WorldWideScience

Sample records for burning pits area

  1. Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Burn Pits Burn Pits Registry Studies Photo: U.S. Department ... the health of deployed Veterans. Health effects from burn pit smoke Toxins in burn pit smoke may ...

  2. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  3. Data Summary Report D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.

  4. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  5. Prevention and control of coalfield fire technology: A case study in the Antaibao Open Pit Mine goaf burning area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Kai; Zhong Xiaoxing; Wang Deming; Shi Guoqing; Wang Yanming; Shao Zhenlu

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to clearly detect the location of a burning area in a coal mine since it is hidden underground.So we conducted research on the distribution of the burning area before controlling it.Firstly,the original drilling technique was used to analyze and determine the loose and scope of caving of burning area through field test,and then obtained the gases and the temperature data in this area were according to the borehole data.By analyzing these data,we found out that the location of burning area concentrated in the loose and caving area; and finally,the location and development of the burning area within the tested area were accurately determined.Based on this theory,we used the ground penetrating radar (GPR) to find out the loose and caving scale in the burning area during the control process of the burning area,and then located the fire-extinguishing boreholes within target which we used to control burning fire in the section.A mobile comprehensive fire prevention and extinguishing system based on the three-phase foam fire prevention and control technique was then adopted and conducted in the burning area which took only 9 months to extinguish the 227,000 m2 of burning area of 9# coal.This control technology and experience will provide a very important reference to the control of other coalfield fire and hillock fire in the future.

  6. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.

    1997-02-01

    The D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (DBRP) (431-D and 431-1D) Waste Unit is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(U) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the DBRP located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-18

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive

  8. Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.

  10. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on fired clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

  11. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment.... 2900--NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire,'' in...

  12. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment....rennie@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard...

  13. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... forms of information technology. Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard...

  14. Identifying and Reducing Health Risks Associated with Open-Air Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    results in the Periodic Occupational Exposure Monitoring Summary ( POEMS ). Based on his review of the POEMS data, CPT Pratt opined: “The long term...is inconclusive regarding whether exposure to burn pit emissions creates a long -term health risk for deployed personnel. Contrary to this position...Air Field was "unhealthy" and concluded that the primary contributor was the burn pit. He also listed potential long -term health risks associated

  15. Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G Additonal Sampling and Monitor Well Installation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal and incineration of potentially hazardous substances, such as metals and organic solvents.

  16. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Shindand Airbase: Use of Open-Air Burn Pit Violated Department of Defense Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    discontinue the use of the burn pit as soon 7 A refractory liner is made from a cement -like...initial combustion ), asbestos, mercury, foam tent material, or any item containing any of the above items. The instruction allows for a small

  18. Modelling burned area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehsten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of current and projected wildfires is essential for predicting crucial aspects of vegetation patterns, biogeochemical cycling as well as pyrogenic emissions across the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize two burned area models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs and Earth system models (ESMs. We restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available, or that are calculated by DVMs, and we consider a spatial scale of one degree as the scale typical for DVMs and ESMs. By using the African continent here as an example, an analogue approach could in principle be adopted for other regions, for global scale dynamic burned area modelling.

    We used 9 years of data (2000–2008 for the variables: precipitation over the last dry season, the last wet season and averaged over the last 2 years, a fire-danger index (the Nesterov index, population density, and annual proportion of area burned derived from the MODIS MCD45A1 product. Two further variables, tree and herb cover were only available for 2001 as a remote sensing product. Since the effect of fires on vegetation depends strongly on burning conditions, the timing of wildfires is of high interest too, and we were able to relate the seasonal occurrence of wildfires to the daily Nesterov index.

    We parameterized two generalized linear models (GLMs, one with the full variable set (model VC and one considering only climate variables (model C. All introduced variables resulted in an increase in model performance. Model VC correctly predicts the spatial distribution and extent of fire prone areas though the total variability is underrepresented. Model VC has a much lower performance in both aspects (correlation coefficient of predicted and observed ratio of burned area: 0.71 for model VC and 0.58 for model C. We expect the remaining variability to be attributed to additional

  19. Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Apply Online Application Process Veteran Eligibility Active Duty Families of Veterans Women Veterans Determine Costs Copays ... Vets Performance Based Interviewing Clinical Trainees (Academic Affiliations) Employees & Contractors Talent Management System (TMS) VA Learning University ( ...

  20. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit (631-6G), Volume 1 Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site were usually shallow excavations approximately 3 to 4 meters in depth. Operations at the pits consisted of collecting waste on a continuous basis and burning on a monthly basis. The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631- 6G (BRP6G) was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal of paper, lumber, cans and empty galvanized steel drums. The unit may have received other materials such as plastics, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, or drummed solvents. The BRP6G was operated from 1951 until 1955. After disposal activities ceased, the area was covered with soil. Hazardous substances, if present, may have migrated into the surrounding soil and/or groundwater. Because of this possibility, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated the BRP6G as a Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) subject to the Resource Conservation Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) process.

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-F-2, 100-F Burning Pit Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-031

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-12-01

    The 128-F-2 waste site consisted of multiple burn and debris filled pits located directly east of the 107-F Retention Basin and approximately 30.5 m east of the northeast corner of the 100-F Area perimeter road that runs along the riverbank. The burn pits were used for incinerating nonradioactive, combustible materials from 1945 to 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Birth Outcomes Among Military Personnel Following Exposure to Documented Open-Air Burn Pits Before and During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    CM codes in the range of 740.x to 760.x.18 Registry data are routinely validated by review of a sample of birth defect cases with criteria established...mitosis, meiosis , differentiation, and maturation, is believed to be highly susceptible to environmental insults.12 It seems likely that if burn pit...Howel D. Particulate air pollution and fetal health: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiology. 2004;15:36–45. 7. Sram RJ, Binkova B

  3. What We Have Learned From Our Inspections of Incinerators and Use of Burn Pits in Afghanistan: Final Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    their in- stallations. Recent health studies have raised concerns that the particulate matter and toxic smoke contaminated with lead, mercury, di...glands, lungs, liver , and stomach.4 In August 2010, CENTCOM reported that there were 251 active open-air burn pits in Afghanistan, repre- senting a 36.4...it has more important matters to focus on than solid waste disposal. However, DOD, U.S. military and civilian personnel, and U.S. taxpayers would

  4. Burn Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [burn_preapproval_area_LOSCO_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ burning, according...

  5. Special Analysis: Disposal Plan for Pit 38 at Technical Area 54, Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [URS Coporation

    2012-06-26

    been made to utilize the remaining disposal capacity within MDA G to the greatest extent possible. One approach for doing this has been to dispose of low-activity waste from cleanup operations at LANL in the headspace of selected disposal pits. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the material placed in the headspace of pits 15, 37, and 38 have been developed (LANL, 2010) and the impacts of placing waste in the headspace of these units has been evaluated (LANL, 2012a). The efforts to maximize disposal efficiency have taken on renewed importance because of the disposal demands placed on MDA G by the large volumes of waste that are being generated at LANL by cleanup efforts. For example, large quantities of waste were recently generated by the retrieval of waste formerly disposed of at TA-21, MDA B. A portion of this material has been disposed of in the headspace of pit 38 in compliance with the WAC developed for that disposal strategy; a large amount of waste has also been sent to off-site facilities for disposal. Nevertheless, large quantities of MDA B waste remain that require disposal. An extension of pit 38 was proposed to provide the disposal capacity that will be needed to dispose of institutional waste and MDA B waste through 2013. A special analysis was prepared to evaluate the impacts of the pit extension (LANL, 2012b). The analysis concluded that the disposal unit could be extended with modest increases in the exposures projected for the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis, as long as limits were placed on the radionuclide concentrations in the waste that is placed in the headspace of the pit. Based, in part, on the results of the special analysis, the extension of pit 38 was approved and excavation of the additional disposal capacity was started in May 2012. The special analysis presented here uses performance modeling to identify a disposal plan for the placement of waste in pit 38. The modeling uses a refined design of the disposal unit and

  6. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution.

  7. Screening Health Risk Assessment Burn Pit Exposures, Balad Air Base, Iraq and Addendum Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    http://deploymenthealthlibrary.fhp.osd.mil/accessLog.jsp?prodid=313). ii. Health Effects of Dioxin Exposure for Service Members, (http...uncertainty, regulatory agencies try to lower dioxin exposure levels in human populations as much as possible. g. Recent research has shown that some...pit, time spent indoors versus outdoors, frequency of meteorological conditions promoting exposure, or other factors that could impact dioxin

  8. Forward Operating Base Sharana: Poor Planning and Construction Resulted in $5.4 Million Spent for Inoperable Incinerators and Continued Use of Open-Air Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    waste include breathing particulate matter such as lead, mercury, dioxins, and irritant gases, which can negatively affect organs and body systems, such...as the adrenal glands, lungs, liver , and stomach. See Epidemiological Studies of Health Outcomes among Troops Deployed to Burn Pit Sites, jointly

  9. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits:Interim CQA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Delphi Groupe, Inc., and J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2011-06-20

    This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. Construction was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) under the Approval of Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, on January 6, 2011, pursuant to Subpart XII.8a of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The project is located in Area 5 of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site, located in southern Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. The project site, in Area 5, is located in a topographically closed basin approximately 14 additional miles north of Mercury Nevada, in the north-central part of Frenchman Flat. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location

  10. Results of Water and Sediment Toxicity Tests and Chemical Analyses Conducted at the Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Waste Unit, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-06-02

    The Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Operable Unit consists of two inactive rubble pits (631-1G and 631-3G) that have been capped, and one active burning rubble pit (631-2G), where wooden pallets and other non-hazardous debris are periodically burned. The inactive rubble pits may have received hazardous materials, such as asbestos, batteries, and paint cans, as well as non-hazardous materials, such as ash, paper, and glass. In an effort to determine if long term surface water flows of potentially contaminated water from the 631-1G, 631-3G, and 631-2G areas have resulted in an accumulation of chemical constituents at toxic levels in the vicinity of the settling basin and wetlands area, chemical analyses for significant ecological preliminary constituents of concern (pCOCs) were performed on aqueous and sediment samples. In addition, aquatic and sediment toxicity tests were performed in accordance with U.S. EPA methods (U.S. EPA 1989, 1994). Based on the results of the chemical analyses, unfiltered water samples collected from a wetland and settling basins located adjacent to the CSBRP Operable Unit exceed Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) for aluminum, barium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and vanadium at one or more of the four locations that were sampled. The water contained very high concentrations of clay particles that were present as suspended solids. A substantial portion of the metals were present as filterable particulates, bound to the clay particles, and were therefore not biologically available. Based on dissolved metal concentrations, the wetland and settling basin exceeded TRVs for aluminum and barium. However, the background reference location also exceeded the TRV for barium, which suggests that this value may be too low, based on local geochemistry. The detection limits for both total and dissolved mercury were higher than the TRV, so it was not possible to determine if the TRV for mercury was exceeded. Dissolved metal levels of chromium, copper

  11. Identifying individual fires from satellite-derived burned area data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for identifying individual fires from the Modis burned area data product is introduced for southern Africa. This algorithm gives the date of burning, size of fire, and location of the centroid for all fires identified over 8 years...

  12. Magnetic survey of the R-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    The R-Area Bingham Pump Outage pits are a series of parallel trenches in which construction materials were buried. The suspected locations of three of the trenches are marked by HP orange waste unit marker balls, in addition to concrete pit monuments that were placed based on historical information. In order to confirm the locations of the trenches and to evaluate the presence of other buried ferric material, a magnetic survey was conducted at the R-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pits. The survey is defined by lines spaced 10 ft apart oriented subperpendicular to the trench elongation direction, with survey stations spaced at 5-ft intervals along each line. This resulted in a 10-ft by 5-ft rectangular grid node pattern. The magnetic survey resolved at least four linear arrays of magnetic field and gradient anomalies that result from buried ferric material. Three of the linear arrays correspond to suspected trench locations as delineated by HP orange marker balls and pit monuments. However, a fourth linear anomaly occurs between two of the suspected trenches, indicating the presence of an unmarked trench. In addition to linear anomalies that are associated with the trenches, other isolated anomalies occur due to ferric sources that can be identified on the surface, such as signs, monuments, and metal pipes.`

  13. Spectral Characterization of Agricultural Burned Areas for Satellite Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boren, Erik J.

    Burned area detection with remotely sensed satellite data in agricultural landscapes is not only necessary for the estimation of global biomass burning emissions, but also has gained attention from managers interested in improved methods for the quantification of local scale emissions which affect air quality and human health. Mapping agricultural burned areas accurately, precisely and reliably, with methods that can be applied globally, is difficult because of the spectral and temporal characteristics of agricultural regions and prescribed cropland fires. These challenges have not been fully addressed by the scientific literature. Chapter 1 of this thesis presents an extensive literature review on the methods currently used for agricultural burned area mapping. Chapter 2 presents original research on the spectral characterization of agricultural burned areas, using field data and mixture models to analyze the response of spectral indices to the changes induced by fire and agricultural practices. The conclusions summarize the significance of the presented research for understanding the potential and limits of satellite data for agricultural burned area monitoring, and outline the directions for future work.

  14. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2: Site characterization report of the Pit 1 area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Bogle, M.A.; Cline, S.R.; Naney, M.T.; Gu, B.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993, initially encompassing the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was to have supported a possible Interim Record of Decision (IROD) or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches as early as FY 1997. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7, which contains these seven seepage pits and trenches, will probably not begin until after the year 2000. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability to overlap melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. This report summarizes the site characterization information gathered through the end of September 1996 which supports the planning and assessment of ISV for Pit 1 (objective 4 above).

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-3 Burn Pit Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-11-17

    The 128-B-3 waste site is a former burn and disposal site for the 100-B/C Area, located adjacent to the Columbia River. The 128-B-3 waste site has been remediated to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results of sampling at upland areas of the site also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. 78 FR 44523 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Service is correcting a notice of interim directive that appeared in the Federal Register of June 6, 2013... Area Emergency Response revisions. This correction lists the Web site for the interim directive and...

  17. Feasibility Study for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (KBPOP) is one of four BPOP areas at Savannah River Site (SRS), collectively referred to as the BPOP waste unit group. This Feasibility Study (FS) of Remedial Alternatives serves as the lead FS for the BPOP waste unit group. This section identifies the purpose and scope of the FS and presents site background information summarized from the Final Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment (RI/BRA) WSRC-RP- 95-1555, Rev. 1.2 (WSRC 1997).

  18. VOC identification and inter-comparison from laboratory biomass burning using PTR-MS and PIT-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Warneke; J. M. Roberts; P. Veres; J. Gilman; W. C. Kuster; I. Burling; R. Yokelson; J. A. de Gouw

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from fires of biomass commonly found in the southeast and southwest U.S. were investigated with PTR-MS and PIT-MS, which are capable of fast measurements of a large number of VOCs. Both instruments were calibrated with gas standards and mass dependent calibration curves are determined. The sensitivity of the PIT-MS linearly...

  19. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  20. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of interim directive; request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Forest Service is issuing an interim directive to guide its employees in revised procedures for...

  1. Corrective action investigation plan: Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit, Corrective Action Unit 332. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains a detailed description and plan for an environmental investigation of the Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit. The site is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. The Photo Skid Wastewater Pit was used for disposal of photochemical process waste, and there is a concern that such disposal may have released photochemicals and metals to the soil beneath the pit and adjacent to it. The purpose of this investigation is to identify the presence and nature of contamination present in and adjacent to the wastewater pit and to determine the appropriate course of environmental response action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure through remediation, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  2. Unsupervised Spatio-Temporal Data Mining Framework for Burned Area Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriah, Shyam (Inventor); Kumar, Vipin (Inventor); Mithal, Varun (Inventor); Khandelwal, Ankush (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method reduces processing time required to identify locations burned by fire by receiving a feature value for each pixel in an image, each pixel representing a sub-area of a location. Pixels are then grouped based on similarities of the feature values to form candidate burn events. For each candidate burn event, a probability that the candidate burn event is a true burn event is determined based on at least one further feature value for each pixel in the candidate burn event. Candidate burn events that have a probability below a threshold are removed from further consideration as burn events to produce a set of remaining candidate burn events.

  3. The Effects of Exposure to Documented Open-Air Burn Pits on Respiratory Health Among Deployers of the Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    have any of the following conditions?” Possible responses included chronic bronchitis, emphysema , and asthma . Chronic bron- chitis and emphysema were...the risk for newly reported chronic bronchitis or emphysema (AOR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.24), newly reported asthma (AOR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.27...near the burn pits did not significantly increase the risk for newly reported chronic bron- chitis or emphysema (P = 0.76), newly reported asthma (P

  4. 1984–2010 trends in fire burn severity and area for the conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Meier, Gretchen; Howard, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Burn severity products created by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project were used to analyse historical trends in burn severity. Using a severity metric calculated by modelling the cumulative distribution of differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and Relativized dNBR (RdNBR) data, we examined burn area and burn severity of 4893 historical fires (1984–2010) distributed across the conterminous US (CONUS) and mapped by MTBS. Yearly mean burn severity values (weighted by area), maximum burn severity metric values, mean area of burn, maximum burn area and total burn area were evaluated within 27 US National Vegetation Classification macrogroups. Time series assessments of burned area and severity were performed using Mann–Kendall tests. Burned area and severity varied by vegetation classification, but most vegetation groups showed no detectable change during the 1984–2010 period. Of the 27 analysed vegetation groups, trend analysis revealed burned area increased in eight, and burn severity has increased in seven. This study suggests that burned area and severity, as measured by the severity metric based on dNBR or RdNBR, have not changed substantially for most vegetation groups evaluated within CONUS.

  5. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 342, the Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (FTP), which is located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 88 km (55 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of CAS 23-56-01. The FTP is an area approximately 100 m by 140 m (350 ft by 450 ft) located west of the town of Mercury, Nevada, which was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to train fire-fighting personnel (REECo, 1991; Jacobson, 1991). The surface and subsurface soils in the FTP have likely been impacted by hydrocarbons and other contaminants of potential concern (COPC) associated with burn activities and training exercises in the area.

  6. Removal Action Plan for the Accelerated Retrieval Project for a Described Area within Pit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Tyson

    2006-08-01

    This Removal Action Plan documents the plan for implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compenstion, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action to be performed by the Accelerated Retrieval Project. The focus of the action is the limited excavation and retrieval of selected waste streams from a designated portion of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Subsurface Disposal Area that are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, isotopes of uranium, or transuranic radionuclides. The selected retrieval area is approximately 0.2 ha (1/2 acre) and is located in the eastern portion of Pit 4. The proposed project is referred to as the Accelerated Retrieval Project. This Removal Action Plan details the major work elements, operations approach, and schedule, and summarizes the environmental, safety and health, and waste management considerations associated with the project.

  7. Special Analysis: 2017-001 Disposal of Drums Containing Enriched Uranium in Pit 38 at Technical Area 54, Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. This special analysis, SA 2017-001, evaluates the potential impacts of disposing of this waste in Pit 38 at Area G based on the assumptions that form the basis of the Area G PA/CA. Section 2 describes the methods used to conduct the analysis; the results of the evaluation are provided in Section 3; and conclusions and recommendations are provided in Section 4.

  8. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Area 5 Waste Management Division, Nevada National Security Site, Final CQA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management; The Delphi Groupe, Inc.; J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2012-01-31

    The report is the Final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report for the 92-Acrew Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for the period of January 20, 2011, to January 31, 2012 The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location, waste types and regulatory requirements: (1) Pit 3 Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU); (2) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111; (3) CAU 207; (4) Low-level waste disposal units; (5) Asbestiform low-level waste disposal units; and (6) One transuranic (TRU) waste trench.

  9. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, burning on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and national authorities need to have in their disposal accurate and updated spatial information concerning the size of the burned area as well as the burn severity patterns. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns is necessary to effectively support the decision-making process in what concerns strategic (long-term) planning with the definition of post-fire actions at European and national scales. Although a comprehensive archive of burnt areas exists at the European Forest Fire Information System, the analysis of the severity of the areas affected by forest fires in the region is not yet available. Fire severity is influenced by many variables, including fuel type, topography and meteorological conditions before and during the fire. The analysis of fire severity is essential to determine the socio-economic impact of forest fires, to assess fire impacts, and to determine the need of post-fire rehabilitation measures. Moreover, fire severity is linked to forest fire emissions and determines the rate of recovery of the vegetation after the fire. Satellite imagery can give important insights about the conditions of the live fuel moisture content and can be used to assess changes on vegetation structure and vitality after forest fires. Fire events occurred in Greece, Portugal and Spain during the fire season of 2009 were recorded and analyzed in a GIS environment. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) were calculated from 8-days composites MODIS/TERRA imagery from March to October 2009. In

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-01-01

    This closure report documents that the closure activities performed at Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, were in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 358.

  11. Field validation of Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) products for post fire assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Peter R. Robichaud; Jeffery B. Evans; Jess Clark; Keith Lannom; Penelope Morgan; Carter Stone

    2004-01-01

    The USFS Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and the USGS EROS Data Center (EDC) produce Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps for use by Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in rapid response to wildfires. BAER teams desire maps indicative of soil burn severity, but photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation also influences the...

  12. Is the Target of 1 Day of Stay per 1% Total Body Surface Area Burned Achieved in Chemical Burns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teresa; Wong, David S Y

    2016-02-01

    The length of hospital stay (LOS) is a standard parameter used to reflect quality and evaluate outcomes in acute burn care. This study aims to assess whether the target of 1 day of stay per 1% total body surface area (TBSA) burned was achieved in acute chemical burns management and factors affecting the LOS. A retrospective analysis of the records of patients who suffered from chemical burn injuries admitted to a university burn center over a continuous 14-year period was performed.A total of 118 patients were admitted over the period for chemical burns. Only 14% of cases achieved the target stated. Factors associated with lengthening of the hospital stay included TBSA, ocular involvement, the cause of injury, and the need for surgery during the same admission.The LOS in chemical burns frequently exceeds 1 day of stay per 1% TBSA burned. Many factors can contribute to a patient's LOS and are worth exploring in order to see if the impact of these factors could be minimized. Early surgical intervention should help to reduce the LOS if reliable methods of burn wound depth assessment are available.

  13. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  14. GEOKIMIA ORGANIK FRAKSI AROMATIK LIGHT OIL PRODUK PENCAIRAN BATUBARA AREA (PIT BINTANG SANGATTA KALIMANTAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Sugiharto Wijaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Character geochemical of Coal in area (pit Stars Sangatta, East Kalimantan shows that the coal is classified as steam coal with thermal maturity and have low calories (5768 kcal/kg.  The coal is melted in the  1L autoclave for 60 minutes at a temperature of 450°C and a pressure of 12 MPa to obtain a product slurry. Fractionation of slurry product based on boiling point using a vacum distillation apparatus 10 mmHg. Fractions obtained include naphtha, light oil, middle oil, heavy oil and coal liquid bottom. Data show that the weight percentage of the product melting fraction is dominated by heavy oil and coal liquid bottom with percentage of total> 50%. Fraction of light oil in the fractionation further by TLC and the eluent n-hexane in order to obtain an aromatic fraction. The composition of the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction light oil products were characterized using gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS. the identification shows that derivative of kadalen compounds, that is compounds norkadalen (C14H16 which is the fraction of oil that can be potentially as diesel fuel.

  15. Monitoring of Landslide at Tuncbilek Open Pit Stripping Area with Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Optical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Mehmet Volkan; Hamdi Deliormanli, Ahmet

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing techniques used for providing data on earth sciences have rapidly developed in recent years. Usage of remote sensing for monitoring of slopes have made a lot of progress in the last decade. The most important benefit of remote sensing applications on slope monitoring is safe working conditions with high accurate results. Terrestrial laser scanners are one of the ground-based remote sensing equipment which provide detailed and highly accurate 3D data. In this study terrestrial laser scanner method was carried out for monitoring the landslide at Tuncbilek Open pit stripping area and also optical images were evaluated for determining the development of landslide. The head part of landslide was measured with terrestrial laser scanner at three various dates and the point cloud of head part of landslide were created. Then the three-point cloud were compared. Also six optical satellite image with resolution 1m and below were examined for determining the development of landslide between 2001 and 2013

  16. Lack of Precision of Burn Surface Area Calculation by UK Armed Forces Medical Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    abdominal compartment syn drome, and death. Logistic regression in this retrospective study of 58 military burn patients also demonstrated that over...influence of body mass index on burn surface area estimated from the area of the hand. Burns 2001;27:591 4. [17] Nagel TR, Schunk JE. Using the hand to...estimate the surface area of a burn in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 1997;13:254 5. [18] Rossiter ND, Chapman P, Haywood IA. How big is a hand? Burns

  17. Relationships between human population density and burned area at continental and global scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Sá, Ana C L; Harrison, Sandy P; Prentice, I Colin; Pereira, José M C

    2013-01-01

    We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and burned area, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived burned area maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land area, and the area affected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most of Asia and Africa but is important in explaining fire over area in croplands. Overall, the relationship between population density and burned area is non-monotonic: burned area initially increases with population density and then decreases when population density exceeds a threshold. These thresholds vary regionally. Our study contributes to improved understanding of how human activities relate to burned area, and should contribute to a better estimate of atmospheric emissions from biomass burning.

  18. Sources of debris flow material in burned areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, P.M.; deWolfe, V.G.; Higgins, J.D.; Cannon, S.H.; Gartner, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    The vulnerability of recently burned areas to debris flows has been well established. Likewise, it has been shown that many, if not most, post-fire debris flows are initiated by runoff and erosion and grow in size through erosion and scour by the moving debris flow, as opposed to landslide-initiated flows with little growth. To better understand the development and character of these flows, a study has been completed encompassing 46 debris flows in California, Utah, and Colorado, in nine different recently burned areas. For each debris flow, progressive debris production was measured at intervals along the length of the channel, and from these measurements graphs were developed showing cumulative volume of debris as a function of channel length. All 46 debris flows showed significant bulking by scour and erosion, with average yield rates for each channel ranging from 0.3 to 9.9??m3 of debris produced for every meter of channel length, with an overall average value of 2.5??m3/m. Significant increases in yield rate partway down the channel were identified in 87% of the channels, with an average of a three-fold increase in yield rate. Yield rates for short reaches of channels (up to several hundred meters) ranged as high as 22.3??m3/m. Debris was contributed from side channels into the main channels for 54% of the flows, with an average of 23% of the total debris coming from those side channels. Rill erosion was identified for 30% of the flows, with rills contributing between 0.1 and 10.5% of the total debris, with an average of 3%. Debris was deposited as levees in 87% of the flows, with most of the deposition occurring in the lower part of the basin. A median value of 10% of the total debris flow was deposited as levees for these cases, with a range from near zero to nearly 100%. These results show that channel erosion and scour are the dominant sources of debris in burned areas, with yield rates increasing significantly partway down the channel. Side channels are

  19. Mapping burned areas using dense time-series of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Takacs, Joshua; Schmidt, Gail L.; Falgout, Jeff T.; Williams, Brad; Brunner, Nicole M.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Picotte, Joshua J.; Howard, Stephen M.; Stitt, Susan; Dwyer, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Complete and accurate burned area data are needed to document patterns of fires, to quantify relationships between the patterns and drivers of fire occurrence, and to assess the impacts of fires on human and natural systems. Unfortunately, in many areas existing fire occurrence datasets are known to be incomplete. Consequently, the need to systematically collect burned area information has been recognized by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which have both called for the production of essential climate variables (ECVs), including information about burned area. In this paper, we present an algorithm that identifies burned areas in dense time-series of Landsat data to produce the Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) products. The algorithm uses gradient boosted regression models to generate burn probability surfaces using band values and spectral indices from individual Landsat scenes, lagged reference conditions, and change metrics between the scene and reference predictors. Burn classifications are generated from the burn probability surfaces using pixel-level thresholding in combination with a region growing process. The algorithm can be applied anywhere Landsat and training data are available. For this study, BAECV products were generated for the conterminous United States from 1984 through 2015. These products consist of pixel-level burn probabilities for each Landsat scene, in addition to, annual composites including: the maximum burn probability and a burn classification. We compared the BAECV burn classification products to the existing Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED; 1997–2015) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS; 1984–2013) data. We found that the BAECV products mapped 36% more burned area than the GFED and 116% more burned area than MTBS. Differences between the BAECV products and the GFED were especially high in the West and East where the

  20. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    OpenAIRE

    Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Collatz, G. J.; D. C. Morton; R. S. DeFries

    2010-01-01

    Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001–2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (...

  1. Strategies to prevent forest fires and techniques to reverse degradation processes in burned areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, António José Dinis; Alegre, Sérgio Prats; Coelho, Celeste Oliveira Alves; Shakesby, Rick A.; Páscoa, Fernando M.; Ferreira, Carla Sofia Santos; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires are probably the more deleterious event in forest and range areas in the Mediterranean nowadays. Despite the significant area burned every year, little has been done to develop strategies and techniques for soil and water conservation in burned areas, despite the major impacts on soi

  2. Herbaceous Production In Cut-burned, Uncut-burned, And Control Areas Of A Charnaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSP (Cupressaceae) Stand In The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Herbaceous Production in cut-burned, uncut-burned, and control areas of a Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSP (Cupressaceae) stand in the Great Dismal Swamp. The biomass...

  3. How much global burned area can be forecast on seasonal time scales using sea surface temperatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Morton, Douglas C.; Andela, Niels; Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) patterns influence the interannual variability of burned area in many regions by means of climate controls on fuel continuity, amount, and moisture content. Some of the variability in burned area is predictable on seasonal timescales because fuel characteristics respond to the cumulative effects of climate prior to the onset of the fire season. Here we systematically evaluated the degree to which annual burned area from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 4 with small fires (GFED4s) can be predicted using SSTs from 14 different ocean regions. We found that about 48% of global burned area can be forecast with a correlation coefficient that is significant at a p climate index (OCI) 3 or more months prior to the month of peak burning. Continental regions where burned area had a higher degree of predictability included equatorial Asia, where 92% of the burned area exceeded the correlation threshold, and Central America, where 86% of the burned area exceeded this threshold. Pacific Ocean indices describing the El Niño-Southern Oscillation were more important than indices from other ocean basins, accounting for about 1/3 of the total predictable global burned area. A model that combined two indices from different oceans considerably improved model performance, suggesting that fires in many regions respond to forcing from more than one ocean basin. Using OCI—burned area relationships and a clustering algorithm, we identified 12 hotspot regions in which fires had a consistent response to SST patterns. Annual burned area in these regions can be predicted with moderate confidence levels, suggesting operational forecasts may be possible with the aim of improving ecosystem management.

  4. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help prevent burns: Install smoke alarms in your home. Check and change batteries regularly. Teach children about fire safety and the danger of matches and fireworks. Keep children from climbing on top of a stove ...

  5. Joint simulation of regional areas burned in Canadian forest fires: A Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen Magnussen

    2009-01-01

    Areas burned annually in 29 Canadian forest fire regions show a patchy and irregular correlation structure that significantly influences the distribution of annual totals for Canada and for groups of regions. A binary Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) is constructed for the purpose of joint simulation of regional areas burned in forest fires. For each year the MCMC...

  6. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giglio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001–2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate burned area. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global annual area burned for the years 1997–2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 13 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  7. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Collatz, G. J.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.

    2010-03-01

    Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001-2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate burned area. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global annual area burned for the years 1997-2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 13 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  8. Burn severity and areas of daily fire growth for 42 forest fires in Idaho and Montana, 2005 - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Donovan Shayne

    This work consisted of two studies of burn severity using infrared perimeter maps and satellite-inferred burn severity data, differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, from 42 wildland fires from central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007, and 2011. Study 1 examined the proportion of burn severity categories for individual daily areas burned. We defined 2,697 areas, from which we calculated the proportion of three burn severity classes. The proportion of high severity was weakly correlated with size of area burned. Large areas burned do not consistently produced larger proportions of high severity. Study 2 analyzed burn severity relative to 20 environmental variables using the Random Forest machine learning algorithm. We used ten daily weather observations, eight 34-yr climate percentiles, seven topographical index measurements, and four vegetation characteristics from 10,819 randomly located points. We found that higher percentage existing vegetation cover had larger influences on changes in burn severity.

  9. A comparative analysis of potential impact area of common sugar cane burning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, A. L.; Flecher, S.; Wang, J. J.; Viator, H. P.

    2015-04-01

    The negative effects of agricultural burning are well-known, although the actual impact area of different activities has not previously been quantified. An elastic backscatter lidar system was used to examine the impact-area size and dispersion of smoke generated from different types of sugarcane burning activities; pre-harvest (standing) burning and post-harvest (ground) burning. Experiments were conducted in the sugarcane harvest season of 2010 and 2011 at two locations in Louisiana, USA. Current dispersion theory would suggest that the primary difference between burn types would be primarily in the initial plume rise, but that the overall plume shape would remain the same. However, remotely sensed lidar data with the capability to measure plume dispersion and the short time dynamics of plume location showed pre-harvest (standing) burning produced a larger plume with greater rise and more spread within the 300 m of the plume, but a decrease in dispersion, but not concentration further downwind. Post-harvest (ground) burning produced a more traditional plume shape, but still exceeded impact area predictions near the source. Moreover, large changes in plume size can occur with small increases in wind speed. These are the first instrumented measurements of the meteorological effects of the different types of sugarcane burning. These results indicate that ground burning is preferable, but should be avoided in lower wind speed conditions.

  10. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training Area (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 Burn Area (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant Burn Area (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).

  11. [An epidemiological investigation of pediatric patients under 14 with large area burns: a multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W F; Zhao, D X; Shen, Z A; Zhang, H Y; Tu, J J; Yuan, Z Q; Duan, P; Song, G D

    2017-02-14

    Objective: To investigate and evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of patients under 14 with large area burns in China. Methods: Data of pediatric patients aged 0-14yr with ≥30% total body surface area (TBSA) burned admitted into 106 burn centers in the mainland of China in 2014 were retrieved. The children were divided into three age groups: 0-3, 4-6 and 7-14 years according to the age. Information of age, gender, time of burn injury, causes of burns, admission time, prehospital emergency care of burn wound, burn area, inhalation injuries, the case fatality rate and length of hospital stay were collected for analysis. Results: Of the 486 cases included, 285 (58.6%) were boys and 201 (41.4%) were girls. The mean age of the children was (3.4±2.8) years. Children under 3 years old accounted for 67.5% of all the cases. 271 of the burn injuries (55.8%) occurred from April through August. Scalds and flames were the main causes of burns, which were the causes of 394 cases (81.1%) and 71 cases (14.6%), respectively. The burn injuries resulted from scalds and flames accounted for 89.6% and 7.3%, 70.8% and 21.9%, 51.6% and 41.9% in the age group of 0-3, 4-6 and 7-14 years respectively. The distribution of burn etiology in different age groups differed significantly (χ(2)=21.239, 59.442, 7.333, all Parea of 236 patients (48.6%) were treated improperly with toothpaste, soy sauce, eggs or other non-standard disposal. The mean TBSA area of the patients was (42.1±14.5)%, while 288 (59.3%) of the patients suffered full thickness burns with mean TBSA of (24.5±17.9)%. The case fatality rate (CFR) was 4.1%, and the CFR of patients complicated with inhalation injury was significantly higher than those without (P<0.01). The average length of stay for pediatric burn patients was (52.3±40.2) days. Conclusions: Children under 3 years old are important target population of severe burns. Scald is the most common type of burns, while the proportion of flames increases as age

  12. Brazil Fire Characterization and Burn Area Estimation Using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment (AIRDAS) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, J. A.; Riggan, P. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Lockwood, R. N.; Pereira, J. A.; Higgins, R. G.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Remotely sensed estimations of regional and global emissions from biomass combustion have been used to characterize fire behavior, determine fire intensity, and estimate burn area. Highly temporal, low resolution satellite data have been used to calculate estimates of fire numbers and area burned. These estimates of fire activity and burned area have differed dramatically, resulting in a wide range of predictions on the ecological and environmental impacts of fires. As part of the Brazil/United States Fire Initiative, an aircraft campaign was initiated in 1992 and continued in 1994. This multi-aircraft campaign was designed to assist in the characterization of fire activity, document fire intensity and determine area burned over prescribed, agricultural and wildland fires in the savanna and forests of central Brazil. Using a unique, multispectral scanner (AIRDAS), designed specifically for fire characterization, a variety of fires and burned areas were flown with a high spatial and high thermal resolution scanner. The system was used to measure flame front size, rate of spread, ratio of smoldering to flaming fronts and fire intensity. In addition, long transects were flown to determine the size of burned areas within the cerrado and transitional ecosystems. The authors anticipate that the fire activity and burned area estimates reported here will lead to enhanced information for precise regional trace gas prediction.

  13. Timing constraints on remote sensing of wildland fire burned area in the southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Robertson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery is increasingly used for mapping wildland fire burned area and burn severity, owing to its frequency of collection, relatively high resolution, and availability free of charge. However, rapid response of vegetation following fire and frequent cloud cover pose challenges to this approach in the southeastern US. We assessed these timing constraints by using a series of Landsat TM images to determine how rapidly the remotely sensed burn scar signature fades following prescribed burns in wet flatwoods and depression swamp community types in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, USA during 2006. We used both the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) of reflectance bands sensitive to vegetation and exposed soil cover, as well as the change in NBR from before to after fire (dNBR), to estimate burned area. We also determined the average and maximum amount of time following fire required to obtain a cloud-free image for burns in each month of the year, as well as the predicted effect of this time lag on percent accuracy of burn scar estimates. Using both NBR and dNBR, the detectable area decreased linearly 9% per month on average over the first four months following fire. Our findings suggest that the NBR and dNBR methods for monitoring burned area in common southeastern US vegetation community types are limited to an average of 78–90% accuracy among months of the year, with individual burns having values as low as 38%, if restricted to use of Landsat 5 TM imagery. However, the majority of burns can still be mapped at accuracies similar to those in other regions of the US, and access to additional sources of satellite imagery would improve overall accuracy.

  14. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giglio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001–2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees to develop relationships between burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated the global annual area burned for the years 1997–2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 12 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  15. Evaluation of ALOS PALSAR Imagery for Burned Area Mapping in Greece Using Object-Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Polychronaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the potential of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR imagery to map burned areas was evaluated in two study areas in Greece. For this purpose, we developed an object-based classification scheme to map the fire-disturbed areas using the PALSAR imagery acquired before and shortly after fire events. The advantage of employing an object-based approach was not only the use of the temporal variation of the backscatter coefficient, but also the incorporation in the classification of topological features, such as neighbor objects, and class related features, such as objects classified as burned. The classification scheme resulted in mapping the burned areas with satisfactory results: 0.71 and 0.82 probabilities of detection for the two study areas. Our investigation revealed that the pre-fire vegetation conditions and fire severity should be taken in consideration when mapping burned areas using PALSAR in Mediterranean regions. Overall, findings suggest that the developed scheme could be applied for rapid burned area assessment, especially to areas where cloud cover and fire smoke inhibit accurate mapping of burned areas when optical data are used.

  16. Separability Analysis of Sentinel-2A Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI Data for Burned Area Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a global phenomenon and systematic burned area mapping is of increasing importance for science and applications. With high spatial resolution and novelty in band design, the recently launched Sentinel-2A satellite provides a new opportunity for moderate spatial resolution burned area mapping. This study examines the performance of the Sentinel-2A Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI bands and derived spectral indices to differentiate between unburned and burned areas. For this purpose, five pairs of pre-fire and post-fire top of atmosphere (TOA reflectance and atmospherically corrected (surface reflectance images were studied. The pixel values of locations that were unburned in the first image and burned in the second image, as well as the values of locations that were unburned in both images which served as a control, were compared and the discrimination of individual bands and spectral indices were evaluated using parametric (transformed divergence and non-parametric (decision tree approaches. Based on the results, the most suitable MSI bands to detect burned areas are the 20 m near-infrared, short wave infrared and red-edge bands, while the performance of the spectral indices varied with location. The atmospheric correction only significantly influenced the separability of the visible wavelength bands. The results provide insights that are useful for developing Sentinel-2 burned area mapping algorithms.

  17. Comparison of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Drinking Well Water and Pit Latrine Wastewater in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to gain insights into the occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) from drinking well water in the rural area of Laiwu, China, and to explore the role of the nearby pit latrine as a contamination source. ESBL-producing E. coli from wells were compared with isolates from pit latrines in the vicinity. The results showed that ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, with the same antibiotic resistance profiles, ESBL genes, phylogenetic group, plasmid replicon types, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) fingerprints, were isolated from well water and the nearby pit latrine in the same courtyard. Therefore, ESBL-producing E. coli in the pit latrine may be a likely contributor to the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in rural well water. PMID:27965975

  18. How Much Global Burned Area Can Be Forecast on Seasonal Time Scales Using Sea Surface Temperatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Morton, Douglas C.; Andela, Niels; Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) patterns influence the interannual variability of burned area in many regions by means of climate controls on fuel continuity, amount, and moisture content. Some of the variability in burned area is predictable on seasonal timescales because fuel characteristics respond to the cumulative effects of climate prior to the onset of the fire season. Here we systematically evaluated the degree to which annual burned area from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 4 with small fires (GFED4s) can be predicted using SSTs from 14 different ocean regions. We found that about 48 of global burned area can be forecast with a correlation coefficient that is significant at a p forecasts may be possible with the aim of improving ecosystem management.

