; Motabar, A.R.; Safari, R.; Parvas, M.S.; Vasigh, M.

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary burn care centre (the Motahari Burn Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of burn injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical burns in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most burns occurred in the summer, probably due to older children’s increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries t...

  5. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  6. Burns related to sunbed use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S J; Slattery, M A; Drew, P J

    2010-09-01

    The quest for a year round tan has led to an increase in the use of artificial tanning devices, namely sunbeds. There has been much debate in the press recently regarding the dangers of sunbed use and calls for tighter regulation of the industry, particularly the licensing of unmanned tanning salons. The dangers of sunbed use have long been recognised and the body of evidence linking sunbed use to skin malignancy is growing, in fact this month the Lancet published a review from the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying UV emitting tanning devices as carcinogenic to humans. At the Welsh Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery we noticed a rise in the number of patients presenting with burns related to sunbed use and present our data surrounding this injury over the last 6 years. PMID:20171016

  7. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a significant source of atmospheric gases, biomass burning must be addressed as a major environmental problem. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing and conversion, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The editor discusses the history of biomass burning and provides an overview of the individual chapters

  8. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Çizmeci

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are genereally adequate for first-degree burns. However, topical antibacterial agents are usually required for second to third-degree wounds. Standart treatment for the open wound without epithelization is autologous skin grafting. In cases where more than 50% of the skin surface in affected, autologus donor skin may not be enough. For these cases, epidermal cell culture in vitro may be used. Mesenchymal stem cell applications which have immunosupressive effects should be utilized in cases where cells need to be prepared as allografts. (Journal of the Turkish Society intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 51-4

  10. [Burns care following a nuclear incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T

    2010-09-30

    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries. PMID:21991218

  11. The effect of rotation on the stability of nuclear burning in accreting neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Keek, L.; Langer, N.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen and/or helium accreted by a neutron star from a binary companion may undergo thermonuclear fusion. Different burning regimes are discerned at different mass accretion rates. Theoretical models predict helium fusion to proceed as a thermonuclear runaway for accretion rates below the Eddington limit and as stable burning above this limit. Observations, however, place the boundary close to 10% of the Eddington limit. We study the effect of rotationally induced transport processes on the...

  12. Hospital acquired diarrhea in a burn center of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Alinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea has increased rapidly and burn patients are at high risk of getting it. Infection with C. difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline characteristics and clinical presentation of hospital-acquired diarrhea and compare C. difficile and non-C. difficile diarrhea in burn patients treated at a burn center.Materials and Methods: During a 1-year study all patients with hospital-acquired diarrhea at Motahari Burn Hospital, Teh- ran, Iran enrolled in this study. We compared patients with a stool sample positive for C. difficile toxin or tracing the antigen in patients who were negative for detection of toxin in their stool sample specimens.Results: Diarrhea developed in 37 patients out of 3200 admitted patients with a mean burn size of 34.8 ±20.1%. Among them, 8 patients had a positive result for C. difficile. The mean time between antibiotic therapy and occurrence of diarrhea was 9.5 ± 6.2 days. Nine (23.7% patients died in the 7.8± 4.2 days, mostly due to co-morbidities. The mean duration of di- arrhea was 3.6 ± 2 days. Twenty two (57.9% patients were treated with oral metronidazol and eleven (28.9% patients were treated with combination of metronidazole and vancomycin, higher rate of combination therapy was seen in Clostridium difficile CDI.Conclusion: Overall, the prevalence of hospital-acquired diarrhea was 120/10,000  and 21% of them caused by infection with C. difficile. Presence of peripheral leukocytosis and colitis were the alarm sign for diagnosis of C. difficile infection. Keywords: Hospital-acquired diarrhea (HAD, Burn, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI

  13. Fossil fuel and biomass burning effect on climate - Heating or cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Fraser, Robert S.; Mahoney, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The basic theory of the effect of pollution on cloud microphysics and its global implications is applied to compare the relative effect of a small increase in the consumption rate of oil, coal, or biomass burning on cooling and heating of the atmosphere. The characteristics of and evidence for the SO2 induced cooling effect are reviewed. This perturbation analysis approach permits linearization, therefore simplifying the analysis and reducing the number of uncertain parameters. For biomass burning the analysis is restricted to burning associated with deforestation. Predictions of the effect of an increase in oil or coal burning show that within the present conditions the cooling effect from oil and coal burning may range from 0.4 to 8 times the heating effect.

  14. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Decreases Mortality in a Murine Model of Burn-Wound Sepsis Involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Liu; Qin Zhou; Yunchuan Wang; Zhengcai Liu; Maolong Dong; Yaojun Wang; Xiao Li; Dahai Hu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The colonization of burn wounds by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can lead to septic shock, organ injuries, and high mortality rates. We hypothesized that negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) would decrease invasion and proliferation of P. aeruginosa within the burn wound and reduce mortality. METHODS: Thermal injuries were induced in anesthetized mice, and P. aeruginosa was applied to the wound surface for 24 h. After removing the burn eschar and debridement, the animals were subjected...

  15. Fuel treatments and landform modify landscape patterns of burn severity in an extreme fire event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Susan J; Kennedy, Maureen C

    2014-04-01

    Under a rapidly warming climate, a critical management issue in semiarid forests of western North America is how to increase forest resilience to wildfire. We evaluated relationships between fuel reduction treatments and burn severity in the 2006 Tripod Complex fires, which burned over 70,000 ha of mixed-conifer forests in the North Cascades range of Washington State and involved 387 past harvest and fuel treatment units. A secondary objective was to investigate other drivers of burn severity including landform, weather, vegetation characteristics, and a recent mountain pine beetle outbreak. We used sequential autoregression (SAR) to evaluate drivers of burn severity, represented by the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio index, in two study areas that are centered on early progressions of the wildfire complex. Significant predictor variables include treatment type, landform (elevation), fire weather (minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature), and vegetation characteristics, including canopy closure, cover type, and mountain pine beetle attack. Recent mountain pine beetle damage was a statistically significant predictor variable with red and mixed classes of beetle attack associated with higher burn severity. Treatment age and size were only weakly correlated with burn severity and may be partly explained by the lack of treatments older than 30 years and the low rates of fuel succession in these semiarid forests. Even during extreme weather, fuel conditions and landform strongly influenced patterns of burn severity. Fuel treatments that included recent prescribed burning of surface fuels were particularly effective at mitigating burn severity. Although surface and canopy fuel treatments are unlikely to substantially reduce the area burned in regional fire years, recent research, including this study, suggests that they can be an effective management strategy for increasing forest landscape resilience to wildfires. PMID:24834742

  16. Impact of Isolated Burns on Major Organs: A Large Animal Model Characterized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, David M; McIntyre, Matthew K; Baker, Bryan A; Rizzo, Julie A; Brown, Ammon; Natesan, Shanmugasundaram; Chung, Kevin K; Christy, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Severe burn results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). Currently, large-animal models of burn-induced SIRS/MOD mostly use secondary insults resulting in a paucity of knowledge on the effect of burn alone on different organ systems. The objective of the current study was to develop and characterize a large animal model of burn-induced SIRS over the course of 2 weeks. Yorkshire swine (n = 16) were randomized to sham controls (n = 4) or 40% total body surface area contact burns (n = 6 at 2 and 14 days post-burn). Blood chemistry and complete blood count analyses were performed at baseline and post-burn days 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 14. Upon euthanasia, tissue samples were taken for histopathology. Burns were found to be full thickness and did not re-epithelialize. SIRS was evidenced by increased body temperature, respiration rate, pulse, and white blood cell count for the duration of the experiment. Both acute liver injury and acute kidney injury were induced as determined biochemically and histologically. Histology also revealed atelectasis of the lungs which was associated with increased myeloperoxidase activity. Intestinal structure as well as enterocyte homeostasis was also disrupted. All of these organ abnormalities recovered to varying degrees by 14 days post-burn. We report a unique reproducible large animal model of burn-induced SIRS that can be tailored to specific organ systems for investigation into potential immunomodulatory interventions that prevent organ failure or promote organ recovery after burn injury. PMID:27380531

  17. Effect of fasting on the metabolic response of liver to experimental burn injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet A Orman

    Full Text Available Liver metabolism is altered after systemic injuries such as burns and trauma. These changes have been elucidated in rat models of experimental burn injury where the liver was isolated and perfused ex vivo. Because these studies were performed in fasted animals to deplete glycogen stores, thus simplifying quantification of gluconeogenesis, these observations reflect the combined impact of fasting and injury on liver metabolism. Herein we asked whether the metabolic response to experimental burn injury is different in fed vs. fasted animals. Rats were subjected to a cutaneous burn covering 20% of the total body surface area, or to similar procedures without administering the burn, hence a sham-burn. Half of the animals in the burn and sham-burn groups were fasted starting on postburn day 3, and the others allowed to continue ad libitum. On postburn day 4, livers were isolated and perfused for 1 hour in physiological medium supplemented with 10% hematocrit red blood cells. The uptake/release rates of major carbon and nitrogen sources, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured during the perfusion and the data fed into a mass balance model to estimate intracellular fluxes. The data show that in fed animals, injury increased glucose output mainly from glycogen breakdown and minimally impacted amino acid metabolism. In fasted animals, injury did not increase glucose output but increased urea production and the uptake of several amino acids, namely glutamine, arginine, glycine, and methionine. Furthermore, sham-burn animals responded to fasting by triggering gluconeogenesis from lactate; however, in burned animals the preferred gluconeogenic substrate was amino acids. Taken together, these results suggest that the fed state prevents the burn-induced increase in hepatic amino acid utilization for gluconeogenesis. The role of glycogen stores and means to increase and/or maintain internal sources of glucose to prevent increased hepatic amino acid

  18. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have young children, use safety latches in your home When cooking, keep pot handles turned toward the rear of the stove, and never leave pans unattended. Do not leave hot cups of coffee on tables or counter edges. Do not carry hot liquids or food near your child or while holding your child. ...

  19. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Answers page . Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Learn More Highlight Body Other NIGMS Fact Sheets Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on April 06, 2016 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  20. Fuel characteristics and emissions from biomass burning and land-use change in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria is one of the 13 low-latitude countries that have significant biomass burning activities. Biomass burning occurs in moist savanna, dry forests, and forest plantations. Fires in the forest zone are associated with slash-and-burn agriculture; the areal extent of burning is estimated to be 80% of the natural savanna. In forest plantations, close to 100% of litter is burned. Current estimates of emissions from land-use change are based on a 1976 national study and extrapolations from it. The following non-carbon dioxide (CO2) trace gas emissions were calculated from savanna burning: methane (CH4), 145 gigagrams (Gg); carbon monoxide (CO), 3831 Gg; nitrous oxide (N2O), 2 Gg; and nitrogen oxides (NOx), 49 Gg. Deforestation rates in forests and woodlands are 300 x 103 ha (kilohectare, or kha) and 200 x kha per year, respectively. Trace gas emissions from deforestation were estimated to be 300 Gg CH4, 2.4 Gg N2O, and 24 Gg NOx. CO2 emissions from burning, decay of biomass, and long-term emissions from soil totaled 125,561 Gg. These estimates should be viewed as preliminary, because greenhouse gas emission inventories from burning, deforestation, and land-use change require two components: fuel load and emission factors. Fuel load is dependent on the areal extent of various land uses, and the biomass stocking and some of these data in Nigeria are highly uncertain. 9 tabs., 44 refs

  1. Tensile and burning properties of clay/phenolic/GF composite and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diharjo, Kuncoro; Armunanto, V. Bram; Kristiawan, S. Adi

    2016-03-01

    Composite material has been widely used in automotive due to its properties can be improved by combining with reinforcement, like fiber and particle to enhance mechanical properties and burning resistance. This study aims to investigate the tensile and burning properties of hybrid composite combining glass fiber and clay in phenolic resin. The clay was produced from roof tile rejected by tile industries in Sokka, Kebumen, Indonesia. The composite was made using a press mold method for different number of laminates and orientation of woven-roving-glass-fiber/ WRGF (0/90 and ±45), and the total volume fraction of fiber and clay is constant 40%. The specimens were tested using universal testing machine for tensile properties and burning tests apparatus for burning resistance (time to ignite/ TTI and burning rate/ BR). The enhancing of the Clay/Penolic/GF composite can be performed by the increasing of GF laminates, and the composite with 0/90 orientation of WRGF has higher tensile strength and modulus compared to that with ±45 orientation of WRGF. Both composite with 0/90 and ±45 orientation of WRGF have similar burning resistance (TTI and BR) and the composite containing 13 laminates of WR-GF shows the best burning resistance. According to these properties, this composite has good opportunity to be applied as car body panels or other structure in industries due to save weight and high burning resistance.

  2. Rapid spread of suicide by charcoal burning from 2007 to 2011 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Rong; Ahn, Myung Hee; Lee, Tae Yeop; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-11-30

    Despite rapid increase of suicide by charcoal burning within 5 years, little is known about the characteristics of charcoal burning suicide in Korea. This study aimed to examine the trends and risk factors in the spread of suicide using this method. We identified an association between media reporting of suicide by charcoal burning and its incidence. Data on suicide from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from the Korean National Statistical Office. Cross-correlation analysis was used. Increasing incidence of suicide by charcoal burning was correlated with higher education levels, male sex, and the latter half of the year. Victims of charcoal burning suicide were more likely to be young, male, single, highly educated, professional, urban-based, and to die between October and December. Internet reports of suicide via charcoal burning tended to precede the increased incidence of suicide using this method, but only during the early period of the suicide epidemic. Our findings suggest that one episode of heavy media coverage of a novel method, such as charcoal burning, is sufficient to increase the prevalence of suicide by that method even after media coverage decreases. These findings are expected to contribute to the prevention of increasing rates of suicide by charcoal burning. PMID:25048757

  3. Fuel characteristics and emissions from biomass burning and land-use change in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isichei, A O; Muoghalu, J I; Akeredolu, F A; Afolabi, O A

    1995-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the 13 low-latitude countries that have significant biomass burning activities. Biomass burning occurs in moist savanna, dry forests, and forest plantations. Fires in the forest zone are associated with slash-and-burn agriculture; the areal extent of burning is estimated to be 80% of the natural savanna. In forest plantations, close to 100% of litter is burned. Current estimates of emissions from land-use change are based on a 1976 national study and extrapolations from it. The following non-carbon dioxide (CO2) trace gas emissions were calculated from savanna burning: methane (CH4), 145 gigagrams (Gg); carbon monoxide (CO), 3831 Gg; nitrous oxide (N2O), 2 Gg; and nitrogen oxides (NOx), 49 Gg. Deforestation rates in forests and woodlands are 300 × 10(3) ha (kilohectare, or kha) and 200 × kha per year, respectively. Trace gas emissions from deforestation were estimated to be 300 Gg CH4, 2.4 Gg N2O, and 24 Gg NOx. CO2 emissions from burning, decay of biomass, and long-term emissions from soil totaled 125 561 Gg. These estimates should be viewed as preliminary, because greenhouse gas emission inventories from burning, deforestation, and land-use change require two components: fuel load and emission factors. Fuel load is dependent on the areal extent of various land uses, and the biomass stocking and some of these data in Nigeria are highly uncertain. PMID:24197951

  4. Incidence of cardiac events in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, David G; Hoestje, Sara M; Korentager, Richard A

    2003-06-01

    Given the increased level of adrenergic stimulation in burn patients, it would be expected that they would experience an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and other cardiac events. We performed a retrospective chart review of 56 acute burn patients matched by age, length of hospital stay, and sex to 56 trauma patients, all of whom had been continuously monitored electrocardiographically. Burn and trauma patients were similar in injury severity, admission laboratory values, and prior history of cardiopulmonary diseases. Arrhythmias were noted in 34% of burn patients and 28% of trauma patients. One myocardial infarction and six deaths occurred in burn patients. No myocardial infarctions or deaths were observed in trauma patients. A past history of cardiopulmonary disease increased the risk of myocardial infarction or death by 6.6 times. Cardiac arrhythmias and other events are relatively infrequent and benign in burn patients and are similar to those experienced by other patients with acute injuries. PMID:12781616

  5. How to manage a minor burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Conwy, Gabrielle

    2016-07-20

    Rationale and key points This article outlines the technique for dressing a minor burn. The nurse should be aware of national burn care referral guidance, and have the knowledge and skills to establish the severity and extent of a burn. The nurse should also be able to determine whether referral to a regional specialist centre is required. » The extent and severity of a burn determines its ongoing management. » The burn wound requires regular evaluation, since its appearance and management needs can change over time. » Competence in general wound care is essential for nurses undertaking this procedure. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: » The classification of burn depth and guidelines for specialist referral. » How you think this article will change your practice. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27440365

  6. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  7. Epidemiological data, outcome, and costs of burn patients in Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Karami Matin, B.; Karami Matin, R.; Ahmadi Joybari, T.; Ghahvehei, N.; M Haghi; M. Ahmadi; S. Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Burn injuries in both developed and developing countries cause long-term disability, mortality, and socio-economic costs that are imposed on patients, families, and societies. This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology, outcome, and cost of hospitalization of 388 burn patients admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital Burn Center in Kermanshah, Iran, between 21 March 2011 and 20 March 2012. The data about demographics, cause of burns, degree of burns, outcome of burns, burned bod...

  8. Burning of electrical household appliances. An experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietaniemi, J.; Mangs, J.; Hakkarainen, T. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    2001-03-01

    Burning characteristics of electrical household appliances of four different types, TV sets, washing machines, dishwashers and refrigerator-freezers, have been studied experimentally. Results obtained comprise rate of heat release, mass loss and generation of smoke and some chemical substances as well as the quantities derived from these data such as the effective heat of combustion. The experiments are comprehensively documented by written records of events and photographs. High intensities of burning were detected. The highest rates of heat release (RHR), up to 2000 kW, were found for refrigerator-freezers. The peak RHR values for the other apparatuses were: dishwashers 350-750 kW, washing machines 300-450 kW and TVs 250-300 kW. Generally, the development of the burning of the apparatuses towards full burning has two phases. The first phase involves low-RHR incipient burning and during the second phase RHR grows rapidly towards the peak values. TV set fires develop rapidly: the first phase lasts ca. 1,5-3 minutes and, after it, the peak RHR value may be reached within 1-1,5 minutes from the initiation of the rapid RHR growth. For washing machines the period of incipient burning was rather long, 10-20 minutes depending on the way the apparatus was ignited (ignition in the motor space or at the control panel). For the dishwashers the delay was 5-10 minutes. A similar delay was found also in three refrigerator-freezer experiments. In one refrigerator- freezer experiment, the delay time was clearly shorter, only 2-3 minutes. A computational analysis of the development of room fires originating from ignited electrical household appliances was conducted to study the significance of the measured burning characteristics. The RHR of refrigerator-freezers is so high that fires originating from these apparatuses probably lead to flashover. In the case of dishwasher fires, the likelihood of flashover is considerable. The probability of flashover TV set fires in relatively

  9. Phenomenology of Graphite Burning in Air Ingress Accidents of HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air ingress with graphite burning belongs to the accident scenarios in HTRs with potentially severe consequences. This paper gives an overview of basic phenomena of graphite burning like ignition conditions and moving reaction fronts. The pioneering graphite burning experiments of Don Schweitzer are successfully reevaluated. Ignition conditions are examined, and it is underlined that burning depends not only on graphite properties but also on the heat balance in the whole graphite arrangement. In graphite-moderated reactors, ignition occurs at about 650 degree C for small air flow rates: this means that normal operation temperatures in HTRs always allow for ignition. Fuel behaviour in air ingress, as determined in the KORA facility, is discussed: up to about 1300 degree C modern TRISO fuel is stable in air, but from 1500 degree C a complete, fast destruction is observed. Exemplary calculations on massive air ingress by chimney draught performed with REACT/THERMIX are outlined. For a hot bottom reflector there is a substantial time span before fuel is attacked. Because severe air ingress in well-designed HTRs belongs to beyond design basis accidents, the knowledge is fairly good. Concerning protecting measures, a more detailed examination of thick SiC layers is proposed.