  19. LandCarbon Conterminous United States Burned Area and Severity Mosaics 2001-2050 Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The burn area and severity data were stochastically generated using a probabilistic ignition model and mechanistic fire-spread model. The ignition model consisted of...

  20. Southern Africa Fire Network (SAFNet) regional burned-area product-validation protocol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roy, DP

    2005-10-10

    Full Text Available . This paper describes a protocol developed to validate a regional southern Africa burned- area product derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500 m time series data. The protocol is based upon interpretations by members...

  1. Development and investigation of a pollution control pit for treatment of stormwater from metal roofs and traffic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, C; Göbel, P; Lohmann, M; Coldewey, W G

    2006-01-01

    Source control by on-site retention and infiltration of stormwater is a sustainable and proven alternative to classical drainage methods. Unfortunately, sedimentary particles and pollutants from drained surfaces cause clogging and endanger soil and groundwater during long-term operation of infiltration devices. German water authorities recommend the use of infiltration devices, such as swales or swale-trench-systems. Direct infiltration by underground facilities, such as pipes, trenches or sinks, without pretreatment of runoff is generally not permitted. Problems occur with runoff from metal roofs, traffic areas and industrial sites. However, due to site limitations, underground systems are often the only feasible option. To overcome this situation, a pollution control pit was developed with a hydrodynamic separator and a multistage filter made of coated porous concrete. The system treats runoff at source and protects soil, groundwater and receiving waterways. Typically, more than 90% of the pollutants such as sedimentary particles, hydrocarbons and heavy metals can be removed. Filters have been developed to treat even higher polluted stormwater loads from metal roofs and industrial sites. The treatment process is based on sedimentation, filtration, adsorption and chemical precipitation. Sediments are trapped in a special chamber within the pit and can be removed easily. Other pollutants are captured in the concrete filter upstream of the sediment separator chamber. Filters can be easily replaced.

  2. Detection of Burn Area and Severity with MODIS Satellite Images and Spatial Autocorrelation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Kavzoglu, T.; Tonbul, H.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of forest fires and implications are one of the most important natural disasters all over the world. Statistical data observed that forest fires had a variable structure in the last century in Turkey, but correspondingly the population growth amount of forest fires and burn area increase widely in recent years. Depending on this, erosion, landslides, desertification and mass loss come into existence. In addition; after forest fires, renewal of forests and vegetation are very important for land management. Classic methods used for detection of burn area and severity requires a long and challenging process due to time and cost factors. Thanks to advanced techniques used in the field of Remote Sensing, burn area and severity can be determined with high detail and precision. The purpose of this study based on blending MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectradiometer) satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques together, thus detect burn area and severity absolutely. In this context, spatial autocorrelation statistics like Moran's I and Get is-Ord Local Gi indexes were used to measure and analyze to burned area characteristics. Prefire and postfire satellite images were used to determine fire severity depending on spectral indexes corresponding to biomass loss and carbon emissivity intensities. Satellite images have used for identification of fire damages and risks in terms of fire management for a long time. This study was performed using prefire and postfire satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques to determining and analyzing forest fires in Antalya, Turkey region which serious fires occurred. In this context, this approach enables the characterization of distinctive texture of burned area and helps forecasting more precisely. Finally, it is observed that mapping of burned area and severity could be performed from local scale to national scale. Key Words: Spatial autocorrelation, MODIS, Fire, Burn Severity

  3. Production of Landsat ETM+ reference imagery of burned areas within Southern African savannahs: comparison of methods and application to MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. M. S. Smith; N. A. Drake; M. J. Wooster; A. T. Hudak; Z. A. Holden; C. J. Gibbons

    2007-01-01

    Accurate production of regional burned area maps are necessary to reduce uncertainty in emission estimates from African savannah fires. Numerous methods have been developed that map burned and unburned surfaces. These methods are typically applied to coarse spatial resolution (1 km) data to produce regional estimates of the area burned, while higher spatial resolution...

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Burned Area Datasets in Canadian Boreal Forest in 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Núñez-Casillas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The turn of the new millennium was accompanied by a particularly diverse group of burned area datasets from different sensors in the Canadian boreal forests, brought together in a year of low global fire activity. This paper provides an assessment of spatial and temporal accuracy, by means of a fire-by-fire comparison of the following: two burned area datasets obtained from SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT imagery, a MODIS Collection 5 burned area dataset, and three different datasets obtained from NOAA-AVHRR. Results showed that burned area data from MODIS provided accurate dates of burn but great omission error, partially caused by calibration problems. One of the VGT-derived datasets (L3JRC represented the largest number of fire sites in spite of its great overall underestimation, whereas the GBA2000 dataset achieved the best burned area quantification, both showing delayed and very variable fire timing. Spatial accuracy was comparable between the 5 km and the 1 km AVHRR-derived datasets but was remarkably lower in the 8 km dataset leading, us to conclude that at higher spatial resolutions, temporal accuracy was lower. The probable methodological and contextual causes of these differences were analyzed in detail.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Burned Area Datasets in Canadian Boreal Forest in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Casillas, Laia; Moreno-Ruiz, José Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The turn of the new millennium was accompanied by a particularly diverse group of burned area datasets from different sensors in the Canadian boreal forests, brought together in a year of low global fire activity. This paper provides an assessment of spatial and temporal accuracy, by means of a fire-by-fire comparison of the following: two burned area datasets obtained from SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) imagery, a MODIS Collection 5 burned area dataset, and three different datasets obtained from NOAA-AVHRR. Results showed that burned area data from MODIS provided accurate dates of burn but great omission error, partially caused by calibration problems. One of the VGT-derived datasets (L3JRC) represented the largest number of fire sites in spite of its great overall underestimation, whereas the GBA2000 dataset achieved the best burned area quantification, both showing delayed and very variable fire timing. Spatial accuracy was comparable between the 5 km and the 1 km AVHRR-derived datasets but was remarkably lower in the 8 km dataset leading, us to conclude that at higher spatial resolutions, temporal accuracy was lower. The probable methodological and contextual causes of these differences were analyzed in detail. PMID:23818817

  6. Towards global Landsat burned area mapping: revisit time and availability of cloud free observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, A.; Boschetti, L.

    2016-12-01

    Global, daily coarse resolution satellite data have been extensively used for systematic burned area mapping (Giglio et al. 2013; Mouillot et al. 2014). The adoption of similar approaches for producing moderate resolution (10 - 30 m) global burned area products would lead to very significant improvements for the wide variety of fire information users. It would meet a demand for accurate burned area perimeters needed for fire management, post-fire assessment and environmental restoration, and would lead to more accurate and precise atmospheric emission estimations, especially over heterogeneous areas (Mouillot et al. 2014; Randerson et al. 2012; van der Werf et al. 2010). The increased spatial resolution clearly benefits mapping accuracy: the reduction of mixed pixels directly translates in increased spectral separation compared to coarse resolution data. As a tradeoff, the lower temporal resolution (e.g. 16 days for Landsat), could potentially cause large omission errors in ecosystems with fast post-fire recovery. The spectral signal due to the fire effects is non-permanent, can be detected for a period ranging from a few weeks in savannas and grasslands, to over a year in forest ecosystems (Roy et al. 2010). Additionally, clouds, smoke, and other optically thick aerosols limit the number of available observations (Roy et al. 2008; Smith and Wooster 2005), exacerbating the issues related to mapping burned areas globally with moderate resolution sensors. This study presents a global analysis of the effect of cloud cover on Landsat data availability over burned areas, by analyzing the MODIS data record of burned area (MCD45) and cloud detections (MOD35), and combining it with the Landsat acquisition calendar and viewing geometry. For each pixel classified as burned in the MCD45 product, the MOD35 data are used to determine how many cloud free observations would have been available on Landsat overpass days, within the period of observability of the burned area

  7. Closure certification report for the Bear Creek burial grounds B area and walk-in pits at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    On July 5, 1993, the revised RCRA Closure Plan for the Bear Creek Burial Grounds B Area and Walk-In Pits at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DOE/OR/01-1100&D3 and Y/ER-53&D3, was approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The closure activities described in that closure plan have been performed. The purpose of this document is to summarize the closure activities for B Area and Walk-In Pits (WIPs), including placement of the Kerr Hollow Quarry debris at the WIPs.

  8. [Influence of educational status, burn area and coping behaviors on the complication of psychological disorders in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hua; Li, Xiao-jian; Cao, Wen-juan; Chen, Li-ying; Zhang, Zhi; Liu, Zhi-he; Yi, Xian-feng; Lai, Wen

    2013-04-01

    To discuss how the educational status, burn area and coping behaviors influence the psychological disorders in severely burned patients. Sixty-four severely burned patients hospitalized in Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital, Guangdong Provincial Work Injury Rehabilitation Center, and Guangdong General Hospital were enrolled with cluster random sampling method. Data of their demography and situation of burns were collected. Then their coping behavior, psychological disorders including anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) plus its core symptoms of flashback, avoidance, and hypervigilance were assessed by medical coping modes questionnaire, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS), PTSD checklist-civilian version (PCL-C) respectively. Correlation was analyzed between demography, burn area, coping behavior and psychological disorders. The predictive powers of educational status, burn area and coping behaviors on the psychological disorders were analyzed. The qualitative variables were assigned values. Data were processed with t test, Spearman rank correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis. (1) The patients scored (19.0 ± 3.4) points in confrontation coping behavior, which showed no statistically significant difference from the domestic norm score (19.5 ± 3.8) points (t = -1.13, P > 0.05). The patients scored (16.6 ± 2.4) and (11.0 ± 2.2) points in avoidance and resignation coping behaviors, which were significantly higher than the domestic norm score (14.4 ± 3.0), (8.8 ± 3.2) points (with t values respectively 7.06 and 7.76, P values both below 0.01). The patients' standard score of SAS, SDS, PCL-C were (50 ± 11), (54 ± 11), and (38 ± 12) points. Respectively 89.1% (57/64), 60.9% (39/64), 46.9% (30/64) of the patients showed anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms. (2) Four independent variables: age, gender, marital status, and time after burns, were correlated with the psychological disorders

  9. Analysis and Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Burned Areas in the Amazon Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle da Silva Cardozo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of burned areas in Rondônia State, Brazil during the years 2000 to 2011 and evaluate the burned area maps. A Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM was applied to MODIS surface reflectance images to originate the burned areas maps, which were validated with TM/Landsat 5 and ETM+/Landsat 7 images and field data acquired in August 2013. The validation presented a correlation ranging from 67% to 96% with an average value of 86%. The lower correlation values are related to the distinct spatial resolutions of the MODIS and TM/ETM+ sensors because small burn scars are not detected in MODIS images and higher spatial correlations are related to the presence of large fires, which are better identified in MODIS, increasing the accuracy of the mapping methodology. In addition, the 12-year burned area maps of Rondônia indicate that fires, as a general pattern, occur in areas that have already been converted to some land use, such as vegetal extraction, large animal livestock areas or diversified permanent crops. Furthermore, during the analyzed period, land use conversion associated with climatic events significantly influenced the occurrence of fire in Rondônia and amplified its impacts.

  10. The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) Global Burned Area Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, L.; van der Werf, G. R.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.

    2008-12-01

    We discuss major enhancements to the burned area component of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) over previous versions (GFED1 and GFED2), which now provides global, monthly burned area estimates at 0.5-degree spatial resolution for the time period 1997-2008. Estimates are produced by calibrating Terra MODIS active fire data with 500-m MODIS burned area maps via geographically weighted regression. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) allows the data set to be extended further back in time. We then discuss the spatially-explicit uncertainty estimates accompanying our data set, and the use of these estimates within atmospheric and biogeochemical models. We compare our GFED3 burned area estimates with other recent global burned area data sets, including GFED2, L3JRC, and GLOBCARBON. We quantify areas and time periods in which the different products diverge, and conclude with explanations for some of the discrepancies.

  11. Closure Report for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of the 92-Acre Area, which includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that the closure objectives were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). Closure activities began in January 2011 and were completed in January 2012. Closure activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2010). The following closure activities were performed: (1) Construct an engineered evapotranspiration cover over the boreholes, trenches, and pits in the 92-Acre Area; (2) Install use restriction (UR) warning signs, concrete monuments, and subsidence survey monuments; and (3) Establish vegetation on the covers. UR documentation is included as Appendix C of this report. The post-closure plan is presented in detail in Revision 1 of the CADD/CAP for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111, and the requirements are summarized in Section 5.2 of this document. When the next request for modification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit NEV HW0101 is submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), the requirements for post-closure monitoring of the 92-Acre Area will be included. NNSA/NSO requests the following: (1) A Notice of Completion from NDEP to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 111; and (2) The transfer of CAU 111 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO.

  12. Developing a burn injury severity score (BISS): adding age and total body surface area burned to the injury severity score (ISS) improves mortality concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J Tristan; Phillips, Michael; Fatovich, Daniel; Duke, Janine; Edgar, Dale; Wood, Fiona

    2014-08-01

    There is limited research validating the injury severity score (ISS) in burns. We examined the concordance of ISS with burn mortality. We hypothesized that combining age and total body surface area (TBSA) burned to the ISS gives a more accurate mortality risk estimate. Data from the Royal Perth Hospital Trauma Registry and the Royal Perth Hospital Burns Minimum Data Set were linked. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) measured concordance of ISS with mortality. Using logistic regression models with death as the dependent variable we developed a burn-specific injury severity score (BISS). There were 1344 burns with 24 (1.8%) deaths, median TBSA 5% (IQR 2-10), and median age 36 years (IQR 23-50). The results show ISS is a good predictor of death for burns when ISS≤15 (OR 1.29, p=0.02), but not for ISS>15 (ISS 16-24: OR 1.09, p=0.81; ISS 25-49: OR 0.81, p=0.19). Comparing the AUCs adjusted for age, gender and cause, ISS of 84% (95% CI 82-85%) and BISS of 95% (95% CI 92-98%), demonstrated superior performance of BISS as a mortality predictor for burns. ISS is a poor predictor of death in severe burns. The BISS combines ISS with age and TBSA and performs significantly better than the ISS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal Variability in Boreal Wildfire Activity Associated with Landscape Patterns of Burned Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, K. M.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is the most prominent disturbance in the boreal forest, effecting changes in stand age and vegetation composition often over thousands of square kilometers. The effect of wildfire on ecosystem structure and function depends heavily on the seasonality of the burn, and periods of seasonally high fire activity are highly sporadic. The majority of area in Alaska that burns in a fire season does so during relatively short periods of high fire activity. These periods, which can be determined from active fire detections or fire management agency data records, are caused by elevated air temperatures and low precipitation which decrease fuel moisture and encourage the spread of fire. While fire fronts dominate during periods of low fire activity, more active periods have a higher proportion of residual burning which remains after a front has passed through. Residual burning is likely responsible for the extensive combustion of surface organic materials in the boreal forest, which can lead to post-fire changes in dominant vegetation type. Seasonal variations in fire activity are therefore an important factor in the mosaic of severity conditions across large burned areas and shifts in land cover over successional time scales. The purpose of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial variability in periods of seasonal high fire activity that influence patterns of burned area. In large burns, unburned areas within a fire scar may serve as an important seed stock during post-fire recruitment. These areas may also feedback to future fire regimes through the preservation of more fire-resistant vegetation in unburned "islands".

  14. Mapping a burned forest area from Landsat TM data by multiple methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fire is one of the dominant disturbances in boreal forests. It is the primary process responsible for organizing the physical and biological attributes of the boreal biome, shaping landscape diversity and influencing biogeochemical cycles. The Greater Hinggan Mountain of China is rich in forest resources while suffers from a high incidence of forest fires simultaneously. In this study, focusing on the most serious forest fire in the history of P. R. China which occurred in this region, we made use of two Landsat-5 TM (Thematic Mapper images, and proposed to map the overall burned area and burned forest area by multiple methods. During the mapping, the fire perimeter, as well as rivers, roads and urban areas were first extracted and masked visually, and then four indices of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, Vegetation Fractional Cover and Disturbance Index were calculated. For each index, the optimal threshold for separating burned from unburned forest area was determined using their histograms. For comparison, threshold segmentation using single-band reflectance was performed, in addition to a Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC based supervised classification of all features and forest area alone; their accuracies were also evaluated and analysed. Among all the methods compared here, mapping by EVI threshold segmentation proved to be optimal by the comparisons of overall accuracy (99.78% and the kappa coefficient (0.9946. Finally, the calculated burned area and burned forest area were compared with the values from official statistics. Compared with the classical methods used to report official statistics on burned areas, the remote sensing-based mapping is more objective and efficient, less labour- and time-consuming, and more repeatable.

  15. Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating Burned Areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate burned area in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in burned land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt areas The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating burned areas are vegetation type dependant.

  16. The Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    8 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a pit chain on the lower, northern flank of the giant martian volcano, Arsia Mons. Pits such as these commonly form as a result of collapse of surface materials into a subsurface void, possibly along a fault or into an old lava tube. The layered material, exposed near the top of several of the pits, is shedding house-sized boulders which can be seen resting on the sloping sidewalls and floors of many of the pits. Location near: 6.7oS, 120.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Wickline

    2007-08-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 553 are located within Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the following CASs: •19-99-01, Mud Spill •19-99-11, Mud Spill •20-09-09, Mud Spill •20-99-03, Mud Spill The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 553 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were or will be performed: •Review the current site conditions including the concentration and extent of contamination. •Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. •Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. •Document the Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 553 to be issued by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  18. Deriving required model structures to predict global wildfire burned area from multiple satellite and climate observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Matthias; Dorigo, Wouter; Lasslop, Gitta; Teubner, Irene; Chuvieco, Emilio; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation fires have important effects on human infrastructures and ecosystems, and affect atmospheric composition and the climate system. Consequently, it is necessary to accurately represent fire dynamics in global vegetation models to realistically represent the role of fires in the Earth system. However, it is unclear which model structures are required in global vegetation/fire models to represent fire activity at regional to global scales. Here we aim to identify required structural components and necessary complexities of global vegetation/fire models to predict spatial-temporal dynamics of burned area. For this purpose, we developed the SOFIA (satellite observations for fire activity) modelling approach to predict burned area from several satellite and climate datasets. A large ensemble of SOFIA models was generated and each model was optimized against observed burned area data. Models that account for a suppression of fire activity at wet conditions result in the highest performances in predicting burned area. Models that include vegetation optical depth data from microwave satellite observations reach higher performances in predicting burned area than models that do not include this dataset. Vegetation optical depth is a proxy for vegetation biomass, density and water content and thus indicates a strong control of vegetation states and dynamics on fire activity. We further compared the best performing SOFIA models with the global process-oriented vegetation/fire model JSBACH-SPITFIRE, and with the GFED and Fire_CCI burned area datasets. SOFIA models outperform JSBACH-SPITFIRE in predicting regional variabilities of burned area. We further applied the best SOFIA model to identify controlling factors for burned area. The results indicate that fire activity is controlled by regionally diverse and complex interactions of human, vegetation and climate factors. Our results demonstrate that the use of multiple observational datasets on climate, hydrological

  19. Burn Exclusion Areas from USCG source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [burn_exclusion_areas_USCG_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset delineating areas in the Gulf of Mexico that are excluded from Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ...

  20. Methods to determine the impact of rainfall on fuels and burned area in southern African savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available of the models by up to 30% compared with indices that only used the previous year’s rainfall. Up to 56% of the variance in burned area between years could be explained by an 18-month accumulated rainfall index. Linear models and probit models performed equally...

  1. Impact of burned areas on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of regional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sales, Fernando; Xue, Yongkang; Okin, Gregory S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the impact of burned areas on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional model. Mean burned area fraction derived from MODIS date of burning product was implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF-NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean burned area fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was imposed through lower ground albedo for a period after burning. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground condition deterioration increased mean surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground, which in turn caused a decrease in monthly surface net radiation. On average, the wildfire-season albedo increase was approximately 6.3 % over the Sahel. The associated decrease in surface available energy caused a drop in surface sensible heat flux to the atmosphere during the dry months of winter and early spring, which gradually transitioned to a more substantial decrease in surface evapotranspiration in April and May that lessened throughout the rainy season. Overall, post-fire land condition deterioration resulted in a decrease in precipitation over sub-Saharan Africa, associated with the weakening of the West African monsoon progression through the region. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was observed in the burned area simulations, which played a dominant role in reducing precipitation in the area, especially in the months preceding the monsoon onset. The areas with the largest precipitation impact were those covered by savannas and rainforests, where annual precipitation decreased by 3.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. The resulting precipitation decrease and vegetation deterioration caused a drop in gross primary productivity in the region, which was strongest in late winter and early

  2. Form function and variation of burning surface area for hexa-tubular charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kapur

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of combustion of a hexa-tubular charge, which is a cylindrical charge with six holes of equal diameters- one at the centre and the other five symmetrically situated about it, has been considered in this paper. The burning of the charge proceeds in three distinct phases for each of which the form function and variation of burning surface area has been investigated. Equivalent form-factor has also been found. Numerical results for some important cases are tabulated.

  3. Large-area burns with pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Fang-gang; ZHAO Xiao-zhuo; BIAN Jing; ZHANG Guo-an

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection due to pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PDRPA) has become a challenge in clinical practice. The aim of this research was to summarize the treatment of large-area burns (60%-80%) with PDRPA infection and respiratory failure in our hospital over the last two years, and to explore a feasible treatment protocol for such patients.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the treatment of five patients with large-area burns accompanied by PDRPA infection and respiratory failure transferred to our hospital from burn units in hospitals in other Chinese cities from January 2008 to February 2010. Before PDRPA infection occurred, all five patients had open wounds with large areas of granulation because of the failure of surgery and dissolving of scar tissue; they had also undergone long-term administration of carbapenems. This therapy included ventilatory support, rigorous repair of wounds, and combined antibiotic therapy targeted at drug-resistance mechanisms, including carbapenems, ciprofloxacin, macrolide antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors.Results Four patients recovered from bums and one died after therapy.Conclusions First, compromised immunity caused by delayed healing of burn wounds in patients with large-area bums and long-term administration of carbapenems may be the important factors in the initiation and progression of PDRPA infection. Second, if targeted at drug-resistance mechanisms, combined antibiotic therapy using carbapenems,ciprofloxacin, macrolide antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors could effectively control PDRPA infection. Third, although patients with large-area burns suffered respiratory failure and had high risks from anesthesia and surgery, only aggressive skin grafting with ventilatory support could control the infection and save lives. Patients may not be able to tolerate a long surgical procedure, so the duration of surgery should be minimized, and the frequency of surgery increased.

  4. Fire emissions simulated by prescribing burned area observations in a global vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystova, Iryna G.; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Kloster, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of trace gases and aerosols from large vegetation fires into the atmosphere have an important climate impact. In this study we integrate observed burned area into a global vegetation model to derive global fire emissions. A global continuous burned area products provided by GFED (Global Fire Emissions Dataset) were obtained from MODIS (and pre-MODIS) satellites and are available for the time period 1997-2011. We integrate the global burned area product into the global vegetation model JSBACH, a land part of the Earth-System model developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. JSBACH simulates land biomass in terms of carbon, which can be combined with the satellite burned area information to derive fire carbon emissions. Some assumptions on fire fuel consumptions have to be made during the integration of satellite burned area into the JSBACH. This includes processes such as tree mortality and combustion completeness, i.e. how much of the vegetation biomass gets combusted during a fire. Partially, this information can be also obtained from measurements. In this study we follow closely the approach of GFED, incorporating also GFED supplemental information, to simulate fuel consumption in JSBACH. And we compare simulated by this approach fire carbon emissions with the fire emissions from GFED. Global vegetation models often use prescribed land cover maps. The simulated in the JSBACH vegetation biomass and thus the simulated fire carbon emissions critically depend on the land cover distribution. In our study we derive fire carbon emissions using two different land cover parameterizations, based on two different satellite datasets. We will present the results obtained from simulations using the JSBACH standard MODIS based vegetation distribution and compare them to the results derived using the recently released ESA CCI land cover satellite product to demonstrate the sensitivity of simulated fire carbon emissions to the underlying land cover

  5. Scanning for PIT-tagged flatfish in a coastal area using a sledge equipped with an RFID antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrevohn, C R; Aarestrup, K; Stenberg, C; Righton, D

    2014-08-01

    A radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna system, build into a sledge that can be towed behind a vessel like a trawl and thereby has the potential to detect the position of a passive inductor technology (PIT)-tagged fish in a wide variety of habitats, is presented. By scanning for hatchery-reared PIT-tagged turbot Psetta maxima released into a natural habitat, the performance of the system was compared to a standard juvenile trawl and results suggested that the efficiency of the sledge was five times that of the trawl, which in absolute values corresponds to 75% of P. maxima lying in the pathway of the sledge.

  6. Sensitivity of burned area in Europe to climate change, atmospheric CO2 levels, and demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Minchao; Knorr, Wolfgang; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    -European scale, and we investigate uncertainties in the relative importance of the determining factors. We simulated future burned area with LPJ-GUESS-SIMFIRE, a patch-dynamic global vegetation model with a semiempirical fire model, and LPJmL-SPITFIRE, a dynamic global vegetation model with a process-based fire...... model. Applying a range of future projections that combine different scenarios for climate changes, enhanced CO2 concentrations, and population growth, we investigated the individual and combined effects of these drivers on the total area and regions affected by fire in the 21st century. The two models......Global environmental changes and human activity influence wildland fires worldwide, but the relative importance of the individual factors varies regionally and their interplay can be difficult to disentangle. Here we evaluate projected future changes in burned area at the European and sub...

  7. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  8. Ascraeus Mons Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Ascraeus Mons. The pits and channels are all related to lava tube formation and emptying. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 8, Longitude 253.9 East (106.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal

  9. Microskin autografting in the treatment of burns over 70% of total body surface area: 14 years of clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Lin; Liang, Xun; Sun, Li; Wang, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Wang, Yong-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Despite the fact that early excision and grafting have significantly improved burn outcomes, the management of severely burned patients whose burn size exceeds 70% total body surface area (TBSA) still represents a big challenge for burn surgeons all over the world. During the period of 1997-2010 at our centre, aggressive excision and microskin autografting were performed in 63 severely burned patients. Their burn sizes ranged from 70% to 98% TBSA with a mean of 84.9%. The average full-thickness burn was 66.3% (range, 29-94%). Thirty patients had concomitant inhalation injury. Two to 7 days after burn, these patients underwent aggressive excisions ranging from 25% to 60% TBSA and transplantation of microskin autograft overlaid with allograft. The ratios of donor-site to recipient-site surface area were between 1:6 and 1:18. Signs of epithelialization were shown within 35-55 days. The wound healing rate was 74.9% (176/235), with 51.1% of cases (120/235) healing completely and 23.8% (56/235) improving. Microskin autografting yielded an overall survival rate of 63.5%; only 23 patients died. Our clinical experience in using the microskin autografting for burn coverage suggests that the technique is very effective in covering extensive burns, and that it is particularly useful when graft donor sites are very limited due to its high utilization rate of donor site. The factors affecting the outcome of microskin autografting are discussed herein.

  10. Integration of Optical and SAR Data for Burned Area Mapping in Mediterranean Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Stroppiana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate how optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data can be combined in an integrated multi-source framework to identify burned areas at the regional scale. The proposed approach is based on the use of fuzzy sets theory and a region-growing algorithm. Landsat TM and (C-band ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR images acquired for the year 2003 have been processed to extract burned area maps over Portugal. Pre-post fire SAR backscatter temporal difference has been integrated with optical spectral indices to the aim of reducing confusion between burned areas and low-albedo surfaces. The output fuzzy score maps have been compared with reference fire perimeters provided by the Fire Atlas of Portugal. Results show that commission and omission errors in the output burned area maps are a function of the threshold applied to the fuzzy score maps; between the two extremes of the greatest producer’s accuracy (omission error < 10% and user’s accuracy (commission error < 5%, an intermediate threshold value provides errors of about 20% over the study area. The integration of SAR backscatter allowed reducing local commission errors from 65.4% (using optical data, only to 11.4%, showing to significantly mitigate local errors due to the presence of cloud shadows and wetland areas. Overall, the proposed method is flexible and open to further developments; also in the perspective of the European Space Agency (ESA Sentinel missions operationally providing SAR and optical datasets.

  11. On the use of the (V,W) Burn-Sensitive Vegetation Index System to monitor the spatiotemporal distribution of burned areas in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaCamara, Carlos; Libonati, Renata; Calado, Teresa; Ermida, Sofia; Nunes, Sílvia

    2017-04-01

    The use of remotely sensed information for burned area detection is well established and there is a general consensus about its usefulness from global down to regional levels. In this particular, the combined use of near and middle infrared (NIR and MIR) channels has shown to be particularly suitable to discriminate burned areas in a variety of ecosystems. The so-called (V,W) system [1,2] is a burn-sensitive vegetation index system defined in a transformed NIR-MIR space that has proven to be capable of discriminating burned pixels in the Brazilian biomes. A procedure based on the (V,W) system is here presented that allows discriminating burned areas and dating burning events. The procedure is tested over Portugal using NIR and MIR data from the Terra/Aqua MODIS Level 1B 1 km V5 product (MOD021/MYD021) together with active fire data from the MODIS V5 product Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km (MOD14/ MYD14). First monthly minimum composites of W are computed for July and August 2015. Burned pixels are then identified as the ones that are located close to hot spots (detected during August) and that present low values of composited minimum of W in August (characteristic of a burning event) together with a sharp decrease of composited minimum of W from July to August (that is expected to occur after a burning event). Burned pixels are then successively identified by a seeded region-growing algorithm. The day of burning of each pixel classified as burned is finally identified as the one that maximizes an index of temporal separability computed along the respective time series of available values of W in August. Results obtained are validated using as reference burned scars and dates as identified by the Rapid Damage Assessment (RDA) module developed by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS); the EFFIS mapping process consists of an unsupervised procedure that uses MODIS bands at 250 m resolution combined with information from the CORINE Land Cover

  12. Forward Operating Base Salerno: Inadequate Planning Resulted in $5 Million Spent for Unused Incinerators and the Continued Use of Potentially Hazardous Open-Air Burn Pit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    health hazards associated with smoke emitted by burning waste include breathing particulate matter such as lead, mercury, dioxins, and irritant gases...and the effects they may have on various organs and body systems such as the adrenal glands, lungs, liver , and stomach. See Epidemiological Studies

  13. Scanning for PIT-tagged flatfish in a coastal area using a sledge equipped with an RFID antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Aarestrup, Kim; Stenberg, Claus

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna system, build into a sledge that can be towed behind a vessel like a trawl and thereby has the potential to detect the position of a passive inductor technology (PIT)-tagged fish in a wide variety of habitats, is presented. By scanning for hatchery...

  14. Sulci Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. This is the Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. These collapse pits are forming along structural fractures that are allowing the release of volatiles from the subsurface. This is believed to be the way that chaos terrain forms on Mars. This area represents the early stage of chaos formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.6, Longitude 264 East (96 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  15. Relative importance of fuel management, ignition management and weather for area burned: Evidence from five landscape-fire-succession models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey J. Cary; Mike D. Flannigan; Robert E. Keane; Ross A. Bradstock; Ian D. Davies; James M. Lenihan; Chao Li; Kimberley A. Logan; Russell A. Parsons

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of five landscape fire models (CAFE, FIRESCAPE, LAMOS(HS), LANDSUM and SEMLAND) was compared in a standardised modelling experiment. The importance of fuel management approach, fuel management effort, ignition management effort and weather in determining variation in area burned and number of edge pixels burned (a measure of potential impact on assets...

  16. Validation of the USGS Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Fairaux, Nicole; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    The Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), capitalizes on the long temporal availability of Landsat imagery to identify burned areas across the conterminous United States (CONUS) (1984–2015). Adequate validation of such products is critical for their proper usage and interpretation. Validation of coarse-resolution products often relies on independent data derived from moderate-resolution sensors (e.g., Landsat). Validation of Landsat products, in turn, is challenging because there is no corresponding source of high-resolution, multispectral imagery that has been systematically collected in space and time over the entire temporal extent of the Landsat archive. Because of this, comparison between high-resolution images and Landsat science products can help increase user's confidence in the Landsat science products, but may not, alone, be adequate. In this paper, we demonstrate an approach to systematically validate the Landsat-derived BAECV product. Burned area extent was mapped for Landsat image pairs using a manually trained semi-automated algorithm that was manually edited across 28 path/rows and five different years (1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008). Three datasets were independently developed by three analysts and the datasets were integrated on a pixel by pixel basis in which at least one to all three analysts were required to agree a pixel was burned. We found that errors within our Landsat reference dataset could be minimized by using the rendition of the dataset in which pixels were mapped as burned if at least two of the three analysts agreed. BAECV errors of omission and commission for the detection of burned pixels averaged 42% and 33%, respectively for CONUS across all five validation years. Errors of omission and commission were lowest across the western CONUS, for example in the shrub and scrublands of the Arid West (31% and 24%, respectively), and highest in the grasslands and

  17. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  18. Tharsis Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found within the extensive lava flows of the Tharsis region. They are related to lava tubes, likely coming from Ascraeus Mons. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 22.8, Longitude 266.8 East (93.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington

  19. Tractus Catena Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in graben located in Tractus Catena. These features are related to subsidence after magma chamber evacuation of Alba Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.8, Longitude 241.7 East (118.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  20. Determination of the less extended areas to be exploited economically in the pits of the Oroszlany collieries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szekely, G.

    1987-01-01

    A study is presented on the variations of production costs as a function of the size of the field of workings. The impact of various factors on the efficiency of production is discussed. A relationship is determined between the calorific value of the coals to be exploited and the return of sales. The empiric relationships worked out to one of the pits are valid only for coals of a calorific value higher than 14,500 kJ/kg.

  1. Standardised mortality ratio based on the sum of age and percentage total body surface area burned is an adequate quality indicator in burn care: An exploratory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ingrid; Elmasry, Moustafa; Fredrikson, Mats; Sjoberg, Folke

    2016-02-01

    Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) based on generic mortality predicting models is an established quality indicator in critical care. Burn-specific mortality models are preferred for the comparison among patients with burns as their predictive value is better. The aim was to assess whether the sum of age (years) and percentage total body surface area burned (which constitutes the Baux score) is acceptable in comparison to other more complex models, and to find out if data collected from a separate burn centre are sufficient for SMR based quality assessment. The predictive value of nine burn-specific models was tested by comparing values from the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and a non-inferiority analysis using 1% as the limit (delta). SMR was analysed by comparing data from seven reference sources, including the North American National Burn Repository (NBR), with the observed mortality (years 1993-2012, n=1613, 80 deaths). The AUC values ranged between 0.934 and 0.976. The AUC 0.970 (95% CI 0.96-0.98) for the Baux score was non-inferior to the other models. SMR was 0.52 (95% CI 0.28-0.88) for the most recent five-year period compared with NBR based data. The analysis suggests that SMR based on the Baux score is eligible as an indicator of quality for setting standards of mortality in burn care. More advanced modelling only marginally improves the predictive value. The SMR can detect mortality differences in data from a single centre. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area. Volume 3, Application of technical issues to the TRU-contaminated pits and trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Krisman, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the acid pit and transuranic pits and trenches (TRU-PTs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues lated with ISV application at the SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in a three-volume report. Volume I identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. Volumes 2 and 3 discuss each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTS, respectively. The three-volume report is a working document that will be updated as necessary to reflect current evaluation strategy for the ISV technology. This is Volume 3.

  3. Validating long-term satellite-derived disturbance products: the case of burned areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Climate Data Record. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted that is characterized by the selection of reference data via a probability sampling that can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics, taking into account the sampling probability. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for the validation of global products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods or other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost of collecting independent reference data. We propose a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space. To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn by probability sampling. The proposed sampling design is a stratified random sampling, with two-level stratification of the voxels based on biomes and fire activity (Figure 1). The novel

  4. Climate and wildfire area burned in western U.S. ecoprovinces, 1916-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy S; McKenzie, Donald; Peterson, David L; Westerling, Anthony L

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify climatic controls on the area burned by fire in different vegetation types in the western United States. We demonstrate that wildfire area burned (WFAB) in the American West was controlled by climate during the 20th century (1916-2003). Persistent ecosystem-specific correlations between climate and WFAB are grouped by vegetation type (ecoprovinces). Most mountainous ecoprovinces exhibit strong year-of-fire relationships with low precipitation, low Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), and high temperature. Grass- and shrub-dominated ecoprovinces had positive relationships with antecedent precipitation or PDSI. For 1977-2003, a few climate variables explain 33-87% (mean = 64%) of WFAB, indicating strong linkages between climate and area burned. For 1916-2003, the relationships are weaker, but climate explained 25-57% (mean = 39%) of the variability. The variance in WFAB is proportional to the mean squared for different data sets at different spatial scales. The importance of antecedent climate (summer drought in forested ecosystems and antecedent winter precipitation in shrub and grassland ecosystems) indicates that the mechanism behind the observed fire-climate relationships is climatic preconditioning of large areas of low fuel moisture via drying of existing fuels or fuel production and drying. The impacts of climate change on fire regimes will therefore vary with the relative energy or water limitations of ecosystems. Ecoprovinces proved a useful compromise between ecologically imprecise state-level and localized gridded fire data. The differences in climate-fire relationships among the ecoprovinces underscore the need to consider ecological context (vegetation, fuels, and seasonal climate) to identify specific climate drivers of WFAB. Despite the possible influence of fire suppression, exclusion, and fuel treatment, WFAB is still substantially controlled by climate. The implications for planning and management are that

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-B-3, 184-B Coal Pit Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-07

    The 126-B-3 waste site is the former coal storage pit for the 184-B Powerhouse. During demolition operations in the 1970s, the site was used for disposal of demolition debris from 100-B/C Area facilities. The site has been remediated by removing debris and contaminated soils. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Strategies for the fusion of satellite fire radiative power with burned area data for fire radiative energy derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Luigi; Roy, David P.

    2009-10-01

    Instantaneous estimates of the power released by a fire (Fire Radiative Power, FRP) are available with satellite active fire detection products. Integrating FRP in time provides an estimate of the total energy released (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE), which can be converted into burned biomass estimates needed by the atmospheric emissions modeling community. While straightforward in theory, the integration of FRP in time and space is affected by temporal and spatial undersampling imposed by the satellite sensing and orbit geometry, clouds, and active fire product omission errors. Combination of active fire FRP estimates with independently derived burned area maps provides the potential for improved and spatially explicit estimates of FRE and biomass burned. In the present work, strategies for the temporal interpolation of FRP data and for the spatial extrapolation of FRE across the burn are proposed and, as a study case, applied to an extensive grassland fire that burned for 40 days in northern Australia. The fusion of FRP estimates derived from MODIS Terra and Aqua active fire detections with the MODIS burned area product is considered, although other polar orbiting and geostationary satellite fire products could be used. Intercomparison of FRE estimated over the MODIS mapped burned area using Terra, Aqua, and Terra-Aqua combined FRP data highlights the sensitivity of FRE estimation to satellite sampling. Despite this sensitivity, FRE biomass burned estimates derived from MODIS burned area and Terra and Aqua FRP data are within 30% of regional literature estimates, suggesting that this fusion approach is a fruitful avenue for future research and validation.

  7. Structural Origins of Martian Pit Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Colton, S. L.; Sims, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, and are common on the surface of Mars. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that these features are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying sediments. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, karst dissolution, fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (i) visible faulting to (ii) faults and pits to (iii) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to interpret a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. The information collected in the study was then compared with non-Martian examples of pit chains and physical analog models. We evaluated the various mechanisms for pit chain development based on the data collected and conclude that dilational

  8. Chemical and toxicological effects of medicinal Baccharis trimera extract from coal burning area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Paula S; da Silva, Juliana; Fisher, Camila; da Silva, Fernanda R; Reyes, Juliana M; Picada, Jaqueline N; Ferraz, Alice G; Corrêa, Dione S; Premoli, Suziane M; Dias, Johnny F; de Souza, Claudia T; Ferraz, Alexandre de B F

    2016-03-01

    The entire process of power generation, extraction, processing and use of coal strongly impact water resources, soil, air quality and biota leads to changes in the fauna and flora. Pollutants generated by coal burning have been contaminating plants that grow in area impacted by airborne pollution with high metal contents. Baccharis trimera is popularly consumed as tea, and is widely developed in Candiota (Brazil), one of the most important coal burning regions of the Brazil. This study aims to investigate the phytochemical profile, in vivo genotoxic and mutagenic potential of extracts of B. trimera collected from an exposed region to pollutants generated by coal burning (Candiota City) and other unexposed region (Bagé City), using the Comet assay and micronucleus test in mice and the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay. The HPLC analyses indicated higher levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids for B. trimera aqueous extract from Bagé and absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for both extracts. The presence of toxic elements such as cobalt, nickel and manganese was statistically superior in the extract from Candiota. For the Comet assay and micronucleus test, the mice were treated with Candiota and Bagé B. trimera aqueous extracts (500-2000 mg/kg). Significant genotoxicity was observed at higher doses treated with B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota in liver and peripheral blood cells. Micronuclei were not observed but the results of the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay showed a significant increase in TA98 revertants for B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota. The extract of B. trimera from Candiota bioacumulated higher levels of trace elements which were associated with the genotoxic effects detected in liver and peripheral blood cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of trace gas to aerosol relationships over biomass burning areas using daily satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thomas; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Zörner, Jan; Beirle, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    The quantification and characterization of aerosols from space is a great challenge. Especially in the presence of clouds and over land surfaces, it is often difficult to distinguish the signals of aerosol scattering from scattering by cloud particles or surface reflection. Instead of deriving aerosol properties directly, satellite observations of tropospheric trace gases, emitted by the same emission sources as the aerosols, can be used to derive additional information on the aerosols. Such observations have two potential advantages: First, from the composition of trace gases, information on the aerosol type can be derived. Second, such observations are possible in the presence of clouds (although usually with reduced sensitivity if the trace gases are located below the cloud). In this feasibility study we investigate the relationship between satellite observations of trace gases (CO, NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO) and AOD (measured from satellite or ground). We also include in our comparison satellite observations of the so called UV aerosol index (UVAI), which is an indicator of the aerosol absorption. Like the trace gas observations, also the UVAI can be retrieved in the presence of clouds. We investigate aerosol-trace gas relationships over biomass burning regions. Depending on their optical properties and altitude distribution such aerosols can have a strong impact on the atmospheric energy budget through direct and indirect effects. We perform correlation analyses for selected AERONET stations and also for larger biomass burning areas by also taking into account satellite observations of fire counts.