  10. Effect of metal hydrides on the burning characteristics of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effect of some metal hydrides on the burning characteristics of boron is studied for the first time. • We are the first to conduct a TG experiment on boron samples at high temperatures (a maximum of 1750 °C). • The thermal reaction process of boron is firstly divided into five stages according to the weight gain rate of the sample. • Specific values of metal hydrides on ignition delay time and combustion intensity of boron are obtained. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of four metal hydrides on the burning characteristics of boron was investigated. Thermogravimetric experiment results show that the thermal reaction process of boron samples can be divided into five stages. The thermal reactions of boron can be significantly promoted with LiH, which can reduce the initial temperature of the first violent reaction stage by ∼140 °C. The starting temperature of the post-reaction stage also decreases by ∼260 °C. The results of the laser ignition experiment suggest that all four metal hydrides can promote boron burning. Nonetheless, different metal hydrides display varied promotional effects. Among the studied hydrides, LiH is the most effective additive and shortens the ignition delay time of boron by ∼34.1%. Moreover, it enhances the combustion intensity of boron by ∼117.6%. The other three metal hydrides (CaH2, TiH2, and ZrH2) can also contribute to boron burning

  11. Enteral nutrition intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentieva, Athina; Kontakiotis, Theodore; Bitzani, Militsa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of enteral feeding intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients, the effect of enteral feeding intolerance on the efficacy of feeding, the correlation between the infection marker (procalcitonin [PCT]) and the nutrition status marker (prealbumin) and the impact of feeding intolerance on the outcome of septic burn patients. From January 2009 to December 2012 the data of all burn patients with the diagnosis of sepsis who were placed on enteral nutrition were analyzed. Septic patients were divided into two groups: group A, septic patients who developed feeding intolerance; group B, septic patients who did not develop feeding intolerance. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed and compared. The diagnosis of sepsis was applied to 29% of all patients. Of these patients 35% developed intolerance to enteral feeding throughout the septic period. A statistically significant increase in mean PCT level and a decrease in prealbumin level was observed during the sepsis period. Group A patients had statistically significant lower mean caloric intake, higher PCT:prealbumin ratio, higher pneumonia incidence, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Maximum Score, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and a higher mortality rate in comparison with the septic patients without gastric feeding intolerance. The authors concluded that a high percentage of septic burn patients developed enteral feeding intolerance. Enteral feeding intolerance seems to have a negative impact on the patients' nutritional status, morbidity, and mortality. PMID:24879397

  12. Cheiloplasty in Post-burn Deformed Lips

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeldeen, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The lip is a part of the face that is frequently affected by burn injury. Post-burn scar sequelae in this area often result in cosmetic disfigurement and psychological upsets in patients, especially young adult females. A burn destroys the aesthetic features and lines of the lip. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the face has a long history. Many local and regional flaps have been used for reconstruction of surgical or traumatic defects. Procedures to enhance the cosmetic features of the ...

  13. The Integrated Burn Information System - Microbiology Module

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, A T; Henderson, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Infection is the most common serious complication occurring in hospitalized burn patients. Since this institute was established more than 35 years ago, the Microbiology section has provided direct clinical microbiology support and has collected epidemiological and historical data concerning the identification, incidence and treatment of infections in burn patients. With the availability of a centralized computer facility, microbiology data were added to the integrated burn information system,...

  14. Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options

  15. Infection control in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  16. Epidemiology and Statistical Modeling in Burn Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun

    2010-01-01

    An important issue in assessing the epidemiology of injuries, including burns, is the investigation of appropriate methodologies and statistical modeling techniques to study injuries in an efficient and trustworthy manner. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyze epidemiological patterns and assess the appropriateness of supervised statistical models to investigate burn risks and patterns. This thesis contains four papers: the first two concern descriptive epidemiology of burns in Arda...

  17. Neuroendocrine Stress Response after Burn Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Some aspects of the stress response during acute intensive care for severe burns are described and quantified by measuring hormonal and neuroendocrine patterns and relating these to organ function in the short term. This includes an assessment of whether there are markers for the severity of stress that are better than conventional descriptors of the severity of a burn in predicting failing organ function. P-CgA after a major burn injury is an independent and better predictor of organ dysfunc...

  18. Transition Metal Carbohydrazide Nitrates: Burn-rate Modifiers for Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sonawane

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the synthesis and characterisation of cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni andcopper (Cu carbohydrazide nitrates. In differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the complexesexhibited exothermic decomposition indicating their energetic nature. The commencement ofdecomposition was observed at 220 °C for Ni complex, and at 160 °C for Co complex whereasthat of Cu complex occurred at 75 °C. In view of the better thermal stability, Ni and Co complexeswere selected for further study. The activation energy of decomposition of Ni and Co complexeswere found to be 47 kcal/mol and 60 kcal/mol respectively. Impact and friction sensitivity testresults revealed relatively lower vulnerability of carbohydrazide cobalt nitrate. Its incorporationin an ammonium perchlorate (AP-based composite propellant led to 9-19 per cent enhancementwhereas that of carbohydrazide nickel nitrate resulted in 28-74 per cent enhancement in burningrates in the pressure range 1.9 MPa to 8.8 MPa. Exothermic decomposition of the coordinationcomplexes on propellant surface and involvement of metal at molecular level formed ondecomposition of the complexes in combustion environment of composite propellant may beattributed to the catalytic effect of this class of compounds on the lines of reported literature.

  19. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  20. ISBI Practice Guidelines for Burn Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbi Practice Guidelines Committee

    2016-08-01

    Practice guidelines (PGs) are recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries, and are designed to define optimal evaluation and management. The first PGs for burn care addressed the issues encountered in developed countries, lacking consideration for circumstances in resource-limited settings (RLS). Thus, the mission of the 2014-2016 committee established by the International Society for Burn Injury (ISBI) was to create PGs for burn care to improve the care of burn patients in both RLS and resource-abundant settings. An important component of this effort is to communicate a consensus opinion on recommendations for burn care for different aspects of burn management. An additional goal is to reduce costs by outlining effective and efficient recommendations for management of medical problems specific to burn care. These recommendations are supported by the best research evidence, as well as by expert opinion. Although our vision was the creation of clinical guidelines that could be applicable in RLS, the ISBI PGs for Burn Care have been written to address the needs of burn specialists everywhere in the world. PMID:27542292

  1. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

  2. Aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasti, Ahmet Cinar; Otan, Emrah; Doganay, Mutlu; Kama, Nuri A

    2009-01-01

    Infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. Among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. Here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. With the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, which resulted in a successful patient management. Aeromonads should always be kept in mind in burn cases that contacted with tanked water or soil after the burn. PMID:19692919

  3. Diffusive Nuclear Burning in Neutron Star Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, P

    2003-01-01

    We present a new mode of hydrogen burning on neutron stars (NSs) called diffusive nuclear burning (DNB). In DNB, the burning occurs in the exponentially suppressed tail of hydrogen that extends to the hotter regions of the envelope where protons are readily captured. Diffusive nuclear burning changes the compositional structure of the envelope on timescales $\\sim 10^{2-4} {\\rm yrs}$, much shorter than otherwise expected. This mechanism is applicable to the physics of young pulsars, millisecond radio pulsars (MSPs) and quiescent low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs).

  4. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS. PMID:26863819

  5. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  6. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  7. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  8. Amniotic membrane for burn trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amniotic membranes are derived from human placentae at birth. They have two layers mainly the amniotic and the chorionic surfaces which are separated by a thin layer of connective tissues. The two layers are separated during procurement, the placenta and the chorionic side are discarded and the amnion membranes are then further processed. Amnion membranes are normally procured from placentae which are normally free of infections, i.e; the mothers are antenatally screened for sexually transmitted diseases or AlDs related diseases. Intrapartum the mother should not be having chorioamnionitis or jaundice. Sometimes the amniotic membranes are acquired from fresh elective caeserian sections. After processing, the amniotic membranes are packed in two layers of polypropylene and radiated with cobalt 60 at a dose of about 25 kGy. The amniotic membranes are clinically used to cover burn surfaces especially effective for superficial or partial thickness burns. The thin membranes adhered well to the trauma areas and peeled off automatically by the second week. No change of dressing were necessary during these times because of the close adherence, there were less chance of external contamination or infections of these wounds. Due to their flexibility they are very useful to cover difference contours of the human body for example the face, body, elbows or knees. However our experience revealed that amniotic membranes are not useful for third degree bums because the membranes dissolves by the enzymes present in the wounds

  9. Decreasing burned children's pain behavior: impacting the trauma of hydrotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, M L; Jarvie, G J; Middlebrook, J L; McNeer, M F; Drabman, R S

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cartoon viewing with the use of a star feedback chart on two burned children's pain behavior during their physical therapy sessions. In addition, the degree to which the observational data corresponded with physical therapists' and mothers' ratings of the children's pain, fear, and cooperativeness was examined. Using a reversal single-subject design, the results showed that the children's pain behavior substantially decreased during experimental treatment sessions ...

  10. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Moody

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  11. Acute Kidney Injury Predicts Mortality after Charcoal Burning Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chin; Tseng, Yi-Chia; Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Liu, Shou-Hsuan; Yang, Huang-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jen-Fen; Lin, Wey-Ran; Wang, I-Kuan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2016-01-01

    A paucity of literature exists on risk factors for mortality in charcoal burning suicide. In this observational study, we analyzed the data of 126 patients with charcoal burning suicide that seen between 2002 and 2013. Patients were grouped according to status of renal damage as acute kidney injury (N = 49) or non-acute kidney injury (N = 77). It was found that patients with acute kidney injury suffered severer complications such as respiratory failure (P = 0.002), myocardial injury (P = 0.049), hepatic injury (P acute kidney injury. Moreover, patients with acute kidney injury suffered longer hospitalization duration (16.9 ± 18.3 versus 10.7 ± 10.9, P = 0.002) and had higher mortality rate (8.2% versus 0%, P = 0.011) than patients without injury. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was demonstrated that serum creatinine level (P = 0.019) and heart rate (P = 0.022) were significant risk factors for mortality. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with acute kidney injury suffered lower cumulative survival than without injury (P = 0.016). In summary, the overall mortality rate of charcoal burning suicide population was 3.2%, and acute kidney injury was a powerful predictor of mortality. Further studies are warranted. PMID:27430168

  12. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  13. Characterization of particulate matter emission from open burning of rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Ly, Bich Thuy; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manandhar, Bhai Raja; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003-2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EF varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EF were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20 ± 8 g kg -1 RS) than hood spread burning (4.7 ± 2.2 g kg -1 RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM 2.5 with EF of 5.1 ± 0.7 g m -2 or 8.3 ± 2.7 g kg -1 RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM 10-2.5) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM 10 (9.4 ± 3.5 g kg -1 RS) was not significantly higher than PM 2.5. PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from 9.0 μm). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM 1.1. The most significant components in PM 2.5 and PM 10 include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For illustration, an estimation

  14. Forest edge burning in the Brazilian Amazon promoted by escaping fires from managed pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Crespo, Ana; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Boit, Alice; Cardoso, Manoel; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    Understanding to what extent different land uses influence fire occurrence in the Amazonian forest is particularly relevant for its conservation. We evaluate the relationship between forest fires and different anthropogenic activities linked to a variety of land uses in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. We combine the new high-resolution (30 m) TerraClass land use database with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer burned area data for 2008 and the extreme dry year of 2010. Excluding the non-forest class, most of the burned area was found in pastures, primary and secondary forests, and agricultural lands across all three states, while only around 1% of the total was located in deforested areas. The trend in burned area did not follow the declining deforestation rates from 2001 to 2010, and the spatial overlap between deforested and burned areas was only 8% on average. This supports the claim of deforestation being disconnected from burning since 2005. Forest degradation showed an even lower correlation with burned area. We found that fires used in managing pastoral and agricultural lands that escape into the neighboring forests largely contribute to forest fires. Such escaping fires are responsible for up to 52% of the burned forest edges adjacent to burned pastures and up to 22% of the burned forest edges adjacent to burned agricultural fields, respectively. Our findings call for the development of control and monitoring plans to prevent fires from escaping from managed lands into forests to support effective land use and ecosystem management.

  15. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  16. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  17. Evaluation of released source terms from burning mock combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate quantitatively confinement capability of the radioactive materials in the nuclear fuel facility under the fire accident, analysis of accident sequence, including clogging characteristics of the ventilation filters, needs to be performed. For the purpose of the evaluation, accumulation of the source term data such as release rates of the smoke and energy, and particle size distribution of the smoke during the fire accident is necessary. Therefore, experiments for evaluating burning characteristics of combustible solid wastes and recovered solvents, which are disposed from the facilities, have been performed by using the mock combustible wastes and the method for estimating the source terms has been investigated. When mixtures of rubber and cloth gloves as mock combustible solid wastes were burnt, the smoke with above 1 μm in diameter was confined in the carbonized residue of cloth gloves and the release ratio of the smoke in the burning of mixtures was decreased compared with the burning of only rubber gloves. The source terms were evaluated with the cell ventilation system safety analysis code CELVA-1D by using the experimental results as the input, such as temperature of the gas phase, total burnt weight and total collected weight of the smoke under the burning of rubber gloves as mock wastes. The source terms calculated by the CELVA-1D reasonably agreed with the values estimated from the recommended calculation parameters in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility Accident Analysis Handbook (NUREG-1320). Therefore, the present CELVA-1D method for evaluating the source terms during burning is considered to be valid. This means that the source terms can be estimated by using this method if the information such as the temperature of the gas phase, total burnt weight and total collected weight of the smoke are given. (author)

  18. Treatment of partial thickness burns with Zn-hyaluronan: lessons of a clinical pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Juhász, I.; Zoltán, P.; Erdei, I.

    2012-01-01

    A clinical investigation to determine the effectiveness of Zn-hyaluronan gel for the treatment of partial thickness burns was carried out. 60 patients were enrolled in the study with an average of 3% TBSA burn. Exudation lasted 3 days, no infectious complications were observed. By day 14 the wounds of 52 patients have healed, average complete healing time was 10,5 days. An overall 93,3% healing rate was achieved within the planned observation period. Reduction of spontaneous and movementrelat...

  19. Patterns of deliberate self-burning in various parts of the world. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Laloë, V

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on deliberate self-burning (DSB) and compares patterns in various countries. Fifty-five studies of deliberate self-harm or suicide by fire published in the last 20 years were reviewed. They reported on 3351 cases of DSB, including 2296 deaths. India had the highest absolute number of cases, the highest fatality rate, and the highest contribution of self-harm to burns admissions. The highest reported incidence was from Sri Lanka. Male victims generally predomi...

  20. Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414

  1. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  2. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  3. Intensive Care Management in Pediatric Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Ebru Sakallıoğlu Abalı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This article aimed to review the current principles of management from initial assessment to early management and intensive care for pediatric burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 62-9

  4. A ring burn--electric or contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla, M F; el-Ekiabi, S; Al-Baker, A

    1990-02-01

    A circumferential band of deep burn affecting the ring finger sustained by a car electrician is presented. Although it was caused by short circuiting the car battery by a metal spanner and the ring he was wearing, the injury was purely a contact burn. PMID:2322399

  5. Skin Dendritic Cells in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    D’Arpa, N.; D’Amelio, L.; Accardo-Palumbo, A.; Pileri, D.; Mogavero, R.; Amato, G.; Napoli, B.; Alessandro, G.; Lombardo, C.; F. Conte

    2009-01-01

    The body's immunological response to burn injury has been a subject of great inquiry in recent years. Burn injury disturbs the immune system, resulting in a progressive suppression of the immune response that is thought to contribute to the development of sepsis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that possess the ability to stimulate naïve T cells.

  6. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...

  7. Epidemiology of major burns at the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanimé, G.; Rizkallah, N.; Said, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Burn care is one of the few areas in medicine considered both medically and surgically challenging, with burn injuries affecting people of all ages and both sexes. Between May 1992 and March 2012, 1,524 patients were admitted to the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, with an average length of stay (LOS) of 36.5 days. The most frequently encountered injuries were thermal burns, generally resulting from domestic accidents. Of our patients, 47% were from rural areas and burned body surface (BBS) w...

  8. Carbon production on accreting neutron stars in a new regime of stable nuclear burning

    CERN Document Server

    Keek, L

    2015-01-01

    Accreting neutron stars exhibit Type I X-ray bursts from both frequent hydrogen/helium flashes as well as rare carbon flashes. The latter (superbursts) ignite in the ashes of the former. Hydrogen/helium bursts, however, are thought to produce insufficient carbon to power superbursts. Stable burning could create the required carbon, but this was predicted to only occur at much larger accretion rates than where superbursts are observed. We present models of a new steady-state regime of stable hydrogen and helium burning that produces pure carbon ashes. Hot CNO burning of hydrogen heats the neutron star envelope and causes helium to burn before the conditions of a helium flash are reached. This takes place when the mass accretion rate is around 10% of the Eddington limit: close to the rate where most superbursts occur. We find that increased heating at the base of the envelope sustains steady-state burning by steepening the temperature profile, which increases the amount of helium that burns before a runaway can...

  9. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury; and...... 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...

  10. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation. PMID:25423439

  11. Microbiological Monitoring and Proteolytic Study of Clinical Samples From Burned and Burned Wounded Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, clinical samples were collected from 100 patients admitted to Burn and Plastic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt, over a period of 12 months. The proteolytic activity of 110 clinical samples taken from surfaces swabs which taken from burned and burned wounded patients with different ages and gender was examined. Screening for the proteolytic activity produced by pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients was evaluated as gram positive Bacilli and gram negative bacilli showed high proteolytic activity (46.4%) while 17.9% showed no activity. The isolated bacteria proved to have proteolytic activity were classified into high, moderate and weak. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients and showing proteolytic activity were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaeanae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluoresces.

  12. On Carbon Burning in Super Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, R; Timmes, F X

    2015-01-01

    We explore the detailed and broad properties of carbon burning in Super Asymptotic Giant Branch (SAGB) stars with 2755 MESA stellar evolution models. The location of first carbon ignition, quenching location of the carbon burning flames and flashes, angular frequency of the carbon core, and carbon core mass are studied as a function of the ZAMS mass, initial rotation rate, and mixing parameters such as convective overshoot, semiconvection, thermohaline and angular momentum transport. In general terms, we find these properties of carbon burning in SAGB models are not a strong function of the initial rotation profile, but are a sensitive function of the overshoot parameter. We quasi-analytically derive an approximate ignition density, $\\rho_{ign} \\approx 2.1 \\times 10^6$ g cm$^{-3}$, to predict the location of first carbon ignition in models that ignite carbon off-center. We also find that overshoot moves the ZAMS mass boundaries where off-center carbon ignition occurs at a nearly uniform rate of $\\Delta M_{\\rm...

  13. Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160530.html Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids Establish a ' ... this burn accident was not an isolated case. Cooking burns are common among American children, but can ...

  14. 1994 Prescribed Burning Plan: Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Prescribed Burn Plan provides a description of each burn unit on the Refuge and summarizes the safety concerns, monitoring, and burn operations for these units.