  10. Estimation of aerosol transport from biomass burning areas during the SCAR-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosnikov, Igor V.; Nobre, Carlos A.

    1998-12-01

    A transport model for the estimation of tracers spreading from biomass burning areas has been developed on the basis of the semi-Lagrangian technique. The model consists of a three-dimensional Lagrangian form transport equation for tracers and uses the quasi-monotone local cubic-spline interpolation for calculation of unknown values at irregular points. A mass-conserving property of the model is based on the flux-corrected transport method using the algorithm of Priestley. The transport of the smoke particles from Amazonia was simulated for the period from August 20 to 29, 1995. During this period the air mass located below 2 km moved to the south and carried the smoke particles until 30°S.

  11. Can we go beyond burned area assessment with fire patch metrics from global remote rensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Pereira Messias, Joana; Ruffault, Julien; Chuvieco, Emilio; Mouillot, Florent

    2016-04-01

    Fire is a major event influencing global biogeochemical cycles and contribute to the emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Global burned area (BA) datasets from remote sensing have provided the fruitful information for quantifying carbon emissions in global biogeochemical models, and for DGVM's benchmarking. Patch level analysis from pixel level information recently emerged as an informative additional feature of the regime as fire size distribution. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of global BA products to accurately represent characteristics of fire patches (size, complexity shape and spatial orientation). We selected a site in the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado), one of the most fire prone biome and one of the validation test site for the ESA fire-Cci project. We used the pixel-level burned area detected by Landsat, MCD45A1 and the newly delivered MERIS ESA fire-Cci for the period 2002-2009. A flood-fill algorithm adapted from Archibald and Roy (2009) was used to identify the individual fire patches (patch ID) according to the burned date (BD). For each patch ID, we calculated a panel of patch metrics as area, perimeter and core area, shape complexity (shape index and fractal dimension) and the feature of the ellipse fitted over the spatial distribution of pixels composing the patch (eccentricity and direction of the main axis). Paired fire patches overlapping between each BA products were compared. The correlation between patch metrics were evaluated by linear regression models for each inter-product comparison according to fire size classes. Our results showed significant patch overlaps (>30%) between products for patches with areas larger than 270ha, with more than 90% of patches overlapping between MERIS and MCD45A1. Fire Patch metrics correlations showed R2>0.6 for all comparisons of patch Area and Core Area, with a slope of 0.99 between MERIS and MCD45A1 illustrating the agreement between the two global products. The

  12. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  13. Hydrology of, and water quality in, the open burning area and vicinity, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1989-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine whether shallow ground water at Picatinny Arsenal Morris County, New Jersey, has been con- taminated as a result of operations at the open burning area, which is used for burning of waste explosives and materials contaminated with explosives. Results of previous investigations indicate that the soil in this area is contaminated with metals and organic compounds. Twenty-seven wells were sampled for analysis for inorganic constituents, nutrients, and explosive compounds. Selected wells also were sampled for analysis for base/neutral- and acid-extractable compounds, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and dioxin and furan compounds. Surface-water and streambed- material samples were collected at three sites in Green Pond Brook. Water-level measurements indicate that ground-water flow generally is nearly horizontal and toward Green Pond Brook. The average velocity of the ground water is estimated to be 0.03 to 1.8 feet per day. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground-water samples from the unconfined aquifer were consistently greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations. Because similarly high concentrations of these constituents have been found in ground-water samples at the arsenal, they are not considered to be a consequence of activities at the open burning area. Contaminants from the open burning area appear to be contributing to elevated concentratons of lead, zinc, and explosive com- pounds found in the streambed material. Other trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons probably are derived from both the open burning area and upstream sources. Volatile organic compounds were detected in surface-water samples at low concentrations, although most were found upstream from the open burning area. No inorganic or organic constituents were detected in ground-water or surface-water samples in concentrations that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection

  14. Annual burned area across a precipitation gradient in northwestern patagonia steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    study area in relation to precipitation gradient establishing two zones (wet and xeric). To delimit area of wildfires on Landsat scenes we used the NBR index. Then, we calculated the annual burned area in each zone, compared the annual burned area between zones and also explored relationships between that variable of the fire regime and precipitation/temperature data. We expect to contribute to the discussions about the importance of drought/fuel on the fire activity across the productivity/aridity gradient, specifically on Mediterranean environments. Finally, with this work we expect to improve future management and conservation practices in Northwestern Patagonia grasslands.

  15. Automated Burned Area Delineation Using IRS AWiFS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, J.; Kiranchand, T. R.; Rajashekar, G.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    India is endowed with a rich forest cover. Over 21% of country's area is covered by forest of varied composition and structure. Out of 67.5 million ha of Indian forests, about 55% of the forest cover is being subjected to fires each year, causing an economic loss of over 440 crores of rupees apart from other ecological effects. Studies carried out by Forest Survey of India reveals that on an average 53% forest cover of the country is prone to fires and 6.17% of the forests are prone to severe fire damage. Forest Survey of India in a countrywide study in 1995 estimated that about 1.45 million hectares of forest are affected by fire annually. According to Forest Protection Division of the Ministry of Environment and Forest (GOI), 3.73 million ha of forests are affected by fire annually in India. Karnataka is one of the southern states of India extending in between latitude 110 30' and 180 25' and longitudes 740 10' and 780 35'. As per Forest Survey of India's State of Forest Report (SFR) 2009, of the total geographic area of 191791sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest area. Major forest types occurring in the study area are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Typical forest fire season in the study area is from February-May with a peak during March-April every year, though sporadic fire episodes occur in other parts of the year sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest area. Major forest types occurring in the study area are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Significant area of the deciduous forests, scrub and grasslands is prone to recurrent forest fires every year. In this study we evaluate the feasibility of burned area mapping over a large area (Karnataka state, India) using a semi-automated detection algorithm applied to medium resolution multi

  16. Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossel, W.; Stollberg, R.; Wycisk, P. [Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences, Dept. of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km{sup 2}. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  17. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Waldo Canyon Burn Area near Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2012 Waldo Canyon fire near Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and potential volume of debris flows along the drainage network of the burned area and to estimate the same for 22 selected drainage basins along U.S. Highway 24 and the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (29 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (42 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (48 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 54 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from less than 1 to 74 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from less than 1 to 82 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the southern and southeastern edge of the burn area where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Nine of the 22 drainage basins of interest have greater than a 40-percent probability of producing a debris flow in response to the 10-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 1,500 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce

  18. Aerosol optical properties in pristine and biomass burning areas in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Rizzo, L.; Lucca, S.; Paixao, M.; Sena, E. T.; Cirino, G.; Arana, A.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol physical and chemical properties were measured in two sites in Amazonia. The clean site is at Central Amazonia, close to Manaus. A second sampling site is located in Porto Velho, Rondonia, an area strongly affected by biomass burning emissions. Long term measurements, from February 2008 are being carried out in these two sites. In the pristine central Amazonia, measurements were taken at the Cuieiras forest site, tower TT34, 55 Km North of Manaus under dry conditions (RHMAAP 5012 absorption photometer in series with a nephelometer (TSI 3563) was used to measure aerosol absorption and scattering, respectively. Aerosol size distributions were measure using a TSI SMPS system. Aerosol composition, and several trace gases that helps to characterize aerosol sources were also measured. In Rondonia, a sampling station was installed close to the city of Porto Velho. Similar instrumentation as in Manaus was used in Rondonia. In the pristine Amazonian atmosphere, aerosol scattering coefficients ranged between 1 and 200 Mm-1 at 450 nm, while absorption ranged between 1 and 20 Mm-1 at 637 nm. A strong seasonal behavior was observed, with greater aerosol loadings during the dry season (Jul-Nov) as compared to the wet season (Dec-Jun). During the wet season in Manaus, aerosol scattering (450 nm) and absorption (637 nm) coefficients averaged, respectively, 14±22 and 0.9±0.8 Mm-1. Both optical coefficients were greatly increased during the dry season, averaging 58±35 Mm-1 and 4.1±3.8 Mm-1, correspondingly. Angstrom exponents for scattering were lower during the wet season (1.6±0.4) in comparison to the dry season (1.9±0.2), which is consistent with the shift from biomass burning aerosols. Single scattering albedo, calculated at 637 nm, did not show a significant seasonal variation, averaging 0.86 ± 0.06 and 0.86 ± 0.04, respectively for wet and dry season. In Rondonia, even in the wet season it was possible to observe a strong impact from anthropogenic sources

  19. Itch in burn areas after skin transplantation : Patient characteristics, influencing factors and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Hester C.; Bremer, Marc; Braem, Lee; Goemanne, Anne Sofi; Middelkoop, Esthe; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2015-01-01

    Pruritus is a frequently encountered symptom following burns. Higher intensity of itching has been associated with depth of the wounds and specific body locations but these differences are not well understood. Our aim was to investigate the intensity of post burn pruritus in grafted and non-grafted

  20. Itch in burn areas after skin transplantation : Patient characteristics, influencing factors and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Hester C.; Bremer, Marc; Braem, Lee; Goemanne, Anne Sofi; Middelkoop, Esthe; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2015-01-01

    Pruritus is a frequently encountered symptom following burns. Higher intensity of itching has been associated with depth of the wounds and specific body locations but these differences are not well understood. Our aim was to investigate the intensity of post burn pruritus in grafted and non-grafted

  1. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  2. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  3. Validation of the Two Standard MODIS Satellite Burned-Area Products and an Empirically-Derived Merged Product in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philemon Tsela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS burned area products, MCD45A1, MCD64A1, and a merged product were validated across six study sites in South Africa using independently-derived Landsat burned-area reference data during the fire season of 2007. The objectives of this study were to: (i investigate the likelihood of the improved detection of small burns through an empirically-derived merged product; (ii quantify the probability of detection by each product using sub-pixel burned area measures; and, (iii compare the mean percent concurrence of burned pixels between the standard products over a ten-year time series in each site. Results show that MCD45A1 presented higher detection probabilities (i.e., 3.0%–37.9% for small fractions ≤50%, whereas MCD64A1 appeared more reliable (i.e., 12.0%–89.2% in detecting large fractions >50% of a burned MODIS pixel, respectively. Overall, the merged product demonstrated improved detection of the burned area in all fractions. This paper also demonstrates that, on average, >50% of MODIS burned pixels temporally concur between the MCD45A1 and MCD64A1 products in each site. These findings have significant implications for fire monitoring in southern Africa and contribute toward the understanding of the range and of the sources of errors present in the MODIS burned area products.

  4. [Efficacies of treating large area third-degree burns by tangential excision and skin grafting for subcutaneous tissue wounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guodong; Jia, Jun; Ma, Yindong; Shi, Wen; Wang, Fang; Li, Peilong; Gao, Cong; Zuo, Haibin; Fan, Chunjie; Yang, Tao; Wu, Qiuhe; Shao, Yang

    2014-12-02

    To explore the efficacies of treating patients with large area third-degree burns by tangential excision and skin grafting for subcutaneous tissue wounds. From January 2002 to December 2013, the medical records were retrospectively reviewed for 31 consecutive adult patients with a third-degree burn area exceeding 70% and undergoing tangential excision and skin grafting on subcutaneous tissue wound (TESGSTW) for the first time within 7 days postburn at Burn Center, Affiliated Jinan Central Hospital, Shandong University. For 31 patients, wounds with relative integrity eschar underwent TESGSTW by stages. Tourniquet was not used in some extremities. The relevant clinical data including patient condition on admission, causes of death, blood loss of tangential excision wound, surgical procedures and efficacies in cured group were analyzed. Average age, burn total area and third-degree burn area of 31 patients were (32.4 ± 12.8) years, (89.0 ± 6.2)% and (80.4 ± 7.6)% respectively. There were inhalation injury (n = 25, 80.6%) and early-stage shock before hospitalization (n = 22, 71.0%). Among 18 cured ones (58.1%), 2 patients had a third-degree burn area ≥ 90%. And 13 patients (41.9%) died and 10 of them died at 4 to 19 days postburn. Burn area was a risk factor of burn mortality. Sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) were major mortality causes. Four patients died from early-stage sepsis. Within 14 days postburn, average blood loss volume per 1% tangential excision area in non-tourniquet group was slightly higher than that in the tourniquet group, but the difference was insignificant. For 18 cured patients, TESGSTW were performed 41 times. For 14 patients (77.8%), TESGSTW was performed twice. The average time of the first tangential excision was (4.1 ± 0.6) days postburn, the time interval between the first two tangential excisions was (6.4 ± 2.0) days, the first tangential excision area (33.8 ± 7.6)% and accumulated tangential excision area (58

  5. Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate–fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA, the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997–2010 and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984–2009 BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for the entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation – PE was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6–12 months. Fire season PE increased from the 1980's–2000's, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE–BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990's–2000's highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the

  6. Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Morton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA, the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997–2010 and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984–2009 BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE} and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation – PE was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6–12 months. Fire season PE increased from the 1980s–2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s–2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of

  7. Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997-2010) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984-2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for the entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation - PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6-12 months). Fire season PE increased from the 1980's-2000's, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990's-2000's highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types

  8. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 High Park Burn Area near Fort Collins, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2012 High Park fire near Fort Collins in Larimer County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burned area drainage network and to estimate the same for 44 selected drainage basins along State Highway 14 and the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (25 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (43 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (51 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities along the drainage network and throughout the drainage basins of interest ranged from 1 to 84 percent in response to the 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; from 2 to 95 percent in response to the 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; and from 3 to 97 in response to the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the eastern edge of the burn area where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Estimated debris-flow volumes range from a low of 1,600 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce substantial volumes of material. The predicted probabilities and some of the volumes predicted for the modeled storms indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow impacts on structures, roads, bridges, and culverts located both within and

  9. Emissions from Combustion of Open Area Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural burns generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...

  10. Pitting process visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes time-domain simulation of gear pitting damage using animation program. Key frames have been used to create illusion of motion. The animation uses experimental results of high-cycle fatigue of material. The fatigue damage occurs in the nominal creep area on the side of the gear tooth sample loaded with variable-positioned Hertz pressure. By applying the force, the pressure cumulates between two convex surfaces. This phenomenon results in material damage under of curved surfaces in contact. Moreover, further damage has been registered on the surface. This is due to exceeding the elastic-plastic state limit and development of „tabs“. The tabs serve as origin of surface micro cracks powered by shear stress and enclosed grease pressure as well. This deformation and extreme pressures of Pascal law contribute to elongation and growth of the surface micro crack. Non-homogenous parts of material volume support the initialization/development of the micro cracks as well. Resulting visualization of the tooth-side fatigue damage provides clear and easy-to-understand description of the damage development process right from the micro crack initialization to the final fragmentation due to pitting degradation.

  11. 3D photography is a reliable burn wound area assessment tool compared to digital planimetry in very young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee Kee, E L; Kimble, R M; Stockton, K A

    2015-09-01

    Reliability and validity of 3D photography (3D LifeViz™ System) compared to digital planimetry (Visitrak™) has been established in a compliant cohort of children with acute burns. Further research is required to investigate these assessment tools in children representative of the general pediatric burns population, specifically children under the age of three years. To determine if 3D photography is a reliable wound assessment tool compared to Visitrak™ in children of all ages with acute burns ≤10% TBSA. Ninety-six children (median age 1 year 9 months) who presented to the Royal Children's Hospital Brisbane with an acute burn ≤10% TBSA were recruited into the study. Wounds were measured at the first dressing change using the Visitrak™ system and 3D photography. All measurements were completed by one investigator and level of agreement between wound surface area measurements was calculated. Wound surface area measurements were complete (i.e. participants had measurements from both techniques) for 75 participants. Level of agreement between wound surface area measurements calculated using an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was excellent (ICC 0.96, 95% CI 0.93, 0.97). Visitrak™ tracings could not be completed in 19 participants with 16 aged less than two years. 3D photography could not be completed for one participant. Barriers to completing tracings were: excessive movement, pain, young age or wound location (e.g. face or perineum). This study has confirmed 3D photography as a reliable alternative to digital planimetry in children of all ages with acute burns ≤10% TBSA. In addition, 3D photography is more suitable for very young children given its non-invasive nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. FUNCTIONS OF HYDROLOGICAL OBJECTS IN THE AREAS OF POST-MINING OPEN PIT “WŁADYSŁAWÓW”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Maria Gilewska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Operated by lignite mine “Adams” coal deposits are located in the upland area of ​​the Turkish, belonging to the South Plains macro-region of Wielkopolska. A feature of this region are not only low rainfall, but also the lack of water reservoirs and large rivers. Mining activity has caused major changes in the hydrological network, not just for liquidation, postpone or reconstruction of riverbeds, but also the creation of new objects that collect water. These include settling the waters “dirty”, as well as reservoirs formed in excavation voids as part of a water reclamation. After the end of coal mining operation of these facilities is dependent on hydrology and hydraulic engineering conditions. This problem will be shown on the example of dirty water clarifier and final excavation undergoing water reclamation opencast mining areas Władysławów. Outcrop ended its activities in 2013. The final excavation is no outflow basin with a capacity of 42 million m3, located within the river basin Topiec constituting the left-hand tributary of the Warta.

  13. Joint Use of Sentinel-1 and Landsat-8 data for Burned Areas Mapping: the Case of the Sardinia Island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Antonio; Azar, Ramin; Calò, Fabiana; Stroppiana, Daniela; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Imperatore, Pasquale

    2016-04-01

    Fires widely affect Mediterranean regions, causing severe threats to human lives and damages to natural environments. The socio-economic impacts of fires on the affected local communities are significant, indeed, the activation of prevention measures and the extinguishment of fires and reclamation of the pre-fire conditions are very expensive. Moreover, fires have also global impacts: they affect global warming and climate changes due to gas and aerosol emissions to atmosphere. In such a context, fire scars mapping and monitoring are fundamental tasks for a sustainable management of natural resources and for the prevention/mitigation of fire risk. With this respect, remotely sensed data offer the opportunity for a regional-up-to-global scale monitoring of areas prone to fires, on a cost-effective and regular basis. In this work, the potential of a joint use of Sentinel-1A (C-band) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data for detecting burned areas is investigated. The experimental analyses are conducted by focusing on Sardinia Island, which is one of the Italian regions most affected by fire events during summer. Our analysis shows that the capability of monitoring burned areas in the Mediterranean environment can be improved by exploiting information embedded in OLI multispectral bands in conjunction with multi-temporal dual-polarized SAR data. Indeed, limitations experienced in analyses based on the use of only optical data (e.g., cloud cover, spectral overlap/confusion of burned areas with dark soils, water surfaces and shaded regions) may be overcome by using SAR data, owing to the insensitiveness to sunlight-illumination conditions and the cloud-penetrating capability of microwave radiation. Results prove the effectiveness of an integrated approach based on the combination of optical and microwave imagery for the monitoring and mapping of burned areas in vegetated regions.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NTS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-11-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NNSS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed

  16. Methodology for the detection of land cover changes in time series of daily satellite images. Application to burned area detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Moreno-Ruiz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a methodology for detection of observable phenomena at pixel level over time series of daily satellite images, based on using a Bayesian classifier. This methodology has been applied successfully to detect burned areas in the North American boreal forests using the LTDR dataset. The LTDR dataset represents the longest time series of global daily satellite images with 0.05° (~5 km of spatial resolution. The proposed methodology has several stages: 1 pre-processing daily images to obtain composite images of n days; 2 building of space of statistical variables or attributes to consider; 3 designing an algorithm, by selecting and filtering the training cases; 4 obtaining probability maps related to the considered thematic classes; 5 post-processing to improve the results obtained by applying multiple techniques (filters, ranges, spatial coherence, etc.. The generated results are analyzed using accuracy metrics derived from the error matrix (commission and omission errors, percentage of estimation and using scattering plots against reference data (correlation coefficient and slope of the regression line. The quality of the results obtained improves, in terms of spatial and timing accuracy, to other burned area products that use images of higher spatial resolution (500 m and 1 km, but they are only available after year 2000 as MCD45A1 and BA GEOLAND-2: the total burned area estimation for the study region for the years 2001-2011 was 28.56 millions of ha according to reference data and 12.41, 138.43 and 19.41 millions of ha for the MCD45A1, BA GEOLAND-2 and BA-LTDR burned area products, respectively.

  17. Dermoscopy of Pitted Keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L. Lockwood

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritated hyperhidrotic soles with multiple small pits are pathognomonic for pitted keratolysis (PK. Here we show the dermatoscopic view of typical pits that can ensure the diagnosis. PK is a plantar infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly Corynebacterium. Increases in skin surface pH, hyperhidrosis, and prolonged occlusion allow these bacteria to proliferate. The diagnosis is fundamentally clinical and treatment generally consists of a combination of hygienic measures, correcting plantar hyperhidrosis and topical antimicrobials.

  18. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex near South Fork in southwestern Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within and just downstream from the burned area, and to estimate the same for 54 drainage basins of interest within the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the debris-flow models included topographic variables, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm; (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm; and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the 54 drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 65 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from 1 to 77 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from 1 to 83 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Twelve of the 54 drainage basins of interest have a 30-percent probability or greater of producing a debris flow in response to the 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 2,400 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages also were predicted to produce substantial debris flows. One of the 54 drainage basins of interest had the highest combined hazard ranking, while 9 other basins had the second highest combined hazard ranking. Of these 10 basins with the 2 highest

  19. 谈泰达广场 G & H 区项目基坑支护技术%On foundation pit support technique at G & H Area of Taida Square

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞建栋; 张春晓

    2016-01-01

    结合天津泰达广场 G&H 区项目的地质条件,从基坑支护、止水帷幕设计、基坑降水、施工程序等方面,阐述了该工程的基坑支护方案,并对该方案进行了监测,结果表明该基坑支护技术达到了预期的施工效果。%Combining with the geological conditions of the projects at the G&H Area of Taida Square,the paper illustrates the foundation pit sup-port scheme of the project from the foundation pit support,waterproof curtain design,dewatering foundation pit,and construction program,in-spects the scheme,and proves by the result the foundation pit support technique achieves the expected construction effect.

  20. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya

  1. Patch-mosaic burning: a new paradigm for savanna fire management in protected areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Parr

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The shift in ecological thinking, from equilibrium to non-equilibrium processes has been accompanied by a move to encourage heterogeneity rather than homogeneity in landscapes. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity is thought to be a major source of biotic diversity, and disturbances such as fire, producing heterogeneity are now recognised as being important. A patch-mosaic system of burning is based on the premise that fire pattern is a surrogate for diversity, and produces a range of patches in the landscape with unique patch characteristics and fire histories. A patch-mosaic system of burning is supported historically and empirically through field studies. However, there is a need for more research into the effects of various aspects of patch and fire variables on biotic diversity, especially in savannas where our understanding is particularly poor. Landscape-scale experiments, like those to be established in the Kruger National Park, South Africa are necessary to test different burning regimes. Challenges to patch- mosaic burning include determining the 'natural' range of variation for fire parameters, implementing random ignitions, and cost-effective fire scar mapping at the appropriate resolution. An adaptive management approach should be adopted to deal with the ignorance and uncertainties that characterise the management of savanna ecosystems. This should be applied with both modelling and monitoring as key elements in this process.

  2. Organic aerosols in a Brazilian agro-industrial area: Speciation and impact of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive organic characterization of atmospheric aerosols from an agro-industrial region (São Paulo State, Brazil) highly impacted by biomass burning. The organic speciation was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity, enabling the identification and quantification of 172 different organic species by GC-MS. The mass of organic compounds reached 123 μg m- 3 in an aerosol sample collected during the sugar cane harvest period compared with 0.82 μg m- 3 in the non-harvest period. The samples most impacted by biomass burning were those with the highest percentages of non-polar compounds (n-alkanes; up to 96%). However, in absolute terms, the total mass of polar compounds in such samples was greater than for samples less impacted by this activity. Retene (a marker for biomass combustion) was the most abundant of the 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified, corresponding to 14%-84%. This work shows that biomass burning was responsible for a benzo(a)pyrene equivalent index value that exceeded the recommendation of the World Health Organization. Principal component analysis indicated that agricultural biomass burning and emissions from crop processing facilities explained 42% of the variance of the data, while 37% was explained by urban emissions, 10% by vehicle emissions, and 10% by biogenic sources. This study provides insights into the emissions of a suite of organic compounds that could participate in anthropic alteration of regional cloud formation and precipitation patterns.

  3. Relationships between different burn, vegetation and soil ratios with Landsat spectral reflectance values in fire affected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krina, Anastasia; Koutsias, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    The proportion of unburned vegetation within a fire affected area can be regarded as a proxy measure of fire severity that can be estimated by means of remote sensing techniques. Yet, in order to obtain sound results, it is essential to improve our current knowledge regarding the spectral discrimination of areas that have been completely burnt from adjacent areas within a fire perimeter that still have patches of vegetation, or unburned proportion of vegetation on them. The aim of our research is to reveal the role of the vegetation or the small vegetation gaps in spectral characteristics of pixels with mixed land cover synthesis (burned, vegetation and soil) to achieve a better assessment of fire mapping and the impact of fire in the burned area. Three land cover types were identified, namely vegetation, bare land and burned area by applying pixel based classification using the maximum likelihood algorithm in high-resolution aerial photographs (1m). Moreover, multispectral satellite Landsat data that were acquired close to capture date of the aerial photos and were converted to TOC reflectance from USGS, were used to measure the association between land cover portions and satellite-derived VIs and spectral signatures. A grid of 30x30m was created to extract the ratio of the land cover categories corresponding to each selected pixel of the satellite image LANDSAT TM. Samples of different land cover ratios and of different types of substrate (e.g. rocks, light- or dark-colored soil) were delineated and their reflectance values at each spectral channel were extracted and used to calculate statistics in order to characterize the spectral properties. Finally, various vegetation indices were computed to investigate the role of the proportion of land cover and substrate in the variation of VIs. The results of our study reveal the spectral characteristics of burnt area at the pixel level and suggest the efficiency of certain spectral channels for the estimation of the

  4. Can post-wildfire Burned Area Emergency Response treatments mitigate watershed degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, D.; Ffolliott, P.; Bautista, S.; Wittenberg, L.

    2009-04-01

    Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere 350 million years ago. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools. A negative impact of prime concern in the 21st Century is desertification. This term refers to land degradation, not the immediate creation of classical deserts. It is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function and biological productivity as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects 33% of the earth's surface and over a billion people. Fire-related desertification has a number of environmental, social, and economic consequences. The two key environmental consequences are soil erosion and exotic plant invasions. Wildfires typically have exotic plant species abundances ten times that of undisturbed forests (Neary et al. 2003). Seeding has been used for many years in the USA as a prime Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatment. Until recently, this seeding contributed to exotic plant invasions since fast-growing, but non native plants seeds were used. The use of native plant seeds and sterile hybrids has reduced this problem somewhat. Erosion after wildfires documented in the USA can be in the range of productivity. An environmental consequence of wildfire related to soil disturbance, is the loss of hydrologic function. Again, the level of hydrologic function loss is related to fire severity. Although this ecosystem function tends to recover within 5 - 10 years after wildfire as vegetation cover returns, the immediate impacts can be considerable. The removal of the protective layer of the forest floor by combustion, and the development of water repellent layers in the soil combine to aggrevate flood potentials. Flood peak flows after wildfires with high percentages of high severity wildfire (>30%) commonly have increases of 10-fold. Higher increases (20 to 2

  5. Estimated probability of postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Whitewater-Baldy Fire burn area, southwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2012-01-01

    In May and June 2012, the Whitewater-Baldy Fire burned approximately 1,200 square kilometers (300,000 acres) of the Gila National Forest, in southwestern New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 128 basins burned by the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burned area drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of areal burned extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, modeling indicated that four basins have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence (greater than or equal to 80 percent). For the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional 14 basins are included, and for the 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional eight basins, 20 percent of the total, have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence. In addition, probability analysis along the stream segments can identify specific reaches of greatest concern for debris flows within a basin. Basins with a high probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in the west and central parts of the burned area, including tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, and Willow Creek. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from about 3,000-4,000 cubic meters (m3) to greater than 500,000 m3 for all design storms modeled. Drainage basins with estimated volumes greater than 500,000 m3 included tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Willow

  6. Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from areas heavily impacted by sugar cane burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the burning of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields burned on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass burning marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 μmol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 μmol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass burning, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated annual rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.

  7. Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Morton; G. J. Collatz; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate–fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burne...

  8. Fire spatial heterogeneity, fire seasonality and burned area mapping accuracy in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Campagnolo, Manuel L.; Pereira, Jose M. C.; Russell-Smith, Jeremy

    2013-04-01

    Accurate burned area mapping from remotely sensed data should be able to identify spatial heterogeneity within a fire perimeter, for an improved representation of fire effects as experienced by plants and animals. In order to derive a very high spatial resolution characterization of fire patterns in the tropical savannas of the Northern Territory, Australia, we walked 38.2km of line transects, sampling the presence/absence of burning evidence at 1m intervals, in 35 different fires that occurred between 2009 and 2011. Transects were sampled in the early and in the late dry season, and in five dominant vegetation classes. We used lacunarity analysis and spatial autocorrelation to assess the dominant scale of burned area patches, which turns out to be approximately 200m. Lacunarity analysis also suggests that burnt areas exhibit a clustered pattern and that fire heterogeneity is more pronounced in the early dry season. This is consistent with our observation that patches in the late dry season tend to be smaller and more randomly distributed. Finally, we used our high resolution data date to simulate remote sensing detection of burnt areas for a range of spatial resolutions. We quantify the omission error for each sensor and conclude that if resolution is lower than the dominant scale, then the error tends to be small. Our results also suggest that sensors with spatial resolution higher than the dominant scale have similar omission errors over a broad range of resolution values. The forthcoming Sentinel-2 satellites, which combine 5-day revisit, and systematic acquisition of all land surfaces at 10-20 m spatial resolution, with a large number of spectral bands, ought to allow for very accurate and timely mapping of fire heterogeneity, for improved assessment of fire impacts on biodiversity and pyrogenic emissions.

  9. Accumulation variability over a small area in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, as determined from shallow firn cores and snow pits : some implications for ice-core records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlof, Lars; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Winther, Jan-Gunnar; Gundestrup, Niels; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mulvaney, Robert; Pourchet, Michel; Hofstede, Coen; Lappegard, Gaute; Pettersson, Rickard; Van den Broeke, Michiel; Van De Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate and quantify the variability of snow accumulation rate around a medium-depth firn core (1160 m) drilled in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (75 degrees 00'S, 15 degrees 00'E; 3470 m h.a.e. (ellipsoidal height)). We present accumulation data from five snow pits and five shallow (20

  10. The Pit and the Pendulum: The Impact on Teen Smokers of Including a Designated Smoking Area in School Tobacco Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, L. E.; Lovato, C. Y.; Taylor, E.; Rutherford, M. B.; Smith, M.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty per cent of school districts in British Columbia do not ban smoking outright on school grounds, and in several instances, smoking is permitted in smoking pits, regardless of school district policy. While there is evidence to suggest that enforcing a tobacco-free environment for students does reduce adolescent smoking rates, the concomitant…

  11. Accumulation variability over a small area in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, as determined from shallow firn cores and snow pits : some implications for ice-core records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlof, Lars; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Winther, Jan-Gunnar; Gundestrup, Niels; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mulvaney, Robert; Pourchet, Michel; Hofstede, Coen; Lappegard, Gaute; Pettersson, Rickard; Van den Broeke, Michiel; Van De Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate and quantify the variability of snow accumulation rate around a medium-depth firn core (1160 m) drilled in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (75 degrees 00'S, 15 degrees 00'E; 3470 m h.a.e. (ellipsoidal height)). We present accumulation data from five snow pits and five shallow (20

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]); (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk; (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP), where the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) will reach consensus with the NDEP before beginning the next phase of work. Corrective Action Unit 553 is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS, approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: 19-99-01, Mud Spill; 19-99-11, Mud Spill; 20-09-09, Mud Spill; and 20-99-03, Mud Spill. There is sufficient

  13. Wet deposition of major ions in a rural area impacted by biomass burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Cidelmara H.; Allen, Andrew G.; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Orlando, Eduardo A.; Grigoletto, Tahuana L. B.; Campos, M. Lucia A. M.

    2011-09-01

    This work concerns the influence of industrialized agriculture in the tropics on precipitation chemistry. A total of 264 rain events were sampled using a wet-only collector in central São Paulo State, Brazil, between January 2003 and July 2007. Electroneutrality balance calculations (considering H +, K +, Na +, NH4+, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, F -, PO43-, H 3CCOO -, HCOO -, CO42- and HCO3-) showed that there was an excess of cations (˜15%), which was attributed to the presence of unmeasured organic anion species originating from biomass burning and biogenic emissions. On average, the three ions NH4+, NO 3- and H + were responsible for >55% of the total ion concentrations in the rainwater samples. Concentrations (except of H +) were significantly higher ( t-test; P = 0.05), by between two to six-fold depending on species, during the winter sugar cane harvest period, due to the practice of pre-harvest burning of the crop. Principal component analysis showed that three components could explain 88% of the variance for measurements made throughout the year: PC1 (52%, biomass burning and soil dust resuspension); PC2 (26%, secondary aerosols); PC3 (10%, road transport emissions). Differences between harvest and non-harvest periods appeared to be mainly due to an increased relative importance of road transport/industrial emissions during the summer (non-harvest) period. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of ammonium (23.4 μmol L -1) and nitrate (17.5 μmol L -1) in rainwater samples collected during the harvest period were similar to those found in rainwater from São Paulo city, which emphasizes the importance of including rural agro-industrial emissions in regional-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport models. Since there was evidence of a biomass burning source throughout the year, it appears that rainwater composition will continue to be affected by vegetation fires, even after sugar cane burning is phased out as envisaged by recent São Paulo

  14. Fuel consumption and fire emissions estimates using Fire Radiative Power, burned area and statistical modelling on the fire event scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Leimbach, David; Guenther, Felix; Barradas, Carol; Hoffmann, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrieved by infrared sensors, such as flown on several polar orbiting and geostationary satellites, has been shown to be proportional to fuel consumption rates in vegetation fires, and hence the total radiative energy released by a fire (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE) is proportional to the total amount of biomass burned. However, due to the sparse temporal coverage of polar orbiting and the coarse spatial resolution of geostationary sensors, it is difficult to estimate fuel consumption for single fire events. Here we explore an approach for estimating FRE through temporal integration of MODIS FRP retrievals over MODIS-derived burned areas. Temporal integration is aided by statistical modelling to estimate missing observations using a generalized additive model (GAM) and taking advantage of additional information such as land cover and a global dataset of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), as well as diurnal and annual FRP fluctuation patterns. Based on results from study areas located in savannah regions of Southern and Eastern Africa and Brazil, we compare this method to estimates based on simple temporal integration of FRP retrievals over the fire lifetime, and estimate the potential variability of FRP integration results across a range of fire sizes. We compare FRE-based fuel consumption against a database of field experiments in similar landscapes. Results show that for larger fires, this method yields realistic estimates and is more robust when only a small number of observations is available than the simple temporal integration. Finally, we offer an outlook on the integration of data from other satellites, specifically FireBird, S-NPP VIIRS and Sentinel-3, as well as on using higher resolution burned area data sets derived from Landsat and similar sensors.

  15. Investigating the Impacts of Surface Temperature Anomalies due to Burned Area Albedo in Northern sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbert, T.; Matsui, T.; Capehart, W. J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Gatebe, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Sub-Saharan African region (NSSA) is an area of intense focus due to periodic severe droughts that have dire consequences on the growing population, which relies mostly on rain fed agriculture for its food supply. This region's weather and hydrologic cycle are very complex and are dependent on the West African Monsoon. Different regional processes affect the West African Monsoon cycle and variability. One of the areas of current investigation is the water cycle response to the variability of land surface characteristics. Land surface characteristics are often altered in NSSA due to agricultural practices, grazing, and the fires that occur during the dry season. To better understand the effects of biomass burning on the hydrologic cycle of the sub-Saharan environment, an interdisciplinary team sponsored by NASA is analyzing potential feedback mechanisms due to the fires. As part of this research, this study focuses on the effects of land surface changes, particularly albedo and skin temperature, that are influenced by biomass burning. Surface temperature anomalies can influence the initiation of convective rainfall and surface albedo is linked to the absorption of solar radiation. To capture the effects of fire perturbations on the land surface, NASA's Unified Weather and Research Forecasting (NU-WRF) model coupled with NASA's Land Information System (LIS) is being used to simulate burned area surface albedo inducing surface temperature anomalies and other potential effects to environmental processes. Preliminary sensitivity results suggest an altered surface radiation budget, regional warming of the surface temperature, slight increase in average rainfall, and a change in precipitation locations.

  16. Effects of normal acceleration on transient burning rate augmentation of an aluminized solid propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    Instantaneous burning rate data for a polybutadiene acrylic acid propellant, containing 16 weight percent aluminum, were calculated from the pressure histories of a test motor with 96.77 sq cm of burning area and a 5.08-cm-thick propellant web. Additional acceleration tests were conducted with reduced propellant web thicknesses of 3.81, 2.54, and 1.27 cm. The metallic residue collected from the various web thickness tests was characterized by weight and shape and correlated with the instantaneous burning rate measurements. Rapid depressurization extinction tests were conducted in order that surface pitting characteristics due to localized increased burning rate could be correlated with the residue analysis and the instantaneous burning rate data. The acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation was strongly dependent on propellant distance burned, or burning time, and thus was transient in nature. The results from the extinction tests and the residue analyses indicate that the transient rate augmentation was highly dependent on local enhancement of the combustion zone heat feedback to the surface by the growth of molten residue particles on or just above the burning surface. The size, shape, and number density of molten residue particles, rather than the total residue weight, determined the acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation.

  17. Burned area mapping in Mediterranean environment using medium-resolution multi-spectral data and a neuro-fuzzy classifier

    OpenAIRE

    MITRAKIS NIKOLAOS; Mallinis, Giorgos; Koutsias, Nikos; Theocharis, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assess the performance of a self-organising neuro-fuzzy classifier for burned area mapping using multi-spectral satellite data. The proposed neuro-fuzzy model incorporates a multi-layered structure consisting of two types of nodes. The first type is a generic fuzzy neuron classifier (FNCs), whereas the second is solely a decision fusion operator. The Group Method of Data Handling algorithm is used for structure learning providing the model with self-organising attributes and...

  18. Can We Go Beyond Burned Area in the Assessment of Global Remote Sensing Products with Fire Patch Metrics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana M. P. Nogueira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global burned area (BA datasets from satellite Earth observations provide information for carbon emission and for Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM benchmarking. Fire patch identification from pixel-level information recently emerged as an additional way of providing informative features about fire regimes through the analysis of patch size distribution. We evaluated the ability of global BA products to accurately represent morphological features of fire patches, in the fire-prone Brazilian savannas. We used the pixel-level burned area from LANDSAT images, as well as two global products: MODIS MCD45A1 and the European Space Agency (ESA fire Climate Change Initiative (FIRE_CCI product for the 2002–2009 time period. Individual fire patches were compared by linear regressions to test the consistency of global products as a source of burned patch shape information. Despite commission and omission errors respectively reaching 0.74 and 0.81 for ESA FIRE_CCI and 0.64 and 0.62 for MCD45A1 when compared to LANDSAT due to missing small fires, correlations between patch areas showed R2 > 0.6 for all comparisons, with a slope of 0.99 between ESA FIRE_CCI and MCD45A1 but a lower slope (0.6–0.8 when compared to the LANDSAT data. Shape complexity between global products was less correlated (R2 = 0.5 with lower values (R2 = 0.2 between global products and LANDSAT data, due to their coarser resolution. For the morphological features of the ellipse fitted over fire patches, R2 reached 0.6 for the ellipse’s eccentricity and varied from 0.4 to 0.8 for its azimuthal directional angle. We conclude that global BA products underestimate total BA as they miss small fires, but they also underestimate burned patch areas. Patch complexity is the least correlated variable, but ellipse features appear to provide information to be further used for quality product assessment, global pyrogeography or DGVM benchmarking.