  15. Brazil Fire Characterization and Burn Area Estimation Using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment (AIRDAS) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, J. A.; Riggan, P. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Lockwood, R. N.; Pereira, J. A.; Higgins, R. G.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Remotely sensed estimations of regional and global emissions from biomass combustion have been used to characterize fire behavior, determine fire intensity, and estimate burn area. Highly temporal, low resolution satellite data have been used to calculate estimates of fire numbers and area burned. These estimates of fire activity and burned area have differed dramatically, resulting in a wide range of predictions on the ecological and environmental impacts of fires. As part of the Brazil/United States Fire Initiative, an aircraft campaign was initiated in 1992 and continued in 1994. This multi-aircraft campaign was designed to assist in the characterization of fire activity, document fire intensity and determine area burned over prescribed, agricultural and wildland fires in the savanna and forests of central Brazil. Using a unique, multispectral scanner (AIRDAS), designed specifically for fire characterization, a variety of fires and burned areas were flown with a high spatial and high thermal resolution scanner. The system was used to measure flame front size, rate of spread, ratio of smoldering to flaming fronts and fire intensity. In addition, long transects were flown to determine the size of burned areas within the cerrado and transitional ecosystems. The authors anticipate that the fire activity and burned area estimates reported here will lead to enhanced information for precise regional trace gas prediction.

  16. MORBIDITY AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN BURN PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Kraft, Robert; Nathens, Avery B.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterizing burn sizes that are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity is critical because it would allow identifying patients who might derive the greatest benefit from individualized, experimental, or innovative therapies. Although scores have been established to predict mortality, few data addressing other outcomes exist. The objective of this study was to determine burn sizes that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity after burn. Design and Patients Burn patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter prospective cohort study, Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant, with the following inclusion criteria: 0–99 years of age, admission within 96 hours after injury, and >20% total body surface area burns requiring at least one surgical intervention. Setting Six major burn centers in North America. Measurements and Main Results Burn size cutoff values were determined for mortality, burn wound infection (at least two infections), sepsis (as defined by ABA sepsis criteria), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure (DENVER2 score >3) for both children (<16 years) and adults (16–65 years). Five-hundred seventy-three patients were enrolled, of which 226 patients were children. Twenty-three patients were older than 65 years and were excluded from the cutoff analysis. In children, the cutoff burn size for mortality, sepsis, infection, and multiple organ failure was approximately 60% total body surface area burned. In adults, the cutoff for these outcomes was lower, at approximately 40% total body surface area burned. Conclusions In the modern burn care setting, adults with over 40% total body surface area burned and children with over 60% total body surface area burned are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, even in highly specialized centers. PMID:25559438

  17. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution. PMID:26915202

  18. Modelling of Heat Loss in Closed Vessels during propellant Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.P. KulKarni

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Closed vessel technique is essentially used to determine the force constant, vivacity and the burning rate of gun propellants. In fact, it is the only method to find out these three parameters experimentally. It is a well-known fact that however small the propellant burning time may be, there will be heat loss to the walls of the vessel due to conduction, convection, radiation and also due to the expansion of the vessel. This fact necessitates applying correction to the observed maximum pressure in the experiment. An analysis is presented in this paper as to how this heat loss can be modelled along with discussion about other models reported in this field.

  19. An emissions audit of a chain grate stoker burning coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Emissions Audit carried out on a chain-grate stoker boiler burning coal. The boiler rated at 4.6MW(th) was installed at the Senior Foster Wheeler test facility in Wakefield where it had been modified so that it could burn both coal and dRDF. This report is based on test work undertaken as part of a programme to assess the environmental impact of the combustion of a variety of wastes as fuels. Emissions monitoring tests were carried out using coal as the fuel for comparison with the other wastes. Combustion of coal in boilers of this size are regulated by the Clean Air Acts whilst combustion of wastes is regulated by the more recent Environmental Protection Act. (author)

  20. Calcium and ER Stress Mediate Hepatic Apoptosis after Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction post-burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis post-burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacri...

  1. Role of Antioxidants in the Treatment of Burn Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jawad, F.H.; Sahib, A.S.; Al-Kaisy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Burns are a major health problem worldwide, with high mortality and morbidity in addition to causing changes in the quality of life of burn patients. Utilizing antioxidant therapeutic strategies depending on new mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of burns-related "oxidative stress" may be considered a promising step in burns management. This study involved 180 burn patients of varying age and either sex and with varying burns percentages. The patients were subdivided into six groups (A, ...

  2. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, V K

    2012-01-01

    Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock wh...

  3. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered. PMID:24823337

  4. Characterization of residual coke during burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieck, C.L.; Jablonski, E.L.; Parera, J.M. (Inst. de Investigaciones in Catalisis y Petroquimica, Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)); Frety, R. (Conventionne a l' Univ. Claude Bernard, Lyon I (France))

    1992-04-01

    In this paper coke remaining from the partial burning of coke deposited during the commercial re-forming of naphtha on a Pt-Re/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalyst is studied. Burning temperatures are 623-923 K, and the remaining coke is characterized by temperature-programmed oxidation, X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, IR, [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and chemical analysis. After coke is burned at 673 K, the residual coke shows the minimum value in the H/C ratio and the maximum in the thickness of the aromatic layers, degree of organization, C==O concentration, binding energy of C 1s, peak width, and g value. This agrees with the model of coke burning: at low temperatures, the burning is selective; the more hydrogenated and amorphous carbonaceous species are burnt first. At high temperatures, the burning is nonselective and all species are simultaneously burnt. Coke is partially oxidized during burning, and intermediate species with C==O and C--OH groups are formed.

  5. Development and Implementation of an Innovative Burn Nursing Handbook for Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Anna; Yanes, Amber; Stafford, Jessica; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L; Sen, Soman; Tran, Nam

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based burn nursing literature is extremely limited and often nonexistent. As a result, there is a lack of standardization in burn nursing care. Our objective was to evaluate burn nursing knowledge at an academic medical center and to implement innovative educational tools to enhance staff competency and improve the quality of care. A collaboration of practicing clinical nurses developed a 24-question knowledge assessment survey (presurvey) to evaluate fundamental burn nursing knowledge (fluid management, burn pathophysiology, burn-related procedures, wound care, and infection control). Pre-education knowledge surveys were administered to 59 burn nurses electronically. A writing team of new and experienced nurses was established and a 51-page handbook focusing on areas of need identified in the survey developed. This book was disseminated to staff as required for reading. Post-educational surveys were sent to the same nurses who completed the initial survey. Forty-six nurses (46/59, 78.0%) completed the survey, with a mean (SD) of 55.9 (11.0)% of questions being answered correctly. Postsurveys sent to the same 46 nurses who completed the presurvey had a response rate of 78.3% (36/46). We observed a significant increase in correctly answered questions (mean [SD]: 69.6 [8.7]%, P < .001) in the postsurvey intervention. The handbook improved education and significantly improved overall fundamental burn knowledge of practicing nursing staff. The use of electronic surveys to drive development of targeted educational interventions provides evidence-based tools for establishing burn nursing standards and developing quality improvement metrics. PMID:26284646

  6. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  7. In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Cooper, D. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  8. Cardiac contraction and calcium transport function aftersevere burn injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To examine the function change of myocardial calcium transports and determined what role the change plays in cardiac dysfunction after severe burn injury in rats. Methods: The contraction and relaxation properties of the left ventricle (LV) were studied in the isolated hearts preparations of Wistar rats at 3, 8, and 24 h after a 30%TBSA (total body surface area) full-thickness burn. The calcium transport function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was measured by the millipore filtration technique. Results: The maximal rate of LV pressure (± dp/dtmax) of the burn group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.01). In addition, the calciumdependent ATPase activity and the coupling ratio of SR were also markedly depressed. Conclusions: It indicates that the decrease in the SR calcium transport function is one of the important mechanisms for the cardiac contractile dysfunction after severe burn injury.

  9. [Major Burn Trauma Management and Nursing Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shu-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Major burn injury is one of the most serious and often life-threatening forms of trauma. Burn patients not only suffer from the physical, psychological, social and spiritual impacts of their injury but also experience considerable changes in health-related quality of life. This paper presents a review of the literature on the implications of previous research and clinical care guidelines related to major burn injuries in order to help clinical practice nurses use evidence-based care guidelines to respond to initial injury assessments, better manage the complex systemic response to these injuries, and provide specialist wound care, emotional support, and rehabilitation services. PMID:26242439

  10. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y. Z.; Xu, Z. H.; Fu, L.

    2015-11-01

    Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. Prescribed burning can affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014) on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013) and after (August 2014 and November 2014) the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined in four replicate plots which were burned during the combustion and in another four adjacent unburned plots located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m-2 d-1. Prescribed burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates in the burned plots measured in August 2014. In the following 3 months, the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to the pre-burning level. Mean CO2 emission from the forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m-2 d-1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned plots in both August and November 2014. The CO2 emissions showed more seasonal variations, rather than the effects of prescribed burning. The N2O emission in the plots was quite low, and no significant impact of prescribed burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial

  11. The ALMR actinide burning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) actinide burning system is being developed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to bring its unique capabilities to fruition for deployment in the early 21st century. The system consists of four major parts: the reactor plant, the metal fuel and its recycle, the processing of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel to extract the actinides, and the development of a residual waste package. This paper addresses the status and outlook for each of these four major elements. The ALMR is being developed by an industrial group under the leadership of General Electric (GE) in a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Department of Energy. This effort is nearing completion of the advanced conceptual design phase and will enter the preliminary design phase in 1994. The innovative modular reactor design stresses simplicity, economics, reliability, and availability. The design has evolved from GE's PRISM design initiative and has progressed to the final stages of a prelicensing review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); a safety evaluation report is expected by the end of 1993. All the major issues identified during this review process have been technically resolved. The next design phases will focus on implementation of the basic safety philosophy of passive shutdown to a safe, stable condition, even without scram, and passive decay heat removal. Economic projections to date show that it will be competitive with non- nuclear and advanced LWR nuclear alternatives

  12. The role of oxidized albumin in blood cell aggregation disturbance in burn disease

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Grigory Ya; Egorihina, Marpha N

    2013-01-01

    The burn disease is found to be accompanied by increasing of the level of oxidized proteins of blood serum. We studied the influence of albumin oxidation rate on aggregation of platelets and erythrocytes, disaggregation of erythrocytes. The changes of blood cells aggregation associated with oxidation rate of albumin were found. Possible mechanisms of these effects are discussed.

  13. Burning Characteristics of Ammonium-Nitrate-Based Composite Propellants with a Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene/Polytetrahydrofuran Blend Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kohga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate-(AN- based composite propellants prepared with a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB/polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF blend binder have unique thermal decomposition characteristics. In this study, the burning characteristics of AN/HTPB/PTHF propellants are investigated. The specific impulse and adiabatic flame temperature of an AN-based propellant theoretically increases with an increase in the proportion of PTHF in the HTPB/PTHF blend. With an AN/HTPB propellant, a solid residue is left on the burning surface of the propellant, and the shape of this residue is similar to that of the propellant. On the other hand, an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant does not leave a solid residue. The burning rates of the AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant are not markedly different from those of the AN/HTPB propellant because some of the liquefied HTPB/PTHF binder cover the burning surface and impede decomposition and combustion. The burning rates of an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant with a burning catalyst are higher than those of an AN/HTPB propellant supplemented with a catalyst. The beneficial effect of the blend binder on the burning characteristics is clarified upon the addition of a catalyst. The catalyst suppresses the negative influence of the liquefied binder that covers the burning surface. Thus, HTPB/PTHF blend binders are useful in improving the performance of AN-based propellants.

  14. Global biomass burning. Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass burning is a significant source of atmospheric gases and, as such, may contribute to global climate changes. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The chapters in this volume include the following topics: remote sensing of biomass burning from space;geographical distribution of burning; combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; impacts of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions. A total of 1428 references are cited for the 63 chapters. Individual chapters are indexed separately for the data bases

  15. Treatment of radiation burns, 1987 [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident at Chernobyl, patients with various degrees of radiation burns were given treatment at Moscow hospital No. 6. The video shows the radiation injuries as well as therapy and treatment in detail

  16. On burning a lump of coal

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  17. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreational Safety Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Youth Violence Prevention ... keep our children safe and secure and help them live to their full potential. Knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like burns, is a step ...

  18. Prescribed Burn Cycles 4-yr Rotation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a map and a table showing the number of acres and locations of planned burns and wildfires on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge between...

  19. Treatment of burn injuries with keratinocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Institute for Cell and Tissue Replacement (DIZG) provides burned patients with skin and amnion for a temporary wound closure. Severely burned patients (>60% BSA for adults, >40% BSA for children) were supplied with autologous and allogenic grafts from cultured keratinocytes. The keratinocyte culture is done under GMP-conditions using the method of Rheinwald and Green. The 3T3 fibroblasts were irradiated with 60 Gy and used as feeder cells to produce keratinocyte sheets within 3 weeks. In this time up to 6.000 cm are available. The sheets were harvested by detachment with dispase (1,2 U/ml), fixed to gauze and transported to the hospital. The DIZG has a 3 years experience in the treatment of burns with keratinocyte sheets. The sheets were transplanted to patients in different hospitals, the total transplanted area is about 30.000 cm. This paper describes the experiences with ten severely burned patients treated with keratinocyte sheet

  20. Burned Microporous Alumina-Graphite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition,classifica-tion,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation and quality certificate of burned microporous alumina-graphite brick.

  1. Using Pig skin to treat Burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the use of irradiated Pig Skin for the treatment of Burns, traumatic dermal denudations and poorly healing Decubitus ulcers. It gives a brief history of Pig skin use its characteristics

  2. On burning a lump of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately 3.9 ± 2.5 bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless has an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative size of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  3. The evolution of the epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide in Taiwan: a spatial and temporal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Sen Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemic of carbon monoxide poisoning suicide by burning barbecue charcoal has occurred in East Asia in the last decade. We investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of the epidemic to assess its impact on the epidemiology of suicide in Taiwan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Age-standardised rates of suicide and undetermined death by charcoal burning were mapped across townships (median population aged 15 y or over = 27,000 in Taiwan for the periods 1999-2001, 2002-2004, and 2005-2007. Smoothed standardised mortality ratios of charcoal-burning and non-charcoal-burning suicide and undetermined death across townships were estimated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Trends in overall and method-specific rates were compared between urban and rural areas for the period 1991-2007. The epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide in Taiwan emerged more prominently in urban than rural areas, without a single point of origin, and rates of charcoal-burning suicide remained highest in the metropolitan regions throughout the epidemic. The rural excess in overall suicide rates prior to 1998 diminished as rates of charcoal-burning suicide increased to a greater extent in urban than rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: The charcoal-burning epidemic has altered the geography of suicide in Taiwan. The observed pattern and its changes in the past decade suggest that widespread media coverage of this suicide method and easy access to barbecue charcoal may have contributed to the epidemic. Prevention strategies targeted at these factors, such as introducing and enforcing guidelines on media reporting and restricting access to charcoal, may help tackle the increase of charcoal-burning suicides. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  4. Itch assessment scale for the pediatric burn survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Vershanna; Murphy, Leticia M; Rosenberg, Marta; Rosenberg, Laura; Holzer, Charles E; Meyer, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Itch Man Scale developed in 2000 by Blakeney and Marvin in assessing the intensity of itch in the pediatric burn patient. Forty-five patients (31 males and 14 females; average age 9.9 ± 5.0 years; and % TBSA burned 41 ± 25%) with an established itch complaint were studied. They were asked to describe the severity of their itch by two independent raters to determine test-retest reliability. Individuals aged 6 years or older were assessed using parental informants. Concurrent validity was determined by comparing three scales to quantify the level of itch: the Itch Man Scale (a 5-point Likert scale), the 5-D Itch Scale (adapted from a scale for peripheral neuropathy), and the Visual Analog Scale for itch. Itch Man Scale ratings collected from independent raters showed a strong correlation (r = .912, P Scale also correlated significantly with the Visual Analog Scale, the gold standard for measurement of pruritus (r = .798, P Scale had a significant correlation with the Itch Man Scale (r = .614, P Scale is a reliable and valid tool to assess itching in pediatric burn patients and to quantify postburn pruritus. PMID:22561307

  5. Helium burning and neutron sources in the stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, M.; Junker, M.; Prati, P.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.

    2016-04-01

    Helium burning represents an important stage of stellar evolution as it contributes to the synthesis of key elements such as carbon, through the triple- α process, and oxygen, through the 12C( α, γ)16O reaction. It is the ratio of carbon to oxygen at the end of the helium burning stage that governs the following phases of stellar evolution leading to different scenarios depending on the initial stellar mass. In addition, helium burning in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars, provides the two main sources of neutrons, namely the 13C( α, n)16O and the 22Ne( α, n)25Mg, for the synthesis of about half of all elements heavier than iron through the s-process. Given the importance of these reactions, much experimental work has been devoted to the study of their reaction rates over the last few decades. However, large uncertainties still remain at the energies of astrophysical interest which greatly limit the accuracy of stellar models predictions. Here, we review the current status on the latest experimental efforts and show how measurements of these important reaction cross sections can be significantly improved at next-generation deep underground laboratories.

  6. The REBUS experimental programme for burn-up credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international programme called REBUS for the investigation of the burn-up credit has been initiated by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK·CEN and Belgonucleaire with the support of EdF and IRSN from France and VGB, representing German nuclear utilities and NUPEC, representing the Japanese industry. Recently also ORNL from the U.S. jointed the programme. The programme aims to establish a neutronic benchmark for reactor physics codes in order to qualify the codes for calculations of the burn-up credit. The benchmark exercise investigate the following fuel types with associated burn-up: reference fresh 3.3% enriched UO2 fuel, fresh commercial PWR UO2 fuel and irradiated commercial PWR UO2 fuel (54 GWd/tM), fresh PWR MOX fuel and irradiated PWR MOX fuel (20 GWd/tM). The experiments on the three configurations with fresh fuel have been completed. The experiments show a good agreement between calculation and experiments for the different measured parameters: critical water level, reactivity effect of the water level and fission-rate and flux distributions. In 2003 the irradiated BR3 MOX fuel bundle was loaded into the VENUS reactor and the associated experimental programme was carried out. The reactivity measurements in this configuration with irradiated fuel show a good agreement between experimental and preliminary calculated values. (author)

  7. Secondary hyperalgesia to heat stimuli after burn injury in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the presence of hyperalgesia to heat stimuli within the zone of secondary hyperalgesia to punctate mechanical stimuli. A burn was produced on the medial part of the non-dominant crus in 15 healthy volunteers with a 50 x 25 mm thermode (47 degrees C, 7 min), and...... assessments were made 70 min and 40 min before, and 0, 1, and 2 h after the burn injury. Hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli were examined by von Frey hairs and contact thermodes (3.75 and 12.5 cm2), and pain responses were rated with a visual analog scale (0-100). The area of secondary hyperalgesia...... to punctate stimuli was assessed with a rigid von Frey hair (462 mN). The heat pain responses to 45 degrees C in 5 s (3.75 cm2) were tested in the area just outside the burn, where the subjects developed secondary hyperalgesia, and on the lateral crus where no subject developed secondary hyperalgesia...