  19. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two

  20. Relationships between vegetation indices and different burn and vegetation ratios: a multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleniou, M.; Koutsias, N.

    2013-08-01

    Vegetation indices have been widely used in remote sensing literature for burned land mapping and monitoring. In the present study we used satellite data (IKONOS, LANDSAT, ASTER, MODIS) of multiple spectral (visible, near, shortwave infrared) and spatial (1-500 meters) resolutions, acquired shortly after a very destructive fire occurred in the mountain of Parnitha in Attica, Greece the summer of 2007. The aim of our study is to examine and evaluate the performance of some vegetation indices for burned land mapping and also to characterize the relationships between vegetation indices and the percent of fire-scorched (burned) and non fire-scorched (vegetated) areas. The available satellite images were processed geometrically, radiometrically and atmospherically. The very high resolution IKONOS imagery was served as a base to estimate the percent of cover of burned areas, bare soil and vegetation by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The percent of cover for each type was then correlated to vegetation indices for all the satellite images, and regression models were fit to characterize those relationships. In total 57 versions of some classical vegetation indices were computed using LANDSAT, ASTER and MODIS data. Most of them were modified by replacing Red with SWIR channel, as the latter has been proved sensitive to burned area discrimination. IPVI and NDVI showed a better performance among the indices tested to estimate the percent of vegetation, while most of the modified versions of the indices showed highest performance to estimate the percent of burned areas.

  1. Evaluation of groundwater pollution in a mining area using analytical solution: a case study of the Yimin open-pit mine in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tianxin; Li, Li; Song, Hongqing; Meng, Linglong; Zhang, Shuli; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study focused on using analytical and numerical models to develop and manage groundwater resources, and predict the effects of management measurements in the groundwater system. Movement of contaminants can be studied based on groundwater flow characteristics. This study can be used for prediction of ion concentration and evaluation of groundwater pollution as the theoretical basis. Case description The Yimin open-pit mine is located in the northern part of the Inner Mongoli...

  2. Evaluation of groundwater pollution in a mining area using analytical solution: a case study of the Yimin open-pit mine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Li, Li; Song, Hongqing; Meng, Linglong; Zhang, Shuli; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on using analytical and numerical models to develop and manage groundwater resources, and predict the effects of management measurements in the groundwater system. Movement of contaminants can be studied based on groundwater flow characteristics. This study can be used for prediction of ion concentration and evaluation of groundwater pollution as the theoretical basis. The Yimin open-pit mine is located in the northern part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. High concentrations of iron and manganese are observed in Yimin open-pit mine because of exploitation and pumping that have increased the concentration of the ions in groundwater. In this study, iron was considered as an index of contamination, and the solute model was calibrated using concentration observations from 14 wells in 2014. The groundwater flow model and analytical solutions were used in this study to forecast pollution concentration and variation trend after calibration. With continuous pumping, contaminants will migrate, and become enriched, towards the wellhead in the flow direction. The concentration of the contaminants and the range of pollution increase with the flow rate increased. The suitable flow rate of single well should be <380 m/day at Yimin open-pit for the standard value of pollution concentration.

  3. An intercomparison of Satellite Burned Area Maps derived from MODIS, MERIS, SPOT-VEGETATION, and ATSR images. An application to the August 2006 Galicia (Spain forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huesca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The following paper presents an inter-comparison of three global products: MCD45A1 (MODIS - MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Burned Area Product, L3JRC (Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring Global Burnt Area Product, and GLOBCARBON Burnt Area Estimate (BAE Product; and three local products, two of them based on MODIS data and the other one based on MERIS (MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer data.Area of study: The study was applied to the Galician forest fires occurred in 2006.Materials and Methods: Materials used involved the three already mentioned global products together with two MODIS and one MERIS reflectance images, and MODIS thermal anomalies. The algorithm we used, which is based on the determination of thresholds values on infrared bands, allowed the identification of burned pixels. The determination of such threshold values was based on the maximum spatial correlation between MODIS thermal anomalies, and infrared reflectance values. This methodology was applied to MODIS and MERIS reflectance bands, and to the NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio. Burned area validation was evaluated using burned area polygons as derived from an AWiFS (Advanced Wide Field Sensor image of 60m pixel size.Main results: Best results were reached when using the MERIS infrared bands, followed by the MODIS infrared bands. Worst results were reached when using the MCD45A1 product, which clearly overestimated; and when using the L3JRC product, which clearly underestimated.Research highlights: Since the efficiency of the performance of the available burned area products is highly variable, much work is needed in terms of comparison among the available sensors, the burned area mapping algorithms and the resulting products.Keywords: forest fires; MODIS; MERIS; MCD45A1; L3JRC; GLOBCARBON-BAE; SPOT-VEGETATION; ATSR.Abbreviations used: ATSR: Along Scanning Radiometer; AVHRR: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer; AWiFS: Advanced Wide Field Sensor; EOS

  4. Gamma generalized linear model to investigate the effects of climate variables on the area burned by forest fire in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Futao Guo; Guangyu Wang; John L Innes; Xiangqing Ma; Long Sun; Haiqing Hu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a suitable model for investigating the effects of climate factors on the area burned by forest fire in the Tahe forest region, Daxing’an Mountains, in northeast China. The response variables were the area burned by lightning-caused fire, human-caused fire, and total burned area. The predictor variables were nine climate variables collected from the local weather station. Three regression models were utilized, including multiple linear regression, log-linear model (log-transformation on both response and predictor variables), and gamma-generalized linear model. The goodness-of-fit of the models were compared based on model fitting statistics such as R2, AIC, and RMSE. The results revealed that the gamma-generalized linear model was generally superior to both multiple linear regression model and log-linear model for fitting the fire data. Further, the best models were selected based on the criteria that the climate variables were statistically significant at a=0.05. The gamma best models indicated that maximum wind speed, precipitation, and days that rainfall greater than 0.1 mm had significant impacts on the area burned by the lightning-caused fire, while the mean temperature and minimum relative humidity were the main drivers of the burned area caused by human activities. Overall, the total burned area by forest fire was significantly influenced by days that rainfall greater than 0.1 mm and minimum rela-tive humidity, indicating that the moisture condition of forest stands determine the burned area by forest fire.

  5. Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will area burned in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. Burned area was also not very predictable in areas of substantial topographic relief and in areas along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in annual area burned for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of annual area burned. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict annual area burned through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average area burned per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional

  6. Record of decision remedial alternative selection for the F-area burning/rubble pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.

    1997-02-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the FBRP located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina. The selected alternative was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA unit.

  7. Storm rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows from recently burned areas in southwestern Colorado and southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S.H.; Gartner, J.E.; Wilson, R.C.; Bowers, J.C.; Laber, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows generated during rain storms on recently burned areas have destroyed lives and property throughout the Western U.S. Field evidence indicate that unlike landslide-triggered debris flows, these events have no identifiable initiation source and can occur with little or no antecedent moisture. Using rain gage and response data from five fires in Colorado and southern California, we document the rainfall conditions that have triggered post-fire debris flows and develop empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for the occurrence of debris flows and floods following wildfires in these settings. This information can provide guidance for warning systems and planning for emergency response in similar settings. Debris flows were produced from 25 recently burned basins in Colorado in response to 13 short-duration, high-intensity convective storms. Debris flows were triggered after as little as six to 10??min of storm rainfall. About 80% of the storms that generated debris flows lasted less than 3??h, with most of the rain falling in less than 1??h. The storms triggering debris flows ranged in average intensity between 1.0 and 32.0??mm/h, and had recurrence intervals of two years or less. Threshold rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows sufficiently large to pose threats to life and property from recently burned areas in south-central, and southwestern, Colorado are defined by: I = 6.5D-??0.7 and I = 9.5D-??0.7, respectively, where I = rainfall intensity (in mm/h) and D = duration (in hours). Debris flows were generated from 68 recently burned areas in southern California in response to long-duration frontal storms. The flows occurred after as little as two hours, and up to 16??h, of low-intensity (2-10??mm/h) rainfall. The storms lasted between 5.5 and 33??h, with average intensities between 1.3 and 20.4??mm/h, and had recurrence intervals of two years or less. Threshold rainfall conditions for life- and property-threatening floods and debris

  8. Burn Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now Help keep local seniors safe from fire! Burn Survivor Support If you are reading this, chances ... year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute provides fire ...

  9. Fractal properties of forest fires in Amazonia as a basis for modelling pan-tropical burned area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, I. N.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Lima, A.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2013-08-01

    Current methods for modelling burnt area in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models involve complex fire spread calculations, which rely on many inputs, including fuel characteristics, wind speed and countless parameters. They are therefore susceptible to large uncertainties through error propagation. Using observed fractal distributions of fire scars in Brazilian Amazonia, we propose an alternative burnt area model for tropical forests, with fire counts as sole input and few parameters. Several parameterizations of two possible distributions are calibrated at multiple spatial resolutions using a satellite-derived burned area map, and compared. The tapered Pareto model most accurately simulates the total area burnt (only 3.5 km2 larger than the recorded 16 387 km2) and its spatial distribution. When tested pan-tropically using MODIS MCD14ML fire counts, the model accurately predicts temporal and spatial fire trends, but produces generally higher estimates than the GFED3.1 burnt area product, suggesting higher pan-tropical carbon emissions from fires than previously estimated.

  10. Distribution Patterns of Burned Areas in the Brazilian Biomes: An Analysis Based on Satellite Data for the 2002–2010 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moreira de Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fires modify the structure of vegetation communities, the carbon and water cycles, the soil’s chemistry, and affect the climate system. Within this context, this work aimed to understand the distribution patterns of burned areas in Brazil, during the period of 2002 to 2010, taking into consideration each one of the six Brazilian biomes (Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, Pampa and Pantanal and the respective major land cover classes. Data from the MODIS MCD45A1 product (burned area, as well as thermal anomalies (MOD14 and MYD14 and precipitation (TRMM, were analyzed according to the 2002 Brazilian official land cover and land use map (PROBIO. The Brazilian savanna biome, known as Cerrado, presented the largest concentration of burned areas detected by MODIS (73%, followed by the Amazon (14%, Pantanal (6%, Atlantic Forest (4%, Caatinga (3%, and Pampa (0,06% biomes. Indeed, in the years of 2007 and 2010, 90% and 92% of Brazil’s burned areas were concentrated in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, respectively. TRMM data indicated that during these two years there was a significant influence of La Niña, causing low rainfall in the Amazon, Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Regarding the land cover classes, approximately 81% of the burned areas occurred over remnant vegetation areas. Although no unequivocal correlation can be established between burned areas and new land conversions, the conspicuous concentration of fire scars, particularly in Amazon–Cerrado transition (i.e., the Arc of Deforestation is certainly not a simple coincidence. Such patterns and trends corroborate the need of improved territorial governance, in addition to the implementation of systematic fire warning and preventive systems.

  11. To burn or not to burn? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban areas in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithals, Anja; Kühn, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites.

  12. To burn or not to burn? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban areas in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schmithals

    Full Text Available North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites.

  13. Farmers’ Perceptions of Imperata cylindrica Infestation in a Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Area of Northern Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounthanh Keoboualapha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses farmers’ perceptions of Imperata infestation and its impact on agricultural land uses in a slash-and-burn area of Nambak District in Luang Prabang Province, northern Laos. Our study showed that slash-and-burn cultivation (SBC, which has been practiced for generations, remains the main agricultural land use system and provides an important source of food and income for farmers. Imperata, which first took root one and a half decades ago, is gradually proliferating, affecting the livelihoods of nearly 38% of households in the five target villages of this study. The positive cause-and-effect relationship among such factors as accelerated land clearing, young fallows, declining soil fertility, and land shortages—suggested to be the main cause of the Imperata infestation—has reduced not only cultivable land but also its productivity. According to the majority of farmers, the most significant problems caused by Imperata infestation are reduced crop yields, increased weeding, and reduced crop growth. To overcome the problems, farmers employ a combination of strategies—the most common being weeding, fallowing the land, applying chemicals, and exchanging labor. However, the implementation of these strategies is encumbered by many constraints, primarily lack of labor and capital, rice insufficiency, and limited land. Given the constraints and the available technologies, it will be very difficult for farmers in the study area to adopt a more permanent, diversified, and productive agricultural system, which is a high priority of government development policy in the uplands. To meet this challenge, the thrust of research and development communities working in the uplands should be on more systematic and integrated interventions that combine technological, social, economic, and political resolutions based on knowledge of the causes of Imperata infestation, the problems it creates, management strategies to cope with the infestation

  14. Drainage pits in cohesionless materials: implications for surface of Phobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, K C; Melosh, H J

    1989-09-10

    , noncohesive regolith is nearly equal to the thickness of regolith and appears to gbe independent of the angle of repose, within the resolution of our experiments. This provides a simple means of estimating regolith thickness where drainage pits are present. On Phobos, two locations differing by 90 degrees in longitude have average pit spacings that suggest regolith thicknesses of 290 and 300 m, suggesting that large areas of Phobos have a nearly uniform regolith thickness of approximately 300 m.

  15. Economics of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  16. Distribution, morphology, and origins of Martian pit crater chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Danielle; Ferrill, David A.; Morris, Alan P.; Colton, Shannon L.; Sims, Darrell W.

    2004-06-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs. They are common on the surface of Mars and similar to features observed on Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that the pits are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity or explosive eruption. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying material. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, substrate dissolution (analogous to terrestrial karst), fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView™ Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (1) visible faulting to (2) faults and pits to (3) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to determine a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. Volumes of approximately 150 pits from five areas were calculated to determine volume size distribution and regional

  17. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2012 Little Bear Fire, south-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed of the debris-flow potential from 56 drainage basins burned by the Little Bear Fire in south-central New Mexico in June 2012. The Little Bear Fire burned approximately 179 square kilometers (km2) (44,330 acres), including about 143 km2 (35,300 acres) of National Forest System lands of the Lincoln National Forest. Within the Lincoln National Forest, about 72 km2 (17,664 acres) of the White Mountain Wilderness were burned. The burn area also included about 34 km2 (8,500 acres) of private lands. Burn severity was high or moderate on 53 percent of the burn area. The area burned is at risk of substantial postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. A postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the Little Bear Fire was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Lincoln National Forest. A set of two empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently burned drainage basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burn area drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the burn area. The models incorporate measures of areal burn extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. Relative hazard rankings of postwildfire debris flows were produced by summing the estimated probability and volume ranking to illustrate those areas with the highest potential occurrence of debris flows with the largest volumes. The probability that a drainage basin could produce debris flows and the volume of a possible debris flow at the basin outlet were estimated for three design storms: (1) a 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 27 millimeters (mm) (a 50 percent chance of occurrence in

  18. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  19. Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald; Littell, Jeremy S

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought-fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across the full gradient of deficit in the western USA, from temperate rainforest to desert. In the middle of this gradient, conditional on vegetation (fuels), correlations are strong, but outside this range the equivalence hotter and drier equals more fire either breaks down or is contingent on other factors such as previous-year climate. This suggests that the regional drought-fire dynamic will not be stationary in future climate, nor will other more complex contingencies associated with the variation in fire extent. Predictions of future wildfire area therefore need to consider not only vegetation changes, as some dynamic vegetation models now do, but also potential changes in the drought-fire dynamic that will ensue in a warming climate.

  20. Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald; Littell, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought–fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across the full gradient of deficit in the western USA, from temperate rainforest to desert. In the middle of this gradient, conditional on vegetation (fuels), correlations are strong, but outside this range the equivalence hotter and drier equals more fire either breaks down or is contingent on other factors such as previous-year climate. This suggests that the regional drought–fire dynamic will not be stationary in future climate, nor will other more complex contingencies associated with the variation in fire extent. Predictions of future wildfire area therefore need to consider not only vegetation changes, as some dynamic vegetation models now do, but also potential changes in the drought–fire dynamic that will ensue in a warming climate.

  1. Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2002-06-30

    The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

  2. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  3. Effect of oral olive oil on healing of 10-20% total body surface area burn wounds in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Mahtab; Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Zahra; Tolouei, Mohammad; Amiri, Zohreh

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of oral olive oil on clinical outcomes and wound healing of thermally injured patients with hospital stays. One hundred patients (mean age; 33.34±7 years) with 10-20% total body surface area, deep second degree and more burn wounds were randomized to receive either oral olive oil or sunflower oil as the oil in their diet. Patients were evaluated daily for occurrence of wound infection, sepsis and healing of the grafted skin. Also the duration of hospitalization and admission to the intensive care unit were compared in two groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the olive oil group and the control group in percent of TBSA involvement (14.28±0.53 vs. 13.02±0.48, P=0.7), albumin concentration (3.25±0.5 vs. 3.13±0.5, P=0.5) and mean calorie intake (2034±216.9 kcal vs2118±192.1 kcal, P=0.2). We found a significant difference in the duration of wound healing (7.2±0.5 vs. 8.7±0.5, P=0.04) and duration of hospitalization (7.4±0.5 vs. 8.9±0.4, P=0.05) in the olive oil group versus the control group. We did not find any difference in ICU admission, wound infection and occurrence of sepsis between two groups. This study showed that an oral diet provided with olive oil in patients with burn may accelerate wound healing and decrease the duration of hospitalization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Inter-Annual Variability of Burned Area in Brazil Based on a Synergistic use of Information Derived from MODIS and Landsat-TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, R.; Dacamara, C. C.; Setzer, A. W.; Morelli, F.

    2014-12-01

    A procedure is presented that allows using information from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to improve the quality of monthly burned area estimates over Brazil. The method integrates MODIS derived information from two sources; the NASA MCD64A1 Direct Broadcast Monthly Burned Area Product and INPE's Monthly Burned Area MODIS product (AQM-MODIS). The latter product relies on an algorithm that was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil, taking advantage of the ability of MIR reflectances to discriminate burned areas. Information from both MODIS products is incorporated by means of a linear regression model where an optimal estimate of the burned area is obtained as a linear combination of burned area estimates from MCD64A1 and AQM-MODIS. The linear regression model is calibrated using as optimal estimates values of burned area derived from Landsat TM during 2005 and 2006 over Jalapão, a region of Cerrado covering an area of 187 x 187 km2. Obtained values of coefficients for MCD64A1 and AQM-MODIS were 0.51 and 0.35, respectively and the root mean square error was 7.6 km2. Robustness of the model was checked by calibrating the model separately for 2005 and 2006 and cross-validating with 2006 and 2005; coefficients for 2005 (2006) were 0.46 (0.54) for MCD64A1 and 0.35 (0.35) for AQM-MODIS and the corresponding root mean square errors for 2006 (2005) were 7.8 (7.4) km2. The linear model was then applied to Brazil as well as to the six Brazilian main biomes, namely Cerrado, Amazônia, Caatinga, Pantanal, Mata Atlântica and Pampa. As to be expected the interannual variability based on the proposed synergistic use of MCD64A1, AQM-MODIS and Landsat Tm data for the period 2005-2010 presents marked differences with the corresponding amounts derived from MCD64A1 alone. For instance during the considered period, values (in 103 km2) from the proposed approach (from MCD64A1) are 399 (142), 232 (62), 559 (259), 274 (73), 219 (31) and 415

  5. Assessment of the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago using remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2015-04-01

    The study aim was to characterize the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago considering the previous situation to wildfire in 1991 and the current one in 2013. The objectives were to: (i) compare the current and previous vegetation cover to widlfire; (ii) evaluate whether the current vegetation has recovered the previous cover to wildfire; and (iii) determine the spatial variability of vegetation recovery after 22-years since the wildfire. The study area is located in Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain. It corresponds to an area affected by a wildfire in August 8th, 1991. The burned area was equal to 8156 ha. The burn severity was spatially very high. The main geographic features of the burned area are: mountainous topography (altitudes ranging from 250 m to 1500 m; slope gradient >25%; exposure mainly southfacing); igneous (peridotites), metamorphic (gneiss) and calcareous rocks (limestones); and predominant forest land use (Pinus pinaster sp. woodlands, 10%; pinus opened forest + shrubland, 40%; shrubland, 35%; and bare soil + grassland, 15%). Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis has been applied to achieve the objectives. Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images were used: July 13th, 1991 and July 1st, 2013, for the previous wildfire situation and 22-years after, respectively. The 1990 CORINE land cover was also considered to map 1991 land uses prior the wildfire. Likewise, the Andalucía Regional Government wildfire historic records were used to select the burned area and its geographical limit. 1991 and 2013 land cover map were obtained by means of object-oriented classifications. Also, NDVI and PVI1 vegetation indexes were calculated and mapped for both years. Finally, some images transformations and kernel density images were applied to determine the most recovered areas and to map the spatial concentration of bare soil and pine cover areas in 1991 and 2013, respectively. According to the results, the combination of remote sensing and GIS analysis let

  6. Evaluation of the U.S. Geological Survey Landsat burned area essential climate variable across the conterminous U.S. using commercial high-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Brunner, Nicole M.; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has produced the Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) product for the conterminous United States (CONUS), which provides wall-to-wall annual maps of burned area at 30 m resolution (1984–2015). Validation is a critical component in the generation of such remotely sensed products. Previous efforts to validate the BAECV relied on a reference dataset derived from Landsat, which was effective in evaluating the product across its timespan but did not allow for consideration of inaccuracies imposed by the Landsat sensor itself. In this effort, the BAECV was validated using 286 high-resolution images, collected from GeoEye-1, QuickBird-2, Worldview-2 and RapidEye satellites. A disproportionate sampling strategy was utilized to ensure enough burned area pixels were collected. Errors of omission and commission for burned area averaged 22 ± 4% and 48 ± 3%, respectively, across CONUS. Errors were lowest across the western U.S. The elevated error of commission relative to omission was largely driven by patterns in the Great Plains which saw low errors of omission (13 ± 13%) but high errors of commission (70 ± 5%) and potentially a region-growing function included in the BAECV algorithm. While the BAECV reliably detected agricultural fires in the Great Plains, it frequently mapped tilled areas or areas with low vegetation as burned. Landscape metrics were calculated for individual fire events to assess the influence of image resolution (2 m, 30 m and 500 m) on mapping fire heterogeneity. As the spatial detail of imagery increased, fire events were mapped in a patchier manner with greater patch and edge densities, and shape complexity, which can influence estimates of total greenhouse gas emissions and rates of vegetation recovery. The increasing number of satellites collecting high-resolution imagery and rapid improvements in the frequency with which imagery is being collected means greater opportunities to utilize these sources

  7. Burned Area Detection in the Ecosystem Transition Zone Using MODIS Data%利用MODIS影像提取火烧迹地方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖潇; 冯险峰; 孙庆龄

    2016-01-01

    火烧迹地监测不仅可以反映火灾对生态系统的影响情况及损失信息,还能为全球碳循环研究提供重要的数据支持.本文利用MODIS地表反射率产品(MOD09A1)的近红外和短波红外波段构建的归一化燃烧率指数(NBR),计算前后2期影像的NBR差值,并在光谱指数差分法的基础上,结合MODIS植被数据产品(MOD44B)提供的植被覆盖度信息,设置规则提取火烧迹地.本文选择西伯利亚地区东南部的林地、草地、农田等不同生态系统的交界地带作为实验区,利用本文算法提取该区域的火烧迹地.实验结果表明:(1)本文算法的火烧迹地提取效果较好,优于MODIS火烧迹地产品(MCD45A1),kappa系数由0.70提高到0.75;(2)利用林木覆盖度、草本覆盖度数据,可以减少误判,提高火烧迹地提取的精度,kappa系数分别由0.69、0.73都提高到0.75.%Fires belong to one of the main disturbance factors and play an important role in various ecosystems. Burned area detec-tion not only indicates the impact of fires on ecosystems, but also provides a scientific support for the global carbon cycle studies. Traditional burned scar area detection approach mainly depends on ground survey and measurements, which still has several de-fects, such as the heavy workload, high cost, low efficiency, and poor timeliness etc. By applying remote sensing technology to map the burned area can produce burn scar information with greater spatial and temporal scale and effectively avoid the above-men-tioned problems. Currently, many methods aiming to map the burned area on remote sensing images have been developed, and vari-ous global burned area products which provide the consistent assessments of fire activity at the global scale are also available;how-ever, the efficiency of their performances differs within various ecosystems. In this study, we developed an algorithm to map the burned scar area in an ecosystem transition zone by using the Moderate

  8. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  9. The cuisine of the Pitted Ware Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Persson, Per

    The Pitted Ware Culture is a Middle Neolithic culture in southwestern Scandinavia. It appears about thousand years after the introduction of agriculture to this area. In some regions, it is characterized by an almost fully “Mesolithic” economy with a heavy reliance on seal hunting. In Djursland......, northeastern Denmark, however, the Pitted Ware Culture has always been regarded as having a mixed economy, utilizing both domesticated and wild resources. The research presented here was prepared in the framework of the multi-disciplinary project “CONTACT. The Pitted Ware Phenomenon in Djursland and Maritime...... Relations across the Kattegat in the Middle Neolithic”. Stable isotope analysis of food residues on pottery show what the pottery was used for on different types of sites and which resources were exploited. In contrast to human bones, the food residues provide a snapshot of the food prepared at one point...

  10. The epidemiology, management, outcomes and areas for improvement of burn care in central Malawi: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, J C; Campbell, E L P; Mjuweni, S; Muyco, A P; Cairns, B A; Charles, A G

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the epidemiology of burn injuries and quantifies the appropriateness of use of available interventions at Kamuzu Central Hospital, Malawi, between July 2008 and June 2009 (370 burn patients). Burns accounted for 4.4% of all injuries and 25.9% of all burns presenting to the hospital were admitted. Most patients (67.6%) were amputation. The mean hospital stay was 21.1 days, in-hospital mortality was 27% and wound infection rate was 31%. Available interventions (intravenous fluids, nutrition therapy, physiotherapy) were misapplied in 59% of cases. It is concluded that primary prevention should address paediatric and scald burns, and secondary prevention should train providers to use available interventions appropriately.

  11. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 μg dm-2ṡday and standard (3 μg dm-2ṡday and 0.5 mg m-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 μg m-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 μg m-3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 μg m-3 and 6.8 mg m-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 μg m-3 and 14.4 mg m-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal

  12. Appearance of Planktothrix rubescens Bloom with [D-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR in Gravel Pit Pond of a Shallow Lake-Dominated Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Vasas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria are well-known phenomena in many regions of the world. Microcystin (MC, the most frequent cyanobacterial toxin, is produced by entirely different cyanobacteria, including unicellular, multicellular filamentous, heterocytic, and non-heterocytic bloom-forming species. Planktothrix is one of the most important MC-producing genera in temperate lakes. The reddish color of cyanobacterial blooms viewed in a gravel pit pond with the appearance of a dense 3 cm thick layer (biovolume: 28.4 mm3 L−1 was an unexpected observation in the shallow lake-dominated alluvial region of the Carpathian Basin. [d-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR was identified from the blooms sample by MALDI-TOF and NMR. Concentrations of [d-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR were measured by capillary electrophoresis to compare the microcystin content of the field samples and the isolated, laboratory-maintained P. rubescens strain. In analyzing the MC gene cluster of the isolated P. rubescens strain, a deletion in the spacer region between mcyE and mcyG and an insertion were located in the spacer region between mcyT and mcyD. The insertion elements were sequenced and partly identified. Although some invasive tropical cyanobacterial species have been given a great deal of attention in many recent studies, our results draw attention to the spread of the alpine organism P. rubescens as a MC-producing, bloom-forming species.

  13. Monitoring of surface movement in a large area of the open pit iron mines (Carajás, Brazil) based on A-DInSAR techniques using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2016-10-01

    PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) analysis of large area is always a challenging task regarding the removal of the atmospheric phase component. This work presents an investigation of ground deformation measurements based on a combination of DInSAR Time-Series (DTS) and PSI techniques, applied in a large area of open pit iron mines located in Carajás (Brazilian Amazon Region), aiming at detect high rates of linear and nonlinear ground deformation. These mines have presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been carried out based on ground based radar and total station (prisms). By using a priori information regarding the topographic phase error and phase displacement model derived from DTS, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI processing and the removal of the atmospheric phases can be performed more efficiently. A set of 33 TerraSAR-X-1 images, acquired during the period from March 2012 to April 2013, was used to perform this investigation. The DTS analysis was carried out on a stack of multi-look unwrapped interferogram using an extension of SVD to obtain the Least-Square solution. The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DTS approach were subtracted from the stack of interferogram to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI analysis to detect high rates of deformation as well as increased the numbers of point density of the final results. The proposed methodology showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain forest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for planning and risks control.

  14. Treatment of deep partial thickness burns in small burned area by heparin sodimn cream%肝素钠乳膏治疗小面积深Ⅱ度烧伤的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 胡启翔; 陈秀瑛

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of heparin sodium cream on partial thickness burns. Methods From January 2004 to January 2007, fifty-five cases of deep partial thickness in total burned surface area (TBSA) with 1% to 5% burn wound were treated by Heparin sodium cream(the heparin group). Fifty cases of deep partial thickness burned patients with the same TBSA treated by povidone iodine (the povidone iodine group). Results The average healing time of the heparin group was (18.5±2.2) days and the average healing time of the povidone iodine group was (22.5±3.6) days. Follow-ups during 3 months to 1 year after treatment showed that sear proliferation in the heparin group was much less than that in the povidone iodine group, and even no sear proliferation was observed in some patients. Conclusion Heparin sodium cream on deep partial thickness burns with small burned area could shorten the healing time and inhibit sear proliferation.%目的 探讨肝素钠乳膏治疗小面积看深Ⅱ度烧伤创面的临床应用效果.方法 应用肝素钠乳膏治疗1%~5%总烧伤面积深Ⅱ度烧伤患者55例(肝素治疗组),同期保痂治疗1%~5%总烧伤面积深Ⅱ度烧伤患者50例(碘伏治疗组).观察创面愈合时间及愈合质量情况.治愈患者经过3个月~1年随诊,了解瘢痕增生情况.结果 肝素治疗组创面愈合时间为(18.5±2.2)d,碘伏治疗组愈合时问为(22.5±3.6)d,2组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),肝素治疗组瘢痕增生情况较碘伏治疗组明显减轻或无瘢痕增生.结论 肝素钠乳膏可促进小面积深Ⅱ度烧伤创面愈合,减轻瘢痕增生.

  15. A preliminary investigation of the IQs of 7-13 year-old children from an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.C.; Wang, R.Y.; Cheng, C.F.; Wei, W.S.; Tang, L.M.; Wang, Q.S.; Tang, D.X.; Liu, G.W.; He, G.D.; Li, S.L.

    2008-04-15

    The Chinese Binet IQ Test was used to investigate the IQs of 7-13 year old children suffering from dental fluorosis, living and attending school in an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning. The average IQ of these children was found to be markedly lower than in the control area, and the number of children classified as having low intelligence was significantly higher. For both groups, IQ and serum fluoride show a negative correlation (r = -0.205).

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve

  17. Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was

  18. Nutritional management of the burn patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role include: evaporative water loss from the burn wound, bacterial contamination of the burn ... leucocytes and fibroblasts in the burned area.2 Providing exogenous glucose ... immune function, poor wound healing and exacerbation of protein.

  19. Management of Outpatient Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Waslen, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    The severity of burns depends on the depth and extent of body surface involved. The total body surface area (TBSA) involved can be estimated by the ‘rule of nines’; body locations are 9% of body surface or multiples of nine. Depth and TBSA can be used to classify burns as minor, moderate, or critical. Diagnosis depends on history and physical examination. Most burns can be treated in an outpatient setting. Treatment should include debriding necrotic tissue, preventing infection and encouragin...

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of burned area over Brazilian Cerrado from 2005 to 2015 using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; DaCamara, Carlos; Setzer, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Although Cerrado is a fire-dependent biome, current agriculture practices have significantly modified the native fire regime. Moreover, over the last decades, climate conditions, such as intensive droughts, have contributed to enhance the effects of anthropogenic activities, and consequently fire, over the region. For instance, during the 2010 extreme drought there was an increase of 100% in the number of fire pixels detected by just one polar orbiting satellite (information online at http://www.cptec.inpe.br/queimadas). A better characterization of spatial and temporal fire patterns over Cerrado is therefore crucial to uncover both climate and anthropogenic influences in this ecosystem. Additionally, information about the extent, location and time of burned areas (BA) over Cerrado is especially useful to a wide range of users, from government agencies, research groups and ecologists, to fire managers and NGOs. Instruments on-board satellites are the only available operational means to collect BA data at appropriated spatial and temporal scales and in a cost-effective way. Several global BA products derived from remote sensed information have been developed over the last years using a variety of techniques based on different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. Although presenting similar inter-annual variability, there are marked differences among the products both in magnitude and location of the area burnt. The development of regional algorithms which take into account local characteristics such as vegetation type, soil and climate is therefore an added value to the existing information. We present a monthly BA product (AQM) for Brazil based on information from MODIS 1km. The algorithm was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil and the procedure represents the first initiative of an automated method for BA monitoring using remote sensing information in the country. The product relies on an algorithm that takes advantage of the ability of MIR

  2. Standardized Time-Series and Interannual Phenological Deviation: New Techniques for Burned-Area Detection Using Long-Term MODIS-NBR Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Abílio de Carvalho Júnior

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Typically, digital image processing for burned-areas detection combines the use of a spectral index and the seasonal differencing method. However, the seasonal differencing has many errors when applied to a long-term time series. This article aims to develop and test two methods as an alternative to the traditional seasonal difference. The study area is the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park (Central Brazil that comprises different vegetation of the Cerrado biome. We used the MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 8-Day composite data, considering a 12-year period. The normalized burn ratio was calculated from the band 2 (250-meter resolution and the band 7 (500-meter resolution reasampled to 250-meter. In this context, the normalization methods aim to eliminate all possible sources of spectral variation and highlight the burned-area features. The proposed normalization methods were the standardized time-series and the interannual phenological deviation. The standardized time-series calculate for each pixel the z-scores of its temporal curve, obtaining a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. The second method establishes a reference curve for each pixel from the average interannual phenology that is subtracted for every year of its respective time series. Optimal threshold value between burned and unburned area for each method was determined from accuracy assessment curves, which compare different threshold values and its accuracy indices with a reference classification using Landsat TM. The different methods have similar accuracy for the burning event, where the standardized method has slightly better results. However, the seasonal difference method has a very false positive error, especially in the period between the rainy and dry seasons. The interannual phenological deviation method minimizes false positive errors, but some remain. In contrast, the standardized time series shows excellent results not containing this type of error. This

  3. Slash and burn versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon area of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and burn agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest areas where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and burn agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and burn occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large area of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and burn agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available area, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the

  4. Deep sole burns in several participants in a traditional festival of the firewalking ceremony in Kee-lung, Taiwan--clinical experiences and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Cheng; Hsu, Chih-Kang; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Teng, Shou-Cheng; Fu, Ju-Peng; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chen, Tim-Mo; Feng, Chun-Che

    2012-11-01

    Firewalking is a common Taoist cleansing ceremony in Taiwan, but burns associated with the practice have rarely been reported. We analyzed the patients with plantar burns from one firewalking ceremony. In one firewalking ceremony, 12 Taoist disciples suffered from contact burns to the soles of their feet while walking over burning coals. Eight of them had at least second-degree burns over areas larger than 1% of their total body surface areas (TBSAs). The age, sex, medical history, date of injury, time taken to traverse the fire pit, depth and TBSA of the burns, treatment, length of stay, and outcome were recorded and analyzed. Deep, disseminated second- to third-degree burns were noted and healing took as long as three weeks in some patients. Because disseminated hypertrophic scars form after burns, the soles involved regain much of their tensile strength while walking. The patients experienced only a few difficulties in their daily lives three months after injury. From our experience treating patients with deep disseminated second- to third-degree plantar burns caused by firewalking, we conclude that they should be treated conservatively, with secondary healing rather than a skin graft. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. CO2-C emissions associated to soil tillage, liming and gypsum applications in sugarcane areas under green and burned harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, E. B.; Panosso, A. R.; La Scala, N., Jr.

    2012-04-01

    Debate regarding the potential of bioenergy crops to substitute fossil fuel in an efficient way is still opened. New management strategies from agricultural crops should be identified to increase their potential contributing to avoid the climate changes. This study quantified the impact of sugarcane harvest systems and other management practices on CO2-C fluxes following crop replanting. Two agricultural systems were considered: burned and green harvest, in plots where residues were left or removed from soil surface, from no till and after conventional tillage, with or without dolomite and agricultural gypsum applications. Soil CO2 emission, moisture and soil temperature were taken since 24 hours after tillage, totalizing 25 days after tillage with 18 measuring days. NT plots emissions were kept lower than others during the whole period studied, presenting in some cases fluctuations which were mostly related to changes in soil moisture associated to the occurrence of rain precipitations. Changes in CO2-C emission, in each of the harvest systems can be clearly seen when tillage, dolomite or gypsum were applied. The removal of sugarcane residues from soil surface resulted in almost immediate reduction of soil moisture (6% in volume) following an increase in soil NT CO2 emission of + 64%. The additional soil carbon emission due to the simple operation of removing the crop residues from soil surface was 252.4 kg CO2-C ha-1, as higher as the soil CO2 losses induced by tillage operation. Dolomite and agricultural gypsum applications did not always result in higher emissions, especially when applied at the presence of crop residues on soil surface. Reducing tillage frequency in green harvested sugarcane areas could reduce CO2 emissions and probably increasing the soil carbon stock considering long-term period crop system, while maintaining the sugarcane crop residues on soil surface has shown to be also a GHG mitigation option.

  6. White phosphorus pits focused feasibility study final July 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Martino, L.

    2007-08-21

    The White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP) Area of Concern (AOC) is a site of about 5.5 acres (2.2 ha) located in the J-Field Study Area, in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland (Figure 1.1). Considerable information about the WPP exists as a result of efforts to characterize the hazards associated with J-Field. Contamination in the J-Field Study Area was first detected during an environmental survey of the APG Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 (Nemeth et al. 1983) by the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA; predecessor to the U.S. Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field (three of them at the WPP) (Nemeth 1989). Contamination was also detected in 1983 during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science (1984). The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved installing and sampling nine wells (four at the WPP) and collecting and analyzing surficial and deep composite soil samples (including samples from the WPP area). In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a post-wide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field. In 1987, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phase hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil-gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed (four at the WPP), a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today. The results of the USGS study were published by Hughes (1993).

  7. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  8. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, Madrid et al., 2013) as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map (Figure 1) and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report (Jackson et al., 2011). The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites (Table 1). In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015

  9. Pitted Rock Named Ender

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 33. The rock in the foreground, nicknamed 'Ender', is pitted and marked by a subtle horizontal texture. The bright material on the top of the rock is probably wind-deposited dust. The Pathfinder Lander is seen in the distance at right. The lander camera is the cylindrical object on top of the deployed mast.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Burns in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Samnia, Roya; Garadaghi, Abasad; Kianvar, Hadi

    2006-03-01

    A 9-year prospective study of burns in pregnant women hospitalized at the Sina hospital burn center was conducted to determine the etiology and outcome of pregnant patients. Fifty-one patients (27.45% self-inflicted, 72.55% unintentional) were identified and stratified by age, burn size, presence or absence of inhalation injury, trimester of pregnancy, maternal and fetal mortality, and cause of burn. The mean patient age was 24.2 years. There were 20 maternal deaths and 23 fetal deaths. The majority of which (maternal: 13 and fetal: 13) were among self-inflicted burned pregnant women. The mean burn size was 37.7%, and was significantly larger for nonsurvivors of mother than survivors (68.8% versus 17.6%; pburned body surface area exceeds 40%, both maternal and fetal mortality reaches 100%. Inhalation injuries were strongly associated with large burns, and were presents in all suicide patients. Kerosene ignition (68.6% of all patients, 100% of self-inflicted patients) was the most common type of burn. Large burn size was the strongest predictor of mortality of mother and fetus followed by the presence of inhalation injury.

  11. Management of Hand Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Irmak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The hand is one of the most frequently affected body parts by burn injuries with a rate of 80% among all burn wounds. Early and effective treatment ensures the best chance of survival as well as a good functional prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, variation, relationship between etiology and hospital stay, clinical features, and management of hand burns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted the University of Health Sciences; Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Application and Research Center, Departmant of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery and the Intensive Burn Care Unit between April 2009 and April 2014. Burns were assessed based on etiology, anatomical location, percentage of total body surface area affected, and depth of injury. Treatment was categorized as conservative, elective operative, or urgent operative. Results: In the study period, 788 patients were admitted to our Burn Unit. Of these, 240 were females (30.5% and 548 were males (69.5%. The most common type of burn injury in this study was thermal injury (695 cases; 88.2%, followed by electrical injury (67 cases; 8.5%, and chemical, frictional or unknown injuries (26 cases; 3.3%. Majority (more than 85% of the patients had second-degree burns, and some had third-degree burns. Conclusions: Burns commonly affect the hands, and many functional problems may develop if appropriate basic treatments are neglected. The best treatment for burns is prevention. Appropriate indoor arrangement and simple but effective measures that can be taken at home can significantly reduce burn trauma exposure.

  12. The year in burns 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E

    2009-12-01

    For 2008, approximately 1200 original burn research articles were published in scientific journals using the English language. This article reviews those with the most impact on burn treatment according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns). As in the previous year's review, articles were divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology, wound characterisation, critical care physiology, inhalation injury, infection, metabolism and nutrition, psychological considerations, pain management, rehabilitation, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.

  13. Scald Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety Tips & Info Scald Burns Thousands of scald burns occur annually, and ALL are preventable! The two high-risk populations are children under the age ... the single most important factor in preventing scald burns. Increased awareness is the key to scald prevention! ...

  14. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  15. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L

    1979-01-01

    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  16. PCDD/Fs in air and soil around an e-waste dismantling area with open burning of insulated wires in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Tang, Y H; Peng, P A; Cai, Y

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air and farmland soil sampled in 2006 around an e-waste dismantling area with open burning of insulated wires in Longtang in south China were investigated. The total toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 3.2-31.7 pg/m(3) in air and 5.8 12.4 ng/kg in farmland soil at an e-waste site and 0.063-0.091 pg/m(3) in air at a background site. PCDD/Fs in the air at the e-waste site were characterized with dominant 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF and higher concentrations of furans than dioxins, suggesting open burning of insulated wires was likely to be the main source of PCDD/Fs. Compared with the results in this study, the level of PCDD/F tended to lessen with the average TEQ concentration decreasing by 41 % and the pattern changed to be dominated by OCDD in the air of Longtang in 2010 when insulated wires were openly burned in only a small scale. Our results indicate that the lower chlorinated congeners with higher vapor pressures have enhanced atmospheric transport tendencies.

  17. Wood-Burning Device Changeout: Modeling the Impact on PM2.5 Concentrations in a Remote Subarctic Urban Nonattainment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy N. Q. Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exchanging noncertified with certified wood-burning devices on the 24h-average PM2.5 concentrations in the nonattainment area of Fairbanks, Alaska, in a cold season (October to March were investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model inline coupled with a chemistry package. Even changing out only 2930 uncertified woodstoves and 90 outdoor wood boilers reduced the 24 h-average PM2.5 concentrations on average by 0.6 μg.m−3 (6% and avoided seven out of 55 simulated exceedance days during this half-a-year. The highest reductions on any exceedance day ranged between 1.7 and 2.8 μg.m−3. The relative response factors obtained were consistently relatively low (~0.95 for all PM2.5 species and all months. Sensitivity studies suggest that the assessment of the benefits of a wood-burning device changeout program in avoiding exceedances heavily relies on the accuracy of the estimates on how many wood-burning devices exist that can be exchanged.

  18. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  19. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  20. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  1. Design of spent-fuel concrete pit dry storage and handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, H.; Natsume, T.; Maruoka, K.; Yokoyama, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    An advanced dry storage system design with highly improved storage efficiency of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. The new concept 'Concrete Pit Dry Storage System' realizes a safe and economical solution to an increasing demand of storing spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) generated from commercial nuclear power reactors. The system is basically composed of a large mass concrete module which has densely arranged pit boreholes, sealed canisters containing spent fuel assemblies and a canister handling system. The system is characterized by the following advantages compared with the existing concrete module type storage systems: higher storage efficiency can be achieved by the storage module filled with concrete which also gives a high shielding performance; simple handling technology is used for transfer and installation of the canisters at the storage facility as well as the transport cask of the canisters, surface contamination of the canister is prevented; lower radiation around the storage area is provided to reduce radiation exposure during handling and storage; high structural integrity of the facility is maintained by the concrete module with a simple construction ; the ventilation gallery introducing cooling air air to the bit borehole has an enough draft height to improve cooling performance of the system; a result of the design concept, the storage system can store higher burn-up SFAs with a short cooling period. (authors)

  2. Use of previously burned skin as random cutaneous local flaps in pediatric burn reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN; McCauley, RL

    2002-01-01

    Reconstruction after post-burn scarring remains a challenge. It is especially true in the severely burned patient, who normally presents with a paucity of donor sites Healed skin from areas that had been burned and skin from grafted areas (termed as previously burned skin) have been occasionally use

  3. Use of previously burned skin as random cutaneous local flaps in pediatric burn reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN; McCauley, RL

    Reconstruction after post-burn scarring remains a challenge. It is especially true in the severely burned patient, who normally presents with a paucity of donor sites Healed skin from areas that had been burned and skin from grafted areas (termed as previously burned skin) have been occasionally

  4. Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranteda, Guglielmo; Carlesimo, Marta; Pranteda, Giulia; Abruzzese, Claudia; Grimaldi, Miriam; De Micco, Sabrina; Muscianese, Marta; Bottoni, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PK erythromycin and hyperhidrosis. All patients with PK seen in Sant'Andrea Hospital, between January 2009 and December 2011, were collected. PK was clinically and microscopically diagnosed. All patients underwent only topical treatment with erythromycin 3% gel twice daily. At the beginning of the study and after 5 and 10 days of treatment, a clinical evaluation and a gravimetric measurement of plantar sweating were assessed. A total of 97 patients were diagnosed as PK and were included in the study. Gravimetric measurements showed that in 94 of 97 examined patients (96.90%) at the time of the diagnosis, there was a bilateral excessive sweating occurring specifically in the areas affected by PK. After 10 days of antibiotic therapy, hyperhidrosis regressed together with the clinical manifestations. According to these data, we hypothesize that hyperhidrosis is due to an eccrine sweat gland hyperfunction, probably secondary to bacterial infection.

  5. Water and chemical budgets of gravel pit lakes: Case studies of fluvial gravel pit lakes along the Meuse River (The Netherlands) and coastal gravel pit lakes along the Adriatic Sea (Ravenna, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel pit lakes form when gravel is excavated from below the water table of a phreatic or shallow confined aquifer. Typically many of these lakes are concentrated along naturally occurring sedimentary gravel deposits in areas where gravel is needed for construction. Most gravel pit lakes are relati

  6. Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The burn area covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the burn area and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the burn area. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range

  7. The year in burns 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2012-12-01

    For 2011, approximately 1746 original research articles in burns were published in English in scientific journals. This article reviews those with the most potential impact on for burn therapeutics and outcomes according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and his colleague. As done previously, articles were found and divided into these topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterisation, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.

  8. Long term continuous use of auto LPG causes thermal pitting in automotive S. I. engine parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandloi, R.K.; Rehman, A. [Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal (India). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    The increasing cost of liquid hydrocarbons in recent years accompanied by the tough rules and regulations regarding exhaust emissions has stimulated interest in alternative fuels for automotive engines. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) has been suggested as a convenient, clean burning less pollutant fuel. Therefore it is also known as green fuel. However, the selection of an alternative fuel is not the end of the task. The selected fuel has to be exploited to its best capacity to serve the task for which it was chosen. Fuel consumption and heat losses from the engine are related; in a country like ours fuel consumption can be improved by optimizing the amount of heat generated in combustion chamber and surroundings. Since LPG burns cleaner with less carbon build-up, oil contamination, engine wear is reduced and the life of some components such as piston rings, and bearings is much longer than with gasoline. The high octane of LPG also minimizes wear from engine knock. On the other hand in the LPG-run SI Engine it is observed that the hot spots lead to surface pitting on the Engine Cylinder Block, Head, Valves, Valve stem and clearance increase in Valve guides. Apart from this, with some time it may lead to development of cracks and distortion in Cylinder Heads. This can be attributed to rise in temperature of the damaged / pitted area near combustion chamber. Experimental research into the use of LPG in spark ignition outboard engines presented with bottled LPG dosed gaseous form. The aim of the study was to determine the basic parameters and quantify the emission index, when LPG is used instead of gasoline. The results obtained indicate that with the use of LPG, specific fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} and CO emissions were much lower without noticeable power loss but in contrast, NO{sub x} emissions were much higher.

  9. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  10. Comparison of benthos and plankton for Waukegan Harbor Area of Concern, Illinois, and Burns Harbor-Port of Indiana non-Area of Concern, Indiana, in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Templar, Hayley A.; Burns, Daniel J.; Dobrowolski, Edward G.; Schmude, Kurt L.

    2017-06-06

    During two seasonal sampling events in spring (June) and fall (August) of 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected benthos (benthic invertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) at three sites each in the Waukegan Harbor Area of Concern (AOC) in Illinois and in Burns Harbor-Port of Indiana, a non-AOC comparison site in Indiana. The study was done in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Samples were collected concurrently for physical and chemical parameters (specific conductance, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, total and volatile suspended solids in water samples; particle size and volatile-on-ignition solids of sediment in dredge samples). The purpose of the study was to assess whether or not aquatic communities at the AOC were degraded in comparison to communities at the non-AOC, which was presumed to be less impaired than the AOC. Benthos were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrate samplers and a Ponar® dredge sampler to collect composited grabs of bottom sediment; zooplankton were collected by using tows from depth to the surface with a 63-micrometer mesh plankton net; phytoplankton were collected by using whole water samples composited from set depth intervals. Aquatic communities at the AOC and the non-AOC were compared by use of univariate statistical analyses with metrics such as taxa richness (number of unique taxa), diversity, and a multimetric Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for artificial-substrate samples only) as well as by use of multivariate statistical analyses of taxa relative abundances.Although benthos communities at Waukegan Harbor AOC were not rated as degraded in comparison to the non-AOC, metrics for zooplankton and phytoplankton communities did show some impairment for the 2015 sampling. Across seasons, benthos richness and diversity were significantly higher and rated as less degraded at the AOC compared to the non

  11. Application of Integration Technology in Handling Complex Mined-out Area in Luomu Open-pit Mine%洛钼露天矿复杂采空区治理一体化技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春毅; 彭府华

    2015-01-01

    The integration of detection,stability monitoring and handling technology of mined-out area in Luomu open-pit mine are introduced. The high-density electrical and seismic imaging method are used to preliminarily detect the position of gobs,and then the drilling exploration and three-dimensional laser detection methods are adopted to detect the accurate charac-teristics of gobs. Microseismic technology is used for all-day,three-dimensional and real-time monitoring on the gob stability. It makes a very good application effect on the stability quantitative analysis,the influence of blasting vibration to the gobs and the stability monitoring in the processing of handling gobs. The gravel filling and controlled blasting technology is adopted to treat different gobs. According to characteristics of mined-out areas and the difficulty in gob handing,gobs are treated once or several times to finish the handling. With the use of this integrated technology,a large number of gobs in Luomu open-pit mine have been successfully treated. It ensures the safety production,and has vital significance for the sustainable development of mine. Moreover,it has important reference value to the similar mine at home and abroad.%介绍了洛钼露天矿采空区探测、采空区稳定性监测和采空区处理一体化技术。洛钼露天矿采用高密度电法和地震映象法对采空区位置进行初探,再利用钻孔探测和三维激光探测方法对采空区赋存形态进行精确探测。利用微震监测技术对采空区稳定性进行全天候、实时和立体监测,在对矿山采区岩体稳定性微震量化评估、爆破震动对采空区稳定性影响和采空区治理前后稳定性监测等方面取得了很好的应用效果。采用碎石充填和控制爆破技术对不同采空区进行处理,并根据采空区的赋存特点和处理的难易程度,对采空区进行分类一次处理或分次处理。洛钼露天矿采用该一体化技术已经成

  12. Site Safety and Health Plan (Phase 3) for the treatability study for in situ vitrification at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    This plan is to be implemented for Phase III ISV operations and post operations sampling. Two previous project phases involving site characterization have been completed and required their own site specific health and safety plans. Project activities will take place at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Purpose of this document is to establish standard health and safety procedures for ORNL project personnel and contractor employees in performance of this work. Site activities shall be performed in accordance with Energy Systems safety and health policies and procedures, DOE orders, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards 29 CFR Part 1910 and 1926; applicable United States Environmental Protection Agency requirements; and consensus standards. Where the word ``shall`` is used, the provisions of this plan are mandatory. Specific requirements of regulations and orders have been incorporated into this plan in accordance with applicability. Included from 29 CFR are 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response; 1910.146, Permit Required - Confined Space; 1910.1200, Hazard Communication; DOE Orders requirements of 5480.4, Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards; 5480.11, Radiation Protection; and N5480.6, Radiological Control Manual. In addition, guidance and policy will be followed as described in the Environmental Restoration Program Health and Safety Plan. The levels of personal protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from reference documents and site characterization data. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project.

  13. INFLUENCE OF PIT WALL ANCHORAGE ONTO ADDITIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of additional projected deformations of buildings located in close proximity to pits is exemplified by the specific structure of the pit support system that has active PIT [1] anchors. The authors also consider the influence produced by the structure of anchors onto the two buildings located within the area of influence of the excavation works and protected by the anchors installed underneath the foundations of the two adjacent buildings.

  14. Smoke emissions due to burning of green waste in the Mediterranean area: Influence of fuel moisture content and fuel mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihay-Felicelli, V.; Santoni, P. A.; Gerandi, G.; Barboni, T.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate emission characteristics in relation to differences in fuel moisture content (FMC) and initial dry mass. For this purpose, branches and twigs with leaves of Cistus monspeliensis were burned in a Large Scale Heat Release apparatus coupled to a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. A smoke analysis was conducted and the results highlighted the presence of CO2, H2O, CO, CH4, NO, NO2, NH3, SO2, and non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). CO2, NO, and NO2 species are mainly released during flaming combustion, whereas CO, CH4, NH3, and NMOC are emitted during both flaming and smoldering combustion. The emission of these compounds during flaming combustion is due to a rich fuel to air mixture, leading to incomplete combustion. The fuel moisture content and initial dry mass influence the flame residence time, the duration of smoldering combustion, the combustion efficiency, and the emission factors. By increasing the initial dry mass, the emission factors of NO, NO2, and CO2 decrease, whereas those of CO and CH4 increase. The increase of FMC induces an increase of the emission factors of CO, CH4, NH3, NMOC, and aerosols, and a decrease of those of CO2, NO, and NO2. Increasing fuel moisture content reduces fuel consumption, duration of smoldering, and peak heat release rate, but simultaneously increases the duration of propagation within the packed bed, and the flame residence time. Increasing the initial dry mass, causes all the previous combustion parameters to increase. These findings have implications for modeling biomass burning emissions and impacts.

  15. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  16. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    2000-01-01

    A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed.

  17. The role of frugivorous birds and bats in the colonization of cloud forest plant species in burned areas in western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rost, J.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The extension of montane cloud forests in western Mexico is threatened by several disturbances that limit their extension. In this study we aim to assess the contribution of birds and bats in the dispersal and colonization of cloud–forest plants in contiguous surface–burned pine forests. We sampled seed rain and sapling establishment over one year in two surface–burned sites, which differed in the size of their closest cloud forest patch. A total of 17 plant species were found, most of which were late–successional trees, shrubs and climbers. Distance influenced the seed rain of only one dispersed taxon (Solanum sp. and had no effect on the sapling distribution of this or other plants. In turn, marked differences were found between sites, with more seeds dispersed and higher sapling density in the site that was next to the larger cloud forest patch. The role of long–distance dispersers and the existence of seed banks before fire could explain the little importance of distance from seed source on seed dispersal and sapling distribution. Nevertheless, dispersal by birds and bats before or after fire facilitates the regeneration and conservation of cloud forests in disturbed areas formerly occupied by other habitats.

  18. Chemical and Common Burns in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shan

    2017-05-01

    Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact. In children, the most common cause of chemical burns is from household products such as toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, detergents, and bleaches. Mild chemical burns generally cause redness and pain and can look similar to other common rashes or skin infections, whereas severe chemical burns are more extreme and may cause redness, blistering, skin peeling, and swelling.

  19. Burned Area Detection in the Canadian Boreal Forest Using MODIS Imagery%加拿大北方森林火烧迹地遥感分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤慧; 刘荣高; 祝善友; 刘洋

    2013-01-01

    The boreal forest biome is one of the largest on earth, covering 17%of total land area. The major eco-systems within the boreal zone contain more than 30%of terrestrial carbon stores, thus representing a major com-ponent of the global carbon budget. Wildfires are a main disturbance factor in the Canadian boreal forests, which play an important role in boreal ecosystems. In this paper, we mapped the forest burned area in Saskatchewan and Alberta of Canada during 2004-2011, using two data sets of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiome-ter (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) imagery at 1 km resolu-tion. The MODIS global disturbance index algorithm (MGDI) was used to detect the forest burned area. It is based on the consistent radiometric relationship between annual maximum LST and the maximum EVI value that occurs after the LST during the same year at every pixel. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated by comparing the results with the MODIS MCD45A1 products and the inventory data from Forestry Bureau of Canada. The results show that the majority of fire events is captured by the MGDI techniques, and the burned ar-ea estimated by the fires pixels is better in good agreement with the inventory data than MODIS products. Com-pared with the Canadian Forestry Bureau data, the average relative error of our algorithm results is only 8.03%, while the MODIS product results is up to 70.53%. The results estimated that the average burned forest area is about 763 600 ha annually, which is about 3.36%of the total forest in this region. A mean annual burned forest is 468 300 ha for Saskatchewan and 295 300ha for Alberta respectively. The Canadian boreal forest fires show a significant interannual variation and severity, the burned scar mainly appeared in the years of 2006, 2008 and 2010-2011. Forest burned area mainly concentrated in the ecotone of the Boreal Shield, Taiga Shield, Taiga plains and the Wood Buffalo National Park

  20. Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free

  1. Giant weathering pits in the Entrada Sandstone, southeastern Utah: Preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netoff, D.I. (Sam Houston State Univ., Huntsville, TX (United States). Dept. of Geography and Geology); Shroba, R.R. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Giant weathering pits formed in outcrops of the lower Entrada Sandstone slickrock of Jurassic age are present in two areas in the Glen Canyon region of arid southeastern Utah. The pits are far larger than any previously described in the geologic literature. The pits near Cookie Jar Butte are commonly cylindrical, typically have low width-to-depth ratios (1.5--3.6), and have a depth of closure of as much as 18 m. There are no obvious lithologic or structural controls that determine their shape or location. Many of the pits at Rock Creek Bay are elongate; several of them have long axes in excess of 53 m, and the longest one is 74 m. Many of the pit walls are breached at the top, and the depth of closure is generally less than 6 m. The shapes of these pits are influenced by point orientation and pit coalescence. Thin-section analyses of near-surface sandstone cores taken near Cookie Jar Butte from pit walls, floors, and rims reveal no significant diagenetic alteration of the fine-grained to very fine frained quartzose sandstone (quartz arenite). Quartz grains appear fresh, and feldspar grains are only slightly weathered. The cement between the grains is mostly CaCO[sub 3]. In several of the pits in both areas sandy sediment veneers the bedrock floor. This sediment is similar in character to the adjacent sandstone and is probably locally derived. Possible origins of the giant pits include various physical, chemical, and biological weathering processes that initiate pit development, followed by excavation by plunge-pool action, wind deflation, dissolution, and piping. Preliminary field and laboratory data do not clearly identify and single process of group of processes that account for pit development.

  2. Prediction of Pitting Corrosion Mass Loss for 304 Stainless Steel by Image Processing and BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LIANG Cheng-hao

    2005-01-01

    Image processing technique was employed to analyze pitting corrosion morphologies of 304 stainless steel exposed to FeCl3 environments. BP neural network models were developed for the prediction of pitting corrosion mass loss using the obtained data of the total and the average pit areas which were extracted from pitting binary image. The results showed that the predicted results obtained by the 2-5-1 type BP neural network model are in good agreement with the experimental data of pitting corrosion mass loss. The maximum relative error of prediction is 6.78%.

  3. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  5. NIR detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the detection of pits and pit fragments in cherries was demonstrated. For detection of whole pits, 300 cherries were obtained locally and pits were removed from half. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained in triplicate...

  6. Using NPP-Suomi VIIRS I-band data to delineate high- and low-intensity burn areas for forest fires in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waigl, C. F.; Prakash, A.; Stuefer, M.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present and evaluate an algorithm that generates near real-time fire detections suitable for use by fire and related hazard management agencies in Alaska. Our scheme offers benefits over available global products and is sensitive to low-intensity residual burns while at the same time avoiding common sources of false detections as they are observed in the Alaskan boreal forest, such as refective river banks and old fire scars. The algorithm is based on I-band brightness temperature data form the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NOAA's NPP Suomi spacecraft. Using datasets covering the entire 2015 Alaska fire season, we first evaluate the performance of two global fire products: MOD14/MYD14, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the more recent global VIIRS I-band product. A comparison with the fire perimeter and properties data published by the Alaska Interagency Coordination Center (AICC) shows that both MODIS and VIIRS fire products successfully detect all fires larger than approx. 1000 hectares, with the VIIRS I-band product only moderately outperforming MOD14/MYD14. For smaller fires, the VIIRS I-band product offers higher detection likelihood, but still misses one fifth of the fire events overall. Furthermore, some daytime detections are missing, possibly due to processing difficulties or incomplete data transfer. Second, as an alternative, we present a simple algorithm that uses the normalized difference between the 3.74µm and 11.45 µm VIIRS-I band at-sensor brightness temperatures to map both low- and high-intensity burn areas. Such an approach has the advantage that it makes use of data that is available via the direct readout station operated by Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA). We apply this scheme to known Alaskan boreal forest fires and validate it using GIS data produced by fire management agencies, fire detections from near simultanous Landsat

  7. Air pollution from biomass burning and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Cançado, José Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane burning and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time‐series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (μg/m3) was obtained using Handi‐vol equipment (Energética, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long‐time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1 day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the 5‐day moving average (lag1–5) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health. PMID:17435205

  8. Smartphone applications in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. 大面积烧伤病人生活质量及健康教育%Life Quality and Health Education of Burn Patients in Big Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩蜀萍; 杨永林; 叶丽芳

    2001-01-01

    To probe into the life quality and the health education of the burn patients in the big area, the life quality and the correlative factor is investigated in 52 patients with the burn of the big area in our hospital between 1994 and 1999,by the questionnaire. The result indicate: 96.1% patients were in low spirits such as anxiety, lack of ability to take care of themselves. Their condition of social intercourse, family life and employment were affected, too. The author put forth the health education, including keeping the patients in good emotion, improving inhabitation care and seek social help.%为探讨大面积烧伤病人的生活质量及健康教育问题,以问卷式调查方式,对1994年至1999年来院救治的52名大面积烧伤病人进行了生活质量及相关因素的调查。结果表明:病人有焦虑等负性情绪占96.1%,生活自理能力下降者占86.5%;另外,大面积烧伤对社交、家庭生活、就业等有不同程度的影响。因此,必须加强健康教育,加强康复护理,采用寻求社会支持等手段,使病人保持良好的心态。

  10. Description of work for 216-U-Pond test pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1993-08-11

    This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the test pit excavation and soil sampling at the 216- U-10 Pond (U-10 Pond) in the 200 West Area and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. It will be used in conjunction with the 200-UP-2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study (DOE-RL 1993a, [LFI]) and Site Characterization Manual (WHC 1988a). Test pits will be constructed to characterize the vertical extent of contaminants in sediments within and beneath the former U-10 pond.

  11. Estimating Biomass Burned Areas from Multispectral Dataset Detected by Multiple-Satellite%基于多源卫星多光谱遥感数据的过火面积估算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余超; 陈良富; 李莘莘; 陶金花; 苏林

    2015-01-01

    露天生物质燃烧是重要的大气污染物排放源,导致空气质量恶化并引起气候变化。卫星遥感数据能够提供大尺度、多时相的监测信息,然而燃烧火点监测和火烧迹地监测两种方式都存在着局限性。以美国东南部地区为研究区域,通过结合卫星遥感获取的高分辨率燃烧面积数据及多时相的燃烧火点数据,建立时空匹配模型估算露天生物质燃烧过火面积。通过分析植被燃烧前后的光谱变化特征,基于高分辨率的Landsat-5 TM4波段(0.84μm)与7波段(2.22μm)数据,利用差分归一化燃烧比(dNBR:the differential normalized burn ratio)提取燃烧面积数据;而燃烧火点数据则通过分析燃烧植被的热红外光谱特征利用 MO-DIS 4与11μm 波段数据提取。结果显示,该地区燃烧面积与燃烧火点数量之间相关系数达0.63,并且二者之间的比例关系随植被类型而发生变化,林地、草地、灌木、耕地和沼泽五种植被类型对应的像元燃烧面积分别为0.69,1.27,0.86,0.72和0.94 km2。通过与美国火灾中心(national interagency fire center,NIFC)地面调查数据比对,模 型 估 算 的 美 国 东 南 部 过 火 面 积 数据 较 为 精 确,而同期的 MODIS 燃烧面积产品(MCD45)及燃烧源清单产品(global fire emissions database,GFED)遗漏了该区域大量的小面积燃烧事件。因此,本研究建立的过火面积估算模型能够提供更为精确的排放源参数信息,有利于区域空气质量模式准确地模拟露天生物质燃烧排放状况。%Biomass burning makes up an important part of both trace gases and particulate matter emissions,which can efficient-ly degrade air quality and reduce visibility,destabilize the global climate system at regional to global scales.Burned area is one of the primary parameters necessary to estimate emissions,and considered to be the

  12. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support.

  13. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  14. Bad advice; bad burn: a new problem in burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, L; Slater, H; Goldfarb, I W

    1990-01-01

    Deep partial-thickness burns had been inflicted on the perineal area of an infant who was recently treated in our Burn Center. The burns were a result of advice to the patient's mother by a pediatrician. The doctor told her to use a hair dryer to prevent diaper rash. We surveyed pediatricians, well-baby clinics, and pediatric nurse practitioners in our area and found that approximately half of them advised the use of hair dryers to treat or prevent diaper rash. We tested four widely available hand-held hair dryers to determine potential for inflicting burn injury. All of the dryers are capable of delivering air heated to at least 53 degrees C after 2 minutes of use. We believe that warnings against the use of hair dryers for perineal hygiene should be included in burn prevention programs.

  15. Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; Jeremy S. Littell

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong,...

  16. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  17. Recultivation of the cavity of the closed open pit Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilić Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ore is one of the most important raw materials for industrial production. Increasing demands have been increasing its extraction generally. Shallow deposits with higher copper grade are mostly exhausted and the open pits become deeper, also the amount of overburden and the problems of its disposal are increased. In some cases large quantities of overburden can solve the problem of recultivation of degraded areas. This is the case of recultivation of degraded areas on the location of the closed open pit Bor. Here, the overburden from another open pit, Veliki Krivelj, is disposed into the cavity of the open pit Bor. In this way the overburden is disposed without further area degradation and the cavity is primarily, technically recultivated. When the filling process is finished, waste depot will have a flat top at the level K+450 [2], which is above the neighboring terrain, and the slopes height will vary. This problem was not especially considered up to date, so the experiences in this field are humble. This paper intends to be the basis for further research.

  18. FINITE ELEMENT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL SEEPAGE CONTROL FOR DEEP FOUNDATION PIT DEWATERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zu-jiang; ZHANG Ying-ying; WU Yong-xia

    2008-01-01

    For deep foundation pit dewatering in the Yangtze River Delta, it is easy to make a dramatic decrease of the underground water level surrounding the dewatering area and cause land subsidence and geologic disasters. In this work, a three-dimensional finite element simulation method was applied in the forth subway of Dongjiadu tunnel repair foundation pit dewatering in Shanghai. In order to control the decrease of the underground water level around the foundation pit, the foundation pit dewatering method was used to design the optimization project of dewatering ,which was simulated under these conditions that the aquifers deposited layer by layer, the bottom of the aquifers went deep to 144.45 m, the retaining wall of foundation pit shield went deep to 65 m, the filters of the extraction wells were located between 44 m to 59 m, the water level in the deep foundation pit was decreased by 34 m, and the maximum decrease of water level outside the foundation pit was 3 m. It is shown that the optimization project and the practical case are consistent with each other. Accordingly, the three-dimensional finite element numerical simulation is the basic theory of optimization design of engineering structures of dewatering in deep foundation pit in such areas.

  19. Burned Area Mapping in the North American Boreal Forest Using Terra-MODIS LTDR (2001–2011: A Comparison with the MCD45A1, MCD64A1 and BA GEOLAND-2 Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Moreno Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm based on a Bayesian network classifier was adapted to produce 10-day burned area (BA maps from the Long Term Data Record Version 3 (LTDR at a spatial resolution of 0.05° (~5 km for the North American boreal region from 2001 to 2011. The modified algorithm used the Brightness Temperature channel from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS band 31 T31 (11.03 μm instead of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR band T3 (3.75 μm. The accuracy of the BA-LTDR, the Collection 5.1 MODIS Burned Area (MCD45A1, the MODIS Collection 5.1 Direct Broadcast Monthly Burned Area (MCD64A1 and the Burned Area GEOLAND-2 (BA GEOLAND-2 products was assessed using reference data from the Alaska Fire Service (AFS and the Canadian Forest Service National Fire Database (CFSNFD. The linear regression analysis of the burned area percentages of the MCD64A1 product using 40 km × 40 km grids versus the reference data for the years from 2001 to 2011 showed an agreement of R2 = 0.84 and a slope = 0.76, while the BA-LTDR showed an agreement of R2 = 0.75 and a slope = 0.69. These results represent an improvement over the MCD45A1 product, which showed an agreement of R2 = 0.67 and a slope = 0.42. The MCD64A1, BA-LTDR and MCD45A1 products underestimated the total burned area in the study region, whereas the BA GEOLAND-2 product overestimated it by approximately five-fold, with an agreement of R2 = 0.05. Despite MCD64A1 showing the best overall results, the BA-LTDR product proved to be an alternative for mapping burned areas in the North American boreal forest region compared with the other global BA products, even those with higher spatial/spectral resolution.

  20. The new characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in some areas in North-Western Guizhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wua, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M. [CAS, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride contents in coal, drinking water, corn and chili, were assayed, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis and fluoride levels in urine in the local inhabitants were investigated. Fluoride content in coal of Hualuo, Majiazhuang and Pianpozhai (China) is 107.8, 104.1 and 117.6 mg/kg, respectively, in drinking water of the three villages is 0.12, 0.14 and {lt} 0.05 mg/l, respectively; in corn of the three villages is 30.6,33.4 and 49.8 mg/kg, respectively; in chili of the three village is 513.2, 342.6 and 281.0 mg/kg. Fluorosis is serious in the areas. It is concluded that fluoride levels in urine and coal is relatively low to the serious fluorosis and the high fluoride contents in foodstuff, it is the new characteristics in the endemic fluorosis area. Further study should be made.

  1. Effects of Nanoscale V-Shaped Pits on GaN-Based Light Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo-Wei; Li, Heng; Chang, Chia-Jui; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2017-01-28

    This paper reviews the formation of nanoscale V-shaped pits on GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system and studies the effect of V-shaped pits on quantum efficiency. Since V-pits could provide potential barriers around threading dislocations to lessen non-radiative recombinations in such a high defect environment. In our study, multiple InGaN/GaN quantum well samples with different emission wavelengths of 380, 420, 460, and 500 nm were grown, each with different nanoscale V-shaped pits of three diameters for 150, 200, and 250 nm, respectively. It was found that the multiple quantum well (MQW) sample with larger V-pits had a lower pit density, but a relatively larger total V-pits defected area. The optimum diameter of V-pits showing the highest quantum efficiency from the MQW sample depended on the emission wavelength. MQW samples with wavelengths of 380 and 500 nm exhibited the best internal quantum efficiency (IQE) performance at the smallest V-pits area; however, the best performance for MQW samples with wavelength around 420 and 460 nm occurred when large V-pit areas were presented. Photoluminescence (PL) peak shifts and Raman shifts can provide a relationship between quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) and IQE, as well as a comparison between strain and IQE. The results obtained in this phenomenological study shall provide a useful guide line in making high-performance GaN-based LEDs with wide emission spectra.

  2. Particulate matters emitted from maize straw burning for winter heating in rural areas in Guanzhong Plain, China: Current emission and future reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Qian; Yin, Xiuli; Lei, Yali; Huang, Yu; Huang, R.-J.; Liu, Suixin; Han, Yongming; Xu, Hongmei; Zheng, Chunli; Liu, Pingping

    2017-02-01

    Maize straw smoldering in "Heated Kang" is the traditional way for heating in winter in rural areas of Guanzhong Plain. This smolder procedure produced large quantities of pollutants and got more and more concern from both public and researchers. In this study, on-site measurements of straw smoldering in a residence with a Chinese 'Heated Kang' (Scenario 1) were done to determine the emissions factors (EFs) for pollutants. Moreover, EFs of pollutants from an advanced stove fired with maize straw (Scenario 2) and maize-straw pellet (Scenario 3) had been conducted in a laboratory to find the new measure to reduce the pollution emissions. The results showed that the EFs of PM2.5 for three scenarios were 38.26 ± 13.94 g·kg- 1, 17.50 ± 8.29 g·kg- 1 and 2.95 ± 0.71 g·kg- 1, respectively. Comparing EFs of pollutants from 3 scenarios indicates that both briquetting of straw and advanced stove with air distribution system could efficiently reduce pollutants emission especially for Scenario 3. In detail, EFs of PM2.5, OC, EC and water soluble ions all have over 90% reduction between Scenarios 1 and 3. All particle-size distributions were unimodal, and all peaked in particle sizes advanced stoves for residential heating could reduce PM2.5 emission from 48.3 Gg to 3.59 Gg, OC from 19.0 Gg to 0.91 Gg, EC from 1.7 Gg to 0.17 Gg and over 90% reduction on total water soluble ions in the whole region. A box model simulation for the Guanzhong Plain indicated that this conversion would lead to a 7.7% reduction in PM2.5 (from 130 to 120 μg·m- 3) in normal conditions and a 14.2% reduction (from 350 to 300 μg·m- 3) in hazy conditions. The results highlighted that the straw pellets burning in advanced stove can effectively reduce pollutants emitted and improve the energy use efficiency in comparison with maize straw smoldering in "Heated Kang". The study supplies an effective measure to reduce the rural biomass burning emission, and this method can be used in not only Guanzhong

  3. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > Burns A A A What's ... outlets, etc.) overexposure to the sun Types of Burns Burns are often categorized as first-, second-, or ...

  4. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  5. Effects of the acceleration vector on transient burning rate of an aluminized solid propellant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. B.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental results concerning the transient burning-rate augmentation of a 16% aluminum polybutadiene acrylic acid (PBAA) propellant burned in a 2-in. web motor at pressure levels from 300 to 1200 psia with centrifugal accelerations from 0 to 140 g. The orientation of the acceleration vector was varied to determine its effect on the transient burning rate. The burning-rate augmentation was strongly dependent on (1) acceleration level, (2) propellant distance burned (or burn time), and (3) orientation of the acceleration vector with respect to the burning surface. This transient rate augmentation resulted from the retention of molten metallic residue on the burning surface by the normal acceleration loading. The presence of the residue altered the combustion zone heat transfer and caused increased localized burning rates, as evidenced by the pitted propellant surfaces that were observed from extinction tests conducted at various acceleration levels.

  6. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyoung Song; Yosoon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV) systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for install...

  7. The year in burns 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herbert A; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 3415 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2013. We have continued to see an increase in this number; the following reviews articles selected from these by the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and colleagues that in their opinion are most likely to have effects on burn care treatment and understanding. As we have done before, articles were found and divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. The articles are mentioned briefly with notes from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for details.

  8. Epidemiologic evaluation of patients with major burns and recommendations for burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftçi, Ilhan; Arslan, Kemal; Altunbaş, Zeynep; Kara, Fatih; Yilmaz, Hüseyin

    2012-03-01

    Burns are an important health problem in our country and in the world. In our study, we aimed to epidemiologically analyze the patients who were hospitalized in a burn unit that serves 3 million individuals in Central Anatolia. Records of 457 patients who had been hospitalized in the burn unit during the period 2008-2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were assessed in terms of gender, age, burn area, burn depth, admission time to the health center, burn region, and factors causing burns. Most (44.6%) of the patients were in the 0-5 age group. Burn surface area was detected as 11.6 +/- 8.5%. Patients had reached the health center in 252.8 +/- 892.5 minutes. While 82.7% of the patients had second degree bums, 17.3% had third degree burns. Most burns were on the extremities (39.6%). The most common burn agent was scalds with hot liquids (54.1%). In our study, children in the 0-5 age group were found to be the most commonly affected group with respect to indoor burns. The basic contributing factor is that children spend more time in the house and are more active. Scalding burns may be prevented when greater care is taken when using hot liquids that may lead to indoor burns. Informing parents on this issue is of first priority.

  9. Discrete element modeling of Martian pit crater formation in response to extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Kevin J.; Wyrick, Danielle Y.; Ferrill, David A.

    2011-04-01

    Pit craters, circular to elliptical depressions that lack a raised rim or ejecta deposits, are common on the surface of Mars. Similar structures are also found on Earth, Venus, the Moon, and smaller planetary bodies, including some asteroids. While it is generally accepted that these pits form in response to material drainage into a subsurface void space, the primary mechanism(s) responsible for creating the void is a subject of debate. Previously proposed mechanisms include collapse into lave tubes, dike injection, extensional fracturing, and dilational normal faulting. In this study, we employ two-dimensional discrete element models to assess both extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting as mechanisms for forming pit craters. We also examine the effect of mechanical stratigraphy (alternating strong and weak layers) and variation in regolith thickness on pit morphology. Our simulations indicate that both extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting are viable mechanisms. Both mechanisms lead to generally convex (steepening downward) slope profiles; extensional fracturing results in generally symmetric pits, whereas dilational normal faulting produces strongly asymmetric geometries. Pit width is established early, whereas pit depth increases later in the deformation history. Inclusion of mechanical stratigraphy results in wider and deeper pits, particularly for the dilational normal faulting, and the presence of strong near-surface layers leads to pits with distinct edges as observed on Mars. The modeling results suggest that a thicker regolith leads to wider but shallower pits that are less distinct and may be more difficult to detect in areas of thick regolith.

  10. A Study of Factors involved in possible regeneration of Atlantic White Cedar in a recently burned area in the Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Historically white cedar has managed to regenerate without benefit of controlled burns and it seems that .most wild fires occur during the dry season. It was...

  11. Burning vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Priyanka; Hobday, Dorian; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; D'Cruz, David

    2016-04-26

    We present the case of a 69-year-old man who was found collapsed close to a heat source and admitted to hospital for severe sepsis. He was also found to have widespread blistering and ulceration of his right leg; however, a history was unobtainable due to reduced consciousness levels. The leg lesions had the initial appearance of mixed depth burns and a management plan was made to transfer the patient to a burns unit for debridement. It was subsequently noted that the patient had a previous diagnosis of seropositive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. A biopsy of the leg lesion was performed and a diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis confirmed. Treatment with systemic steroids, intravenous antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe hypogammaglobulinaemia was started, and the patient was not transferred for surgical debridement. Rheumatoid vasculitis is a rare and extremely serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis that can manifest in a number of ways, occasionally mimicking other conditions. This case is essential to raise awareness of rare, severe rheumatoid vasculitis and of the potential for its misdiagnosis as a mixed depth burn.

  12. BURN SEVERITY MAPPING IN AUSTRALIA 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  13. Polarized Reflectance Measurement of Burned Skin Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.

    2011-10-01

    In the US, there are over 400,000 burn victims with 3,500 deaths in 2010. Recent evidence suggests that early removal of burn tissues can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since burns continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that burns trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore, it is important to distinguish burn areas so that it can be removed. The problem with this is that it is difficult to recognize the margins of the burn area. In our project, we use polarized reflectance as a tool to identify the burned tissues from unburned ones.

  14. Effects of Inclusions in HSLA Carbon Steel on Pitting Corrosion in CaCl2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; S. Bullard; K. Rozman; J.J. Kruzic

    2011-12-05

    Susceptibility of high strength low alloy steel to localized corrosion was studied in 6.7 M CaCl{sub 2} for oil and natural gas drilling applications. Results of the immersion and electrochemical experiments showed that the steel is susceptible to pitting corrosion. Optical microscopy investigations of the polished samples revealed that 10% of the surface area was occupied by defects in the form of pits. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) chemical analyses revealed higher concentrations of Mn and S compared to the metal matrix in defected areas. These areas served as the sites for development of corrosion pits during both immersion and electrochemical experiments. The fatigue results of the corroded samples indicate that if the pit was the most significant defect, the fatigue crack initiated and propagated at this site.

  15. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  16. Floating Lid Constructions for Pit Water Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due to the l...

  17. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  18. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (IEEE ICRA [6] Strawser et al. (2014) J. Hydrogen Energy. [7] Dubowsky et al. (2007) Proc. CLAWAR.

  19. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes. Water...