  8. Acupuncture and burning mouth syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni; Tarozzi, Marco; Varoni, Elena; Franchini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition most common in middle-aged and elderly women, with prevalence rates in the general population ranging from 0.5% to 5%. Defined by the International Headache Society as "an intraoral burning sensation for which no medical or dental cause can be found," BMS is considered a form of neuropathic pain. The management of BMS remains unsatisfactory. In this pilot study, we investigated the use of acupuncture in a small group of BMS patients. The study group, after 4 refusals, was composed of 10 BMS patients (9 females and 1 male; mean age, 65.2 years; range, from 48 to 80 years; mean duration of BMS, 2.6 years; SD ± 0.8 years). Oral pain/burning sensation (primary outcome) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Health-related quality of life (secondary outcome) was measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Acupuncture treatment lasted 8 weeks and consisted of 20 sessions. Patients reported a mean reduction in pain of 0.99 points on the VAS (max 2.1-min 0.1), which, although slight, was statistically significant (Wilcoxon test P acupuncture treatment seemed better able cope with their oral symptoms. PMID:23336607

  9. Characteristics of spectral-hole burning in Tm3+:YAG based on the perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the physical mechanism of the interaction between electromagnetic wave and spectral-hole burning crystal material is investigated in detail. In the small signal regime, a perturbation theory model is used to analyze the mechanism of spectral-hole burning. By solving the Liouville equation, three-order perturbation results are obtained. From the theoretic analysis, spectral-hole burning can be interpreted as a photon echo of the zero-order diffraction echo when the first optical pulse and the second optical pulse are overlapped in time. According to the model, the spectral-hole width is dependent on the chirp rate of the reading laser. When the chirp rate is slow with respect to the spectral features of interest, the spectral hole is closely mapped into time domain. For a fast chirp rate, distortions are observed. The results follow Maxwell—Bloch model and they are also in good agreement with the experimental results

  10. Predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months post-burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondronikola, Maria; Meyer, Walter J.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Ojeda, Sylvia; Huddleston, Joanna; Stevens, Pamela; Børsheim, Elisabet; Suman, Oscar E.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injury is a dramatic event with acute and chronic consequences including insulin resistance. However, factors associated with insulin resistance have not been previously investigated. Purpose To identify factors associated with long-term insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Methods The study sample consisted of 61 pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months after the burn injury, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. To assess insulin resistance, we calculated the area under the curve for glucose and insulin. The diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association were used to define individuals with impaired glucose metabolism. Additional data collected include body composition, anthropometric measurements, burn characteristics and demographic information. The data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Approximately 12% of the patients met the criteria for impaired glucose metabolism. After adjusting for possible confounders, burn size, age and percent body fat were associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for all). Time post-burn and lean mass were inversely associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for both). Similarly, older age predicted higher insulin area under the curve. Conclusion A significant proportion of pediatric injury survivors suffer from glucose abnormalities 24–36 months post-burn. Burn size, time post-burn, age, lean mass and adiposity are significant predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Clinical evaluation and screening for abnormal glucose metabolism should be emphasized in patients with large burns, older age and survivors with high body fat. PMID:24918945

  11. Micafungin Concentrations in the Plasma and Burn Eschar of Severely Burned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Junichi; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Kudo, Daisuke; Endo, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Ryosuke; Takuma, Kiyotsugu; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Shinozawa, Yotaro; Kishino, Satoshi; Hori, Shingo; Aikawa, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Micafungin concentrations in plasma and burn eschar after daily intravenous infusion (1 h) of micafungin (200 to 300 mg) were investigated for six patients with severe burns. Micafungin treatment was initiated more than 72 h after the burn injuries. The peak and trough levels in the plasma after the initial administration and repeated administrations for more than 4 days were comparable with or slightly lower than the reported values for healthy volunteers. Micafungin concentrations in the pl...

  12. Influence of early post-burn enteral nutrition on clinical outcomes of patients with extensive burns

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Guozhong; Huang, Jiren; Yu, Junjie; Zhu, Yugang; Cai, Liangliang; Gu, Zaiqiu; Su, Qinghe

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis commonly occurs in severe post-burn patients, often resulting in death. We aimed to evaluate the influence of early enteral feeding on outcomes in patients with extensive burns, including infection incidence, healing and mortality. We retrospectively reviewed 60 patients with extensive burns, 35 who had received early enteral nutrition and 25 who had received parenteral nutrition. Average healing time, infection incidence and mortality were clinically observed. Hemoglobin and serum alb...

  13. Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome With Amisulpride

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cerdeira, Carmen; Sanchez-Blanco, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a frequently occurring disease characterized by a burning or painful sensation in the tongue and/or other oral sites without clinical mucosal abnormalities or lesions. Its etiopathology is unknown, although local, systemic, and psychological factors have been associated with BMS. The syndrome is multifactorial, and its management remains unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary data regarding the efficacy and tolerability o...

  14. The Local Treatment of Burns With Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, B.; D’Arpa, N.; Masellis, A.; Masellis, M.

    2005-01-01

    After presenting an analysis of the principal antiseptics used for the local treatment of burns, highlighting their toxicity and the limitations of their antibacterial effectiveness, we describe the therapeutic protocol used in our burns centre (where antibacterial treatment consists exclusively of antibiotics for both local and systemic use). We review the data regarding actual and predicted mortality, and mortality due to septicaemia during the years 2000-2003.

  15. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    OpenAIRE

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira; Ariadne da Silva Fonseca; Maísa Tavares de Souza Leite; Luciana Soares dos Santos; Adélia Dayane Guimarães Fonseca; Conceição Vieira da Silva Ohara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fe...

  16. Van burn-out naar bevlogenheid

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekx, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Het fenomeen burn-out is tegenwoordig niet meer uit de media weg te denken. Steeds meer mensen gaan ten onder aan werkstress en geraken opgebrand. Dat heeft niet alleen voor de persoon in kwestie negatieve gevolgen, zowel mentaal als lichamelijk, maar ook voor de organisatie. Een minder bekend en relatief nieuw begrip is bevlogenheid of engagement, de tegenhanger van burn-out. Bevlogen mensen zijn energiek, voelen zich betrokken bij de organisatie en kunnen lang en onvermoeibaar doorgaan met ...

  17. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, Thomas; Mailänder, Peter; Stollwerck, Peter. L.; Stang, Felix H.; Siemers, Frank; Namdar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the in...

  18. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Namdar, T; Siemers, F; Stollwerck, PL; Stang, FH; Mailänder, P; de Lange, T

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia.Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality?Method: Retrospective study for the i...

  19. Transdermal fluid loss in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The skin protects against fluid and electrolyte loss. Burn injury does affect skin integrity and protection against fluid loss is lost. Thus, a systemic dehydration can be provoked by underestimation of fluid loss through burn wounds. Purpose: We wanted to quantify transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds. Method: Retrospective study. 40 patients admitted to a specialized burn unit were analyzed and separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Means of daily infusion-diuresis-ratio (IDR and the relationship to totally burned surface area (TBSA were analyzed. Results: In Group A 25 patients with a mean age of 47±18 years, a mean TBSA of 23±11%, and a mean abbreviated burned severity index (ABSI score of 6.9±2.1 were summarized. In Group B 15 patients with a mean age of 47±22 years, a mean TBSA of 30±13%, and a mean ABSI score of 8.1±1.7 were included. Statistical analysis of the period from day 3 to day 6 showed a significant higher daily IDR-amount in Group A (Group A vs. Group B: 786±1029 ml vs. –181±1021 ml; p<0.001 and for daily IDR-TBSA-ratio (Group A vs. Group B: 40±41 ml/% vs. –4±36 ml/%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is a systemic relevant transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds after severe burn injury. Serum sodium concentration can be used to calculate need of fluid resuscitation for fluid maintenance. There is a need of an established fluid removal strategy to avoid water and electrolyte imbalances.

  20. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  1. Temporal Cytokine Profiles in Severely Burned Patients: A Comparison of Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N; Gamelli, Richard; Gibran, Nicole; Klein, Matthew; Silver, Geoff; Arnoldo, Brett; Remick, Daniel; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2008-01-01

    A severe burn leads to hypermetabolism and catabolism resulting in compromised function and structural changes of essential organs. The release of cytokines has been implicated in this hypermetabolic response. The severity of the hypermetabolic response following burn injury increases with age, as does the mortality rate. Due to the relationship between the hypermetabolic and inflammatory responses, we sought to compare the plasma cytokine profiles following a severe burn in adults and in children. We enrolled 25 adults and 24 children who survived a flame burn covering more than 20% of total body surface area (TBSA). The concentrations of 22 cytokines were measured using the Linco multiplex array system (St. Charles, MO, USA). Large perturbations in the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were seen following thermal injury. During the first week following burn injury, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-8 were detected at significantly higher levels in adults compared with children, P < 0.05. Significant differences were measured during the second week post-burn for IL-1β (higher in children) and IL-5 (higher in adults), P < 0.05. IL-18 was more abundant in children compared with adults during the third week post-burn, P < 0.05. Between post-burn d 21 and d 66, IL-1α was detected at higher concentrations in pediatric compared with adult patients, P < 0.05. Only GM-CSF expression was significantly different at all time points; it was detected at lower levels in pediatric patients, P < 0.05. Eotaxin, G-CSF, IL-13, IL-15, IP-10, MCP-1, and MIP-1α were detected at significantly different concentrations in adult compared with pediatric patients at multiple time points, P < 0.05. There were no differences in IL-12, IL-2, IL-7, or TNF levels in adult compared with pediatric burn patients at any of these time points. Following severe flame burns, the cytokine profiles in pediatric patients differ compared with those in adult patients, which may

  2. Pattern of childhood burn injuries and their management outcome at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalya Phillipo L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn injuries constitute a major public health problem and are the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is paucity of published data on childhood burn injuries in Tanzania, particularly the study area. This study was conducted to describe the pattern of childhood burn injuries in our local setting and to evaluate their management outcome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (in Northwestern Tanzania over a 3-year period from January 2008 to December 2010. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and statistical analyses performed using SPSS software version 15.0. Results A total of 342 burned children were studied. Males were mainly affected. Children aged = 2 were the majority accounting for 45.9% of cases. Intentional burn injuries due to child abuse were reported in 2.9% of cases. Scald was the most common type of burns (56.1%. The trunk was the most commonly involved body region (57.3%. Majority of patients (48.0% sustained superficial burns. Eight (2.3% patients were HIV positive. Most patients (89.8% presented to the hospital later than 24 h. The rate of burn wound infection on admission and on 10th day were 32.4% and 39.8% respectively.Staphylococcus aureus were more common on admission wound swabs, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa becoming more evident after 10th day. MRSA was detected in 19.2% of Staphylococcus aureus. Conservative treatment was performed in 87.1% of cases. Surgical treatment mainly skin grafting (65.9% was performed in 44 (12.9% of patients. The overall average of the length of hospital stay (LOS was 22.12 ± 16.62 days. Mortality rate was 11.7%. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis; age of the patient, type of burn, delayed presentation, clothing ignition, %TBSA and severity of burn were found to be significantly associated with LOS (P P Conclusion Childhood burn injuries still remain a menace in our

  3. The Effects of Argan Oil in Second-degree Burn Wound Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Umit; Halici, Zekai; Akpinar, Erol; Yayla, Muhammed; Avsar, Ummu; Harun, Un; Harun, Un; Hasan Tarik, Atmaca; Bayraktutan, Zafer

    2016-03-01

    Argan oil, produced from the kernels of the argan tree (Argania spinosa), has been shown to have antioxidant properties. To examine the effect of argan oil in second-degree burn wound healing, an in vivo experiment was conducted among 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into 5 equal groups: a sham group, a control group (burned but no topical agent), a group in which argan oil was applied once a day, a group in which argan oil was applied twice a day, and a group treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine once a day. Second-degree burns were created by scalding hot water (85˚ C for 15 seconds). Treatment began 24 hours after the burn injury; in the argan oil groups, 1 mL of argan oil was administered via syringe to the wound. The rate of wound healing was quantified by wound measurements on days 1, 7, and 14 after burn injury. Tissues were analyzed for molecular and histologic changes in TGF-β expression and fibroblast activity. Percent contraction of burned skin tissue was determined using the stereo investigator program, which calculated the burn field to the millimeter. Means (SD) were calculated and compared using Duncan's multiple comparison test. The group receiving argan oil twice daily showed significantly increased mRNA levels of TGF-β1 from 39.66- to 58.70-fold compared to the burn control group on day 14 (P less than 0.05). Both argan oil-treated groups showed significantly increased contraction compared to the burn control group at all 3 timepoints; the group receiving argan oil twice daily had a greater contraction rate (31% on day 7, 76% on day 14) than the silver sulfadiazine group (22% on day 7, 69% on day 14), (P less than 0.05). Histopathological assessments on days 3, 7, and 14 showed greater healing/contraction in both argan oil and silver sulfadiazine groups compared to the control group. These results suggest argan oil is effective in healing experimentally created second-degree burns in rats. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies are

  4. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries. PMID:27211360

  5. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  6. Antithrombin in the treatment of burn trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal-Vern, Areta; Orkin, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties that has demonstrated value in sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and in burn and inhalation injury. With high doses, AT may decrease blood loss during eschar excision, reducing blood transfusion requirements. There are no human randomized, placebo-controlled studies, which have tested the true benefit of this agent in these conditions. Two main forms of AT are either plasma-derived AT (phAT) and recombinant AT (rhAT). Major ovine studies in burn and smoke inhalation injury have utilized rhAT. There have been no studies which have either translated the basic rhAT research in burn trauma, or determined the tolerance and pharmacokinetics of rhAT concentrate infusions in burn patients. Advantages of rhAT infusions are no risk of blood borne diseases and lower cost. However, the majority of human burn patient studies have been conducted utilizing phAT. Recent Japanese clinical trials have started using phAT in abdominal sepsis successfully. This review examines the properties of both phAT and rhAT, and analyzes studies in which they have been utilized. We believe that it is time to embark on a randomized placebo-controlled multi-center trial to establish the role of AT in both civilian and military patients with burn trauma. PMID:26855890

  7. Community energy plan : village of Burns Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has a significant impact on the lives of Canadians and their economies. In northern British Columbia, the ability to grow, process and transport food will likely change. The rising cost of fuel and other natural resources will create a need for more resilient communities. This report presented a community energy plan for Burns Lake in order to provide the first steps toward building on an already resilient community. The report answered questions about Burns Lake's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the community's views on energy issues. The report provided background information on the Village of Burns Lake and discussed climate change in Burns Lake, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions. The report also described community engagement by way of a questionnaire on fuel prices, homes and public opinion in Burns Lake. A strategy was also outlined. It was concluded that the village of Burns Lake is well positioned to face challenges regarding future energy use. The community is looking to the municipality for support and leadership, in order to deliver through active opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  8. Assessment of Electrosurgery Burns in Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Seyyed Mehdi; Moradi, Mohammad; Khalaj, Alireza; Pazouki, Alireza; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Ghanbari, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monopolar surgery is applied mostly in major operations, while bipolar is used in delicate ones. Attention must be paid in electrosurgery application to avoid electrical burns. Objectives: We aimed to assess factors associated with electrosurgery burns in cardiac surgery operating rooms. Patients and Methods: This was a case-control study in which two groups of 150 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Imam Khomeini Hospital were recruited. Several factors like gender, age, operation duration, smoking, diseases, infection, atopia, , immunosuppressive drugs use, hepatic cirrhosis, and pulmonary diseases were compared between the two groups. Patients were observed for 24 hours for development of any burn related to the operation. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.11.5, by Chi square and T-test. Results: Patients in the two groups were similar except for two factors. DM and pulmonary diseases which showed significant differences (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002 respectively). Seventy-five patients from controls and 35 from the study group developed burns, which was significant (P ˂ 0.0001). Conclusions: None of the factors were significantly related to developing burns. The differences between the two groups highlights the importance of systems modifications to lessen the incidence of burns. PMID:26839854

  9. Reimbursement for out-of-state burn patients is not always lower than that for in-state patients at regional burn centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael D; Pressman, Melissa A; Caruso, Daniel M; Edelman, Linda S; Holmes, James H; Hughes, William B; Korentager, Richard A; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Voigt, David W

    2010-01-01

    Because burn care in the United States is regionalized, burn patients are often transported across state lines to receive their burn treatment. The authors hypothesized that there are differences between in-state and out-of-state reimbursement for burn care. This project was conducted by the American Burn Association (ABA) Government Affairs Committee through the ABA Multicenter Trials Group. Participation was open to any member of the ABA. This retrospective observational study was approved by the institutional review boards of each participating institution. Subjects were identified using registry of each site, selecting patients hospitalized for burn injuries during FY2004-FY2006 of the hospitals. Once identified by the registry, the ID numbers were used to collect billing and reimbursement data from the financial offices. Data were sorted by age (adult and pediatric), location (in state and out of state), and payor source (Medicare, Medicaid, commercial, workers compensation, and self-pay). The rate of reimbursement was calculated based on charges and recoveries. Comparisons on data of each center were performed using Student's t-test with type I error <1%. Six facilities contributed data. A total of 4850 burn patients were reviewed, of whom 3941 were in-state burn patients and 909 were out-of-state burn patients. When the results from all six states were analyzed together, reimbursement for adults from Medicaid and Medicare was higher for in-state patients than for out-of-state patients. However, when analyzed by state, Medicare reimbursement between in-state and out-of-state patients did not differ significantly. In one state (Kansas), in-state Medicaid reimbursement was higher, but in two others (Arizona and Pennsylvania), in-state Medicaid reimbursement was lower than that for out-of-state reimbursement. Reimbursement for the care of children did not differ significantly based on state of residence. From these data, we conclude that there are indeed

  10. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  11. Safety demonstration tests of hypothetical explosive burning in the cell and air ventilation system in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant equipped with an air ventilation system consisting of cells, ducts, dampers, high-efficiency particulate air filters, and blowers. This ventilation system is required to have multiple safeguards in order to confine airborne radioactive materials within the plant in the event of fire, explosion, and criticality. To evaluate these safeguards, three kinds of explosive burning tests are performed using a large-scale facility simulating the ventilation system of a reprocessing plant. In the boilover test, an organic solvent is burned on a layer of water in a burning pan to determine the magnitude of the burning caused by the sudden boiling of the water under the solvent. The optimum conditions for boilover burning are determined by the relationship between the pan size and the ventilation rate

  12. Computational studies of the laminar burning velocity of a producer gas and air mixture under typical engine conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, G.; Paul, P.J.; Mukunda, H.S.

    2005-03-15

    This paper discusses computational results concerning the laminar burning velocity of a biomass-derived producer gas and air mixture at pressures and temperatures typical of the unburned mixture in a reciprocating engine. The computations are based on solving conservation equations describing laminar one-dimensional, multicomponent, chemically reacting, and ideal gas mixtures that have been formulated by earlier researchers. Based on a number of calculations at varying initial pressures and temperatures, and equivalence ratios, an expression for estimating the laminar burning velocity with the recycled gas mass fraction has been obtained. Also, the effect of varying amounts of recycled gas on the burning velocity has been determined. These data on laminar burning velocities will be useful in predicting the burn rate in a spark ignition (SI) engine fuelled with a producer gas and air mixture. (Author)

  13. Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Outbreaks in Burn Units: A Synthesis of the Literature According to the ORION Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girerd-Genessay, Isabelle; Bénet, Thomas; Vanhems, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the literature on multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) outbreaks in burn units according to the outbreak reports and intervention studies of nosocomial infection statement. A PubMed search engine was enlisted to identify reports, in English and French, on MDRB outbreaks in burn units, with no date restrictions, using the following key words: ("burn" OR "burns" OR "severe burn") AND ("unit" OR "critical care" OR "acute care" OR "intensive care" OR "center" OR "centre" OR "department") AND ("outbreak" OR "epidemic") AND ("resistant" OR "multidrug-resistant" OR "resistance" OR "MDR" OR "MDRO"). Twenty-nine articles on such outbreaks in burn units were analyzed. A wide variety of these outbreaks were studied in terms of the microbial agents involved, length of outbreak, and attack rate (1.9-66.7%). The most frequent bacteria were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Screening of staff revealed carrier rates of 0 to 20% in 16 studies. Environmental samples were taken in 21 studies and were positive in 14 of them. The mortality rate among infected patients varied from 0 to 33%. Implementation of isolation precautions did not always suffice, with unit closure being necessary in five outbreaks. The lack of consensus on how to manage such outbreak was highlighted. MDRB infections or colonizations are responsible for increased morbidity and mortality in vulnerable burn patients. Their management is problematic because of multifactorial transmission and limited therapeutic possibilities. PMID:26056755

  14. Mesoscale experiments help to evaluate in-situ burning of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burning of spilled oil has distinct advantages over other cleanup countermeasures. It offers the potential to convert rapidly large quantities of oil into its primary combustion products, carbon dioxide and water, with a small percentage of other unburned and residue by-products. Disadvantages include the dispersal of the combustion products into the air. Mesoscale and laboratory experiments have been conducted to measure the burning characteristics of crude oil fires. Measurements on crude oil pool fires from 0.4 m to 17.2 m in effective diameter were made to obtain data on the rate of burning, heat release rate, composition of the combustion products, and downwind dispersion of the products. The smaller experiments were performed in laboratories at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Fire Research Institute in Japan; and the larger ones at the US Coast Guard Fire Safety and Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama. From these experiments, the value for surface regression rate of a burning crude oil spill was found to be 0.055 mm/s. A major concern for public safety is the content and extent of the smoke plume from the fires. Smoke yield, the fraction of the oil mass burned that is emitted as particulate, was found to be 13 percent. A large-eddy simulation calculation method for smoke plume trajectory and smoke particulate deposition developed by NIST showed that the smoke particulate deposition from a 114 m2 burn would occur in striations over a long, slender area 3.2 km wide and 258 km downwind of the burn

  15. Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Jessica; Doupe, Malcolm; Brownell, Marni; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists examining long-term mental and physical health outcomes in adult survivors of pediatric burns. The authors examine the postinjury lifetime prevalence of common mental and physical disorders in a large pediatric burn cohort and compare the results with matched controls. Seven hundred and forty five survivors of childhood burns identified in the Burn Registry (1% between April 1, 1988 and March 31, 2010) were matched 1:5 to the general population based on age at time of injury (index date), sex, and geographic residence. Postinjury rate ratio (RR) was used to compare burn cases and control cohorts for common mental and physical illnesses through physician billings, and hospital claims. RR was adjusted for sex, rural residence, and income. Compared with matched controls, postburn cases had significantly higher RR of all mental disorders, which remained significant (P abuse RR = 2.3 [CL: 1.7-3.2], suicide attempt RR = 4.3 [CL: 1.6-12.1], or any mental disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8]). The relative rate of some physical illnesses was also significantly increased in burn survivors: arthritis RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.4), fractures RR = 1.4 (CL: 1.2-1.6), total respiratory morbidity RR = 1.1 (CL: 1.02-1.3), and any physical illness RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.3). Adult survivors of childhood burn injury have significantly increased rates of postburn mental and physical illnesses. Screening and appropriate management of these illnesses is essential when caring for this population. PMID:26594866

  16. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  17. Long-Term Propranolol Use in Severely Burned Pediatric Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, David N.; Rodriguez, Noe A.; Diaz, Eva C.; Hegde, Sachin; Jennings, Kristofer; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suri, Jaipreet S.; Lee, Jong O.; Williams, Felicia N.; Meyer, Walter; Suman, Oscar E.; Barrow, Robert E.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of propranolol given for 1 year on cardiac function, resting energy expenditure, and body composition in a prospective randomized single-center controlled study in pediatric patients with large burns. Summary Background Data Severe burns trigger a hypermetabolic response that persists for up to 2 years after burn. Propranolol given for 1 month post burn blunts this response. Whether propranolol administration for 1 year after injury provides a continued benefit is currently unclear. Methods One-hundred seventy nine pediatric patients with >30% total body surface area burns were randomized to receive control (n = 89) or 4 mg/kg/d propranolol (n = 90) for 12 months after burn. Changes in resting energy expenditure, cardiac function, and body composition were measured acutely at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postburn. Statistical analyses included techniques that adjust for non-normality, repeated measures, and regression analyses. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results Long-term propranolol treatment significantly reduced the percent of the predicted heart rate and percent of the predicted resting energy expenditure, decreased accumulation of central mass and central fat, prevented bone loss, and improved lean body mass accretion. There were very few adverse effects from the dose of propranolol used. Conclusions Propranolol treatment for 12 months, following thermal injury, ameliorates the hyperdynamic, hypermetabolic, hypercatabolic, and osteopenic responses in pediatric patients. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00675714. PMID:22895351

  18. Burn Depth Estimation Based on Infrared Imaging of Thermally Excited Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, F.M.; Hoswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1999-03-05

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5 C for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  19. Experimental study of extremely severe combined radiation-burn injury in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty adult healthy dogs were equally divided into three groups: 1) Radiation injury group (RIG): whole body irradiated with 4 Gy of gamma rays; 2) Burn group (BG): inflicted with flash burn (8% TBSA III deg, 12% TBSA II deg burn); 3) Combined radiation-burn injury group (CRIG): exposed to both radiation and burn. All animals in RIG and CRIG died; the mean survival times were 11 and 8 days, respectively. Three dogs of BG died with survival time of 10 days.The main clinical manifestation and course of dogs in CRIG were similar to those in RIG. Since it was a combined injury, an addition effect was observed. The characteristics of combined effect was as follows: 1) The relationship between the radiation doses and combined effects of mortality and infection showed an S curve; 2) The incidence of sepsis in burn wound was high and it was the main portal of bacterial invasion; and 3) Negative nitrogen balance, gastrointestinal pathological changes, digestive and absorptive disturbances, and anorexia were observed after injury. Besides, the mechanism of lower rate of lymphocyte transformation is discussed

  20. Lessons learned from hydrogen generation and burning during the TMI-2 event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes what has been learned from generation of hydrogen in the reactor core and the hydrogen burn that occurred in the containment building of the Three Mile Island Unit No. 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant on March 28, 1979. During the TMI-2 loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), a large quantity of hydrogen was generated by a zirconium-water reaction. The hydrogen burn that occurred 9 h and 50 min after the initiation of the TMI-2 accident went essentially unnoticed for the first few days. Even through the burn increased the containment gas temperature and pressure to 12000F (6500C) and 29 lb/in2 (200 kPa) gage, there was no serious threat to the containment building. The processes, rates, and quantities of hydrogen gas generated and removed during and following the LOCA are described in this report. In addition, the methods which were used to define the conditions that existed in the containment building before, during, and after the hydrogen burn are described. The results of data evaluations and engineering calculations are presented to show the pressure and temperature histories of the atmosphere in various containment segments during and after the burn. Material and equipment in reactor containment buildings can be protected from burn damage by the use of relatively simple enclosures or insulation

  1. Effect of Phyllanthus niruri.Linn on burn wound in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tara Shanbhag; Arul Amuthan; Smita Shenoy; Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract ofPhyllanthus niruri.Linn (Euphorbiaceae) on experimentally induced burn wound model in rats and to evaluate whether it reverses the wound healing in steroid suppressed rats.Methods: Two models including burn wound model and dexamethasone suppressed burn wound model were used in the study. The formulations of ethanolic extract ofPhyllanthus niruri were prepared in gum acacia at 8% and in ointment base at 10% and were administered orally (400 mg/kg) and externally respectively. The parameters studied were the wound contraction and the period of epithelialisation.Results: In burn wound model, oral and topical administration ofPhyllanthus niruri did not show any significant effects in wound contraction and period of epithelialisation when compared to control. In dexamethasone suppressed burn wound model, wound contraction rate was increased significantly by topical (P< 0.001) and oral (P < 0.001) administrations ofPhyllanthus niruriby about 47.57% and 26.16% respectively. Topical administration has shown significant (P< 0.05) enhancement of wound contraction than oral dosage form. Dexamethasone depressed epithelialisation period was reversed significantly by topical (P< 0.0001) and oral (P <0.001) administrations ofPhyllanthus niruri by about 32.5% and 21.3% respectively.Conclusions:Both topical and oral administrations of ethanolic extract ofPhyllanthus niruriare found to reverse dexamethasone suppressed burn wound healing.

  2. Modulation of inflammatory and catabolic responses in severely burned children by early burn wound excision in the first 24 hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    2003-01-01

    Hypothesis: Early burn wound excision modulates the hypermetabolic response in severe pediatric burn injuries. Design: Before-after trial. Setting: A 30-bed burn referral center in a private, university-affiliated hospital. Methods: We studied 35 severely burned children who were divided into 2 grou

  3. Determination of Fire and Burning Properties of Spruce Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zachar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the determination of selected fire properties of spruce wood. It describes the general characteristics of spruce wood, microscopic and macroscopic features. Broad application of this material requires the assessment of its properties regarding the fire aspects, being a cause of fire in forests or due to frequent occurrence of wildland fires in the Slovak territory, and being a flammable material used in building industry, furniture industry, etc. This paper analyses the following fire properties: flash-ignition temperature, spontaneous ignition temperature, mass burning rate, ignitability of material exposed to a small open flame.

  4. Burn size determines the inflammatory and hypermetabolic response

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Norbury, William B.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N

    2007-01-01

    Background Increased burn size leads to increased mortality of burned patients. Whether mortality is due to inflammation, hypermetabolism or other pathophysiologic contributing factors is not entirely determined. The purpose of the present study was to determine in a large prospective clinical trial whether different burn sizes are associated with differences in inflammation, body composition, protein synthesis, or organ function. Methods Pediatric burned patients were divided into four burn ...

  5. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Arnon D; Gurfinkel, R.; Glezinger, R.; Kriger, Y.; Yancolevich, N.; Rosenberg, L

    2007-01-01

    Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0%) had burns involving less than 20% of the body surfac...

  6. Aetiology and Outcome of Elderly Burn Patients in Tabriz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    H. Maghsoudi; Ghaffari, A

    2009-01-01

    Background. Geriatric patients, usually defined as being 65 years of age or over, now make up about 10% of the major burn population. Main aim. To conduct a prospective study of elderly burn patients, analysing the predictive value of age, gender, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, inhalation trauma, pre-morbid conditions, and mortality. Methods. A 10-year prospective study of burn victims hospitalized in a major burn centre in Iran was conducted to analyse the association between age, pe...

  7. Epidemiology of outpatient burns in Iran: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; M. Momeni

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury remains a serious and devastating issue faced by developing countries. It is also true, however, that the developed world still tackles many of the challenges caused by burns. In order to reduce this problem through preventive programs, the characteristics of this type of injury must be studied and well documented in each setting. Our study aims to show the epidemiology, demographic distribution and clinical outcomes of burns patients referred to Motahari Burn Hospital, the burn c...

  8. Negative pressure wound therapy decreases mortality in a murine model of burn-wound sepsis involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The colonization of burn wounds by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can lead to septic shock, organ injuries, and high mortality rates. We hypothesized that negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT would decrease invasion and proliferation of P. aeruginosa within the burn wound and reduce mortality. METHODS: Thermal injuries were induced in anesthetized mice, and P. aeruginosa was applied to the wound surface for 24 h. After removing the burn eschar and debridement, the animals were subjected to either NPWT or wet-to-dry (WTD treatment protocols. The bacterial loads on the wound surface were assessed during 7 d of treatment, as were the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral blood samples. Survival was monitored daily for 14 d after burn induction. Finally, samples of wounded skin, lung, liver, and kidney were collected and subjected to histopathological examination. RESULTS: Applying P. aeruginosa to the burn wound surface led to sepsis. During early stages of treatment, NPWT reduced the mortality of the septic animals and levels of P. aeruginosa within the burn wound compared with WTD-treated animals. Circulating levels of cytokines and cytoarchitectural abnormalities were also significantly reduced via NPWT. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that NPWT inhibits the invasion and proliferation of P. aeruginosa in burn-wounded tissue and decreases early mortality in a murine model of burn-wound sepsis. These therapeutic benefits likely result from the ability of NPWT to decrease bacterial proliferation on the wound surface, reduce cytokine serum concentrations, and prevent damage to internal organs.

  9. Bacterial and fungal colonization of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Lessa Soares de Macedo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of fungal and bacterial flora of burn wounds was carried out from February 2004 to February 2005 at the Burns Unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte, Brasília, Brazil. During the period of the study, 203 patients were treated at the Burns Unit. Wound swab cultures were assessed at weekly intervals for four weeks. Three hundred and fifty four sampling procedures (surface swabs were performed from the burn wounds. The study revealed that bacterial colonization reached 86.6% within the first week. Although the gram-negative organisms, as a group, were more predominant, Staphylococcus aureus (28.4% was the most prevalent organism in the first week. It was however surpassed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa form third week onwards. For S. aureus and P. aeruginosa vancomycin and polymyxin were found to be the most effective drugs. Most of the isolates showed high level resistance to antimicrobial agents. Fungi were found to colonize the burn wound late during the second week postburn, with a peak incidence during the third and fourth weeks. Species identification of fungi revealed that Candida tropicalis was the most predominant, followed by Candida parapsilosis. It is crucial for every burn institution to determine the specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, the time-related changes in the dominant flora, and the antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. This would enable early treatment of imminent septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics, without waiting for culture results, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality.

  10. The CREST reactive-burn model for explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswaran M-A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CREST is an innovative reactive-burn model that has been developed at AWE for simulating shock initiation and detonation propagation behaviour in explosives. The model has a different basis from other reactive-burn models in that its reaction rate is independent of local flow variables behind the shock wave e.g. pressure and temperature. The foundation for CREST, based on a detailed analysis of data from particle-velocity gauge experiments, is that the reaction rate depends only on the local shock strength and the time since the shock passed. Since a measure of shock strength is the entropy of the non-reacted explosive, which remains constant behind a shock, CREST uses an entropy-dependent reaction rate. This paper will provide an overview of the CREST model and its predictive capability. In particular, it will be shown that the model can predict a wide range of experimental phenomena for both shock initiation (e.g. the effects of porosity and initial temperature on sustained-shock and thin-flyer initiation and detonation propagation (e.g. the diameter effect curve and detonation failure cones using a single set of coefficients.

  11. The treatment of municipal solid waste in Malaysia comparing the biothennal process and mass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelholm, C.J.; Iso-Tryykari, M.

    1997-12-31

    Mass burning is the previously much used technology in the combustion of municipal solid waste. In mass burning, unsorted waste is burned on a grate. The Biothermal Process is a new innovative municipal solid waste treatment concept. It consists of front end treatment, the biogasification of the biofraction and the fluidized bed combustion of the combustible fraction. The objective of this work is to compare the technical, environmental and economical features of the Biothermal Process and mass burning, when constructed in Malaysia. Firstly technical descriptions of concepts are presented. Secondly three cases namely Kuala Lumpur, Perai and Johor Bahru are studied. Finally conclusions are drawn. Economic comparisons revealed that the Biothermal Process is more economical than mass burning. The investment cost far the Biothermal Process is about 30 % lower than for mass burning plant. To achieve an 8 % Return on Investment, the treatment fee for the Biothermal Process is 47-95 MYR per tonne and for mass burning 181-215 MYR per tonne depending on the case. The sensibility analysis showed that independent of the variations in feeding values, the treatment fee remains much lower in the Biothermal Process. Technical comparisons show that the Biothermal Process has the better waste reduction and recycling rate in all cases. The Biothermal Process has much better electrical efficiency in the Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru cases, while mass burning has slightly better electrical efficiency in the Perai case. Both concepts have postal for phased construction, but phasing increases investment costs more in mass burning. The suitability of each concept to the differences in the quality of waste depends on local conditions, and both methods have merits. The Biothermal Process produces 45-70 % lower air emissions than mass burning, and generates less traffic in Kuala Lumpur and Perai, while traffic generation is equal in the Johor Bahru case. The comparisons show that according

  12. Electrochemical machining of burn-resistant Ti40 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhengyang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the feasibility of using electrochemical machining (ECM to produce critical aeroengine components from a new burn-resistant titanium alloy (Ti40, thereby reducing costs and improving efficiency relative to conventional mechanical machining. Through this, it is found that an aqueous mix of sodium chloride and potassium bromide provides the optimal electrolyte and that the surface quality of the Ti40 workpiece is improved by using a pulsed current of 1 kHz rather than a direct current. Furthermore, the quality of cavities produced by ECM and the overall material removal rate are determined to be dependent on a combination of operating voltage, electrolyte inlet pressure, cathode feeding rate and electrolyte concentration. By optimizing these parameters, a surface roughness of 0.371 μm has been achieved in conjunction with a specific removal rate of more than 3.1 mm3/A·min.

  13. Special considerations in paediatric burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ramesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In India, the figure constitutes about one-fourth of the total burn accidents. The management of paediatric burns can be a major challenge for the treating unit. One has to keep in mind that "children are not merely small adults"; there are certain features in this age group that warrant special attention. The peculiarities in the physiology of fluid and electrolyte handling, the uniqueness of the energy requirement and the differences in the various body proportions in children dictate that the paediatric burn management should be taken with a different perspective than for adults. This review article would deal with the special situations that need to be addressed while treating this special class of thermal injuries. We must ensure that not only the children survive the initial injury, but also the morbidity and complications are minimized. If special care is taken during the initial management of paediatric burn injuries, these children can be effectively integrated into the society as very useful and productive members.

  14. Medical response to the radioinduced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over two years the Hospital for Burns in Buenos Aires has been studying the burns caused by radiation, in accordance to an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina. The analysis of each case showed the importance of the differential diagnosis from conventional injuries, of this early diagnosis depends the possibility of treatment from the 0 (zero) hour (time at which the accident took place) and achieve the wound healing with the best possible treatment, weather it is medical or surgical in nature. The Hospital's medical staff has developed the necessary skills to recognize this type of burns from an early stage. Most patients arrive to the consultation on their own accord due to the general practitioners inability to correctly diagnose the wounds appeared after radiotherapy has been applied. In this article, we present the general guidelines that the doctors of the Hospital for Burns follow in the presence of radio inducted injuries, objectifying the ethiopathogenic differences of the various burns. (author)

  15. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the incidence of hypernatremia and survival in 40 patients with a totally burned surface area (TBSA >10%. Age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were analyzed. Patients were separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Results: Hypernatremia occurred on day 5±1.4. No significant difference for age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were calculated. In Group A all patients survived, while 3 of the hypernatremic patient in Group B died during ICU-stay (Odds-ratio = 1.25; 95% CI 0.971–1.61; p=0.046. Conclusion: Burned patients with an in-hospital acquired hypernatremia have an increased mortality risk. In case of a hypernatremic state early intervention is obligatory. There is a need of a fluid removal strategy in severely burned patient to avoid water imbalance.

  16. A New Metric for Quantifying Burn Severity: The Relativized Burn Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Parks

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-inferred burn severity data have become increasingly popular over the last decade for management and research purposes. These data typically quantify spectral change between pre-and post-fire satellite images (usually Landsat. There is an active debate regarding which of the two main equations, the delta normalized burn ratio (dNBR and its relativized form (RdNBR, is most suitable for quantifying burn severity; each has its critics. In this study, we propose and evaluate a new Landsat-based burn severity metric, the relativized burn ratio (RBR, that provides an alternative to dNBR and RdNBR. For 18 fires in the western US, we compared the performance of RBR to both dNBR and RdNBR by evaluating the agreement of these metrics with field-based burn severity measurements. Specifically, we evaluated (1 the correspondence between each metric and a continuous measure of burn severity (the composite burn index and (2 the overall accuracy of each metric when classifying into discrete burn severity classes (i.e., unchanged, low, moderate, and high. Results indicate that RBR corresponds better to field-based measurements (average R2 among 18 fires = 0.786 than both dNBR (R2 = 0.761 and RdNBR (R2 = 0.766. Furthermore, the overall classification accuracy achieved with RBR (average among 18 fires = 70.5% was higher than both dNBR (68.4% and RdNBR (69.2%. Consequently, we recommend RBR as a robust alternative to both dNBR and RdNBR for measuring and classifying burn severity.