  20. Predictive Index for slope instabilities in open pit mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, J H; Lecaros, R; Medel, F; Padilla, F; García, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the stability and deformation of structures, in particular the wall of an open pit mine is studied by using information obtained from a variety of remote sensors and some extra data, with a novelty approach considering the use of mathematical models and data mining techniques. In particular we present two models to help the study the slope stability of pit and the possible occurrence of movements. Primarily we present an static model for slow movements, which will help us identify areas of possible risks areas with time horizons of several months or years, depends on the available information, before the wall start moving, and secondly a dynamic short-term model, which help us to determine risks of collapse zones with several days in advance. We remark that this methodology can be a powerful tool to plain future actions in order to simulate possible scenarios considering the production plans.

  1. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  2. Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, W. C.; Holm, R. H.; Kamanula, J. F.; Mtonga, W. E.; de los Reyes, F. L.

    2017-08-01

    A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum trucks currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a result, households in the unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu rely primarily on manual pit emptying (i.e., shoveling by hand) or digging a new pit latrine. These practices have associated health risks and are limited by space constraints. This research focused on filling the technological gap through the design, development, and testing of a pedal powered modified Gulper pump using locally available materials and fabrication. A modified pedal powered Gulper technology was developed and demonstrated to be capable of lifting fecal sludge from a depth of 1.5 m with a mean flow rate of 0.00058 m3/s. If the trash content was low, a typical pit latrine with a volume of 1-4 m3 could be emptied within 1-2 h. Based on the findings in our research Phase IV, the pedal powered Gulper modification is promising as a potential emptying technology for lined pit latrines in unplanned settlement areas. The success rate of the technology is about 17% (5 out 30 sampled lined pit latrines were successful) and reflects the difficulty in finding a single technology that can work well in all types of pit latrines with varying contents. We note that cost should not be the only design criteria and acknowledge the challenge of handling trash in pit latrines.

  3. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Jin; Li Fei

    2015-01-01

    The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitori...

  4. Skin Burns Degree Determined by Computer Image Processing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-yan

    In this paper a new method determining the degree of skin burns in quantities is put forward. Firstly, with Photoshop9.0 software, we analyzed the statistical character of skin burns images' histogram, and then turned the images of burned skins from RGB color space to HSV space, to analyze the transformed color histogram. Lastly through Photoshop9.0 software we get the percentage of the skin burns area. We made the mean of images' histogram,the standard deviation of color maps,and the percentage of burned areas as indicators of evaluating burns,then distributed indicators the weighted values,at last get the burned scores by summing the products of every indicator of the burns and the weighted values. From the classification of burned scores, the degree of burns can be evaluated.

  5. Correlation between Mechanical Properties and Physical Indicators of General Cohesive Soil in Foundation Pits in Wuhan Area%武汉地区基坑一般黏性土的力学特性与其物理指标间的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯双; 马郧; 徐光黎

    2016-01-01

    General cohesive soil is common in foundation pits engineering in Wuhan area and the study on its engineering characteristics and the correlation between its physical and mechanical parameters has practical significance.In order to research the physical and mechanical parameters of typical general cohesive soil in foundation pits in Wuhan area,on the basis of 45 foundation pits engineering,this paper objectively analy-zes the engineering characteristics of the general cohesive soil and the correlation between its physical and mechanical parameters by the method of mathematical statistics and regression analysis.The main conclu-sions are as follows:(1 )The static Cone Penetration Test value (PS value)ranges from 0 .8 MPa to 1 .6 MPa and the Standard Penetration Test value (N value)ranges from 3 to 7;(2 )The saturation of soil is relatively high,and so is the plasticity and compressibility,which may produce unfavorable impact on sedi-mentation deformation of foundation pits and high-rise buildings;(3 )In addition,the moisture content,void ratio and liquid limit coefficient of the soil show negative correlation with its cohesion and frictional angle (c and)derived from direct shear test,whereas the compression modulus shows the positive correlation with the two indexes.The study could provide reference for the parameter selection of foundation pits in-vestigation and design in Wuhan area.%一般黏性土作为武汉地区基坑工程中常见土层,对其工程特性与其物理力学参数的相关性研究对提高深基坑支护技术和经济性具有重要的现实意义。为研究武汉地区基坑工程典型一般黏性土的物理力学特性,以武汉地区45个基坑工程为基础,采用数理统计及回归分析方法,分析了武汉地区一般黏性土的工程特性与其物理力学参数间的相关关系。结果表明:武汉地区基坑工程一般黏性土的静力触探指标PS 值变化范围为0.8~1.6 MPa,标准贯入

  6. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  7. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  8. 基于多源卫星遥感数据的森林过火区面积估算方法%Extracting Forest Burned Scar Region Area Based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟; 李亚君; 刘诚; 王萌

    2011-01-01

    森林火灾作为世界上主要自然灾害之一,严重危害森林资源,威胁人民生命财产安全,破坏自然生态环境.对森林火灾快速、准确的监测是十分重要的.森林过火面积是森林火灾最基本的描述因子,同时也是林火管理中森林火灾评估的最重要因子(易浩若等,1998;覃先林等,2008).过火区面积能反映火灾对森林植被的影响及其损失信息,评价火灾对生态环境的影响.%Forest burned scar area is an important factor for monitoring forest fire and assessing the losses. The traditional method quickly extracting burned scar area is based on satellite images with low-middle spatial resolution and cannot fully meet the need of the accuracy of assessment. This paper presents a new approach which takes advantage of high spatial resolution of CBERS/CCD and high temporal resolution of MODIS. Firstly, the vegetation coverage derived from CBERS/CCD was used to calculate NDVI with the Linear Special Mixed Model. Based on the data, the vegetation coverage data with the MODIS spatial resolution was obtained by calculating the average. Secondly, the burned scar pixels were derived by using the NDVI difference between the MODIS data before and after the forest fire. Finally the burned scar region area can be calculated based on the vegetation coverage data and the burned scar pixels. The validation, conducted in Yakeshi City in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the late of May,2006, showed that the new method enhanced the accuracy in estimating the burned scar area over the traditional one.

  9. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schirmer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism is important for avalanche formation. Even when gradients appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart, faceting close to a~crust can still be observed. Recent studies that visualized small scale (< 10 cm thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within the studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and at artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or a shovel produced small concavities (holes even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which is only observed at times with large temperature differences between air and snow. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed slower compared with convex areas (bumps when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative transfer or convection by air at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of the use of a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly in scenarios where large gradients exist between air and snow and the interaction of snow

  10. Deformation Control of Deep Excavation Pit and Numerical Simulation with Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The authors firstly introduce deformation control of deep excavation pit in detail, and then put forward new conceptions such as: effective coefficient of excavation pit, effective area, ineffective area and critical line, and also put forward the referential criteria of deformation control. The System of Optimization Design with Deformation Control of Deep Excavation Pit and Numerical Simulation with Finite Element Method (SDCDEFEM) is also briefly introduced. Factors influencing deformation of excavation pit are analyzed by the system. The measured and simulated data of maximum deformations (settlement, displacement and upheaval) and their positions are analyzed and discussed. The statistic formula estimating maximum deformations and their positions was gained, and economical-effective measures of deformation control were brought forward.

  11. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  12. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss and Catherine Birney

    2011-05-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 544 are located within Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site. Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following CASs: • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 544 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 544 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  14. Fracture Characteristics in a Disposal Pit on Mesita del Buey, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David T. Vaniman; Steven L. Reneau

    1998-12-01

    The characteristics of fractures in unit 2 of the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff were documented in Pit 39, a newly excavated 13.7 m deep disposal pit at Material Disposal Area G on Mesita del Buey. The average spacing between fractures is about 1.0 to 1.3 m, the average fracture aperture is about 3 to 5 mm, and the average fracture dip is about 76o to 77o. Fracture spacing and dip in Pit 39 are generally consistent with that reported from other fracture studies on the Pajarito Plateau, although the fracture apertures in Pit 39 are less than reported elsewhere. Measured fracture orientations are strongly affected by biases imparted by the orientations of the pit walls, which, combined with a small data set, make identification of potential preferred orientations dlfflcult. The most prominent fracture orientations observed in Pit 39, about E-W and N20E, are often not well represented elsewhere on the Pajarito Plateau. Fracture fills contain smectite to about 3 m depth, and calcite and opal may occur at all depths, principally associated with roots or root fossils (rhizoliths). Roots of pifion pine extend in fractures to the bottom of the pit along the north side, perhaps indicating a zone of preferred infiltration of water. Finely powdered tuff with clay-sized particles occurs within a number of fractures and may record abrasive disaggregation associated with small amounts of displacement on minor local faults.

  15. [Current treatment strategies for paediatric burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küntscher, M V; Hartmann, B

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric burns occupy the third place in the severe accident statistics in Germany after traffic injuries and drowning. The paper reviews current treatment concepts of pre-hospital management, fluid resuscitation and surgical therapy in paediatric burned patients. Specific features in the approximation of the total body surface area burn and indications for transfer of paediatric burn victims to specialized units are discussed. The therapy of severe paediatric burns requires an interdisciplinary team consisting of especially skilled plastic or paediatric surgeons,anaesthetists, psychiatrists or psychologists, specifically trained nurses, physiotherapists and social workers. The rehabilitation process starts basically with admission to the burn unit. A tight cooperation between therapists and the relatives of the paediatric burn victim is needed for psychological recovery and reintegration into society.'The adaptation to the suffered trauma resulting in life-long disability and disfigurement is the main task of psychotherapy.

  16. Septicemia: The Principal Killer of Burns Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is a major problem in many areas of the world and it has been estimated that 75% of all deaths following burns are related to infection. Burns impair the skin’s normal barrier function thus allowing microbial colonization of the burn wounds and even with the use of topical antimicrobial agents, contamination is almost unavoidable. It is therefore essential for every burn institution to determine its specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, time related changes in predominant flora and antimicrobial resistance profiles. This would allow early management of septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics before the results of microbiologic culture becomes available, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality. We attempted to examine the factors affecting risk of infection; strategies for infection control and prevention in burn victims.

  17. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J

    2015-09-01

    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  18. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting ... What's in this article? Common Causes Types of Burns First-Degree Burns Second-Degree Burns ...

  19. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  20. Erosive burning of solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Merrill K.

    1993-01-01

    Presented here is a review of the experimental and modeling work concerning erosive burning of solid propellants (augmentation of burning rate by flow of product gases across a burning surface). A brief introduction describes the motor design problems caused by this phenomenon, particularly for low port/throat area ratio motors and nozzleless motors. Various experimental techniques for measuring crossflow sensitivity of solid propellant burning rates are described, with the conclusion that accurate simulation of the flow, including upstream flow development, in actual motors is important since the degree of erosive burning depends not only on local mean crossflow velocity and propellant nature, but also upon this upstream development. In the modeling area, a brief review of simplified models and correlating equations is presented, followed by a description of more complex numerical analysis models. Both composite and double-base propellant models are reviewed. A second generation composite model is shown to give good agreement with data obtained in a series of tests in which composite propellant composition and heterogeneity (particle size distribution) were systematically varied. Finally, the use of numerical models for the development of erosive burning correlations is described, and a brief discussion of scaling is presented.

  1. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S

    2012-09-01

    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard

    2014-06-01

    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  4. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Davies, G S; Evans, J J; Guzowski, P; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Holin, A; Huang, J; Kreymer, A; Kordosky, M; Lang, K; Marshak, M L; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J; Miller, W; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Nichol, R J; Patterson, R B; Perch, A; Pfutzner, M; Proga, M; Radovic, A; Sanchez, M C; Schreiner, S; Soldner-Rembold, S; Sousa, A; Thomas, J; Vahle, P; Wendt, C; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S

    2013-01-01

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  5. Self-inflicted burns in soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronovich, Yoav; Binenboym, Rami; Tuchman, Izhak; Eizenman, Nirit; Golan, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Self-inflicted burns are a multidisciplinary medical challenge. In contrast to the more common motive of attempted suicide in self-infliction of a burn, usually of a serious degree, a second motive is malingering. Motivation of this nature has been exhibited among Israeli soldiers who inflict on themselves low- to moderate-degree burns to obtain dismissal from mandatory military service. The purpose of our study is to investigate and define this phenomenon. A retrospective analysis was performed on a population of 75 soldiers admitted to our Medical Center during the year 2010 with the diagnosis of any sort of burn. We set up a database including all relevant information about the burns including date and time of occurrence, cause, body location, depth of burn injury, area and shape of burn, etiology, and prescribed treatment. The summer was found to be the season with the highest incidence of burns. As far as the day of the week was influential, we found that the greater percentage of burns occurred at the beginning of the week. Most of the burns involved a minor surface area on the dorsal aspect of the foot. Scalding with hot water was the most common cause of burn. Eighty-one percent of the burns were atypical, being well demarcated.Most of the burn cases happened at home with no witnesses to the event. Sixty-one percent of the patients were not admitted to the hospital and were conservatively treated. Israeli soldiers tend to inflict burns on themselves for ulterior motives. Such burns are almost always minor with a small trauma area and sharp demarcations, and hence can be differentiated from other self-inflicted burns described in the literature. We found that most of the burns occur when the soldiers are on vacation at home. This is probably because the privacy allows them to carry out their act undisturbed. It is important to raise the awareness of attending physicians to the characteristics of these burns. Such patients should be evaluated by medical teams

  6. AHAR: Part 1 - PIT Estimates of Homelessness

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report outlines the key findings of the 2014 Point-In-Time (PIT) and Housing Inventory (HIC) counts conducted in January 2014. Specifically, this report...

  7. Friction welding of a nickel free high nitrogen steel: influence of forge force on microstructure, mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjoy Hazra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, nickel free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel specimens were joined by continuous drive friction welding process by varying the amount of forge (upsetting force and keeping other friction welding parameters such as friction force, burn-off, upset time and speed of rotation as constant at appropriate levels. The joint characterization studies include microstructural examination and evaluation of mechanical (micro-hardness, impact toughness and tensile and pitting corrosion behaviour. The integrity of the joint, as determined by the optical microscopy was very high and no crack and area of incomplete bonding were observed. Welds exhibited poor Charpy impact toughness than the parent material. Toughness for friction weld specimens decreased with increase in forge force. The tensile properties of all the welds were almost the same (irrespective of the value of the applied forge force and inferior to those of the parent material. The joints failed in the weld region for all the weld specimens. Weldments exhibited lower pitting corrosion resistance than the parent material and the corrosion resistance of the weld specimens was found to decrease with increase in forge force.

  8. Geotechnical analysis of construction pit in Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Rodman, Grega

    2013-01-01

    In my thesis the design calculations were made for the excavation, which is located in Ljubljana between Glonarjeva street and railway track Ljubljana – Novo mesto. The depth of the excavation pit is approximately 6 m. The excavation pit is supported with bored pile wall and prestressed geotechnical anchors. For the calculation of lateral earth pressure the Rankine's theory was used. Three different profiles were analysed. Piles and anchors were dimensioned. The global stability was checked.

  9. Diagnostic dilemma: the enigma of an oral burning sensation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klasser, Gary D; Epstein, Joel B; Villines, Dana

    2011-01-01

    ...) and secondary burning mouth syndrome. The primary form is characterized by a burning sensation in the oral mucosa and perioral areas, typically with bilateral, symmetric distribution and an absence of relevant clinical and laboratory findings...

  10. Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable...

  11. Structural Design and Monitoring Analysis of Foundation Pit Support in Yiwu Huishang Tiandi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsu

    2017-08-01

    Huishang Tiandi deep foundation pit in Yiwu is a two-story basement,which is located in the downtown area and adjacent to the city center main traffic trunk. The surrounding environment is too com-plex to slope. The excavation depth is large, the formation is weak and complex, and the groundwater level is high.In order to ensure the safety of the foundation wall and the surrounding environment, the deformation of the foundation pit support is strictly controlled, and the deformation and internal force of the foundation supporting structure and the surrounding building are monitored.The deformation law of the foundation pit is obtained through the analysis of the horizontal displacement, the deformation rate of the supporting struc-ture, the surrounding environment of the foundation pit and the internal force of the anchor cable. The relia-bility and rationality of the design of foundation pit support are verified. It is of reference value for the de-sign and construction of other deep foundation pit engineering in Yiwu area.

  12. 冻胀环境下哈尔滨市某桩锚支护深基坑工程监测研究%ON EXCAVATION MONITORING OF A PILE ANCHOR SUPPORT DEEP PIT UNDER FROST HEAVING CONDITION IN HARBIN AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔高航; 刘守花; 王兆亮; 张荣江

    2016-01-01

    哈尔滨等寒区深基坑的监测以及理论研究十分不足,对历经冬季的深基坑的研究更是少之又少。对哈尔滨市香坊区安埠商圈核心区改造深基坑工程在基坑开挖过程中的监测数据进行统计、分析,并对施工过程中基坑护壁桩东侧区域的破损进行分析。结果表明:该桩锚支护的深基坑,围护结构沿深度方向的变形属于复合式变形,基坑的空间效应不明显。以1/2基坑的开挖深度为分界线,同一深度处分界线以上的阳角处的水平位移大于阴角处的水平位移,分界线以下则相反;采用钢板桩和护壁桩的组合形式没有直接采用护壁桩的效果好;基坑的稳定性受地基土冻胀的影响不可忽略。支护方案总体可行,但是有部分区域护壁桩破损情况,安全储备有待提高,类似工程进行支护设计时应提高安全储备。研究结果为哈尔滨地区的深基坑工程的设计和施工提供了重要的依据。%Monitoring and theoretical research on cold deep pits were very inadequate in Harbin area,fewer on the foundation pit through the winter season.The statistics and analytical process were conducted on monitoring data of Anbu trade area renovation deep excavation pit in Xiangfang district,Harbin.The results show that:The deformation of support structure in the depth direction was composite,and the space effect was not obvious.Take the 1 /2 height of pit depth as dividing line,the horizontal displacement of sun angle was greater than negative angle at the same depth above dividing line;the results was opposite below the dividing line.The Supporting effect of the combination of steel sheet pile and PILES wasn't directly better than only PILES,and the stability of the of soil frost heave effect should be taken into account during excavation process.Generally,this support program was feasible, but there were some damages of PILES,the safety factor should be improved

  13. Burn treatment in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, M; Lumenta, D B; Andel, H; Kamolz, L P; Frey, M

    2009-12-01

    The population of elderly patients is expected to rise continuously over the next decades due to global demographic changes. The elderly seem to be most vulnerable to burns and their management remains undoubtedly a challenge. A clear age margin for elderly patients is not yet defined, but most studies adhere to the inclusion of patients 65 years and above, but the general condition and social situation must be taken into account. The understanding of the physiological basis of aging and its related pathophysiological changes has only marginally influenced treatment and decision making in elderly burn patients. When looking at treatment regimens currently applied in elderly burn patients, the discussion of standards in intensive care as well as surgical strategies is ongoing. However, trends towards a moderate, non-aggressive resuscitation approach and careful inclusion of key parameters like physiological age, pre-burn functional status and premorbid conditions, seem to be useful guidelines for interdisciplinary treatment decisions. Once ordered for surgical treatment, the amount of body surface area operated in one session should be adapted to the general status of the patient. Even if older burn victims have a reported higher mortality rate than younger patients, improved therapeutic options have contributed to a reduced mortality rate even in the elderly over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive rehabilitation program. This review will give an overview of the current literature and will draw attention to specific topics related to this important subpopulation of burn patients.

  14. Contributions of wood ash magnetism to archaeomagnetic properties of fire pits and hearths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Richard G.; Kean, W. F.

    1993-09-01

    Magnetic studies were conducted on a variety of plant ash and ash material from fire pits to investigate the possible contribution of ash to the magnetic signature of hearths. The measurements included magnetic susceptibility, remanence acquisition to saturation (SIRM), alternating field demagnetization of SIRM and remanent coercivity (B(sub rc)). We conclude from these studies that wood ash produces fine-grained magnetic iron oxides. These oxides are probably magnetite that is concentrated enough to add to the magnetic signature of hearths and fire pits. At one site (Ellicottville, New York), the ash layer exhibits a magnetic susceptibility that is 22 times greater than a control soil sample from the site. We attribute this large enhancement to repeated burns at the site which continued to add ferromagnetic material to the fire pit. The source of the magnetic material is probably phytoferritin from plants. The variation in the intensity of magnetic anomalies over ancient hearths and fire pits may in part be caused by the magnetic contribution from ash.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura A. Pastor

    2005-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 357 is comprised of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the NTS (Figure 1-1). The NTS is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 357 consists of 11 CASs that are mud pits located in Areas 7, 8, and 10. The mud pits were associated with drilling activities conducted on the NTS in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing. The remaining three CASs are boxes and pipes associated with Building 1-31.2el, lead bricks, and a waste dump. These CAS are located in Areas 1, 4, and 25, respectively. The following CASs are shown on Figure 1-1: CAS 07-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-01, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-06, Mud Pit, Stains, Material; CAS 01-99-01, Boxes, Pipes; CAS 04-26-03, Lead Bricks; and CAS 25-15-01, Waste Dump. The purpose of the corrective action activities was to obtain analytical data that supports the closure of CAU 357. Environmental samples were collected during the investigation to determine whether contaminants exist and if detected, their extent. The investigation and sampling strategy was designed to target locations and media most likely to be contaminated (biased sampling). A general site conceptual model was developed for each CAS to support and guide the investigation as outlined in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2003b). This CR

  16. Tweens feel the burn: "salt and ice challenge" burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Lauren O; Bell, Derek E

    2016-05-01

    To review our institution's experience with frostbite injury secondary to "salt and ice challenge" (SIC) participation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of intentional freezing burns from 2012 to 2014. Demographics, depth and location of burn, total body surface area of burn, treatment, time to wound healing, length of stay, complications, and motives behind participation were analyzed. Five patients were seen in the emergency department for intentional freezing burns that resulted from SIC (all females; mean age: 12.3 years; range age: 10.0-13.2 years). Mean total body surface area was 0.408%. Salt and ice was in contact with skin for >10 min for two patients, >20 min for two patients, and an unknown duration for one patient. Complications included pain and burn scar dyschromia. Four patients cited peer pressure and desire to replicate SIC as seen on the Internet as their motivation in attempting the challenge. SIC has become a popular, self-harming behavior among youths. Increased public education, and provider and parent awareness of SIC are essential to address this public health concern.

  17. The Correlation Between the Burning Features, the Burning Agent and Motivation in Burn Victims Attending Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran During 2009: letter to Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning is one of the commonest causes of death. Due to the high rate of death among burn victims epidemiological investigation of burning, burning agents and the relevant motivations can be of great preventive value.1 In this cross-sectional study all the hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital at Tehran city in the year 2009 were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 17 software. Out of the 1548 hospitalized patients for burn, 1134 (73.3% left hospital in good conditions, 47 (3% left in relatively good conditions, 289 (18.7% died and 78 (5% persons left the Hospital satisfactorily on their own volition. About two-thirds of the patients were men. The mean age of the burn victims was 27.9±18.3 years, 16% of them being 5 years old or younger. The highest percentage of burn area was 30% of the total body surface which was seen in 20 to 30-year old patients. 58.7% of burns had been caused by fire. 94% of the burns had happened accidentally, 5% by suicidal and 1% by homicidal acts. The highest percentage of burn was observed in patients in whom the burn agent was fire. Six (4% persons had first degree, 820 (53% persons had second degree and 722 (46.6% had third degree burns. In patients who had committed suicide third degree burns were higher than second degree burns (7.7% vs. 2%. 24.4% of women and 16.6% of men died due to the burns. The rate of death in patients less than 50 years of age was 18% but the figure increased to 24% in those above 50. A burn area less than or more than 10% was, respectively correlated with 2.1% and 22.1% of deaths. 34.8% of the patients with third degree burns and 4.6% of those with second and first degree burns died. 58.3% of the suicidal patient died due to the severity of the burns relative to 16.7% due to other causes. 89 (5.7% patients had respiratory tract burns and the death rate was 58.4% among these patients while the death rate was 16.2% in patients without

  18. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  19. Hospital costs associated with pediatric burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Hollingworth, William; Rivara, Frederick P; Kramer, C Bradley; Askay, Shelley W; Heimbach, David M; Gibran, Nicole S

    2008-01-01

    Modern burn care is a resource intensive endeavor requiring specialized equipment, personnel, and facilities in order to provide optimum care. The costs associated with burn injury to both patients and society as a whole can be multifaceted and large. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hospital costs, patient characteristics, and injury factors in a cohort of pediatric patients admitted to a regional burn center. We performed a review of the hospital charges accrued by pediatric patients (age dollar costs using an inflation index and a cost to charge ratio. Univariate and multivariate regressions were performed to identify the factors most significantly associated with cost. In addition, we performed a subset cost analysis for patients with burns more than 20% TBSA. A total of 1443 pediatric patients (age dollars was dollars 9026 (SD = dollars 25,483; median = dollars 2138). Area of full thickness burn was the only patient or injury factor significantly associated with greater hospital costs (P < .05) on multivariate analysis. No single anatomic area was associated with increased hospital costs when adjusted for total overall burn size. Injury severity was the most significant factor impacting index hospitalization costs following pediatric burn injury. Further studies defining the long-term societal costs impact of burn injury are needed as are studies that evaluate the impact of burn injury on quality of life.

  20. Coping with severe burns in the early stage after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Marijana; Loncar, Zoran; Brajković, Lovorka; Gregurek, Rudolf; Micković, Vlatko

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between coping strategies, anxiety and depression levels and burn injury characteristics in the early phase of the treatment in burn-injured patients. Seventy patients with severe burns were interviewed within two weeks of their burn trauma. Coping strategies were measured by the coping with burns questionnaire (CBQ). Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were no statistically significant gender differences in various coping strategies. Avoidance was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression and hopelessness. The percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) and localization of burns were not associated with coping patterns. Implications for the assessment and management of burn injured patients were discussed.

  1. Pitting corrosion of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Pitting corrosion behavior of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution was investigated by using potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. When pitting corrosion of the alloy occurs, there exists a passive region in the anodic branch of PDS polarization curve, which is enlarged with the increasing of immersion time due to the competition of the halide ions with OH- ions to adsorb on the oxide film to form the corrosion products film and the increase of pitting corrosion area. Two capacitive semicircles were observed in complex plane plot. For more extensive pitting and general corrosion of Al2024-T3, the passive region in PDS disappeared, while another depressed semicircle was observed in Nyquist plot because of the formation of corrosion products film. On the other hand, the low frequency inductive loop, which had often been regarded as a manifestation of pitting or formation and precipitation of a salt film, was not observed, which indicates that the low frequency inductive loop can not be the characteristic of pitting corrosion or the formation of salt film. The results also show that higher reactant CPE exponent values will correspond to more extensive transformation of a metal surface by very localized corrosion, while general corrosion can result in a smaller CPE exponent value.

  2. Computer aided design and analysis of Sapan Dalam open pit mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baafi, E.Y.; Milawarma, E.; Cusack, C. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Mining Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The Sapan Dalam coal deposit of Indonesia consists of ten steeply dipping seams with thicknesses varying between 0.1 and 3.5 m and split by shale clay, silt and sandstone. The area contains four faults dipping about 75{degree} with four to 85 m vertical displacements. The complex nature of the deposit coupled with limited 27 exploration drillholes at an average spacing of 200 m made it difficult to create a realistic geological model. A three-dimensional gridded seam model gave a fair representation of the deposit. Attempts to create an optimum pit using the WHITTLE 3D pit optimiser proved unsuccessful since the pit optimiser is restricted to standard regular or fixed blocks. The gridded seam model was converted to a fixed block model prior to the optimum pit design. Smoothing and pit base controlling were also introduced to obtain a smoother pit. A mining scenario produced 3.6 million tonnes of coal, 28.4 million bcm of waste and 18.1 million US dollars revenue. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Finger nail pitting in psoriasis and its relation with different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of pitting, vary considerably in different types of psoriasis. In clinical practice, toe nail examination is inconvenient. There are inadequate studies which show relation of nail pitting with duration and severity of the disease. The objective was to examine the incidence of finger nail pitting in all types of cutaneous psoriasis and its relation with different variables. This is a clinico-epidemiological study. A careful clinical examination of finger nails was done in day time. Severity of disease was calculated by psoriasis area severity index (PASI. Statistical analysis was done using Microcomputer statistics software (MSTAT. In study group, 621 patients and in control group 350 people were taken. Finger nail pitting was present in 37% (total number was 60 in 12% in study group. In control group, it was present in 10% (in all cases total number was 1 year duration group it was 40.5%.In mild psoriasis, pitting was present in 34.2%, while in severe cases it was 47.6%. Finger nail pitting is an important nail finding in psoriasis and its incidence increases with duration and severity of disease.

  4. New pollution reduction technologies through tank sealing of slag and ashes pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruell, A.; Revenco, V. [Institutul de Stuidii Si Proiectari Energetice S.A. (ISPE), Bucharest (Hungary)

    2002-07-01

    Under the Romanian environment protection law provision no. 137/1995, the existing slag and ashes pits raise problems due to the exfiltrations from the pits tank towards the phreatic water sheet. The design includes the following steps to be taken: pit bed waterproofing under new works; bed ends sealing, parallel with pit aggradation for dumps in operation; waterproofing of aggradation dikes. The conventional solution is clay plating. When works are performed under bad weather conditions, and clay must be brought from remote distances, the clay plating solution should be compared to the geocomponents one. The latter area combination of geotextiles and bentone material that can be placed easily, joint in situ, and can be paid at negative temperatures. Once wet, geo components become impermeable. The paper describes the sealing performed at the slag and ashes pit of Vales Ceplea at Turceni thermal power plant, and the sealing solution being developed at the Beterega Nord slag and ashes pit at Rovinari thermal power plant. The necessary geophysical characteristics of the material are pointed out.

  5. 大面积烧伤手术患者使用高频电刀的护理配合要点%Large area burn patients nursing operation using high frequency electric knife matching points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕瑞华

    2015-01-01

    目的:讨论大面积烧伤手术患者实施多台高频电刀同时使用的护理配合要点。方法选择我科收治的大面积烧伤手术的88例病人,为其实施多台高频电刀治疗,随机将其分为观察组和对照组,观察组病人采取有效的护理配合,对照组病人采取一般的护理方法。结果观察组病人的手术时间和术中出血量均低于对照组,比较后差异显著(P<0.05)。结论大面积烧伤的病人经过有效的护理配合以后,使手术得以顺利进行,为其提供了有力保障。%Objective: to discuss the 1, large area burn patients at the same time using the nursing operation implementation of multiple high-frequency electric knife matching points.2, methods: 88 cases of large area burn patients selection operation in our department, for the implementation of a plurality of high frequency electric knife treatment, and randomly divided into the observation group and the control group, the observation group patients take care with the effective, control group patients takegeneral nursing method.Results: 3, the amount of bleeding and operation time of the observation group patients was signiifcantly lower than control group, compared the difference was obvious (P< 0.05).Conclusion: 4, large area burn patients aftereffective nursing care, make the operation smoothly, providing a powerful guarantee forthe.

  6. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  7. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In

  8. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  9. 苍山斜阳峰火烧迹地捕食线虫真菌资源调查%Investigation on Nematode-trapping Fungi in Burned Areas of Xieyang Peak in Cangshan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云霞; 杨晓燕; 苏鸿雁

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the nematode-trapping fungi in burned areas of Xieyang Peak in Cangshan Mountain. [Method] Total 480 soil samples were collected from rhizosphere soil of armand pine and Yunnan pine of 6 burned areas of Xieyang Peak in Cangshan Mountain. Nematode-trapping fungi in soil samples were isolated by the method of baited plates and identified. [ Result] Total 79 strains were i-solated, and they were 6 species belonged to 2 genera. The nematode-trapping fungi were the most widely distributed in burned area of Atoyama of General's cave, and 80 soil samples were totally detected for 17 times. Among 6 burned areas, A. oligospora had the highest detection rate, with 4.79% ; next came A. musifomis and M. ellipasosperum, with detection rales of 3.96% and 3.75% , respectively. [ Conclusion ] The research accumulates strain resources for the biological control of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.%[目的]研究苍山斜阳峰火烧迹地捕食线虫真菌.[方法]从云南大理苍山地区斜阳峰6块火烧迹地的华山松、云南松松树根际土共采集了480份土样,采用诱饵平板法对土样中捕食线虫真菌资源进行分离并对其进行了鉴定.[结果]共分离出79株菌株,经鉴定有2个属6个种.捕食线虫真菌在将军洞后山火烧迹地分布最广,80份土样共计检出17次.6块火烧迹地中,少孢节丛孢(A.oligospora)的检出率最高,为4.79%;其次是弯孢节丛孢(A.musifomis)和椭圆单顶孢(M.ellipososporum),检出率分别为3.96%和3.75%.[结论]为松材线虫的生物防治积累了菌种资源.

  10. Emergency in Burn; Burn in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bayram

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicians who first meet with burned patients are often emergency service employees. When the patient was admitted to emergency service, especially in patients with major burn injury, is a matter should be dealt with strongly. Before sending the patients to a burn center, some interventions could became life saving which should be done as a first line treatment. Herein, review of the literature related to emergency burn treatment was performed and presented to all physicians as a summary guide. In addition, some questions such as how should be physician, who first meet with the burned patient, evaluated the patient, what should be physician paid attention, which principles should be employed for fluid replacement, how should be approached to burn wound are tried to be addressed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 365-368

  11. Calculation of slope-cover height under price fluctuation in open-pit mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jinyan; Cai Qingxiang; Liu Fuming; Chen Shuzhao

    2014-01-01

    Leaving ditches between adjacent mining areas can effectively reduce re-stripping in the latter mining area and simultaneously lead to an increment in internal dumping costs in the former mining area. This paper establishes calculation models for these two marginal costs. The optimizing model for slope cover height can be determined by including marginal cost models in the objective function. The paper has two main contributions:(a) it fully considers redistribution of dumping space in the model;(b) it introduces price fluctuations and cash discounts in the model. We use the typical open-pit mine as an example to test and prove the model. We conclude that a completely covered slope is reasonable in Haerwusu open pit mine;in addition to an increasing price index, the slope cover height can be reduced;and that price changes are one of the most important influencing factors of slope cover height optimization in an open-pit mine.

  12. Geologic, geotechnical, and geophysical properties of core from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Donley S.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary core study from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming, revealed that the upper portion of the core had been baked by a fire confined to the underlying Monarch coal bed. The baked (clinkered) sediment above the Monarch coal bed was determined to have higher point-load strength values (greater than 2 MPa) than the sediment under the burned coal

  13. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  14. NORM levels in Spanish pit lakes and their impact in neighboring environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjon, G.; Galvan, J.A.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, I.; Garcia-Tenorio, R. [University of Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a part of the South Zone of the Hercynian Iberian Massif (SW of Iberian Peninsula), being pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) the main mineral associated to this volcano-sedimentary complex. The intensive mining activities in the area, which started in the Roman Empire, have generated mine pits where underground and/or rainwater are stored. These stored waters have produced oxidation of pyrite and, consequently, the pH of pit water has become acid (pH around 2), causing the dissolution of metals and natural radionuclides. The main objective of this work is to show and discuss the levels found for different natural radionuclides (mainly uranium isotopes and daughters via α/γ spectrometry) in water samples and sediments collected from several mine pit lakes located in the south-west of Spain. The waters of the studied pit lakes can interact with the environment, and a fraction can be transferred to surrounding aquifers and even to the main river of the zone (the Odiel River). The waters of this river, when cross the mining area, show low pH values and high concentrations of U-isotopes due to acid mining drainage. Through the analysis of several isotope activity ratios, the presence of natural radionuclides in these pit lakes and its influence in the surrounding area and Odiel river will be additionally evaluated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Development and testing of methods for in-situ-monitoring the environmental problems in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden zur In-situ-Langzeitueberwachung fuer Probleme der Folgelandschaften des Braunkohlenbergbaus. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedel, K.; Koenig, F.

    1999-06-15

    In the project a concept and prototypes have been developed and tested for an automatic, computer-based monitoring of sites suspected to be hazardous in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. In-situ measurements with milieuparameter probes and an optical sensor system in observation wells are combined with measurements between the wells using an electromagnetic system. Methods are being developed for monitoring the vadose and saturated zones. The areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines in eastern Germany are not in a steady-state condition. Considerable changes are occurring due to redistribution and aeration of the sediments during removal of the overburden, due to disposal of solid and liquid wastes in the mine area, as well as to the re-establishment of normal groundwater levels. Monitoring will help to better understand the system. Precautionary and remedial measures must also be monitored as well as natural attenuation of pollutants. The results of the project are encouraging with regard to the range of the electromagnetic monitoring system as well as with regard to the long-term stability. Hence, the efficiency will be tested at a reference object in a long time test. (orig.) [German] Im Vorhaben sind ein Konzept und Prototypen fuer die vollautomatische, rechnergestuetzte Langzeitueberwachung (Monitoring) von Altlastenstandorten in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften entwickelt und getestet worden. Das Konzept basiert auf der Kombination lokaler Messungen mit Milieuparametersonden und einem System zur optischen Spektrometrie mit raeumlichen Ueberwachungsmethoden eines elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystems. Dabei wurden Loesungen sowohl fuer ein Monitoring in der wassergesaettigten als auch in der ungesaettigten Zone entwickelt. Derartige Ueberwachungssysteme werden kuenftig benoetigt, um zu einem besseren Verstaendnis und zur Loesung der Probleme in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften zu kommen, die durch die Belueftung und Umstrukturierung

  16. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Zheng, B.S.; Aposhian, H.V.; Zhou, Y.S.; Chen, M.L.; Zhang, A.H.; Waalkes, M.P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2002-07-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China was investigated. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such over exposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  17. Long hair, smoking, and deep facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, Virve

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe deep facial burn injuries by cigarette lighters in longhaired adults and to report our experience in their treatment. Eight consecutive cigarette lighter burn victims are treated in the Helsinki Burn Center in the year 2006. Seven of the patients were women; their mean age was 50 years. All were under the influence of alcohol at the time of injury. The mean burnt area was 3.5% TBSA. The burnt areas were primarily forehead, cheek, and ipsilateral ear. After a conservative treatment, all the patients underwent an operation, whereby the nonhealing burns were excised and covered with autologous split thickness skin grafts. Postoperative period was uneventful in all the patients. Besides having severe detrimental effects on general health status and wound healing, smoking is the leading cause of residential and total fire deaths worldwide. The patients in this article suffered deep facial burns because of cigarette lighters.

  18. Prediction for relocation scale of rural settlements based on farming radius in reclamation area of open-pit coal mine%基于耕作半径的采矿复垦区农村居民点安置规模预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兴定; 白中科

    2016-01-01

    耕作半径对农村居民点的规模具有重要影响,而地形则是耕作半径的决定因素之一。该文采用耕聚比和缓冲区分析的方法,对比采矿前后农村居民点的耕作半径变化。考虑研究区地形起伏的影响,计算耕作半径地形修正系数,确定最优耕作半径。在此基础上预测矿区复垦后可安置农村居民点的面积、数量及人口。研究结果表明:平朔复垦区农村居民点耕作半径地形修正系数为1.6836,复垦区规划农村居民点最优耕作半径为1500 m;复垦区预测回迁安置农村居民点总规模约651.24 hm2,共67个农村居民点;预测单个农村居民点面积9.72 hm2,控制耕地面积约109.68 hm2;预测回迁安置总人口约29521人,共7380户,该研究结果可为露天采矿复垦区农村居民点回迁安置规模与布局提供决策支持。%Mine reclamation has become a worldwide problem recently and has similar research directions both in China and abroad, including ecological restoration, mining technology, bioremediation technology, soil reconstruction techniques, soil quality testing, plant species selecting. The key target is to restore the ecological system and improve the environment. One of the main purposes of reclamation is to restore farmland, which is scarce in China. In addition, resettlement of residents and their living environment need to be taken into account. In this paper, the study area is the Pingshuo open-pit mine, which is located in Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province, China, and belongs to super-large open-pit mine with modern production. Mining activities began in 1987, and have lasted for 28 years until now. Fourteen rural settlements have moved, and resettlement population has reached 8400 by 2013.From the perspective of farming radius, buffer analysis of rural settlements was used to contrast the difference of farming radius before and after the open-pit mining by geographic information system

  19. Determination of uranium concentration and burn-up of irradiated reactor fuel in contaminated areas in Belarus using uranium isotopic ratios in soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V.P.; Matusevich, J.L.; Kudrjashov, V.P.; Ananich, P.I.; Zhuravkov, V.V. [Inst. of Radiobiology, Minsk Univ. (Belarus); Boulyga, S.F. [Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Becker, J.S. [Central Div. of Analytical Chemistry, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    An analytical method is described for the estimation of uranium concentrations, of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios and burn-up of irradiated reactor uranium in contaminated soil samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Experimental results obtained at 12 sampling sites situated on northern and western radioactive fallout tails 4 to 53 km distant from Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) are presented. Concentrations of irradiated uranium in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers at the investigated sampling sites varied from 2.1 x 10{sup -9}g/g to 2.0 x 10{sup -6}g/g depending mainly on the distance from Chernobyl NPP. A slight variation of the degree of burn-up of spent reactor uranium was revealed by analyzing {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios and the average value amounted to 9.4{+-}0.3 MWd/(kg U). (orig.)