  17. Closed-loop and decision-assist resuscitation of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose; Drew, Guy; Gallagher, James; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Wolf, Steven E; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Herndon, David N; Kramer, George C

    2008-04-01

    Effective resuscitation is critical in reducing mortality and morbidity rates of patients with acute burns. To this end, guidelines and formulas have been developed to define infusion rates and volume requirements during the first 48 hours postburn. Even with these standardized resuscitation guidelines, however, over- and under-resuscitation are not uncommon. Two approaches to adjust infusion rate are decision-assist and closed-loop algorithms based on levels of urinary output. Specific decision assist guidelines or a closed-loop system using computer-controlled feedback technology that supplies automatic control of infusion rates can potentially achieve better control of urinary output. In a properly designed system, closed-loop control has the potential to provide more accurate titration rates, while lowering the incidence of over- and under-resuscitation. Because the system can self-adjust based on monitoring inputs, the technology can be pushed to environments such as combat zones where burn resuscitation expertise is limited. A closed-loop system can also assist in the management of mass casualties, another scenario in which medical expertise is often in short supply. This article reviews the record of fluid balance of contemporary burn resuscitation and approaches, as well as the engineering efforts, animal studies, and algorithm development of our most recent autonomous systems for burn resuscitation. PMID:18385584

  18. Formalin (0.25%) as topical anti-microbial agent in burns.

    OpenAIRE

    Nair R; Supe A; Samsi A

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective controlled trial, 0.25% formalin spray was compared with 2% silver sulfadiazine cream as the local treatment of burns. Formation and separation of eschar, infection and death rates were recorded. In the group receiving formalin, rates of formation and separation of eschar were significantly more (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05 resp.) compared to other group. Infection rate and fatality due to infection were also reduced. Other advantages of formalin are ...

  19. The design and evaluation of a system for improved surveillance and prevention programmes in resource-limited settings using a hospital-based burn injury questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael; Falk, Henry; Meddings, David; Sugerman, David; Mehta, Sumi; Sage, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Limited and fragmented data collection systems exist for burn injury. A global registry may lead to better injury estimates and identify risk factors. A collaborative effort involving the WHO, the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, the CDC and the International Society for Burn Injuries was undertaken to simplify and standardise inpatient burn data collection. An expert panel of epidemiologists and burn care practitioners advised on the development of a new Global Burn Registry (GBR) form and online data entry system that can be expected to be used in resource-abundant or resource-limited settings. Methods International burn organisations, the CDC and the WHO solicited burn centre participation to pilot test the GBR system. The WHO and the CDC led a webinar tutorial for system implementation. Results During an 8-month period, 52 hospitals in 30 countries enrolled in the pilot and were provided the GBR instrument, guidance and a data visualisation tool. Evaluations were received from 29 hospitals (56%). Key findings Median time to upload completed forms was <10 min; physicians most commonly entered data (64%), followed by nurses (25%); layout, clarity, accuracy and relevance were all rated high; and a vast majority (85%) considered the GBR ‘highly valuable’ for prioritising, developing and monitoring burn prevention programmes. Conclusions The GBR was shown to be simple, flexible and acceptable to users. Enhanced regional and global understanding of burn epidemiology may help prioritise the selection, development and testing of primary prevention interventions for burns in resource-limited settings. PMID:27044496

  20. Deuterium burning in Jupiter interior

    OpenAIRE

    Coraddu, Massimo; Lissia, Marcello; Mezzorani, Giuseppe; Quarati, Piero

    2001-01-01

    We show that moderate deviations from the Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution can increase deuterium reaction rates enough to contribute to the heating of Jupiter. These deviations are compatible with the violation of extensivity expected from temperature and density conditions inside Jupiter.

  1. BURN SIZE AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Williams, Felicia N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient survival following severe burn injury is largely determined by burn size. Modern developments in burn care have tremendously improved survival and outcomes. However, no large analysis on outcomes in pediatric burn patients with current treatment regimen exists. This study was designed to identify the burn size presently associated with significant increases in morbidity and mortality in pediatric burn patients. Methods Single center prospective observational cohort study utilizing the clinical data of severely burned pediatric patients admitted between 1998 and 2009. This study included 952 severely burned pediatric patients with burns over at least 30% of their total body surface area (TBSA). Patients were stratified by burn size in 10% increments, ranging from 30 to 100%, with a secondary assignment made according to the outcome of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test, χ2 test, logistic regression and ROC analysis, as appropriate, with significance set at p<0.05. Findings All groups were comparable in age (age in years: 30–39: 6.1±5.1, 40–49: 7.1±5.2, 50–59: 7.6±5.1, 60–69: 7.2±5.1, 70–79: 8.3±5.9, 80–89: 8.4±5.6, 90–100: 9.6±5.4), and gender distribution (male: 30–39: 68%, 40–49: 64%, 50–59: 65%, 60–69: 59%, 70–79: 71%, 80–89: 62%, 90–100: 82%). Mortality (30–39: 3%, 40–49: 3%, 50–59: 7%, 60–69: 16%, 70–79: 22%, 80–89: 35%, 90–100: 55%), multi-organ failure (30–39: 6%, 40–49: 6%, 50–59: 12%, 60–69: 27%, 70–79: 29%, 80–89: 44%, 90–100: 45%), and sepsis (30–39: 2%, 40–49: 5%, 50–59: 6%, 60–69: 15%, 70–79: 13%, 80–89: 22%, 90–100: 26%), increased significantly (p<0.001) among the groups and at a threshold of 62% TBSA. Comparison of patients with burns larger than 62% with those smaller showed significant differences in inflammatory (Cytokines), acute phase (CRP) and hypermetabolic responses (REE

  2. Species-specific Response of Photosynthesis to Burning and Nitrogen Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfang Zhang; Shuli Niu; Wenhua Xu; Yi Han

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine photosynthetic characteristics of three dominant grass species (Agropyron cristatum, Leymus chinensis, and Cleistogenes squarrosa) and their responses to burning and nitrogen fertilization in a semiarid grassland in northern China. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) showed strong temporal variability over the growing season. C. squarrosa showed a significantly higher Pn and WUE than A. cristatum and L. chinensis. Burning stimulated Pn of A. cristatum and L. chinensis by 24-59% (P<0.05) in the early growing season, but not during other time periods. Light-saturated photosynthetic rate (φmax) in A. cristatum C. squarrosa. The burning-induced changes in soil moisture could explain 51% (P=0.01) of the burning-induced changes The stimulation of Pn under N fertilization was mainly observed in the early growing season when the soil extractable N content was significantly higher in the fertilized plots. The N fertilization-induced changes in soil extractable N content could explain 66% (P=0.001) of the changes in Pn, under N fertilization. The photosynthetic responses of the three species indicate that burning and N fertilization will potentially change the community structure and ecosystem productivity in the semiarid grasslands of northern China.

  3. A clarion to recommit and reaffirm burn rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Reginald L; Hedman, Travis L; Quick, Charles D; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Renz, Evan M; Chapman, Ted T; Dewey, William S; Dougherty, Mary E; Esselman, Peter C; Forbes-Duchart, Lisa; Franzen, Beth J; Hunter, Hope; Kowalske, Karen; Moore, Merilyn L; Nakamura, Dana Y; Nedelec, Bernedette; Niszczak, Jon; Parry, Ingrid; Serghiou, Michael; Ward, R Scott; Holcomb, John B; Wolf, Steven E

    2008-01-01

    Burn rehabilitation has been a part of burn care and treatment for many years. Yet, despite of its longevity, the rehabilitation outcome of patients with severe burns is less than optimal and appears to have leveled off. Patient survival from burn injury is at an all-time high. Burn rehabilitation must progress to the point where physical outcomes parallel survival statistics in terms of improved patient well-being. This position article is a treatise on burn rehabilitation and the state of burn rehabilitation patient outcomes. It describes burn rehabilitation interventions in brief and why a need is felt to bring this issue to the forefront. The article discusses areas for change and the challenges facing burn rehabilitation. Finally, the relegation and acceptance of this responsibility are addressed. PMID:18388581

  4. Cost analysis of a major burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofts, J A

    1991-11-27

    A retrospective review was undertaken of 26 patients admitted to Middlemore Hospital between January 1986 to July 1989 with burns totalling more than 30% of total body surface area. An attempt was made to estimate the total cost of successful inpatient management of a major burn using known and assumed values. The new schedule of interboard hospital charges was also employed for greater accuracy. The 20 survivors had a mean initial hospital stay of 68.7 days at a cost of between $37,077 and $40,702 (1989 values) and $46,069 (1991 values). This latter figure equates to an average cost of $647 per patient per day or, alternatively, $927 per % burn. Suggestions to reduce costs and improve treatment include: earlier excision and grafting; the establishment of a regional skin bank and keratinocyte culture facility to aid wound closure; and guidelines on antibiotic prescribing. PMID:1745459

  5. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  6. An overview of burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Carmen; Di Stasio, Dario; Petruzzi, Massimo; Lauritano, Dorina; Gentile, Enrica; Guida, Agostino; Maio, Claudio; Tammaro, Mariasofia; Serpico, Rosario; Lucchese, Alberta

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic. Drug therapy, in addition to behavioural therapy and psychotherapy, may help to eliminate the symptoms. Considering the growing incidence of BMS in older people, further research is required to determine the true efficacy of current management strategies for patients with this disorder. PMID:26709657

  7. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. It can affect both carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil–atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O. To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014 on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013 and after (August 2014 and November 2014 the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined at 4 replicate sites which were burned during the combustion and another 4 adjacent unburned sites located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m−2 day−1. The burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates at the burned sites measured in August 2014. While within the next 3 months the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to pre-burning levels. Mean CO2 emission from forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m−2 day−1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned sites in both August and November 2014. The temporal dynamics of the CO2 emission presented more seasonal variations, rather than burning effects. The N2O emission at the studied sites was quite low, and no significant impact of burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial activities

  8. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds.

  9. Risk factors for mortality in burn children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Rosanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce. We conducted this study to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in pediatric burn patients. We included 110 patients. Mean age was 31.5 months (range: 1 to 204. The burn surface was between 1% and 95%(median 27% Type of burn was: A or superfitial in 39 patients (36%, AB or intermediate in 19 (17%, and B or full thickness in 52 (47%. Inhalatory injury was present in 52 patients (47%. Invasive procedures were: venous catheter, 90 patients (82%, arterial catheter, 83patients (75.5%, urinary catheter, 86 patients (78%, and mechanical ventilation, 75 patients (68%. In 84 patients, 128 infections were diagnosed. in 53 cases (48%. Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acynetobacter baumannii were the most common organisms isolated. The median length of hospital stay was 33 days (r: 8-139 days. Seventeen patients (15% died and 14 of them of infection-related causes. Age 40% burn surface, presence of inhalatory syndrome, use of venous catheter, arterial catheter, urinary catheter and mechanical ventilation, positive blood cultures, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, antifungal use and graft requirement, were identified as risks factors for mortality in the univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis: age <4 years, Garcés 4, colistin use in multiresistant infections, mechanical ventilation and graft requirement were independent variables related with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this series of burn children age < 4 years, Garces index score 4, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, mechanical ventilation and graft requirement were identified as independent variables related with mortality.

  10. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  11. Control of a burning tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, R.E.; Mandrekas, J.; Stacey, W.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report is a review of the literature relevant to the control of the thermonuclear burn in a tokamak plasma. Some basic tokamak phenomena are reviewed, and then control by modulation of auxiliary heating and fueling is discussed. Other possible control methods such as magnetic ripple, plasma compression, and impurity injection as well as more recent proposed methods such as divertor biasing and L- to H-mode transition are also reviewed. The applications of modern control theory to the tokamak burn control problem are presented. The control results are summarized and areas of further research are identified.

  12. Three-dimensional simulations of burning thermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspden, Andy; Bell, John; Woosley, Stan

    2010-11-01

    Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a bubble rises due to gravity, it becomes deformed by shear instabilities and transitions to a turbulent buoyant vortex ring. Morton, Taylor and Turner (1956) introduced the entrainment assumption, which can be applied to inert thermals. In this study, we use the entrainment assumption, suitably modified to account for burning, to predict the late-time asymptotic behaviour of these turbulent buoyant vortex rings in SNe Ia. The theory is validated against three- dimensional simulations with adaptive mesh refinement at effective resolutions up to 4096^3.

  13. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L

    2000-01-01

    Human experimental pain models are important tools in pain research. The primary aims of pain research in normal man is 1) to provide insight in pain mechanisms, 2) to provide a rational basis for clinical trials of pain relieving interventions, and 3) to confirm the anti-nociceptive effects...... inflammatory responses to superficial thermal burns in skin have been studied in healthy volunteers. Burns have the potential for releasing most of the inflammatory and chemical mediators that produce sensitisation and excitation of nociceptors, and the intense nociceptive input during injury produces...

  14. Nuclear fuel burn-up economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the period 1981-1985, for the needs of Utility Organization, Beograd, and with the support of the Scientific Council of SR Srbija, work has been performed on the study entitled 'Nuclear Fuel Burn-up Economy'. The forst [phase, completed during the year 1983 comprised: comparative analysis of commercial NPP from the standpoint of nuclear fuel requirements; development of methods for fuel burn-up analysis; specification of elements concerning the nuclear fuel for the tender documentation. The present paper gives the short description of the purpose, content and results achieved in the up-to-now work on the study. (author)

  15. Increasing the utility of the Functional Assessment for Burns Score: Not just for major burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Rodgers, Louise; Upson, Clara

    2016-02-01

    The Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score is established as an objective measure of physical function that predicts discharge outcome in adult patients with major burn. However, its validity in patients with minor and moderate burn is unknown. This is a multi-centre evaluation of the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome in adult inpatients with minor and moderate burns. FAB assessments were undertaken within 48h of admission to (FAB 1), and within 48h of discharge (FAB 2) from burn wards in 115 patients. Median age was 45 years and median burn size 4%. There were significant improvements in the patients' FAB scores (ppatients were discharged home (no social care) and 17 patients discharged to further inpatient rehabilitation or home with social care. FAB 1 score (≤14) is strongly associated with discharge to inpatient rehabilitation or home with social care (p=0.0001) and as such can be used to facilitate early discharge planning. FAB 2 (≤30) independently predicts discharge outcome to inpatient rehabilitation or home with social care (ppatients with minor and moderate burns. PMID:26508532

  16. Radiosterilization of freeze-dried human amniotic Membrane and its use in the treatment of burn wound. Algerian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study evaluates the usefulness of human amniotic membrane as biological dressing and its efficacy in the treatment of burns comparatively to the conventional dressing. We reported the practical methods of preparation, preservation and radiation sterilisation of amnion, and the clinical results of its successful use in the treatment of 80 cases of superficial and intermediate depth dermal burns. The increased rate of healing, pain relief, good adhesion to the bed wound and absence of infection were observed

  17. Aged boreal biomass burning aerosol size distributions from BORTAS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, K. M.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J. W.; Duck, T. J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number size-distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size-distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ∼1-2 days) from boreal wildfires in Northwestern Ontario. The composite median size-distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 230 nm (number-median diameter), σ = 1.7, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA / ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.05-0.18 μg m-3 ppbv-1 with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size-distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA / ΔCO enhancement ratios. We estimate that the fresh-plume median diameter was in the range of 59-94 nm with modal widths in the range of 1.7-2.8 (the ranges are due to uncertainty in the entrainment rate). Thus, the size of the freshly emitted particles is relatively unconstrained due to the uncertainties in the

  18. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Ch

  19. Estimating domestic wood burning emissions in Nordic countries using ambient air observations, receptor and dispersion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, B.; Karl, M.; Laupsa, H.; Johansson, C.; Pohjola, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Ketzel, M.; Wåhlin, P.

    2009-04-01

    One of the major emission sources of primary PM2.5 in Nordic countries during winter is wood burning from domestic heating. In Norway alone it is estimated that 80% of PM2.5 is emitted through this source. Though direct measurements of wood burning emissions are possible under controlled conditions, emission inventories for domestic heating are difficult to calculate. Emissions vary from stove to stove as well as wood type, wood condition and burning habits. The consumption rate of wood burning is also strongly dependent on meteorological as well as societal conditions. As a result the uncertainty in wood burning emission inventories used in dispersion modelling is considered to be quite high. As an alternative method for estimating the emissions resulting from wood burning for domestic heating this paper combines ambient air measurements, chemical analysis of filter samples, receptor models, dispersion models, and simple inverse modelling methods to infer emission strengths. The methodology is applied in three Nordic cities, notably Oslo (Norway), Helsinki (Finland) and Lycksele (Sweden). In these cities daily filter samples over several months have been collected. The filter samples have been chemically analysed for a range of elemental and specific markers including OC/EC and Levoglucosan. The chemical analysis has been used as input for a range of receptor models, including UNMIX, PMF, PMF-2 and COPREM. From these calculations the source contributions at the measurement sites, with particular emphasis on wood burning, have been estimated. Though the receptor models have a common basis their application method varies, and as a result the number of identifiable sources and their contributions may differ. For the application here the contribution of wood burning was not found to vary significantly, irrespective of the model or user. It was also found that Levoglucosan as a wood burning tracer was essential for the identification of the wood burning sources. Source

  20. Measurements and correlations of turbulent burning velocities over wide ranges of fuels and elevated pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Bradley, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The implosion technique has been used to extend measurements of turbulent burning velocities over greater ranges of fuels and pressures. Measurements have been made up to 3.5 MPa and at strain rate Markstein numbers as low as 23. The implosion technique, with spark ignition at two opposite wall positions within a fan-stirred spherical bomb is capable of measuring turbulent burning velocities, at higher pressures than is possible with central ignition. Pressure records and schlieren high speed photography define the rate of burning and the smoothed area of the flame front. The first aim of the study was to extend the previous measurements with ethanol and propane-air, with further measurements over wider ranges of fuels and equivalence ratios with mixtures of hydrogen, methane, 10% hydrogen-90% methane, toluene, and i-octane, with air. The second aim was to study further the low turbulence regime in which turbulent burning co-exists with laminar flame instabilities. Correlations are presented of turbulent burning velocity normalised by the effective rms turbulent velocity acting on the flame front, ut=u0k , with the Karlovitz stretch factor, K, for different strain rate Markstein numbers, a decrease in which increases ut=u0k . Experimental correlations are presented for the present measurements, combined with previous ones. Different burning regimes are also identified, extending from that of mixed turbulence/laminar instability at low values of K to that at high values of K, in which ut=u0k is gradually reduced due to increasing localised flame extinctions. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  1. Effects of actinide burning on waste disposal at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release rates of 15 radionuclides from waste packages expected to result from partitioning and transmutation of Light-Water Reactor (LWR) and Actinide-Burning Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) spent fuel are calculated and compared to release rates from standard LWR spent fuel packages. The release rates are input to a model for radionuclide transport from the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain to the water table. Discharge rates at the water table are calculated and used in a model for transport to the accessible environment, defined to be five kilometers from the repository edge. Concentrations and dose rates at the accessible environment from spent fuel and wastes from reprocessing, with partitioning and transmutation, are calculated. Partitioning and transmutation of LWR and ALMR spent fuel reduces the inventories of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium in the high-level waste by factors of 40 to 500. However, because release rates of all of the actinides except curium are limited by solubility and are independent of package inventory, they are not reduced correspondingly. Only for curium is the repository release rate much lower for reprocessing wastes

  2. Burn injuries in eastern Zambia: impact of multidisciplinary teaching teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dianna; Heard, Jason; Latenser, Barbara A; Quinn, Keely Y; van Bruggen, Jaap; Jovic, Goran

    2011-01-01

    The American Burn Association/Children's Burn Foundation (ABA/CBF) sponsors teams who offer burn education to healthcare providers in Zambia, a sub-Saharan country. The goals of this study are 1) to acquire burn-patient demographics for the Eastern Province, Zambia and 2) to assess the early impact of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. This is a retrospective chart review of burn patients admitted in one mission hospital in Katete, Zambia, July 2002 to June 2009. July 2002 to December 2006 = data before ABA/CBF burn teams and January 2007 to June 2009 = burn care data during/after burn outreach. There were 510 burn patients hospitalized, male:female ratio 1.2:1. Average age = 15.6 years, with 44% younger than 5 years. Average TBSA burned = 11% and mean fatal TBSA = 25%. Average hospital length of stay = 16.9 days survivors and 11.6 days nonsurvivors. Most common mechanisms of burn injuries: flame (52%) and scald (41%). Ninety-two patients (18%) died and 23 (4.5%) left against medical advice. There were 191 (37.4%) patients who underwent 410 surgical procedures (range 1-13/patient). There were 138 (33.7%) sloughectomies, 118 (28.7%) skin grafts, 39 (9.5%) amputations, and 115 (28.1%) other procedures. Changes noted in the 2007 to 2009 time period: more patients had burn diagrams (48.6 vs 27.6%, P set for a sub-Saharan region in Africa. There has been a statistically significant improvement in documentation of burn size as well as administration of analgesics, validating the efficacy of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. Continued contact with burn teams may lead to increased use of resuscitation fluids, topical antimicrobials, and more patients undergoing operative intervention, translating into improved burn patient outcomes. PMID:21131848

  3. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. M.; Domènech, R.; Gray, A.; Johnson, P. C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the composite burn index (pCBI) to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids) and ground (litter, moss, duff) fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a generalised linear mixed model (GLMM). Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System), and pre-fire vegetation type. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m-2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  4. Inclusion of biomass burning in WRF-Chem: impact of wildfires on weather forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    G. Grell; S. R. Freitas; M. Stuefer; Fast, J.