  20. The timing and indications of tracheotomy for the large head and neck areas burns patients%头颈部大面积烧伤患者气管切开的时机与指征探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜伟强

    2015-01-01

    目的:大面积烧伤患者,特别是头颈部烧伤患者气管切开的时机以及气管切开指征需要进一步研究和探讨。方法:选择头颈部大面积烧伤患者,根据患者气管切开情况分为预防性和紧急性气管切开。对比两组患者气管切开手术时间以及手术指征。结果:预防性气管切开有57例,紧急气管切开有46例。其中预防性气管切开中度和重度吸入性损伤有41例,占71.93%;紧急气管切开中重度吸入性损伤患者有24例,占52.17%。预防性气管切开的手术时间是(5.51±1.28) h,紧急气管切开手术时间是(24.80±4.67) h。结论:中重度头颈部大面积烧伤患者要尽早进行预防性气管切开。没有进行预防性气管切开的患者发生气道损伤后24 h是气道梗阻的高发时间,应该要密切患者是否出现如呼吸道有大量粘稠分泌物,口鼻内有大量血清样渗出以及吸氧治疗,PaO2升高不明显,“鱼嘴状”口唇以及颈部焦痂形成等应该考虑为患者进行气管切开手术治疗。%Objective:Review our clinical experiences in the treatment of large area burn. Discuss the timing and the indications of tracheotomy for the large area burn patients. Methods:By different tracheotomy timing the large area burn patients were divided into preventive and emergency tracheotomy. hTe tracheotomy operation time and the operation indications of two group patients were compared. Results:hTe preventive tracheotomy had 57 cases, while the emergency tracheotomy had 46 cases. hTe preventive tracheotomy for moderate and severe inhalation injury were 41 cases, 71.93%;emergency tracheotomy group with severe inhalation injury were 24 cases, 52.17%. The timing of preventive tracheotomy was (5.51+1.28) h, while the emergency tracheotomy operation time is (24.80+4.67) h. Conclusion:Severe large area burn patients should take the preventive tracheotomy. It’s high possibility that 24 h atfer injury

  1. LA50 in burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Forootan, K; Karimi, H; Motevalian, S A; Momeni, M; Safari, R; Ghadarjani, M

    2016-03-31

    Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months - 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country.

  2. Topical management of facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

    2008-11-01

    The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital areas that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial burns disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial burns may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the burn. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial burns. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial burn. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed.

  3. Threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-03-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care.

  4. 红池坝炼山后生态恢复过程中群落特征研究%Community characteristics in Hongchiba area of Wuxi County during ecological restoration after controlled burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丙辉; 郝云庆; 李旭光; 韩晨霞; 陈昌沛; 郑国词

    2004-01-01

    This paper studied the species composition and the structure and species diversity of communities in Hongchiba area of Wuxi County after controlled burning and aerial-sowing afforestation. The results showed that after buming and afforestation, pure Pinus armandii forest was not developed, but various mixed needle board-leaved forests which comprised P. armandii and native board-leaved trees grew. Various native species contributed to the communities with great species diversity. Shannon-Wiener index was 2.305~3.145, ecological dominance was 0.063~0.151, and evenness was 0.600~0.749. The natural regeneration of P. armandii population was very poor, and there was a trend that P. armandii would be gradually replaced by other native board-leaved trees. It was demonstrated that P. armandii should not be taken as a unique afforesr tree, and controlled burning was not a favorite ecological measure in subtropical area. Native trees should play more important roles in the process of ecological restoration.

  5. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  6. [The role of skin substitutes in the surgical treatment of extensive burns covering more than 60 % of total body surface area. A review of patients over a 10-year period at the Tours University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, J; Yassine, A-H; Gourari, A; Forme, N; Zakine, G

    2015-04-01

    Progress in intensive care and surgery has made it possible to significantly improve the survival of victims with burns over 60% of total body surface area (TBSA). Coverage of the excised areas of these patients can be difficult when there is a shortage of skin donor sites; then the role of skin substitutes can be important. This retrospective study included patients with burns covering more than 60% TBSA and treated at the Tours University Hospital over a period of 10 years. Patients who died during the first week or who presented superficial burns were excluded. The various substitutions means to temporarily or permanently replace the cutaneous barrier are presented. The biological dressings associated with grafts expanded by six according to the sandwich technique, allografts and xenografts, widely expanded postage stamp skin grafts using a modified Meek technique (Humeca(®)), temporary cutaneous substitutes such as Biobrane(®) and skin substitutes colonized by autologous cells (Integra(®)) are presented. Forty-four patients were admitted. Self-immolations represented 52% of the cases. Twenty-one patients were treated with Integra(®), 5 with Biobrane(®), 17 with sandwich grafts and 4 with postage stamp skin grafts. Integra(®) was widely used when donor sites were insufficient. The mean number of surgical procedures per patient was 8.4. The mean duration of hospitalization was 155 days. Twenty-four patients survived until the end of treatment. Eighteen patients died during the first week before any surgery could be performed. Two patients died at the end of treatment. The overall survival rate was 55%. It was 92% for patients who survived the first week. The principal sequel were functional (hand, cervical, thoracic and axillary contractures) and aesthetic (face and hands). Associated treatments were pressotherapy, physical therapy, ergotherapy and thermal water therapy. By temporarily replacing the cutaneous barrier in the absence of sufficient donor sites

  7. Floodplain statement of findings for corrective actions in Potrillo Canyon technical area-36, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, David Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-18

    In 2014, baseline storm water monitoring samples for Potrillo Canyon Sample Management Area at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Individual Permit No. NM0030759 target action level (TAL) of 15 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) for gross-alpha radioactivity (393 pCi/L) and a TAL of 30 pCi/L for radium-226 and radium-228 (95.9 pCi/L). Consequently, erosion control measures within the management area are proposed to minimize sediment migration, a corrective action under the permit that is a requirement of the New Mexico Environment Department consent decree and a good management practice to limit off-site sediment migration. The area proposed for erosion controls consists of portions of Technical Area 36 that were used as firing sites primarily involving high explosives (HE) and metal (e.g., depleted uranium, lead, copper, aluminum, and steel), small-explosives experiments and burn pits (burn pits were used for burning and disposal of test debris). In addition, underground explosive tests at an approximate depth of 100 feet were also conducted. These watershed-based storm water controls will focus on addressing erosion occurring within the floodplain through mitigating and reducing both current and future channelization and head cutting.

  8. Global methane emissions from pit latrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew C; Guan, Kaiyu; Wagner, Fabian; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2014-01-01

    Pit latrines are an important form of decentralized wastewater management, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for approximately one-quarter of the global population. Latrines are also major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in pits. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit approach to account for local hydrological control over the anaerobic condition of latrines and use this analysis to derive a set of country-specific emissions factors and to estimate global pit latrine CH4 emissions. Between 2000 and 2015 we project global emissions to fall from 5.2 to 3.8 Tg y(-1), or from ∼ 2% to ∼ 1% of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions, due largely to urbanization in China. Two and a half billion people still lack improved sanitation services, however, and progress toward universal access to improved sanitation will likely drive future growth in pit latrine emissions. We discuss modeling results in the context of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene development and consider appropriate technologies to ensure hygienic sanitation while limiting CH4 emissions. We show that low-CH4 on-site alternatives like composting toilets may be price competitive with other CH4 mitigation measures in organic waste sectors, with marginal abatement costs ranging from 57 to 944 $/ton carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in Africa and 46 to 97 $/ton CO2e in Asia.

  9. 5G in Open-Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    5G will play a pivotal role in the digitization of the industrial sector and is expected to make the best use of every bit of spectrum available. In this light, this paper presents the results of an extensive measurement campaign in two iron-ore open-pit mining complexes, at the 700 MHz and 2.6 GHz...

  10. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... 4 July 2013. ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 39 No. 4 July 2013 ... Keywords: Pit latrine, filling rate, biodegradation, solid waste disposal ...... by considerations of logistics, human resources, cost and the subsequent ...

  11. Cavitation characteristics of pit structure in ultrasonic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI LiXin; XU WeiLin; ZHANG FaXing; LI NaiWen; ZHANG YiChi; HUANG DeFa

    2009-01-01

    Bubble collecting, bubble holding and micro-bubble ejecting characteristics of pit structure and the influence of cavitation bubble on the development of erosion pit are investigated by means of highspeed photography experiments. Pits tend to collect and hold wandering cavitation bubbles. The air holding phenomenon of pits can be a destination of the incubation period in the process of cavitation erosion. The holding bubble tends to eject micro-bubbles from the top of holding cavitation bubble,making the pit a source of nuclei. With bubbles being held in pits, the diameters of pits increase rapidly.But in the given experiment condition, there is a specific stable value beyond which the diameter of pits will not increase. This characteristic will be helpful in understanding and predicting the cavitation erosion process.

  12. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  13. Open Pit Optimisation and Design: A Stepwise Approach*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... holes were used for the analysis. ... retrieval and analysis, using Surpac software. .... economic and technical parameters were used to produce a set of nested pits. Fig. 4 depicts a summarised flow chart for the pit optimisation.

  14. Learn Not To Burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the "Learn Not to Burn Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and burn prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight burn prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and…

  15. Minor burns - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the burn: Use cool water, not ice. The extreme cold from ice can injure the tissue even more. If possible, especially if the burn is caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until it ...

  16. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  17. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  18. High burn rate solid composite propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  19. The use of wood burning cook stove in rural areas of Piaui-Brazil: a case study; O uso do fogao a lenha no semi-arido piauiense: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Albemerc Moura de; Martins, Gilberto; Trigoso, Federico B. Morante [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas

    2008-07-01

    The use of wood burning cook stoves is an ancient practice, still used nowadays, mainly in the rural areas of the developing countries. Despite its widespread use by millions of people around of the world, little attention has being paid to its study. In Piaui this reality is not different, since thousands of locals use this equipment as their main instrument for the preparation of their meals. The present article has the objective to study the use of wood stove in rural areas of Piaui. A questionnaire has been applied to ten homes in two villages, which permitted to obtain the main characteristics of the equipment used as well as the habits and wood consumption patterns. (author)

  20. Pit Study, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [pit_study_LOSCO_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The 'Pit Study' was meant to identify the remnants of former oil extraction sites which pose the threat of creating an oil spill. These remnants include many other...

  1. Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (~102 -105) of humans experience very loud music (~ 130 dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

  2. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DEEP FOUNDATION PIT CONSTRUCTION PROJECT IN WUHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Xuan Loi, Wu Li*, Nguyen Khanh Tung

    2016-01-01

    Deep foundation pit construction project is one of hot and difficult problems in rock soil engineering. How to control the deformation of the pits effectively and economically is what we all want. Retaining structure deformation of foundation pit is an important factor on the deformation of foundation pit. Reference of domestic and foreign research and the experience of similar projects, combined with the characteristics of Wuhan project, calculation, analyses and compared two design options ...

  3. Methodology Using Inverse Methods for Pit Characterization in Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, John C.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Murphy, R. Kim; Concordia, Michael; Judd, David R.; Lindgren, Eric; Knopp, Jeremy

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a methodology incorporating ultrasonic and eddy current data and NDE models to characterize pits in first and second layers. Approaches such as equivalent pit dimensions, approximate probe models, and iterative inversion schemes were designed to improve the reliability and speed of inverse methods for second layer pit characterization. A novel clutter removal algorithm was developed to compensate for coherent background noise. Validation was achieved using artificial and real pitting corrosion samples.

  4. Epidemiology of hospitalized female burns patients in a burn centre in Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, R S; Askarian, M; Assadian, O

    2007-01-01

    During 2000 to 2001, all 170 female burn patients admitted to the Ghotbeddin Burn Centre in Shiraz were studied to determine the epidemiological characteristics and outcome of burn for these patients. The overall mortality rate was 64%. The highest frequency of burns (53.5%) occurred among 16-25-year-olds. The commonest cause of burn was flame (98.2%). The mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 13 (14.3) days. Mean (SD) of total body surface area (TBSA) burned among all patients was 56% (28.5%); among those who survived it was 29% (13.4%) and among those who died it was 72% (21.7%). The relation between TBSA and mortality was statistically significant.

  5. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  6. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  7. Partial Burn Laws in Propellant Erosive Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Finjakov

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and computer methods were developed for investigating the combustion phenomena in the propellants which burn in streams of hot gas flowing along the burn surfaces of the propellants. The experimental investigations allowed establishment of different dependencies for erosive burning. Computer solutions of the problem for double-base (DB propellants showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The suggested variant of modified theory considers the change of heat release in solids, the real burn surface roughness, the nonisothermality of boundary layer and the effect of gas mass blow from the propellant burn surface into the gas stream. This modified theory was used for studying burn laws at 30-1000 atm and up to gas stream sound velocities for different DB propellants. It was found that gas stream leads to splitting of the propellant burn laws, m = bp/sup v/. Pressure power (v, in this case depends on gas stream velocity (W, diameter of the propellant tube canal (d and gas stream temperature (T/sub w/. It is because of this that these burn laws were named partial burn laws. They have the form (m = bp/sup w(omega/ w,d,T/sub w/ -const. The dependencies w(omega = f(w,d,T/sub w/ were obtained by the modified theory. It was found that omega values mainly decrease when pressure increases beginning from ~200 to 400 atm and they can decrease up to w(omega = 0,1- 0,3. Similar results can be obtained for composite propellants.

  8. Moderate systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Burgess, Pamela; Cartie, Richard J; Prasad, Balakrishna M

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been proposed to be beneficial in an array of human pathologies including cardiac arrest, stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and hemorrhagic shock. Burn depth progression is multifactorial but inflammation plays a large role. Because hypothermia is known to reduce inflammation, we hypothesized that moderate hypothermia will decrease burn depth progression. We used a second-degree 15% total body surface area thermal injury model in rats. Burn depth was assessed by histology of biopsy sections. Moderate hypothermia in the range of 31-33°C was applied for 4h immediately after burn and in a delayed fashion, starting 2h after burn. In order to gain insight into the beneficial effects of hypothermia, we analyzed global gene expression in the burned skin. Immediate hypothermia decreased burn depth progression at 6h post injury, and this protective effect was sustained for at least 24h. Burn depth was 18% lower in rats subjected to immediate hypothermia compared to control rats at both 6 and 24h post injury. Rats in the delayed hypothermia group did not show any significant decrease in burn depth at 6h, but had 23% lower burn depth than controls at 24h. Increased expression of several skin-protective genes such as CCL4, CCL6 and CXCL13 and decreased expression of tissue remodeling genes such as matrix metalloprotease-9 were discovered in the skin biopsy samples of rats subjected to immediate hypothermia. Systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression in a rodent model and up-regulation of skin-protective genes and down-regulation of detrimental tissue remodeling genes by hypothermia may contribute to its beneficial effects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang

    2003-09-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of burns patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, burn injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the burns occurred in the home. The leading type of burn injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical burns, and chemical burns due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface area (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The average length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for burn injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of burn injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children.

  10. The effect of previous experience on trap construction and movement distance in a pit-building predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Shay; Scharf, Inon; Dor, Roi

    2016-10-01

    Wormlion larvae are sit-and-wait predators that construct cone-shaped pits in sandy patches to capture prey. Wormlions select microhabitats that feature favorable conditions for pit construction, in a similar way to other trap-building predators, like spiders and antlions. We investigated whether wormlions exhibit an experience-based behavioral plasticity in their pit construction behavior. In a laboratory experiment, pit sizes and relocation distances were compared between larvae that experienced either a period of unfavorable conditions, i.e., surface obstacles, shallow or coarse sand, or a period of favorable conditions, i.e., clear, deep, and fine sand and were able to construct pits undisturbed. We expected that wormlions experiencing improving conditions would build larger pits than those experiencing deteriorating conditions. In addition, we expected that larvae experiencing unfavorable conditions would be less choosy in their new microhabitat and move over shorter distances. We observed a certain effect of recent experience on the trap-building behavior; however, it was not consistent among treatments. Additionally, we detected a correlation between larval body mass, relocation distance, and pit area. These findings might suggest that past experience does not influence wormlion foraging behavior in a simple manner but that different types of experience induce different behavioral responses.

  11. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  12. Prevention-oriented epidemiology of burns in Ardabil provincial burn centre, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Arshi, S; Ekman, R; Mohammadi, R

    2011-05-01

    . Camping gas stoves, valors (traditional dual-purpose heating and cooking appliances) and samovars can be considered as target appliances for burn-specific home-safety-promotion efforts in this area or in similar settings.

  13. Kidswear Marke:Pie? Pit?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2010-01-01

    @@ As people's living standards improve,more and more parents will invest generously in children.It has been a choice for many parents to spend more money on high quality kids' clothing.Kidsware,as a piece of big cake in garment industry,is carrying too many hopes and expectations.Undoubtedly,children's clothing is a new area of economic growth for garment industry either in theory or in the market feasibility.However,is the market really as glamorous as it looks? Children's clothing industry since 2000 has entered a high-speed development period,and what is the status quo? What are the problems? And its direction?

  14. Potential PM2.5 impacts of festival-related burning and other inputs on air quality in an urban area of southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ying I; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Kuo, Su-Ching; Yu, Sung-Po

    2015-09-15

    The Mid-Autumn Festival (MAF), or Moon Festival, is a harvest festival in Taiwan, celebrated by families across the island with evening barbecues outside. This study investigated the potential impact of these activities on the air quality in Tainan, a city in southern Taiwan. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was examined in the period leading up to the MAF (pre-MAF), during the Festival (MAF), after the Festival (post-MAF), and in the period after this (a period of moderate air quality: MAQ). Gaseous pollutants in PM2.5 were, from highest to lowest mean concentration, NH3, SO2, HCl, HNO3, HNO2, and oxalic acid, while inorganic salts were mainly in the form of the photochemical products SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-). These inorganic salts accounted for 37.6%-44.5% of the PM2.5 mass concentration, while a further 26.3%-42.8% of the PM2.5 mass was total carbon (TC). TC was mostly composed of organic carbon (OC) produced by photochemical reactions. Of this, 9.8%-14.9% was carboxylates, of which oxalate was the most abundant compound, accounting for 22.8%-31.9% of carboxylates. The presence of phthalates in the PM2.5 indicated emissions from the plastics industry. Although a noticeable amount of aerosol was produced by festival activities and burning of softwood and hardwood, onshore air currents during the festival prevented potential high aerosol loading. During the moderate air quality period following post-MAF, the concentration of total carbohydrates was 1.44-2.64 times the amount during the festival. Levoglucosan and myo-inositol accounted for 81.7%-89.6% of the total carbohydrate concentration. The average Levo/Manno ratio was 18.64 ± 5.24. The concentration of levoglucosan was closely related to that of PO4(3-), erythritol, and galactose. Backward trajectories indicated that biomass burning in China affected the air quality of Tainan City.

  15. 背部供皮区在大面积烧伤后期整复中的应用%The Application of the Back as Donor Site for Skin Graft in Treating Large Area Post-Burn Deformities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智明; 黄远发; 方云德; 柴勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨背部供皮区应用于大面积烧伤后期整复中的优势.方法 对52例大面积烧伤后期整复患者,采用鼓式取皮机在背部切取中厚皮片,移植修复多处瘢痕切除创面,观察供、植皮区愈合情况.结果 52例患者术后随访1~2年,移植皮片均成活,质地柔软、平整光滑,富有弹性,无明显增生性瘢痕,关节区活动自如,功能和外观恢复良好.供皮区愈合良好,无瘢痕增生或增生轻微.结论 背部供皮区可多次切取中厚皮片,用于大面积皮肤瘢痕创面的修复,手术效果良好,是大面积烧伤后期整复中的理想供区.%Objective To evaluate the priority of the back as donor site for skin graft in treating large area post-burn deformities. Methods In 52 large area post-burn patients, medium thickness skin grafts were taken from the back several times and the healing recovery of both the donor and receipt sites were observed and recorded. Results All patients were followed up for 1 -2 years. All the skin graft survived well with improved function and contour. The donor sites healed smoothly without obvious scars. Conclusion The back should be the ideal option for the donor site of skin graft in treating large area skin defect.

  16. [Cell apoptosis and expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 alpha in kidney tissue after severe burn with delayed fluid resuscitation in rats in areas of different altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Shi-fan; Cai, Qian; Zhang, Xian-ying; Zhang, Bin; Xiao, Bin

    2008-07-01

    To explore the relationship of cell apoptosis and expression regularity of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1 alpha after severe burn with delayed fluid resuscitation in areas of different altitude. A total of 240 male Wistar rats, which were raised in areas of different altitude (1,517 and 3,840 meters), were employed as the experimental models [They received a 30% total body surface area (TBSA)III degree scald injury], and then they were randomly divided into 3 groups: delayed fluid resuscitation group (DFR, n=50), immediate fluid resuscitation group (IFR, n=60) and control group (CG, n=10). Renal tissue samples were harvested at 1, 6, 12, 24, 72 and 168 hours after burn, respectively. Cell apoptosis was detected by tissue chip technology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). The expression of HIF-1 alpha was assessed by immunohistochemistry and image analysis. With increase in altitude, cellular edema, degeneration, necrosis and disintegration of renal tissue were gradually worsening, the capillaries of renal glomeruli became dilated and engorged, with degeneration and necrosis of endothelial cells, engorgement and edema of renal interstitium, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Pathological changes in DFR group were more serious than that of IFR group. Cell apoptosis and the expression of HIF-1 alpha were both enhanced, the latter mainly appeared in nuclei of renal cells, and they were more marked at 3,840 meters compared with those at 1,517 meters. They were more marked in experimental groups than in control group, especially so in DFR group (Pkidney cell apoptosis.

  17. Epidemiology of pediatric burn in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsai-Ming; Wang, Kai-Hung; Lai, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2005-03-01

    A 5-year retrospective review of 157 pediatric patients admitted to burn center of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) was undertaken to identify the incidence, mechanism, and agents of pediatric burn. The highest incidence of pediatric burn was in children aged 1-6 years (57.3%), followed by age group 6-14 years (31.8%). Scald burn (75.2%) made up the major cause of this injury and was dominant in each age group compared to non-scald burn. The kitchen/dining area (57.3%) and living room (29.9%) accounted for the most frequent places where pediatric burns occurred. Among the agents of scald burn, hot drink (49.2%) and soup (32.2%) were the two leading causes. There were more pediatric burns reported in colder seasons (38.2% and 33.1% in winter and fall respectively) and during dining time (19.7% in 11 a.m.-1 p.m. and 35.0% in 5 p.m.-8 p.m.). The results of this report may be closely related to special culinary habits (use of chafing-dish and making hot tea) in the south of Taiwan.

  18. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  19. Snakebite by the Shore Pit Viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) Treated With Polyvalent Antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Rupeng; Tan, Hock Heng

    2016-06-01

    Although snakebites are uncommon, there are several species of medically important venomous snakes native to Singapore. We present a case of envenoming by the shore pit viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) that showed clinical improvement when treated with the Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom. A 40-year-old man was bitten on his right hand by a snake, which was identified through photos and his description to be a shore pit viper, which is native to the local mangrove area. Severe swelling and pain developed immediately after the bite, which progressed up the arm. Because of the progression of local swelling, antivenom was started. He was given a total of 6 vials (60 mL) of polyvalent antivenom, with the first vial started 3 hours after the bite. He showed clinical improvement within 24 hours. His subsequent recovery was uneventful, with no other complications as a result of envenomation or antivenom use. Severe envenoming by the shore pit viper can lead to marked local effects such as extensive swelling and tissue necrosis. Antivenom is indicated in the presence of severe local envenomation. Antivenom against the shore pit viper is however not available locally. The Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom contains antibodies against 4 common venomous snakes in India, namely the Indian cobra, common krait, Russell's viper, and sawscaled viper. The improvement seen in this patient suggests possible cross-neutralizing activity of the Indian vipers' antivenom against the local shore pit viper venom. Further in vivo and in vitro studies should be performed to verify this clinical case.

  20. Study on Environment Characteristics for Mining Management at East Pit 3 West Banko Coal Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Neny Rochyani; Eddy Ibrahim; M. Faizal; Ngudiantoro Ngudiantoro

    2014-01-01

    The management on mining environment is closely related to the environmental characteristics and the condition of mining itself.  In East PIT 3 West Banko Coal Mine Tanjung Enim mine drainage system has been developed which refers to the open pit method employed by the company. The observation and analysis showed that the sludge settling ponds have been constructed as well as adequate catchment area. To discharge water into the channel at 0.3016 m 3 / sec can still be accommodated due to the ...

  1. 75 FR 26198 - Foreign-Trade Zone 152 - Burns Harbor, Indiana, Application for Reorganization under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 152 - Burns Harbor, Indiana, Application for Reorganization...-purpose zone currently consists of six sites in the Burns Harbor/Gary, Indiana area: Site 1: (533,288 sq...); Site 2: (441 acres) within the Port of Indiana/Burns International Harbor, Burns Harbor (Porter...

  2. Cost-efficacy of cultured epidermal autografts in massive pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Wolf, SE; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Objective To assess the efficacy of cultured epidermal autografts (CEA) for closure of burn wounds in pediatric burn patients with full-thickness burns of more than 90% total body surface area. Summary Background Data Paucity of donor sites in massive burns makes the use of expanded skin of

  3. Kidswear Market:Pie? Pit?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As people’s living standards improve,more and more parents will invest generously in children.It has been a choice for many parents to spend more money on high quality kids’clothing. Kidsware,as a piece of big cake in garment industry,is carrying too many hopes and expectations.Undoubtedly,children’s clothing is a new area of economic growth for garment industry either in theory or in the market feasibility.However,is the market really as glamorous as it looks? Children’s clothing industry since 2000 has entered a high-speed development period, and what is the status quo? What are the problems? And its direction?

  4. Estimating root biomass and distribution after fire in a Great Basin woodland using cores and pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin M. Rau; Dale W. Johnson; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert R. Blank; Annmarie Lucchesi

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying root biomass is critical to an estimation and understanding of ecosystem net primary production, biomass partitioning, and belowground competition. We compared 2 methods for determining root biomass: a new soil-coring technique and traditional excavation of quantitative pits. We conducted the study in an existing Joint Fire Sciences demonstration area in...

  5. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-14

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only.

  6. The Suggestion of the Macrophoto Method for the Evaluation of the Gear Damages by Pitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiláková, Beáta; Bošanský, Miroslav; Zápotočný, Ján

    2012-12-01

    It is necessary to determine regularly the span of a damaged gear surface caused by pitting. It is an arduous task, because the size of the damage on the tooth flank depends on the number of cycles and the torque. Therefore it is needed to check continually the degree of the surface damage during the testing. When evaluating it is needed to take into account both the area of one tooth and all teeth. In the past various tedious methods with the arduous manual evaluating were used to evaluate pitting . The article deals with the analysis and evaluating of pitting by a new original macrophoto method via the electronic microscope with the computer processing. The main advantage of this method is its speed, exactness and universality.

  7. Etiology of Burn Injuries Among 0-6 Aged Children in One University Hospital Burn Unit, Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Akansel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background; Children whose verbal communications are not fully developed are the ones at risk for burn injuries. Causes of burn injuries vary among different age groups and scald injuries are the common cause of burn injuries among children. The majority of burns result from contact with thermal agents such as flame, hot surfaces, or hot liquids.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine etiologic factors of the burn injured children Methods: Data were collected for burn injured children treated in Uludag University Medical Hospital Burn Unit between January 2001 – December 2008. Patients’ demographic variables, etiology of burn injury, TBSA(total body surface area, degree of the burn injury, duration of hospitalization was detected from medical records of the hospitalized patients.Results: The mean age of the children was 2.5±1.5 (median=2. Although 4.6 % of burned patients were under one year of age, most of the children (67.8% were between 1-3 years. All of the patients were burned as a result of accident and house environment was the place where the burn incident occurred. Burn injuries occurredmostly during summer (29.9% and spring (28.7%. Scald injuries (75.3% were mostly seen burn injury types all among other burn injuries.Conclusions: Lack of supervision and observation are usually the most common causes of burn injuries in children. Statistical differences were found among age groups according to their burn etiology (p<0.05. An effect of TBSA on patient survival was statistically significant (p<0.000 and also statistically significant results were seen among age groups according to their TBSA’s (p<0.005.

  8. [The pain from burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  9. Distribution, formation mechanisms, and significance of lunar pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert V.; Robinson, Mark S.

    2014-07-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images reveal the presence of steep-walled pits in mare basalt (n = 8), impact melt deposits (n = 221), and highland terrain (n = 2). Pits represent evidence of subsurface voids of unknown extents. By analogy with terrestrial counterparts, the voids associated with mare pits may extend for hundreds of meters to kilometers in length, thereby providing extensive potential habitats and access to subsurface geology. Because of their small sizes relative to the local equilibrium crater diameters, the mare pits are likely to be post-flow features rather than volcanic skylights. The impact melt pits are indirect evidence both of extensive subsurface movement of impact melt and of exploitable sublunarean voids. Due to the small sizes of pits (mare, highland, and impact melt) and the absolute ages of their host materials, it is likely that most pits formed as secondary features.

  10. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment.

  11. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.

  12. 浅析贵州省大气煤烟型污染及防治对策%Pollution of Coal- burning Smoke and Its Preventive Measures in Guizhou Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建玲

    2001-01-01

    A series of preventive measures for atmospheric pollution wereput forward based on the present status analysis of atmospheric pollution caused by coal burning smoke in Guizhou province and the existing policies, laws and regulations for environmental protection, which are of great reference value to the control of the atmospheric pollution in Guizhou area.%通过分析贵州省煤炭工业造成的大气污染现状,结合当前有关环保政策、法规,提出一系列防治对策,对贵州省大气污染治理具有一定的参考价值。

  13. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  14. Ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning mimicking burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Gary M

    2005-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a condition in which the patient perceives a sensation of intraoral burning, typically of the anterior tongue. This article presents a case report of a patient presenting for orofacial pain evaluation in whom ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning is diagnosed. The clinician should be aware of neurotoxin poisoning as a possible cause of symptoms of burning mouth, especially among patients who have recently traveled to a tropical area. Recognition of this condition in this case highlights the need for a detailed and accurate patient history.

  15. [Signal transduction mechanism in burn wound healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiang-dong

    2008-10-01

    After 50 years of development in science of burns care in China, we have basically solved coverage of deep wounds of burn trauma, as well as role of multiple growth factors and stem cell in wound healing, making great contribution to improving the treatment of patients with large area of deep burns. Surgeons are paying close attention to problems of wound healing, especially in the fields of scarless healing and rehabilitation. To solve these problems, we need to do further investigation on multiple growth factors as well as proliferation/differentiation of stem cells in regulation of cell growth and differentiation in wound healing. Therefore, we are facing a even more serious challenge.

  16. Closure of the Brewer Gold Mine by pit backfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis-Russ, A.; Lupo, J.F. [Titan Environmental Corp., Englewood, CO (United States); Bronson, J.M. [Titan Environmental Corp., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Brewer Gold Mine, located in north-central South Carolina, is implementing an innovative reclamation plan that includes backfilling the main Brewer open pit with mine waste. The primary goals of the closure are to reduce acid rock drainage and minimize or eliminate long-term operation and maintenance requirements by restoring the site property to approximate pre-mining topography. The plan calls for consolidation of approximately 200 acres of waste into approximately 20 hectares (50 acres). Much of the material to be backfilled into the pit, including spent heap leach material and waste rock, has acid-generating potential. Therefore, the backfill design integrated geochemical properties of the backfill materials with expected post-closure conditions. A prime consideration was the final position of the water table. Since mining at the site started in the early 1800`s, no records exist of the original groundwater levels. Therefore, the design incorporates a large anoxic limestone drain to control the final groundwater level. Additional amendments are to be placed in targeted areas of the backfill to maximize their utilization. A low-permeability cap system that includes a GEOSYNTHETIC clay liner has been designed to limit infiltration into the backfill.

  17. Vascular plant checklist of the Chimney Spring and Limestone Flats prescribed burning study areas within ponderosa pine experimental forests in northern Arizona (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Scudieri; James Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Laura Williams; Sally Haase

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a vascular plant species list for two sites that are part of a long-term study exploring the effects of varying fire intervals on forest characteristics including the abundance and composition of understory vegetation. The Chimney Spring study area is on the Fort Valley Experimental Forest near Flagstaff, AZ and the Limestone Flats study area is on...

  18. Vascular plant checklist of the Chimney Spring and Limestone Flats Prescribed Burning Study Areas within ponderosa pine experimental forests in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Scudieri; James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Laura Williams; Sally M. Haase

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a vascular plant species list for two sites that are part of a long-term study exploring the effects of varying fire intervals on forest characteristics including the abundance and composition of understory vegetation. The Chimney Spring study area is on the Fort Valley Experimental Forest near Flagstaff, AZ, and the Limestone Flats study area is on...

  19. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture.

  20. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries.

  1. The epidemology of burn injuries of children and the importance of modern burn centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Mohar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns represent the major percentage of injuries to children. Their incidence level, injury mechanisms and treatment often differ from the burn injuries of adults.Methods: From the medical records of the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Ljubljana Medical Centre we gathered, analyzed and compared the burn injuries of children up to the age of 15 who were admitted to hospital in the year 2003 to those who were treated as outpatients. Moreover, we compared the burn injuries of hospitalized children at the same department in the years 2003, 1993 and 1983 respectively. We compared their gender, age, the total body surface area of burns, the depth of burns, frequency of the mechanisms of injury, the affected parts of the body and the length and mode of treatment. Finally, we compared our results with the results of similar studies from other burn centres.Results: The number of children treated for burns at the department has declined. In all the years studied, the injured children were younger than 5 and the majority of them were boys. The number of children admitted with substantial total body surface areas of burns was also declining. However, there was an increase in the number of children admitted with burns less than 10 % of their total body surface area. The number of burns treated by surgery slightly increased over the years studied. There was a similar sex and age distribution among the hospitalized children and those treated as outpatients.Conclusions: The number of children hospitalized with burns is in decline. In the years 1983, 1993 and 2003, there was no significant difference in the percentage of children who were treated surgically and those who were treated conservatively (P = 0.247. The Burn Centre at the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Ljubljana Medical Centre which together with the Burn Department of the Maribor General Hospital covers the population of two million

  2. Characteristics of burn deaths from 2003 to 2009 in a burn center: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality remains one of the most important end-point quality control parameters to evaluate a burn care system. We retrospectively reviewed the characteristics and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS patterns of burn deaths in our center from January 2003 to December 2009. The mortality rate during this time period was 2.3%. Fifty-six patients died, including 49 males and 7 females. The mean survival time was 28.45 ± 24.60 days. The burn percentage was (76.70 ± 26.86 % total burn surface area (TBSA, with (27.74 ± 24.95 % deep-partial thickness burns and (46.88 ± 33.84 % full-thickness burns. Inhalation injury was diagnosed in 36 (64.29% patients. Patients who had undergone an operation, particularly in the first week post-burn, had a significantly longer survival time. An average of 5.50 ± 1.35 malfunctioning organs per patient and a mean sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score of 13.91 ± 3.65 were observed. The most frequently malfunctioning organs were involved in the respiratory, hematologic, circulatory, and central nervous systems. Most of the organ damage occurred during the first week post-burn, followed by 4 weeks later, with relatively less organ damage observed in the third week. Among patients with a TBSA over 50%, non-survivors had larger burn sizes (particularly larger full-thickness burns and a higher incidence of inhalation injury compared with survivors; non-survivors were also more likely to have microorganism-positive blood and sputum cultures. In conclusion, burn deaths are related to a higher burn percentage, inhalation injury, MODS, and infection. Early operation may help improve survival duration.

  3. LabVIEW 2010 Computer Vision Platform Based Virtual Instrument and Its Application for Pitting Corrosion Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rogelio; Zlatev, Roumen; Valdez, Benjamin; Stoytcheva, Margarita; Carrillo, Mónica; García, Juan-Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A virtual instrumentation (VI) system called VI localized corrosion image analyzer (LCIA) based on LabVIEW 2010 was developed allowing rapid automatic and subjective error-free determination of the pits number on large sized corroded specimens. The VI LCIA controls synchronously the digital microscope image taking and its analysis, finally resulting in a map file containing the coordinates of the detected probable pits containing zones on the investigated specimen. The pits area, traverse length, and density are also determined by the VI using binary large objects (blobs) analysis. The resulting map file can be used further by a scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) system for rapid (one pass) "true/false" SVET check of the probable zones only passing through the pit's centers avoiding thus the entire specimen scan. A complete SVET scan over the already proved "true" zones could determine the corrosion rate in any of the zones.

  4. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  5. The use of holmium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser as pit and fissure cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armasastra Bahar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevention and management of pit and fissure caries has become relatively more important in recent times. There is a need for an effective preventive measure against pit and fissure caries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laser beam as a cleaning method of pits and fissures. Methods: Ho-YAG laser which has a wavelength of 2.1 µm was used in this experiment. The specimens were extracted human teeth. The effect of three cleaning methods was examined comparatively by scoring the cleaned area of fissure, namely laser irradiation with Ho-YAG laser, chemico-mechanical with combination of 10% NaOCl and ultrasonic scaler and mechanical with ultrasonic scaler. Vertico-bucco-lingual serial ground sections of each tooth were observed under light microscopy. Scoring the depth of cleaned area was performed by comparing the depth of fissure. result: Progressive result was obtained on the cleaning effect of three methods laser irradiation methods which was the most effective compared to other methods but statistically was not significant. Cleaned area of laser irradiation method was 48.91%, chemico-mechanical method was 41.77% and mechanical method was 36.78%. Conclusion: Holmium -yttrium aluminum garner laser is a relatively new method for pit and fissure cleaning even though the effectivity is not yet maximal. More research is needed to maximize the use of this laser.

  6. Mobile soak pits improve spray team mobility, productivity and safety of PMI malaria control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David F; Brown, Annie S; Bouare, Sory Ibrahima; Belemvire, Allison; George, Kristen; Fornadel, Christen; Norris, Laura; Longhany, Rebecca; Chandonait, Peter J

    2016-09-15

    In the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)-funded Africa Indoor Residual Spraying Project (AIRS), end-of-day clean-up operations require the safe disposal of wash water resulting from washing the exterior of spray tanks and spray operators' personal protective equipment. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) programs typically use soak pits - large, in-ground filters - to adsorb, filter and then safely degrade the traces of insecticide found in the wash water. Usually these soak pits are permanent installations serving 30 or more operators, located in a central area that is accessible to multiple spray teams at the end of their workday. However, in remote areas, it is often impractical for teams to return to a central soak pit location for cleanup. To increase operational efficiency and improve environmental compliance, the PMI AIRS Project developed and tested mobile soak pits (MSP) in the laboratory and in field applications in Madagascar, Mali, Senegal, and Ethiopia where the distance between villages can be substantial and the road conditions poor. Laboratory testing confirmed the ability of the easily-assembled MSP to reduce effluent concentrations of two insecticides (Actellic 300-CS and Ficam VC) used by the PMI AIRS Project, and to generate the minimal practicable environmental "footprint" in these remote areas. Field testing in the Mali 2014 IRS campaign demonstrated ease of installation and use, resulted in improved and more consistent standards of clean-up, decreased transportation requirements, improved spray team working conditions, and reduced potential for operator exposure to insecticide.

  7. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    . Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context......, The Burning Saints presents a highly original analysis of how mental processes can shape social and religious behaviour....

  8. A single precursor pit for pitting corrosion on defect of tinplate alloy layer visualized by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Guofeng [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: cuiguofeng@hit.edu.cn; Wang Jinghe [Research of Precise Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Huang Xingqiao [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2006-06-10

    The gray points highly disperse on the alloy layer surface after free tin coating removed on poorly corrosion-resistant tinplate. The morphology and composition of normal area and the gray point were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) on the same tinplate sheet. Additional, the cyclic voltammetry results indicate that corrosion resistance of alloy layer containing gray points is less than that of normal area. Those indicate that gray points are defects of Sn-Fe alloy layer. AFM was applied to obtain detail information on topography change of the gray point in electrolyte. Furthermore, profile lines of the sample at varied time were determined and delivered additional arguments for corrosion rate of the gray point. The results of a single pit corrosion measurement show that corrosion rate is determined by a mass-transport controlled mechanism in acid electrolyte.

  9. Burning sensation in oral cavity--burning mouth syndrome in everyday medical practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerlinger, Imre

    2012-01-01

    .... It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women. BMS is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, typically on the tongue or in other areas of the oral mucosa...