    2010-01-01

    A plume rise algorithm for wildfires was included in WRF-Chem, and applied to look at the impact of intense wildfires during the 2004 Alaska wildfire season on weather simulations using model resolutions of 10 km and 2 km. Biomass burning emissions were estimated using a biomass burning emissions model. In addition a 1-D time dependent cloud model was used online in WRF-Chem to estimate injection heights as well as the final emission rates. It was shown that with the inclusion of the i...

  5. Inclusion of biomass burning in WRF-Chem: impact of wildfires on weather forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    G. Grell; S. R. Freitas; M. Stuefer; Fast, J.

    2011-01-01

    A plume rise algorithm for wildfires was included in WRF-Chem, and applied to look at the impact of intense wildfires during the 2004 Alaska wildfire season on weather simulations using model resolutions of 10 km and 2 km. Biomass burning emissions were estimated using a biomass burning emissions model. In addition, a 1-D, time-dependent cloud model was used online in WRF-Chem to estimate injection heights as well as the vertical distribution of the emission rates. It was shown that with the ...

  6. Burning of a spherical fuel droplet in a uniform flowfield with exact property variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madooglu, K.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical/numerical model is developed for single droplet evaporation and burning in a convective flowfield. The model is based on the boundary-layer approach, and chemical reaction kinetics are represented by a one-step, finite-rate reaction mechanism, while variation of gas properties with temperature and gas composition is based on the kinetic theory of gases. Four droplet models differing in the degree of complexity concerning property variation and chemistry are compared. Comparisons are also provided with existing empirical correlations for convective droplet evaporation and burning.

  7. Fission product release in high-burn-up UO2 oxidized to U3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of oxidation experiments on high-burn-up UO2 are presented where fission-product vaporisation and release rates have been measured by on-line mass spectrometry as a function of time/temperature during thermal annealing treatments in a Knudsen cell under controlled oxygen atmosphere. Fractional release curves of fission gas and other less volatile fission products in the temperature range 800-2000 K were obtained from BWR fuel samples of 65 G Wd t-1 burn-up and oxidized to U3O8 at low temperature. The diffusion enthalpy of gaseous fission products and helium in different structures of U3O8 was determined

  8. Selective isotope burning out in the case of interaction of resonance laser radiation with zinc atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility of zinc isotopes separation based on selective isotope burning out at the edge of Doppler absorption contour due to chemical reaction is demonstrated experimentally for the first time. Molecules of diethyl ether are used as gas-carrier. Value of chemical reaction rate of zinc atoms in (4p3P01) state with diethyl ether molecules is measured by change of time of spontaneous luminescence after impulse excitation. When the frequency of power laser is tuned up in the center of Doppler contour practically 100 % zinc atoms burning out is registered

  9. Pain insensitivity syndrome misinterpreted as inflicted burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; Baartmans, Martin G A; Vos, Paul; Dokter, Jan; White, Tonya; Tibboel, Dick

    2014-05-01

    We present a case study of a 10-year-old child with severe burns that were misinterpreted as inflicted burns. Because of multiple injuries since early life, the family was under suspicion of child abuse and therefore under supervision of the Child Care Board for 2 years before the boy was burned. Because the boy incurred the burns without feeling pain, we conducted a thorough medical examination and laboratory testing, evaluated detection and pain thresholds, and used MRI to study brain morphology and brain activation patterns during pain between this patient and 3 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. We found elevated detection and pain thresholds and lower brain activation during pain in the patient compared with the healthy controls and reference values. The patient received the diagnosis of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV on the basis of clinical findings and the laboratory testing, complemented with the altered pain and detection thresholds and MRI findings. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy IV is a very rare congenital pain insensitivity syndrome characterized by the absence of pain and temperature sensation combined with oral mutilation due to unawareness, fractures, and anhidrosis caused by abnormalities in the peripheral nerves. Health care workers should be aware of the potential presence of this disease to prevent false accusations of child abuse. PMID:24733875

  10. Biomass burning and the disappearing tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the implications of reduced biological diversity as a result of slash and burn agriculture in the tropical rainforest. The importance of global management of forests to prevent a buildup of carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect is emphasized

  11. Reclaiming body image: the hidden burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis-Helmich, J J

    1992-01-01

    At the age of 4, I incurred a major burn injury that left 45% of my body with permanent scars. Normal clothing covers most of the scars. I was able to reclaim a positive body image through a gradual process of verbal and "body" disclosure. As an adult, I joined a burn survivors' self-help group; as a result of talking with other burn survivors, my self expectations increased. Later, I joined a facilitated group in which nudity and personal growth were the norm. In this group, I was the only person who had experienced a major physical trauma. I replaced my strongly held beliefs that others could not accept my unclothed, burn-injured body with the belief that some persons can, and I came to a personal understanding of why others could not. Fun, exercise, and relaxation led to a reclamation of positive feelings about my unclothed body and allowed my femininity and the character of my body image to emerge and become integrated. PMID:1572860

  12. Protect the Ones You Love From Burns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from burns, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  13. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh; Azimi, Leila; Amani, Laleh; Rastegar Lari, Aida; Alinejad, Faranak; Rastegar Lari, Abdolaziz

    2015-01-01

    Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used. The results indicated that P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment. PMID:26124986

  14. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of and were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used.The results indicated that is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment.

  15. Medical management of radiation burns - some experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized exposure resulting in radiation burns are serious injuries, seen not only in this country but all over the world. All of these injuries have resulted from accidents in Industrial Radiography (non-destructive testing). In our country all these injuries have occurred in the private sectors who handle these radiography sources. These sources can be of Iridium-192 or Cobalt-60. Some of these accidents have occurred involving trained radiographers but sometimes casual workers have been exposed. Skin is highly vulnerable to the external radiation exposure. Damage of varying extent can be seen following radiotherapy and accidents involving X- and gamma-ray sources. The reaction is related to the absorbed dose, which in turn is dependent upon the energy of radiation and weather it is particulate or electromagnetic radiation. Beta particles give up their energy within a short range and hence are more hazardous. Radiation burns develop slowly and blister formation occurs usually after 4 weeks. After exposure the skin response occurs in the form of transient erythema, fixed erythema, transepidermal burns, full thickness radiation burns and epilation. In radiation accidents, particularly those involving X-ray machines, the patients may not be aware of the time of accident and the dose may not be known in those circumstances. The medical management and treatment of such patients, therefore, has its own challenges. This talk will share some experiences on treatment of radiation injuries. (author)

  16. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  17. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía

    2015-05-16

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride. PMID:25952601

  18. "It Happened in Seconds" Firefighter Burn Prevention Program: Evaluation of a "Train the Trainer" Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Steven A; Held, Jenny M; Hollowed, Kathleen A; Woods, Jason; Holmes, James H

    2016-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 100 firefighter fatalities and tens of thousands of injuries in the United States. 'It Happened in Seconds' is a firefighter burn injury awareness program offered to firefighters nationwide. The course focuses on situational awareness, personal protective equipment, and burn injury prevention. In order to create more instructors, a 'Train the Trainer' instructor course was developed to prepare experienced firefighters and healthcare providers from around the United States to teach firefighters in their respective communities. This study evaluates trainees' perception of the instructor course. Three instructor courses were held in a period between November 2013 and January 2015. Trainees were asked to complete both precourse/postcourse assessments and provide demographics. In both surveys, trainees rated their confidence to instruct firefighters about burn prevention and their awareness about firefighter-specific burn issues using a 5-point Likert Scale (1 = none and 5 = high). The postassessment asked if trainees thought the course should be mandatory for all firefighters. Pretest and post-test scores were compared using a Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. A total of 140 experienced firefighters and healthcare professionals completed the Train the Trainer course. The average age was 40 ± 9 years, and 41 were women and 99 men. The average trainee had 13.6 ± 9 years experience in his or her respective job and 11 ± 9 years experience in burn care. Trainees reported a significant increase in their confidence to instruct firefighters about burn prevention (2.9/5 precourse vs. 4.5/5 postcourse, P firefighter-specific burn issues (3.2 precourse vs. 4.4 postcourse, P firefighters. This study showed that experienced firefighters and healthcare professionals thought that the course significantly improved their awareness level of issues specific to firefighter burn injury as well as their confidence in teaching these concepts to firefighters

  19. Burn Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [burn_preapproval_area_LOSCO_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ burning, according...

  20. Ultrasonic pulse-echo determination of burn depth in partial-thickness burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of possible techniques for measuring burn depth were considered, and it was concluded that high-frequency ultrasound offers the best possibility for investigation of burn injury. A conventional ultrasonic pulse-echo system was assembled and modified so that small distances in tissue (less than or equal to 1 mm) can be resolved. Typical transducers used during the course of measurements on human and porcine skin are described. Ultimate success of the ultrasonic technique is dependent on the validity of the assumption that the acoustic impedance of necrotic burn tissue is sufficiently different from that of viable tissue to allow for ultrasonic reflections at the interface between burned and viable tissue. In general, this assumption seems to have been valid in animal and human experiments carried out to date

  1. Solar burn reactivation induced by methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Kelli J

    2010-04-01

    Solar burn reactivation, a rare and idiosyncratic drug reaction, has been reported with the use of a variety of drugs. This reaction is believed to be the result of exposure to ultraviolet light during the subsiding phase of an acute inflammatory reaction. It affects areas of the body that have been previously sunburned. We describe a 16-year-old girl who was receiving treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and experienced a second-degree solar burn reactivation reaction to methotrexate. The patient had a mild sunburn on her face and shoulders the day she went to the oncology clinic for her interim maintenance chemotherapy with vincristine 1.5 mg/m(2)/dose and methotrexate 100 mg/m(2)/dose. Three days later, she returned to the clinic with a 2-day history of fever (solar burn reactivation reaction. She was admitted to the children's hospital and treated with sodium bicarbonate, acetaminophen with codeine, ondansetron, and silvadene cream. On hospital day 3, the patient's methotrexate level decreased to less than 0.1 mM. The sunburn continued to heal, and after a 14-day hospital stay, complicated by a streptococcal infection, grade 3 mucositis, bacteremia, and mild gastritis and duodenitis, the patient recovered and was discharged. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6) between the patient's solar burn reactivation and methotrexate. Although methotrexate-induced solar burn reactivation is rare, clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse reaction and consider delaying administration of methotrexate by 5-7 days if a patient reports ultraviolet-related erythema in the past 2-4 days or presents with a notable sunburn. PMID:20334462

  2. Methoxyphenols in smoke from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaellstrand, J.

    2000-07-01

    Wood and other forest plant materials were burned in laboratory experiments with the ambition to simulate the natural burning course in a fireplace or a forest fire. Smoke samples were taken and analysed with respect to methoxyphenols, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Different kinds of bio pellets, intended for residential heating were studied in the same way. The aim of a first study was to establish analytical data to facilitate further research. Thirty-six specific methoxyphenols were identified, and gas chromatographic retention and mass spectrometric data were determined for these. In a subsequent study, the methoxyphenol emissions from the burning of wood and other forest plant materials were investigated. Proportions and concentrations of specific methoxyphenols were determined. Methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, formed from the decomposition of lignin and cellulose respectively, were the most prominent semi-volatile compounds in the biomass smoke. The methoxyphenol compositions reflected the lignin structures of different plant materials. Softwood smoke contained almost only 2-methoxyphenols, while hardwood smoke contained both 2-methoxyphenols and 2,6-dimethoxyphenols. The methoxyphenols in smoke from pellets, made of sawdust, bark and lignin, reflected the source of biomass. Although smoke from incompletely burned wood contains mainly methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, there is also a smaller amount of well-known hazardous compounds present. The methoxyphenols are antioxidants. They appear mainly condensed on particles and are presumed to be inhaled together with other smoke components. As antioxidants, phenols interrupt free radical chain reactions and possibly counteract the effect of hazardous smoke components. Health hazards of small-scale wood burning should be re-evaluated considering antioxidant effects of the methoxyphenols.

  3. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  4. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Tips Get Involved Giving Donate Safety Tips Age ... this video to learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  5. 1980 Prescribed Burning Progam: Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines a prescribed burning program for Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is provided; names of burn units,...

  6. Review of therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and protocols for management in adult and paediatric patients using the GRADE classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutos Ioannis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To review the current evidence on therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and use the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE classification to propose therapeutic protocols for adult and paediatric patients. All published interventions for burns pruritus were analysed by a multidisciplinary panel of burns specialists following the GRADE classification to rate individual agents. Following the collation of results and panel discussion, consensus protocols are presented. Twenty-three studies appraising therapeutic agents in the burns literature were identified. The majority of these studies (16 out of 23 are of an observational nature, making an evidence-based approach to defining optimal therapy not feasible. Our multidisciplinary approach employing the GRADE classification recommends the use of antihistamines (cetirizine and cimetidine and gabapentin as the first-line pharmacological agents for both adult and paediatric patients. Ondansetron and loratadine are the second-line medications in our protocols. We additionally recommend a variety of non-pharmacological adjuncts for the perusal of clinicians in order to maximise symptomatic relief in patients troubled with postburn itch. Most studies in the subject area lack sufficient statistical power to dictate a ′gold standard′ treatment agent for burns itch. We encourage clinicians to employ the GRADE system in order to delineate the most appropriate therapeutic approach for burns pruritus until further research elucidates the most efficacious interventions. This widely adopted classification empowers burns clinicians to tailor therapeutic regimens according to current evidence, patient values, risks and resource considerations in different medical environments.

  7. Etiology of Burn Injuries Among 0-6 Aged Children in One University Hospital Burn Unit, Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Akansel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background; Children whose verbal communications are not fully developed are the ones at risk for burn injuries. Causes of burn injuries vary among different age groups and scald injuries are the common cause of burn injuries among children. The majority of burns result from contact with thermal agents such as flame, hot surfaces, or hot liquids.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine etiologic factors of the burn injured children Methods: Data were collected for burn injured children treated in Uludag University Medical Hospital Burn Unit between January 2001 – December 2008. Patients’ demographic variables, etiology of burn injury, TBSA(total body surface area, degree of the burn injury, duration of hospitalization was detected from medical records of the hospitalized patients.Results: The mean age of the children was 2.5±1.5 (median=2. Although 4.6 % of burned patients were under one year of age, most of the children (67.8% were between 1-3 years. All of the patients were burned as a result of accident and house environment was the place where the burn incident occurred. Burn injuries occurredmostly during summer (29.9% and spring (28.7%. Scald injuries (75.3% were mostly seen burn injury types all among other burn injuries.Conclusions: Lack of supervision and observation are usually the most common causes of burn injuries in children. Statistical differences were found among age groups according to their burn etiology (p<0.05. An effect of TBSA on patient survival was statistically significant (p<0.000 and also statistically significant results were seen among age groups according to their TBSA’s (p<0.005.

  8. A mathematical model for in-situ burning of water-in-oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combustion process of a water-in-oil emulsion layer floating on top of a water body was modeled using comprehensive mathematical treatment. The objective was to find out whether the emulsion layer will burn, calculate the ignition delay, predict the duration of the burn, and determine the efficiency of oil and emulsion removal by the combustion process. Results showed that the total burnout period decreased with increasing external heat flux, lower percentage of water content, and smaller layer thickness. Ignition delay also decreased with increasing external heat flux and lower percentage of water content, but was not affected by layer thickness. Removal efficiency was greater at higher heat fluxes and for emulsion layers of higher thickness. Burning rate was also higher at higher heat flux levels. 10 refs., 8 figs

  9. Large-scale simulations of buoyancy-driven turbulent nuclear burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An critical uncertainty in modeling thermonuclear supernovae is the degree of enhancement of the burning rate by turbulence during the subsonic burning (deflagration) phase. As turbulent combustion in the laboratory is still an active area of research, this remains a challenging problem. A unique feature of turbulent combustion in supernovae is that the driving of the turbulence arises from the strong buoyancy of the burned material. We discuss the large-scale fully three dimensional studies under way. These studies have the goals of characterizing the essential length scales of flame surface structure and thereby developing specific requirements that models of small-scale structure must meet. We discuss some preliminary results of our study concerning the scale-dependence of flame surface structure

  10. Large-scale simulations of buoyancy-driven turbulent nuclear burning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsley, D. M.; Bair, R. A.; Dubey, A.; Fisher, R. T.; Hearn, N. C.; Lamb, D. Q.; Riley, K. M. (LCF); (Univ. of Chicago)

    2009-01-01

    An critical uncertainty in modeling thermonuclear supernovae is the degree of enhancement of the burning rate by turbulence during the subsonic burning (deflagration) phase. As turbulent combustion in the laboratory is still an active area of research, this remains a challenging problem. A unique feature of turbulent combustion in supernovae is that the driving of the turbulence arises from the strong buoyancy of the burned material. We discuss the large-scale fully three dimensional studies under way. These studies have the goals of characterizing the essential length scales of flame surface structure and thereby developing specific requirements that models of small-scale structure must meet. We discuss some preliminary results of our study concerning the scale-dependence of flame surface structure.

  11. A clinical observation of early short-term use of potent antibiotics in severely burned patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Xin-zhou; ZHANG Wen-zhen; REN Jia-liang; ZHOU Wei-ming

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of early and short-term use of potent antibiotics following extensive severe burn injury. Methods: Seventeen severely burned patients hospitalized in the same period (Nov.,1998 to Oct., 2000) wer esame treatment in Group 2 (n=8) was discontinued until day 15 postburn. The survival rate, blood bacterial culture, body temperature and white blood cell and platelet counts were compared between the 2 groups. Results: All the 17 patients survived and all blood bacterial cultures were negative. No significant difference of body temperature and white blood cell and platelet counts between the 2 groups was observed (P>0.05). Conclusion: Early use of high-potency antibiotics at short treatment course after extensive severe burn is effective to prevent infection and reduce the cost.

  12. The leading causes of death after burn injury in a single pediatric burn center

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Felicia N.; Herndon, David N; Hawkins, Hal K.; Lee, Jong O; Cox, Robert A.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Chinkes, David L.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Severe thermal injury is characterized by profound morbidity and mortality. Advances in burn and critical care, including early excision and grafting, aggressive resuscitation and advances in antimicrobial therapy have made substantial contributions to decrease morbidity and mortality. Despite these advances, death still occurs. Our aim was to determine the predominant causes of death in burned pediatric patients in order to develop new treatment avenues and future trajectories a...

  13. Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents. After a severe burn, the injured person is weakened by a risk of infection and a general inflammation. The necrotic tissues have to be removed because they are toxic for the organism. The injured person also needs to be covered by a cutaneous envelope, which has to be done by a treatment centre for burned people. The different techniques are the following: - auto grafts on limited burned areas; - cutaneous substitutes to cover temporary extended burned areas. Among them: natural substitutes like xenografts (pork skin, sheep skin,..) or allografts (human skin), - treated natural substitutes which only maintain the extracellular matrix. Artificial skins belong to this category and allow the development of high quality scars, - cell cultures in the laboratory: multiplying the individual cells and grafting them onto the patient. This technique is not common but allows one to heal severely injured patients. X-ray burns are still a problem. Their characteristics are analysed: intensive, permanent, antalgic resistant pain. They are difficult to compare with heat burns. In spite of a small number of known cases, we can give some comments and guidance on radio necrosis cures: the importance of the patients comfort, of ending the pain, of preventing infection, and nutritional balance. At the level of epidermic inflammation and phlyctena (skin blisters), the treatment may be completed by the use of growth factors. At the level of necrosis, after a temporary cover, an auto graft can be considered only if a healthy basis is guaranteed. The use of cellular cultures in order to obtain harmonious growth factors can be argued. (author)

  14. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron Moody; Jennifer K. Costanza

    2011-01-01

    Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onsl...

  15. Impact of Oxandrolone Treatment on Acute Outcomes After Severe Burn Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tam N.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacologic modulation of hypermetabolism clearly benefits children with major burns, however, its role in adult burns remains to be defined. Oxandrolone appears to be a promising anabolic agent although few outcome data are as yet available. We examined whether early oxandrolone treatment in severely burned adults was associated with improved outcomes during acute hospitalization. We evaluated for potential associations between oxandrolone treatment and outcomes in a large cohort of severely burned adults in the context of a multicenter observational study. Patients were dichotomized with respect to oxandrolone treatment, defined as administration within 7 days after admission, with duration of at least 7 days. Acute hospitalization outcomes were compared with univariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred seventeen patients were included in this analysis. Mean patient age was 42.6 years (range, 18–86); 77% were male, with an average TBSA of 44.1%. Baseline and injury characteristics were similar among treatment and nontreatment cohorts. Oxandrolone treatment (N =59) did not impact length of stay but was associated with a lower mortality rate (P = .01) by univariate analysis. Oxandrolone treatment was independently associated with higher survival by adjusted analyses (P = .02). Examination of early oxandrolone treatment in this cohort of severely burned adults suggests that this therapy is safe and may be associated with improved survival. Further studies are necessary to define the exact mechanisms by which oxandrolone is beneficial during inpatient treatment. PMID:18849836

  16. Tests of Flammability of Cotton Fabrics and Expected Skin Burns in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jane M.; Torvi, David A.; Gabriel, Kamiel S.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    During a shuttle launch and other portions of space flight, astronauts wear specialized flame resistant clothing. However during most of their missions on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station, astronauts wear ordinary clothing, such as cotton shirts and pants. As the behaviour of flames is considerably different in microgravity than under earth s gravity, fabrics are expected to burn in a different fashion in microgravity than when tested on earth. There is interest in determining how this change in burning behaviour may affect times to second and third degree burn of human skin, and how the results of standard fabric flammability tests conducted under earth s gravity correlate with the expected fire behaviour of textiles in microgravity. A new experimental apparatus was developed to fit into the Spacecraft Fire Safety Facility (SFSF), which is used on NASA s KC-135 low gravity aircraft. The new apparatus was designed to be similar to the apparatus used in standard vertical flammability tests of fabrics. However, rather than using a laboratory burner, the apparatus uses a hot wire system to ignite 200 mm high by 80 mm wide fabric specimens. Fabric temperatures are measured using thermocouples and/or an infrared imaging system, while flame spread rates are measured using real time observations or video. Heat flux gauges are placed between 7 and 13 mm away from the fabric specimen, so that heat fluxes from the burning fabric to the skin can be estimated, along with predicted times required to produce skin burns.

  17. Kinetic parameter calculation as function of burn-up of candu reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic parameter calculation as function of burn-up of candu reactor. Kinetic marameter calculation as function of burp-up of CANDU reactor with Canflex fuel type-CANDU has been done. This type of fuel is currently being develop, so kinetic parameter such as effective delay neutron fraction (.......), delay neutron decay constant ( .... ) and prompt neutron generation time ( ...... ) are very important for analysis of reactor operation safety. WIMS-CRNL code was used to generate macroscopic cross section and reaction rate based on transport theory. Fast and thermal neutron velocity and macroscopic cross section fission product of the unit cell were determined by KINETIC Code. The result of calculation showed that the value of effective delay neutron fraction was 7,785616 x 10-3 at the beginning of operation at burn-up of 0 MWD/T and after the reactor operated at burn-up of 7,2231 x 10-3 MWD/T was 4,962766 x 10-3, or reduced by 36%. The value of prompt generation time was 9,982703 x 10-4 s at the beginning of operation at burn-up of 0 MWD/T and 8,965416 x 10-4 s after the reactor operated at burn-up of 7,2231 x 103 MWD/T, or reduced by 10%. The result of calculation showed that the values of effective delay neutron fraction and prompt neutron generation time are still great enough

  18. Evolution of bacterial flora in burn wounds: key role of environmental disinfection in control of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neelam; Chari, Ps; Singh, Malkit; Singh, Gagandeep; Biswal, Manisha; Sharma, Meera

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial flora in burn patients undergoes change over period of time and is dependent upon many factors. Study of burn flora is not only helpful in locating entry of multidrug resistant bacterial strains into the unit's usual flora but also in determining current antibiotic susceptibilities. Since no studies are available from India that have studied sequential emergence of different microorganisms in burn wound, present study was carried out to study evolution of bacterial flora in burn wounds and its correlation with invasive wound infection. Environmental sampling was also carried out for possible sources of infection. Patients with 20-70% of total burn surface were enrolled and followed up for entire duration of stay. Clinical & treatment details were noted. Surface wound swabs were collected on first, third, seventh, tenth and fourteenth day post admission. Environmental sampling was done every three months. Of 215 wound swabs collected from 71 patients, 72 were sterile and 143 yielded 214 isolates. Colonization rates were 33% on first day, 94% on 7th day and 100% by 14th day. 42% swabs grew gram negative bacteria. Overall Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant isolate (45%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.9%), beta hemolytic Streptococci (9.4%). Maximum invasive infections were seen at the seventh day. A high level of environmental contamination was seen with S. aureus, a substantial portion being MRSA. Better control of environmental contamination and disinfection along with rigorous hand washing and barrier precautions are recommended to prevent infection of wounds. PMID:23638328

  19. Cytokine expression profile over time in burned mice

    OpenAIRE

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Przkora, Rene; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2008-01-01

    The persistent inflammatory response induced by a severe burn increases patient susceptibility to infections and sepsis, potentially leading to multi-organ failure and death. In order to use murine models to develop interventions that modulate the post-burn inflammatory response, the response in mice and the similarities to the human response must first be determined. Here we present the temporal serum cytokine expression profiles in burned in comparison to sham mice and human burn patients. ...

  20. From Cholera to Burns: A Role for Oral Rehydration Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, S. M.; Green, W.B.; Asuku, M.E.; M. Feldman; Makam, R.; Noppenberger, D; Price, L A; Prosciak, M.; van Loon, I.N.

    2011-01-01

    According to the practice guidelines of the American Burn Association on burn shock resuscitation, intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is the standard of care for the replacement of fluid and electrolyte losses in burn injury of ≥20% of the total body surface area. However, in mass burn casualties, IV fluid resuscitation may be delayed or unavailable. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), which has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of dehydration in epidemics of cholera, could be an alt...

  1. CASE REPORT Playing Football Burns More Than Just Calories

    OpenAIRE

    Wain, Richard A. J.; Shah, Syed H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the case of a sports-related alkali burn due to a common household chemical and emphasize the importance of a detailed medical history in chemical burns patients. Methods: A single-patient case study is presented along with references from existing literature. Results: Alkaline burn injuries associated with sports have previously been described in the literature; however, this case demonstrates an unusual presentation of a chemical burn with a readily available househo...

  2. Optimizing advanced liquid metal reactors for burning actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the process to design an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) for burning the transuranic part of nuclear waste is discussed. The influence of design parameters on ALMR burner performance is studied and the results are incorporated in a design schedule for optimizing ALMRs for burning transuranics. This schedule is used to design a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR burner to burn as much as possible transurancis. The two designs burn equally well. (orig.)

  3. Bacteremia in burned patients admitted to Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Saleh; Hamid Noshad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in burn wards is infection, and it is the major reason of death in burn injuries. There are several reasons that make burn victims predisposed to infection. The current study aimed to investigate the role of different factors that have an effect on bacteremia occurrence in burn patients and factors which are relevant to mortality in these patients. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study conducted in a 1...

  4. Psychological Aspects of Paediatric Burns (A Clinical Review)

    OpenAIRE

    A Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Burn injuries in childhood can be traumatic with lasting effects until adulthood. This article reviews the various psychological issues one confronts when treating paediatric patients with burn injuries. A wide range of factors influence recovery and rehabilitation from paediatric burns. The role of family members, family dynamics, parental reactions, parental psychiatric illness, and pre-morbid psychiatric illness in the child are important factors. The entire family and the burned child hav...

  5. Epidemiologic Characteristics of Occupational Burns in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Jalil Mirmohammadi; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Kazem Kazemeini; Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Occupational burns are among the important causes of work-related fatalities and absenteeism. Epidemiologic assessment of these injuries is important to define high-risk jobs. We designed this study to evaluate the epidemiology of occupational burns in Yazd, an industrial province in Iran. Methods: This is a prospective study on work-related burns in a 1-year period (2008-2009). A questionnaire was completed for them about the characteristics of the burn injury. Results: Th...

  6. [Prevention and treatment strategy for burn wound sepsis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xihua; Li, Xiaoling

    2016-02-01

    Wound sepsis is one of the main causes of death in patients with severe burn and trauma. The high incidence of burn wound sepsis in children is attributed to their imperfect immune system function, poor resistance against infection, and the weakened skin barrier function after burn. The key to reduce the mortality of pediatric patients with burn wound sepsis is to enhance the understanding of its etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnostic criteria, in order to improve its early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26902271

  7. Posttraumatic Stress and Cognitive Processes in Patients with Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Sveen, Josefin

    2011-01-01

    A severe burn is one of the most traumatic injuries a person can experience. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common after burns, and can be devastating for the individual’s possibilities for recovery. The principal aims were to gain knowledge regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms and cognitive processes after burn and to evaluate methods for assessing symptoms of PTSD up to one year after burn. The psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Impact of Event Scale-...

  8. Modalities for the Assessment of Burn Wound Depth

    OpenAIRE

    Devgan, Lara; Bhat, Satyanarayan; Aylward, S.; Spence, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Burn wound depth is a significant determinant of patient treatment and morbidity. While superficial partial-thickness burns generally heal by re-epithelialization with minimal scarring, deeper wounds can form hypertrophic or contracted scars, often requiring surgical excision and grafting to prevent a suboptimal result. In addition, without timely intervention, more superficial burn wounds can convert to deeper wounds. As such, the rapid and accurate assessment of burn wound depth ...

  9. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgen Erdoğan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  10. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgen Erdoğan; Murat Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  11. Music therapy for children with severe burn injury

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jane

    1998-01-01

    peer-reviewed Music therapy for children with severe burns is a developing field of practice and research interest in pediatric music therapy. The following article presents an overview of the nature of severe burn injury and provides a rationale for the use of music therapy in the Burn Unit. The application of song writing techniques to address needs of children receiving care for severe burns in a hospital setting is presented.

  12. A modified technique for application of tissue expanders for extremities in burn scars patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue expansion is considered a major advancement in reconstructive surgery. However, there are limitations to their application in the extremities and carries relatively higher rates of complications. The aim of this study was to propose a modification to this technique and assess the rate of complications with slower rate of expansion. Thirty females (age range 14 to 40) with burn scars in the upper or lower extremity (15 cases in each) were the subjects of this investigation. Various sized rectangular expanders were used and expanded at a rate of 5% of the maximum inflatable size over 20 weeks. All of the cases of expansion completed the procedure uneventfully. In one case that developed necrosis at the edge of the flap, one week after removal of the expander, which was debrided and repaired successfully completed the treatment. Slow expansion method is a useful method which can safely be applied for burn scars in the extremities. (author)

  13. Advanced sodium cooled reactor cores having thorium blankets for effective burning of transuranic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a design concept of 400 MWe sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) cores having thorium blankets for effective burning of TRU (Transuranics) from LWR spent fuel is described. Specifically, we considered two recycling options of thorium blankets : 1) no recycling and 2) fully recycling. The thorium blankets are loaded in the axially central regions of the core regions and their axial heights are adjusted so as to increase TRU burning rate and to reduce burnup reactivity swing. Also, we analyzed the performances of the cores having different fuel management batch sizes and different recycling options for the searched core configuration. The results show that the axial thorium blankets with no recycling option can be effectively used to increase TRU burning rate with a significant reduction of burnup reactivity swing in comparison with typical SFR burner cores having no blankets while the recycling of thorium blanket degrades TRU burning rate and burnup reactivity swing but it leads to a reduction of sodium void worth and more negative Doppler coefficient. (author)

  14. Development of a reactive burn model based upon an explicit visco-plastic pore collapse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Eric; Lefrançois, Alexandre; Belmas, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Our aim in this study is to develop a reactive burn model based upon a microscopic hot spot model to compute the initiation and shock to detonation of pressed TATB explosives. For the sake of simplicity, the hot spots are supposed to result from the viscoplastic collapse of spherical micro-voids inside the composition. Such a model has been incorporated in a lagrangian hydrodynamic code. In our calculations, 8 different pore diameters, ranging from 100 nm to 1.2 μm, have been taken into account and the porosity associated to each pore size has been deduced from the PBX-9502 void distribution derived from the SAXS. The last ingredient of our model is the burn rate that depends on two main variables. The first one is the shock pressure as proposed by the developers of the CREST model. The second one is the number of effective chemical reaction sites calculated by the microscopic model. Furthermore, the function of the reaction progress variable of the burn rate is similar to that in the SURF model proposed by Menikoff. Our burn rate has been calibrated by using pressure profile, material velocities wave forms obtained with embedded particle velocity gauges and run distance to detonation. The comparison between the numerical and experimental results is really good and sufficient to perform a wide variety of simulations including single, double shock waves and the desensitization phenomenon. In conclusion, future works are described.

  15. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same

  16. The biological dressing versus conventional treatment in massive burns: a prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini S.N

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns are a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Today biological dressings have become an integral part of modern burn care. Using this method, in otherwise healthy young adults, the size of burn relative to the total body surface area (TBSA correlating with a 50% mortality rate has increased from 30% to 80%. Due to a lack of experience and an interest in using biological dressings in Iran, as a developing country, the aim of this study was to compare patient outcome using the biological dressing vs. conventional treatment in patients with massive burns.Methods: In this clinical trial study, 118 burn patients (30 to 75% TBSA were enrolled. The patients were divided in two groups. Those in the conventional treatment group had not accepted treatment with a biological dressing.  The second group agreed to treatment with biological dressing, a pig skin xenograft known as Xenoderm. Significant differences were evaluated using the unpaired Student's t test, the Mann-Whitney U test and the χ2 test.  Results: Mortality rates in the conventional treatment group (n=53 and biological dressing group (n=65 were 35% (19 and 10.8% (7, respectively (p=0.001. Excluding those patients who died, the mean hospital stay was 31.3 days in the conventional treatment group versus 18.2 days in the biological dressing group (p=0.0005, and number of dressings was 22.1 versus 9.9 (p=0.0005, respectively. Three patients in the conventional treatment group were transferred to a tertiary-care hospital after three weeks of treatment. The most commonly burned areas were the upper limb, lower limb and trunk.Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that biological dressings give a better outcome and decrease the hospital stay and the number of dressings. A randomized clinical trial is warranted.

  17. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the...

  18. Aged Boreal Biomass Burning Size Distributions from Bortas 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J. R.; Sakamoto, K.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J.; Duck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are strong functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number size-distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size-distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ~ 1.5 - 2 days) from boreal wildfires in Northwestern Ontario. The composite median size-distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 232 nm, σ = 1.7, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA/ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.08-0.18 μg m-3 ppbv-1 with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution and flux corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size-distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes only based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA/ΔCO enhancement ratios. Depending on the, we estimate that the fresh-plume median diameter was in the range of 59-94 nm with modal widths in the range of 1.7-2.8. Thus, the size of the freshly emitted particles is somewhat unconstrained due to the uncertainties in the plume dilution rates.

  19. Research on Mechanism of Paper Burning by Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Da; HAN Xingzhou; WANG Xiaoguang; QI Fengliang; WANG Zijie; GUO Zihan; HAO Hongguang

    2015-01-01

    The examination of charred document is a challenge and usually requires a careful application of certain scientific techniques due to its unstable property. To address this issue, the mechanism of paper burning was studied in this paper. Here thermal-gravimetry (TG) was applied to investigate five kinds of paper, along with their TG and derivative thermogravimetric curve (DTG) observed at different atmospheric conditions. The results showed that the shape of curves, albeit similar, varied with the physical and chemical composition of paper. In the burning process, dehydration and de-polymerization are the two main pathways for cellulose, the major ingredient of paper. The heating rate indicated little influence on the curves while the sort of atmosphere worked strongly. The reason is due to the lack of tar oxidation when nitrogen used as the atmospheric environment. At moderate temperature, de-polymerization prevails and the tar can be observed. With temperature increasing, the tar and cellulose are further decomposed, leading to products of high boiling-point. According to the results, the charred document can be classified as one of the dehydrated, tarred, charred and ashed. Except the ashed stage, the other three can be handled and the writing whereon can be deciphered. The results exposed hereof may provide a fundamental for examining and deciphering charred document.

  20. New treatment strategies to reduce burn wound progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmauss, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: After a burn injury certain superficial partial-thickness burn wounds spontaneously progress into deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds. This poorly understood phenomenon is called burn wound progression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment strategies using warm water (preservation of microcirculation on the one side and erythropoietin (EPO (molecule with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, vasodilatory and neoangiogenic properties can prevent, delay and/or reduce secondary burn wound progression in a rat model.Methods: We used a burn comb model in 63 rats, creating eight rectangular contact burns (2x1 cm each intercalated by unburned zones (2x0.5 cm prone to burn wound progression. In a first experimental set we treated burn wounds with locally applied warm (37°C or cold (17°C water for 20 minutes.In a second experimental set, animals were treated systemically with EPO at two different dosages of 500 and 2,500 IU/kg bodyweight (bw and initiated at 2 different time-points (45 minutes vs. 6 hours after burn injury. Evaluation of microcirculatory perfusion, interspace necrosis and burn depth was performed using respectively laser Doppler flowmetry, planimetry and histology. For statistical analysis the two-way ANOVA-test followed by an adequate post-hoc test (Bonferroni were used. Results: In untreated control animals a conversion from superficial to full-thickness burns was observed within 24 hours. Warm and cold water treatment significantly delayed burn depth progression, nevertheless after 4 days, burn depth was similar in all three groups. Warm water significantly reduced interspace necrosis compared to untreated controls and cold water with a significantly improved perfusion in the warm water group. Surface extension and particularly burn depth progression were significantly decreased by EPO only if administered at a dosage of bw and initiated 45 minutes after burn injury. EPO