  10. Parturition Pit: The Bony Imprint of Vaginal Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Isuzu; Jackson, Bradford; Pitt, Michael J.; Larrison, Matthew C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively evaluate for pits along the dorsum of the pubic body in females and compare the presence/absence of these pits to vaginal birth data. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed females with vaginal birth data who underwent pelvic CT. The presence of pits along the dorsum of the pubic body, pit grade (0 = not present; 1 = faintly imperceptible; 2 = present; 3 = prominent), and the presence of osteitis condensans ilii, preauricular sulcus, and sacroiliac joint vacuum phenomenon were assessed on imaging. Musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the birth data evaluated the CTs. 48 males were also evaluated for the presence of pits. Results 482 female patients underwent CT pelvis and 171 were excluded due to lack of vaginal birth data. Of the 311 study patients, 262 had prior vaginal birth(s) and 194 had pits on CT. Only 7 of the 49 patients without prior vaginal birth had pits. There was a statistically significant association between vaginal birth and presence of pits (pbirths. As vaginal deliveries increased, the odds of having parturition pits greatly increased, adjusting for age and race at CT (pbirth and should be considered a characteristic of the female pelvis. The lytic appearance of prominent pits on imaging can simulate disease and create a diagnostic dilemma for interpreting radiologists. PMID:27270921

  11. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  12. Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST y Partículas Respirables (PM 10 producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10 generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST y partículas respirables (PM10 producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (distribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios. Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación.This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distribution, morphology and density and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants. These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  13. EFFECT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL NURSING IN A LARGE AREA BURN INJURY COMBINED WITH RESPIRATORY%心理护理在大面积烧伤合并呼吸道损伤患者的应用效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢秀芬

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the curative effect of psychological nursing intervention of large area burn patients combined with respiratory damage and summarize the nursing experience. [Methods] Selected the data of 30 cases of large area burn combined with respiratory tract injuries in our hospital from September 2006-May 2009, carried out targeted psychological nursing to patients, according to the changes of patients, investigated the patient's psychological needs, thus made patient get early recovery from the hospital. [ Results ] 30 cases of large area bum combined respiratory tract damage had positive attitude to clinical treatment and the hospitalization time was shorten after systematic treatment and targeted psychological nursing. [Conclusion] Psychological nursing for the large area bum combined respiratory tract damage patients could relieve patients' mental pressure, form a positive, optimistic attitude to face treatment, which clinical effect is good, worth in clinical promotion.%[目的]探讨对大面积烧伤合并呼吸道损伤患者进行心理护理干预的临床疗效并总结护理经验.[方法]选取某院2006年9月~2009年5月收治的30例大面积烧伤合并呼吸道损伤患者的资料,对患者进行针对性心理护理,根据患者治疗各个时期的变化,了解患者的心理需求,从而使患者的尽早康复出院.[结果]30例大面积烧伤合并呼吸道损伤患者在经过临床系统治疗,并进行针对性心理干预护理后,患者均能正确对待临床治疗,缩短住院的时间.[结论]对大面积烧伤合并呼吸道损伤的患者进行针对性心理护理,能够患者患者的心理压力,能够以积极乐观的态度面对治疗,临床效果好,值得在临床推广.

  14. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  15. Kinetic Monte Carlo investigation of pit formation at the CaCO 3(101¯4) surface-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, J. M.; LaFemina, John P.

    1997-03-01

    On the basis of quantitative information derived from atomic-force microscopy (AFM) studies of shallow pit formation at the CaCO 3(101¯4) surface-water interface in the surface-reaction regime, we have developed a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model which reproduces quantitatively the experimental behaviour of the time-evolution of the pits. This allows the rates of all the important elementary atomistic processes involved in the dissolution to be obtained, rates not readily obtainable directly from AFM data. The KMC model also provides important insight into the evolution of very small pits, which in principle can be resolved using AFM, but which in practice are very difficult to observe because of the low probability of their occurrence in the microscope scan area. The KMC simulations show that the growing pits exhibit two different growth regimes, in agreement with the predictions of a simple terrace-ledge-kink (TLK) model. For very small pits the linear pit size increases exponentially with time and the pit edges accelerate (double-kink self-annihilation regime). Having attained a certain pit size (˜25 nm for a temperature of 300 K), thereafter the pit sizes increase linearly with time, the pit edges maintaining a constant velocity (kink-kink annihilation regime). A comparison of the quantitative predictions of the TLK model with KMC simulations shows that, in spite of its simplicity, the TLK model provides a satisfactory semi-quantitative description of the pit evolution. The KMC model presented provides the starting point for the development of a more comprehensive model of the calcite-water interface which will include the effects of adsorbates and other variations in interface conditions. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Importance of proper initial treatment of moderate and major burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulović Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Burns are common injuries with frequency depending on human factors, development of protection, industry and traffic, eventual wars. Organized treatment of major burn injuries has tremendous medical, social and economic importance. The aim of this study was to analyze initial treatment of major and moderate burns, to compare it with the current recommendations and to signify the importance of organized management of burns. Methods. In a prospective study 547 adult patients with major burns were analyzed, covering a period of eight years, with the emphasis on the initial hospital admission and emergency care for burns greater than 10% of total body surface area (TBSA. Results. In the different groups of major burns, the percentage of hospital admission was: 81.5 in burns greater than 10% TBSA, 37.7 in burns of the functional areas, 54.5 in the III degree burns, 81.6 in electrical burns, 55.9 in chemical burns, 61.9 in inhalation injury, 41.0 in burns in patients with the greater risk and 100 in burns with a concomitant trauma. In the group of 145 patients with burns greater than 10% TBSA, intravenous fluids were given in 87 patients, analgesics in 45, corticosteroids in 29, antibiotics in 23 and oxygen administration in 14. In the same group, wound irrigation was done in 14.4%, removing of the clothing and shoes in 29.6%, elevation of the legs in 8.9% and prevention of hypothermia in 7.6% of the victims. There were no initial estimations of burn extent (percentage of a burn, notes about the patient and injury and tetanus immunizations. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is concluded that there should be much more initial hospital admissions of major burns, and also, necessary steps in the emergency care of burns greater than 10% TBSA should be taken more frequently. On the other side, unnecessary or wrong steps should be avoided in the initial burn treatment.

  17. Critical issues in burn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, James H

    2008-01-01

    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation.

  18. Burns in a major burns center in East China from 2005 to 2014: Incidence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoming; Ma, Bing; Zeng, Ding; Fang, Xiao; Li, Haihang; Xiao, Shichu; Wang, Guangyi; Tang, Hongtai; Xia, Zhaofan

    2017-08-27

    Information about epidemiology on burns is rare in China. The aim of this article is to describe the pattern of burns in East China during a 10-year time period. A retrospective data analysis was performed on all hospitalized patients to the burn center at the Changhai hospital, one of major burn centers in East China, from 2005 to 2014. We included 3376 patients in this study. Among them, 48.1% were from 27 provinces out of Shanghai and nearly 90% were from East China. August saw the most admissions and November saw the fewest. Spring and summer separately dominated in number of female and male patients. Children aged 2-5 and working-age adult were the most commonly treated. Home was the commonest place of injury, followed by industrial-related places, outdoors, public buildings, and vehicles or roads. Scalds remained the primary reason, followed by fire, contact burns, electricity, and chemicals. The average %TBSA of male patients was 14.2±21.3, significantly different from that of female patients (10.4±16.9). Extremities were the most vulnerable body region burned, followed by the trunk, face and hands. The average hospital length of stay in male patients was 25.4±72.4 days, significantly different from that of females' 19.9±27.6 days. The total mortality was 1.8% and the lethal area burned resulting in 50% mortality was 96.5% TBSA. Compared with published data, these result are encouraging, which demonstrate that burn care and treatment has made significant progress. Burn clinicians should bear not only the responsibility to treat and cure burns, but also the popularization of knowledge about burn precautions and emergency treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Pain in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  20. Nutrition of burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudaviciene, Daiva; Rimdeika, Rytis; Adamonis, Kestutis

    2004-01-01

    Burns form 5-12% of all traumas. About 2,200 of patients are annually hospitalized in Lithuania. In most cases people of the employable age get burned. The treatment is often long-lasting, and afterwards recovered patients often have invalidity from burn sequels. The mortality of hospitalized burned patients is about 10%. The most common causes of death are pulmonary edema, pneumonia, sepsis and multiorgan failure. All these complications are related with insufficient nutrition. These complications are extremely frequent and dangerous for patients with more than 20% of body burned. The nutritional support of burned patient gives a possibility to increase the survival probability, to decrease complication rate and hospitalization time. Currently in Lithuania there are no standards for burned patient nutrition. More attention is given to strategy of surgical strategy and techniques, as well as antibiotic therapy. This article is the review of the different aspects of artificial nutrition of burned patient: indications, modes of nutrition, mixtures and terms of nutritional support.

  1. Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Bradley A.; King, Stephen R.; Wandschneider, Heidi L.; Hickerson, William L.; Hanes, Scott D.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Canada, Todd W.; Hess, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface area) burns were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means ± standard deviations) for all nine patients for the two study periods were as follows: t1/2, 24.4 ± 5.8 h; CL, 0.36 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; and V, 0.72 ± 0.12 liters/kg. These estimates of t1/2 and CL in burn patients were approximately 13% shorter and 30% more rapid, respectively, than the most extreme estimates reported for other populations. PMID:9559811

  2. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  3. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  4. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  5. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  6. Trace metal contamination influenced by land use, soil age, and organic matter in montreal tree pit soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Maryam; Jutras, Pierre; Clark, O Grant; Hendershot, William H; Prasher, Shiv O

    2013-09-01

    The short life span of many street trees in the Montreal downtown area may be due in part to higher than standard concentrations of trace metals in the tree pit soils. The effects of land use, soil organic matter, and time since tree planting in a given tree pit (soil age) were studied with respect to the total concentration of trace metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in soil collected from tree pits on commercial and residential streets. Contingency table analysis and multiple linear regression were applied to study how these variables were related to the total concentrations of trace metals in soil. Other variables, such as pH, street width, distance of the tree pit from the curb, and tree pit volume, were also used as input to statistical analysis to increase the analysis' explanatory power. Significantly higher concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb were observed in soils from commercial streets, possibly as a result of heavier traffic as compared with residential streets. Soil organic matter was positively correlated with the concentrations of Cu and Pb, probably due to the ability of organic matter to retain these trace metals. Nickel, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were positively correlated with the soil age presumably because trace metals accumulate in the tree pit soil over time. This knowledge can be helpful in providing soil quality standards aimed at improving the longevity of downtown street trees.

  7. Geochemical Trends and Natural Attenuation of RDX, Nitrate, and Perchlorate in the Hazardous Test Area Fractured-Granite Aquifer, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1996-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Robertson, Andrew J.; Bynum, Jamar; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.

    2008-01-01

    A fractured-granite aquifer at White Sands Missile Range is contaminated with the explosive compound RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate (oxidizer associated with rocket propellant) from the previous use of the Open Burn/Open Detonation site at the Hazardous Test Area. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate ground-water concentrations were analyzed to examine source characteristics, spatial and temporal variability, and the influence of the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation in the Hazardous Test Area fractured-granite aquifer. Two transects of ground-water wells from the existing monitoring-site network - one perpendicular to ground-water flow (transect A-A') and another parallel to ground-water flow (transect B-B') - were selected to examine source characteristics and the spatial and temporal variability of the contaminant concentrations. Ground-water samples collected in 2005 from a larger sampling of monitoring sites than the two transects were analyzed for various tracers including major ions, trace elements, RDX degradates, dissolved gases, water isotopes, nitrate isotopes, and sulfate isotopes to examine the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation. Recharge entrains contaminants at the site and transports them downgradient towards the Tularosa Basin floor through a poorly connected fracture system(s). From 1996 to 2006, RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate concentrations in ground water downgradient from the Open Burn/Open Detonation site have been relatively stable. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate in ground water from wells near the site indicate dispersed contaminant sources in and near the Open Burn/Open Detonation pits. The sources of RDX and nitrate in the pit area have shifted with time, and the shift correlates with the regrading of the south and east berms of each pit in 2002 and 2003 following closure of the site. The largest RDX concentrations were in ground water about 0.1 mile downgradient from the pits, the largest perchlorate

  8. Space-time principles of reducing stripping in furrow pits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The lower slope of furrow pits has following special features: small extent of weathering destruction, short time of production blasting damage, good arching effect of lower slope with small curvature radius, and good bottom effect ofa pit end for transferring and bearing initial horizontal stresses in lower slope. The new principles provided theoretical basis for convex slope in furrow pits to reduce stripping. Similar phenomena and examples are supplied simultaneously.

  9. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  10. Analysis of the Pit Removal Methods in Digital Terrain Models of Various Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamanović, S.; Medak, D.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    Digital terrain model (DTM) is the base for calculation of the surface runoff under the influence of the gravity (gravity flow) in hydrological analysis. It is important to produce hydrologically corrected DTM with the removed natural and artificial depressions to avoid numerical problems in algorithms of the gravity flow. The pit removal procedure changes geomorphometry of the DTM. GIS software packages use pit removal algorithm independently of geomorphmetric features of the analyzed area. In need of minimally modified DTM after the pit removal areas, the carving method (deepen drainage routes) and the filling method (fill sink) were analyzed on three different geomorphometric areas (bare mountain range, hilly wooded area and the plain area intersected with the network of the drainage canals). The recommendation is given for the choice of geomorphometric least changing DTM algorithm. The input data are raster data of elevation points created by stereoscopic photogrammetry method in 5x5 and 25x25 meter resolution. Differences have been noticed during the process of creating raster data. The recommendation is given for the choice of the most acceptable method for each type of area on the basis of comparison of the original elevation points with the elevation points in created DTM.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE PIT REMOVAL METHODS IN DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS OF VARIOUS RESOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Šamanović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital terrain model (DTM is the base for calculation of the surface runoff under the influence of the gravity (gravity flow in hydrological analysis. It is important to produce hydrologically corrected DTM with the removed natural and artificial depressions to avoid numerical problems in algorithms of the gravity flow. The pit removal procedure changes geomorphometry of the DTM. GIS software packages use pit removal algorithm independently of geomorphmetric features of the analyzed area. In need of minimally modified DTM after the pit removal areas, the carving method (deepen drainage routes and the filling method (fill sink were analyzed on three different geomorphometric areas (bare mountain range, hilly wooded area and the plain area intersected with the network of the drainage canals. The recommendation is given for the choice of geomorphometric least changing DTM algorithm. The input data are raster data of elevation points created by stereoscopic photogrammetry method in 5x5 and 25x25 meter resolution. Differences have been noticed during the process of creating raster data. The recommendation is given for the choice of the most acceptable method for each type of area on the basis of comparison of the original elevation points with the elevation points in created DTM.

  12. Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: intentional burns in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    A significant number of burns and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional burns are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized burn patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface area burned in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted burning of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by burning include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by burning are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious burn-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Profile of self-inflicted burn patients treated at a tertiary burn center in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur, Fatih; Sever, Celalettin; Oksüz, Sinan; Duman, Haluk

    2009-01-01

    The factors and demographic features of self-inflicted burns in Eastern and Western cultures differ from each other. In this retrospective study, the authors' aim is to identify the epidemiologic features of self-inflicted burn patients treated at their Tertiary Burn Centre. The Burn Centre provides health care to a large population from Istanbul, which is located at the crossroads between Asia and Europe. The demographic data and information of 32 patients who were admitted to the GATA HEH Burn Center in Istanbul for attempted suicide were retrospectively reviewed over a 7-year period (2001-2008). Twenty-eight of the 32 patients were men, whereas the remaining four patients were women. The average age was 25.9 years. Seventeen patients had a previous history of self-harming and 22 patients were unemployed. History of a psychiatric illness was found in 20 patients. Mean total body burn surface area was 70%. The mortality rate was 43.4%. This study demonstrates that suicide attempts by burning differ from Eastern and Western cultures by factors and demographic features. It has been concluded that the solution to preventing self-inflicted burns calls for the joint efforts of physicians, psychologists, and sociologists. Furthermore, it is necessary to reinstate prevention programs and revise strategies for prevention based on the country and its culture.

  14. Epidemiology and outcome of burns: early experience at the country's first national burns centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Tariq; Saaiq, Muhammad; Ali, Zahid

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to document the epidemiologic pattern and outcome of burn injuries in the country's first national burn centre. This case series study was conducted over a 2-year period at Burns Care Centre (BCC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. The study included all burn injury patients who primarily presented to and were managed at the centre. Those patients who presented more than 24 h after injury or those who were initially managed at some other hospital were excluded from the study. Initial assessment and diagnosis was made by thorough history, physical examination and necessary investigations. Patients with major burns, high voltage electric burns and those needing any surgical interventions were admitted for indoor management. Patients with minor burns were discharged home after necessary emergency management, home medication and follow-up advice. The sociodemographic profile of the patients, site of sustaining burn injury, type and extent (total body surface area (TBSA), skin thickness involved and associated inhalational injury) of burn and outcome in terms of survival or mortality, etc., were all recorded on a proforma. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Out of a total of 13,295 patients, there were 7503 (56.43%) males and 5792 (43.56%) females. The mean age for adults was 33.63±10.76 years and for children it was 6.71±3.47 years. The household environment constituted the commonest site of burns (68%). Among all age groups and both genders, scalds were the commonest burns (42.48%), followed by flame burns (39%) and electrical burns (9.96%). The affected mean TBSA was 10.64±11.45% overall, while for the hospitalised subset of patients the mean TBSA was 38.04±15.18%. Most of the burns were partial thickness (67%). Inhalation injury was found among 149 (1.12%) patients. Most of the burns were non-intentional and only 96 (0.72%) were intentional. A total of 1405 patients (10.58%) were admitted while the remainder

  15. SCFA lead lab technical assistance review of the Pit 7 Complex source containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, D.; Janeday, D.; Woodward, D.; Imrich, J.; Evans, J.; Morris, M.; Reimus, P.; Hazen, T.

    2001-01-29

    On January 29-30, 2001 a technical assistance team (TAT) met with the Pit 7 project team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to review technologies being evaluated for remediation in the Site 300 Pit 7 Complex and the process for selecting these technologies. Specifically, the project team presented the TAT with a core need to identify technically and economically practicable technologies and methods to stabilize, contain, or control the tritium and uranium in the source areas at the Pits 3 and 5 landfill area to prevent further releases of these contaminants to groundwater and the migration of tritiated and uranium-contaminated groundwater. The approaches and needs for the systems surrounding the landfills were also presented and discussed. With encouragement from the project team, the TAT expanded its focus to include additional site characterization, a water balance model, and computational models. The TAT was comprised of leading technical and regulatory experts from around the country and was assembled by SCFA's Lead Lab in response to a technical assistance request from John Ziagos, Project Manager for the Pit 7 Area (Technical Assistance Request: LLNL No.1). A list of the TAT members is included below and contact information the TAT members and site participants is in Appendix B. To familiarize the TAT assistance team with Pit 7 Complex issues, the project team gave a presentation outlining the site geology, contaminant hydrogeology, land-use issues, stakeholder concerns, regulatory requirements, groundwater flow and transport modeling efforts, pit source characterization efforts, and remedial options. Time for clarification and questions between the TAT and the site team was integrated into the presentation schedule. On the morning of the second day, the TAT reconvened with the site team and John Evans of the TAT presented information about a helium soil gas survey method that could potentially be used to locate and characterize tritium

  16. Electrochemical Studies of Nitrate-Induced Pitting in Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1998-12-07

    The phenomenon of pitting in carbon steel exposed to alkaline solutions of nitrate and chloride was studied with the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization technique. Open-circuit and pitting potentials were measured on specimens of ASTM A537 carbon steel in pH 9.73 salt solutions at 40 degrees Celsius, with and without the inhibiting nitrite ion present. Nitrate is not so aggressive a pitting agent as is chloride. Both nitrate and chloride did induce passive breakdown and pitting in nitrite-free solutions, but the carbon steel retained passivity in solutions with 0.11-M nitrite even at a nitrate concentration of 2.2 M.

  17. EKA hoonelt rebiti maha kaunistav pits / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas, 1954-

    2011-01-01

    Ehituskulude vähendamiseks muudeti Eesti Kunstiakadeemia uue hoone projekti. Maja välisfassaadilt eemaldati kaunistav pits ja loobuti spiraalsest aatriumist. Ehitusplatsile hakatakse rajama metallist sulundseina

  18. Galactorrhea and amenorrhea in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Navin; Gore, Madhuri A; Shankar, Ravi

    2008-09-01

    Galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea, although uncommonly reported in post-burn patients, is a complex problem to treat. Patient is reluctant to volunteer history of these symptoms, unless asked specifically. To study profile of adult female patients with galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea in post burn period. A prospective study of all adult female patients presenting with or detected to have galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea in post burn period was conducted over 6 month's period. Detailed clinical examination, estimation of LH, FSH, Prolactin levels and X-ray of skull was done in all patients. The data collected was analyzed. Patients with hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea were treated with Bromocriptine for 3 weeks to 3 months. In all patients with amenorrhea, pregnancy was ruled out by gynecological examination and urine pregnancy test. During this period, 30 patients (15.15%) were detected to have galactorrhea and/or amenorrhoea. The extent of burn in these patients was 20-65%of body surface area. Out of 30 patients, 5 had galactorrhea and amenorrhea, 1 galactorrhea alone and 24 had amenorrhea alone. Analysis of voluntary disclosures and detection on interrogation was done. Till the end of study, 4 patients with galactorrhea had complete relief, 2 patients reported reduction in discharge. Galactorrhea was distressing for all and was always associated with high prolactine levels .The reverse was not true. All the patients had chest burns besides other body areas. Association was noted between menstrual aberration and ovulatory phase at the time of burn. Galactorrhea and menstrual disturbances do exist in female patients in reproductive age group in post burn period and patients should be especially interrogated for these symptoms by the burn care providers.

  19. New type of sauna-related burn: conductive contact burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Jun; Yoo, Heon; Park, Myong Chul

    2013-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman visited a Korean-style hot dry sauna room. The patient had a medical history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the sauna, the patient slept for 30 minutes. During the sleep, the right medial thigh was covered with a fully wet towel. The patient sustained a second-degree burn on the right medial thigh area with multiple bullas. On physical examination, erythema, heating sensation, and swelling around the bullas were noted. The patient was admitted and received intravenous antibiotics for 7 days. A dressing with Silmazine 1% cream (sulfadiazine) was applied twice a day for prevention of local infection. The patient was discharged on day 14 without complication. In this case, the mechanism of the burn was different. Hot air has much thermal energy but is not conducted to the skin directly. A wet towel will have a relatively higher thermal capacity or heat capacity than a dry or damp towel, and the sodden water might be a medium for the conduction of thermal energy. Owing to the global popularity of sauna bathing, it is important to recognize all sources of sauna-related burns.

  20. Landsat-Based Detection and Severity Analysis of Burned Sugarcane Plots in Tarlac, Philippines Using Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloloy, A. B.; Blanco, A. C.; Gana, B. S.; Sta. Ana, R. C.; Olalia, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    The Philippines has a booming sugarcane industry contributing about PHP 70 billion annually to the local economy through raw sugar, molasses and bioethanol production (SRA, 2012). Sugarcane planters adapt different farm practices in cultivating sugarcane, one of which is cane burning to eliminate unwanted plant material and facilitate easier harvest. Information on burned sugarcane extent is significant in yield estimation models to calculate total sugar lost during harvest. Pre-harvest burning can lessen sucrose by 2.7% - 5% of the potential yield (Gomez, et al 2006; Hiranyavasit, 2016). This study employs a method for detecting burn sugarcane area and determining burn severity through Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) using Landsat 8 Images acquired during the late milling season in Tarlac, Philippines. Total burned area was computed per burn severity based on pre-fire and post-fire images. Results show that 75.38% of the total sugarcane fields in Tarlac were burned with post-fire regrowth; 16.61% were recently burned; and only 8.01% were unburned. The monthly dNBR for February to March generated the largest area with low severity burn (1,436 ha) and high severity burn (31.14 ha) due to pre-harvest burning. Post-fire regrowth is highest in April to May when previously burned areas were already replanted with sugarcane. The maximum dNBR of the entire late milling season (February to May) recorded larger extent of areas with high and low post-fire regrowth compared to areas with low, moderate and high burn severity. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to analyse vegetation dynamics between the burn severity classes. Significant positive correlation, rho = 0.99, was observed between dNBR and dNDVI at 5% level (p = 0.004). An accuracy of 89.03% was calculated for the Landsat-derived NBR validated using actual mill data for crop year 2015-2016.

  1. Prescribed Burning Plan for 1985 : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1985 prescribed burning plan for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Treatment Area #3 is the area consisting of the fresh water marsh inside the...

  2. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : FY 1989 Prescribed Burning Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area to be burned is the Stage Island Pool, a freshwater impoundment of approximately 100 acres. The area has a large amount of edge interspersed with several...

  3. Vegetation Cover and Habitat Heterogeneity derived from QuickBird data as proxies of Local Plant Species Richness in recently burned areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Olga; Torres, Ivan; Moreno, Jose Manuel

    2010-05-01

    In fire-prone ecosystems, it is very common that, following fire, plant species richness increases very markedly, mainly due to an explosion of annuals, following a rapid change during the first few years after the blaze. Herbs play a major role in the system, among other, by fixing nutrients that might be lost, or by changing competitive interactions with shrubs or tree seedlings. But assessing species richness, particularly, herbaceous one, in space and at large scale is very costly. Furthermore, the scale of measurement is also important. In this work we attempted to asses plant species richness during the first year after fire in an abandoned dehesa (open parkland) at three scales (1 m2, 25 m2 and 100 m2) using QuickBird images. The study area was located in Central Spain (Anchuras, Ciudad Real), and was affected by a large summer fire (ca. 2000 ha). Before the fire the system was composed of a shrubland intermixed with trees and open spaces. Two 90x180 m plots were selected and field species richness measures were made at the three scales, using a nested design. Field-based data were related to remotely sensed data using Regression Trees (RT) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modelling. Explanatory spectral and textural remotely sensed data were ecologically interpreted based on vegetation cover ground-based data. We found that areas with low spectral contrast and high reflectivity were dominated by herbaceous species, and had greater species richness than those characterized by low contrast and medium-low reflectivity, which were dominated by shrubs and trees. The highest species richness was found in the areas characterized by high contrast and medium-high reflectivity, which had a mix of herbs and woody layers. Variance explained varied depending on the modelling approach and the scale, from 21% and 50% for 1 m2 using RT and BRT, respectively; to 65% and 79% for 100 m2. The contribution of different life forms in model fitting was scale-dependent. At

  4. 江西省2009年燃煤污染型氟中毒病区现状调查%Investigation of the current situation in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Jiangxi province in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小玲; 刘玮; 李志宏; 万建平; 裘海清; 陈都; 上官俊

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find out the prevalence and distrbution of endemic fluorosis in coal-burning pollution areas,provide the basis for formulating prevention and control measures.METHODS An administrative village for the unit,the population,households and dental fluorosis in children aged from 8 to 12 years were surveyed generally in study areas.During the investigation,sampling test of fluoride levels in drinking water and urine of children were carried out and the prevalent factors were surveyed in epidemic fluorosis villages where the prevalence of children's dental fluorosis was over 30%.RESULTS In this survey,the number of children aged from 8 to 12 years was 218 763,the number of children with dental fluorosis was 25 899,the prevalence of children's dental fluorosis was 11.84%.The conditions of dental fluorosis gave priority to extremely light and mild; the ratios were 49.56% and 43.62% respectively.The number of epidemic fluorosis villages where the prevalence of children dental fluorosis over 30% was 371,accounting for 24.25% of the total survey villages,and the epidemic fluorosis villages where the prevalence of children dental fluorosis over 30% weren't found only in Fengcheng city.2 588 children's urine samples and 346 resident drinking water samples were collected,the geometric mean of fluoride concentration in urine was 0.87 mg/L,and its scopes were 0.10 mg/L to 10.44 mg/L.The number of villages where the geometric mean of fluoride concentration in urine over 1.40 mg/L was 13,accounting for 14.94%.The fluoride concentrations in resident drinking water were from 0.01 mg/L to 0.92 mg/L,the mean was 0.15 mg/L,the fluoride concentration in all samples were under the sanitary standard for drinking water.The percentage of houses with masonry structure was 95.85% of total survey households,97.39% of the residents still used coal as the main fuel,98.75% of the residents in coal-burning households used open burn ovens,the percentage of households

  5. The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    rituals. Many authors who concern themselves with this topic concur that the context of a pit and the objects within it, the choice of offerings and their symbolism, along with the pit’s stratigraphy and other patterns observed in it, are in fact the features that make it distinct, i.e. ritual. Similar pits are known throughout history and their descriptions can be found in ancient written sources, as well as identified in the field, with certain differences, stretching back all the way into deep prehistory. This paper presents several newly discovered ritual pits in the central Balkans from the Eneolithic, Bronze and Iron Age, and additionally mentions some of the previously published pits from the area and its near and more distant surroundings. In the course of recent investigations conducted at the site of Bubanj, two ritual pits were recorded in the Early Eneolithic horizon of the Bubanj-Hum I culture. Next to the first, shallower (up to 0.2 m, oval shaped pit, of around 2.5 m long and 1.7 m wide, an oven was noted, while the pit was filled with whole vessels, parts of grindstones, chipped and polished stone tools, baked clay, animal bones, etc. (Figs. 1, 2; Pl. I. Two smaller hollows were noted in the northern part of the pit, while several postholes, which might have supported some kind of roof or shelter construction, were detected somewhat deeper in the subsoil, around the oven and the pit. Below this pit, a smaller one was noted, around 0.7 m deep and with a base diameter of about 1.2 m, filled with yellow, sandy, refined soil. The bottom of the pit was dug to the level of the subsoil and levelled. The second ritual pit from Bubanj was considerably deeper (around 1.5 m and approximately 1.7 m in diameter, with baked walls and filled with red ashy soil. It contained fragmented or whole vessels, chipped stone tools, a part of an altar, an air nozzle (tuyиres, a polished stone axe, tools made of horn, a fragment of a grindstone, pebbles, house daub and animal

  6. Monitoring of Open-pit mining using geomorphometry and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Chen, Jianping; Sofia, Giulia; Lai, Zili; Huang, Haozhong; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Mining activities have a significant impact on the Earth's surface, and open-pit mines are the most evident landscape signatures of the mining operations. Despite the importance of such human impacts, an open challenge for the Earth Science community is to explore a fast, accurate and low-cost method to monitor changes in open-pit mining. The main goal of this work is to develop such a methodology. In this study, we used an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) to collect two series of photographs(August 2014 and October 2016). Through the structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques, the images were used to generate high-resolution Digital Surface Models (DSMs). DSMs were co-registered by seven ground control points, and the accuracy of the co-registration was checked and corrected by comparing non-change areas. Finally, two kinds of landscape metric were used to detect the changes: (1) the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC)(Sofia et al., 2014), which allows to estimate the surface covered by open-pit mining by using a simple empirical model; (2) the DSM of Difference (DoD) , which calculated the changes between two DSMs on a cells-by-cells basis, to accurately estimate the volumetric changes. The results underline the effectiveness of the UAV survey techniques and adopted landscape metrics. This study has demonstrated a robust and rapid workflow to dynamic monitor the open-pit mine and support sustainable environmental planning.

  7. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  8. [Treatment of burns in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L

    1995-10-01

    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  9. Characterization of ground-water flow between the Canisteo Mine Pit and surrounding aquifers, Mesabi Iron Range, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study to characterize ground-water flow conditions between the Canisteo Mine Pit, Bovey, Minnesota, and surrounding aquifers following mine abandonment. The objective of the study was to estimate the amount of steady-state, ground-water flow between the Canisteo Mine Pit and surrounding aquifers at pit water-level altitudes below the level at which surface-water discharge from the pit may occur. Single-well hydraulic tests and stream-hydrograph analyses were conducted to estimate horizontal hydraulic conductivities and ground-water recharge rates, respectively, for glacial aquifers surrounding the mine pit. Average hydraulic conductivity values ranged from 0.05 to 5.0 ft/day for sands and clays and from 0.01 to 121 ft/day for coarse sands, gravels, and boulders. The 15-year averages for the estimated annual recharge using the winter records and the entire years of record for defining baseflow recession rates were 7.07 and 7.58 in., respectively. These recharge estimates accounted for 25 and 27 percent, respectively, of the average annual precipitation for the 1968-82 streamflow monitoring period. Ground-water flow rates into and out of the mine pit were estimated using a calibrated steady-state, ground-water flow model simulating an area of approximately 75 mi2 surrounding the mine pit. The model residuals, or difference between simulated and measured water levels, for 15 monitoring wells adjacent to the mine pit varied between +28.65 and –3.78 ft. The best-match simulated water levels were within 4 ft of measured water levels for 9 of the 15 wells, and within 2 ft for 4 of the wells. The simulated net ground-water flow into the Canisteo Mine Pit was +1.34 ft3/s, and the net ground-water flow calculated from pit water levels measured between July 5, 1999 and February 25, 2001 was +5.4 ft3/s. Simulated water levels and ground-water flow to and from the mine

  10. The epidemiology of geriatric burns in Iran: A national burn registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Momeni, Mahnoush; Karimi, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Defining the epidemiology and outcome of geriatric burn patients is critical for specialized burn centers, health-care workers, and governments. Better resource use and effective guidelines are some of the advantages of studies focusing on this aspect. The outcome of these patients serves as an objective criterion for quality control, research, and preventive programs. We used data from the burn registry program in our country. For 2 years, >28,700 burn patients were recorded, 1721 of whom were admitted. Among them, 187 patients were ≥55 years old. Sixty-nine percent of patients were male and 31% female, with a male to female ratio of 2.22:1. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of age was 63.4±8.1. The cause of burns was flame (58.2%) and scalds (20.3%). Most of the burns were sustained at home. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.5 days (range 3-59 days). The mean (SD) of the total body surface area (TBSA) was 20.3% (8.4%). The median hospital stay (length of stay (LOS)) was 11 days (SD=14). The increase in TBSA was related to a longer LOS (pBurn wound infection developed in 44.3% of patients. The presence of inhalation injury was significantly related to mortality (ppatients, 9% recovered completely, 74.9% recovered partially (requiring further treatment), 1% underwent amputation, and 12.8% died. The lack of insurance coverage did not affect the survival of our geriatric burn patients. However, being alone or single, ignition of clothing, cause of burn, comorbid illnesses, complications following the burn, TBSA, age, and sepsis were positively correlated with mortality. The mean cost of treatment for each patient was about $7450.

  11. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisieleski, W.E.

    1980-06-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. A study on early eschar grinding for prevention & treatment of infection in patients with large area of deep partial thickness burns%大面积深度烧伤早期磨痂防治感染的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁仕安; 肖荣; 林国安; 尚新志; 孟进松; 李文军; 杨晓东

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between early eschar grinding and infection in the patients with large area of deep partial thickness burns. Methods Prospective studies were conducted in 35 patients with more than 30% TBSA of deep partial thickness burns. The patients were divided into eschar grinding group (EG group) and conservative care group (CC group) according to the different treatments regimes. The burn wounds of 17 patients in CC group were treated with 0.2% bromogeramine solution and 1% sulfadiazine silver cream,and changed dressings everyday. The 18 patients in EG group were treated with dermabrasion under general anesthesia within 48 hours after admission. The occurrence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis,development of serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS),TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-8 were compared between the two groups. Results The patients in EG group were healed averagely within 14.1 days,while those in CC group within 19.8 days. The incidence rate of SIRS and sepsis in EG group was 31%,lower than that of CC group(85%). The serum levels of LPS, IL-6 and IL-8 of EG group were also lower than CC group. Conclusion Early eschar grinding of large area deep partial thickness burns under general anesthesia not only can shortenwound healing time but avoid burn wound and systemic infection.%目的:研究早期大面积深Ⅱ度烧伤磨痂与烧伤感染的关系。方法对35例烧伤面积>30%且创面以深Ⅱ度烧伤为主的烧伤患者,进行前瞻性研究。按对创面处理的方式不同,将其分为早期磨痂组和保痂组。保痂组17例,用苯扎溴铵简单清创,创面用磺胺嘧啶银乳膏包扎处理,并上悬浮床或翻身床,换药治疗。早期磨痂组18例,休克纠正后,48 h内在全麻下行磨痂术,用钢丝球磨除创面的坏死组织,刚好有小出血点为止,创面冲洗后,再用术尔泰纱布湿敷,最后将生物敷料(脱细胞猪皮)覆盖创面,外

  13. Treatment of severe burn injury of 98% TBSA with 95% full-thickness burn and severe inhalation injury: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 王甲汉; 周一平

    2003-01-01

    @@ The treatment of extensive severe burn injury is very difficult, especially when some complications are involved. A burned patient sustained 98% total body surface area (TBSA) with 95% full thickness burn and severe inhalation injury was admitted to our hospital in 08- 2000. After aggressive treatment, the patient recovered fully. This paper reports the treatment of the patient.

  14. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  15. Management of burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

    2013-10-01

    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery.

  16. Burn Wise Awareness Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and safety outreach materials in the form of an awareness kit. Designed specifically for state, local, and tribal air agencies working to reduce wood smoke pollution, it includes best burn tips, social media m

  17. Molten Metal Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Arthur M.; McCrady-Kahn, Virginia L.

    1981-01-01

    Molten metal burns are a frequent industrial injury among workers in foundries. The injury is typically small but very deep. Usually the depth and seriousness of these injuries is not recognized immediately by emergency department or industrial clinic physicians.

  18. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  19. Genital burns in the national burn repository: incidence, etiology, and impact on morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpole, Bethany G; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Erickson, Bradley A

    2014-02-01

    To better characterize national genital burns (GBs) characteristics using a large burn registry. We hypothesized that mortality and morbidity will be higher in patients with GBs. The National Burn Repository, a large North American registry of hospitalized burn patients, was queried for patients with GB. Burn characteristics and mechanism, demographics, mortality, and surgical interventions were retrieved. Outcomes of interest were mortality, hospital-acquired infection (HAI), and surgical intervention on the genitalia. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for outcomes were determined with binomial logistic regression controlling for age, total burn surface area, race, length of stay, gender, and inhalation injury presence. GBs were present in 1245 cases of 71,895 burns (1.7%). Patients with GB had significantly greater average total burn surface area, length of stay, and mortality. In patients with GB, surgery of the genitalia was infrequent (10.4%), with the aOR of receiving surgery higher among men (aOR 2.7, P burns (aOR 3.1, P <.002). Presence of a GB increased the odds of HAI (aOR 3.0, P <.0001) and urinary tract infections (aOR 3.4, P <.0001). GB was also an independent predictor of mortality (aOR 1.54) even after adjusting for the increased HAI risk. GBs are rare but associated with higher HAI rates and higher mortality after adjusting for well-established mortality risk factors. Although a cause and effect relationship cannot be established using these registry data, we believe this study suggests the need for special management considerations in GB cases to improve overall outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of the life impact burn recovery evaluation (LIBRE) profile: assessing burn survivors' social participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Lewis E; Marino, Molly; Ni, Pengsheng; Soley Bori, Marina; Amaya, Flor; Dore, Emily; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeff C; Shie, Vivian; Acton, Amy; Jette, Alan M

    2017-05-10

    Measuring the impact burn injuries have on social participation is integral to understanding and improving survivors' quality of life, yet there are no existing instruments that comprehensively measure the social participation of burn survivors. This project aimed to develop the Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation Profile (LIBRE), a patient-reported multidimensional assessment for understanding the social participation after burn injuries. 192 questions representing multiple social participation areas were administered to a convenience sample of 601 burn survivors. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to identify the underlying structure of the data. Using item response theory methods, a Graded Response Model was applied for each identified sub-domain. The resultant multidimensional LIBRE Profile can be administered via Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) or fixed short forms. The study sample included 54.7% women with a mean age of 44.6 (SD 15.9) years. The average time since burn injury was 15.4 years (0-74 years) and the average total body surface area burned was 40% (1-97%). The CFA indicated acceptable fit statistics (CFI range 0.913-0.977, TLI range 0.904-0.974, RMSEA range 0.06-0.096). The six unidimensional scales were named: relationships with family and friends, social interactions, social activities, work and employment, romantic relationships, and sexual relationships. The marginal reliability of the full item bank and CATs ranged from 0.84 to 0.93, with ceiling effects less than 15% for all scales. The LIBRE Profile is a promising new measure of social participation following a burn injury that enables burn survivors and their care providers to measure social participation.

  1. Pit initiation on nitinol in simulated physiological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Bruce G

    2017-08-21

    Inclusions appear to play a crucial role in the initiation of pitting on nitinol, but the reason remains unclear. Furthermore, it has not been established whether the type of inclusion is a central factor. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization together with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to provide more insight into the initiation of pits on electropolished nitinol wire. Corrosion was limited to a single primary pit on each of the few wire samples that exhibited breakdown. The pit contained numerous Ti2 NiOx inclusions, but secondary pits that developed within the primary pit provided evidence that these inclusions were the sites of pit initiation. Although several theories have been proposed to account for pit initiation at inclusions in mechanically polished and electropolished nitinol, titanium depletion in the adjacent alloy matrix appears to provide the most viable explanation. The key factor appears to be the size of the inclusion and therefore the extent of titanium depletion in the alloy matrix. The type of inclusion evidently plays a secondary role at most. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water tabl

  3. [Spontaneous disappearance of herniation pit on the femoral neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerais, J M; Jacob, D; Thibaud, J C; Fourrer, C; Cercueil, J P; Krause, D; Laredo, J D; Baudrillard, J C

    1995-09-01

    The authors present a case of a 39 years old patient who had a herniation pit of the left femoral neck, 5 years ago. This lesion disappeared spontaneously. To our knowledge, no report of healing of a herniation pit has been previously described.