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Sample records for burner turbulence-stabilized combustion

  1. Premixed combustion on ceramic foam burners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, P.H.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion of a lean premixed methane–air mixture stabilized on a ceramic foam burner has been studied. The stabilization of the flame in the radiant mode has been simulated using a one-dimensional numerical model for a burner stabilized flat-flame, taking into account the heat transfer between the

  2. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILD COMBUSTION BURNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the design and development of the Moderate and Intense Low oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion burner using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. The CFD commercial package was used to simulate preliminary designs for the burner before the final design was sent to the workshop for fabrication. The burner is required to be a non-premixed and open burner. To capture and use the exhaust gas, the burner was enclosed within a large circular shaped wall with an opening at the top. An external EGR pipe was used to transport the exhaust gas which was mixed with the fresh oxidant. To control the EGR and exhaust flow, butterfly valves were installed at the top opening as a damper to close the exhaust gas flow at a certain ratio for EGR and exhaust out to the atmosphere. High temperature fused silica glass windows were installed to view and capture images of the flame and analyze the flame propagation. The burner simulation shows that MILD combustion was achieved for the oxygen mole fraction of 3-13%. The final design of the burner was fabricated and ready for the experimental validation.

  3. Methane combustion in catalytic premixed burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerri, I.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, V.

    1999-01-01

    Catalytic premixed burners for domestic boiler applications were developed with the aim of achieving a power modularity from 10 to 100% and pollutant emissions limited to NO x 2 , where the combustion took place entirely inside the burner heating it to incandescence and allowing a decrease in the flame temperature and NO x emissions. Such results were confirmed through further tests carried out in a commercial industrial-scale boiler equipped with the conical panels. All the results, by varying the excess air and the heat power employed, are presented and discussed [it

  4. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  5. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  6. Turbine Burners: Turbulent Combustion of Liquid Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sirignano, William A; Liu, Feng; Dunn-Rankin, Derek

    2006-01-01

    The proposed theoretical/computational and experimental study addresses the vital two-way coupling between combustion processes and fluid dynamic phenomena associated with schemes for burning liquid...

  7. Microjet burners for molecular-beam sources and combustion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, Wolfgang; Fenn, John B.

    1988-09-01

    A novel microjet burner is described in which combustion is stabilized by a hot wall. The scale is so small that the entire burner flow can be passed through a nozzle only 0.2 mm or less in diameter into an evacuated chamber to form a supersonic free jet with expansion so rapid that all collisional processes in the jet gas are frozen in a microsecond or less. This burner can be used to provide high-temperature source gas for free jet expansion to produce intense beams of internally hot molecules. A more immediate use would seem to be in the analysis of combustion products and perhaps intermediates by various kinds of spectroscopies without some of the perturbation effects encountered in probe sampling of flames and other types of combustion devices. As an example of the latter application of this new tool, we present infrared emission spectra for jet gas obtained from the combustion of oxygen-hydrocarbon mixtures both fuel-rich and fuel-lean operation. In addition, we show results obtained by mass spectrometric analysis of the combustion products.

  8. Flex-flame burner and combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupos, Vasilios; Zelepouga, Serguei; Rue, David M.; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2010-08-24

    A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.

  9. Effect of cycled combustion ageing on a cordierite burner plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Eugenio; Gancedo, J. Ramon; Gracia, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    A combination of 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction analysis has been employed to study modifications in chemical and mechanical stability occurring in a cordierite burner aged under combustion conditions which simulate the working of domestic boilers. Moessbauer study shows that Fe is distributed into the structural sites of the cordierite lattice as Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ions located mostly at octahedral sites. Ferric oxide impurities, mainly hematite, are also present in the starting cordierite material accounting for ≅40% of the total iron phases. From Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction data it can be deduced that, under the combustion conditions used, new crystalline phases were formed, some of the substitutional Fe 3+ ions existing in the cordierite lattice were reduced to Fe 2+ , and ferric oxides underwent a sintering process which results in hematite with higher particle size. All these findings were detected in the burner zone located in the proximity of the flame and were related to possible chemical reactions which might explain the observed deterioration of the burner material. Research Highlights: →Depth profile analyses used as a probe to understand changes in refractory structure. →All changes take place in the uppermost surface of the burner, close to the flame. →Reduction to Fe 2+ of substitutional Fe 3+ ions and partial cordierite decomposition. →Heating-cooling cycling induces a sintering of the existing iron oxide particles. →Chemical changes can explain the alterations observed in the material microstructure.

  10. Pulverized straw combustion in a low-NOx multifuel burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen

    2010-01-01

    A CFD simulation of pulverized coal and straw combustion using a commercial multifuel burner have been undertaken to examine the difference in combustion characteristics. Focus has also been directed to development of the modeling technique to deal with larger non-spherical straw particles...... and to determine the relative importance of different modeling choices for straw combustion. Investigated modeling choices encompass the particle size and shape distribution, the modification of particle motion and heating due to the departure from the spherical ideal, the devolatilization rate of straw......, the influence of inlet boundary conditions and the effect of particles on the carrier phase turbulence. It is concluded that straw combustion is associated with a significantly longer flame and smaller recirculation zones compared to coal combustion for the present air flow specifications. The particle size...

  11. Effect of cycled combustion ageing on a cordierite burner plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eugenio [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, c/ Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gancedo, J. Ramon [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , CSIC, c/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gracia, Mercedes, E-mail: rocgracia@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , CSIC, c/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    A combination of {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction analysis has been employed to study modifications in chemical and mechanical stability occurring in a cordierite burner aged under combustion conditions which simulate the working of domestic boilers. Moessbauer study shows that Fe is distributed into the structural sites of the cordierite lattice as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions located mostly at octahedral sites. Ferric oxide impurities, mainly hematite, are also present in the starting cordierite material accounting for {approx_equal}40% of the total iron phases. From Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction data it can be deduced that, under the combustion conditions used, new crystalline phases were formed, some of the substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions existing in the cordierite lattice were reduced to Fe{sup 2+}, and ferric oxides underwent a sintering process which results in hematite with higher particle size. All these findings were detected in the burner zone located in the proximity of the flame and were related to possible chemical reactions which might explain the observed deterioration of the burner material. Research Highlights: {yields}Depth profile analyses used as a probe to understand changes in refractory structure. {yields}All changes take place in the uppermost surface of the burner, close to the flame. {yields}Reduction to Fe{sup 2+} of substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions and partial cordierite decomposition. {yields}Heating-cooling cycling induces a sintering of the existing iron oxide particles. {yields}Chemical changes can explain the alterations observed in the material microstructure.

  12. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    In the cement industry there is an increasing environmental and financial motivation for substituting conventional fossil fuels with alternative fuels, being biomass or waste derived fuels. However, the introduction of alternative fuels may influence emissions, cement product quality, process...... stability, and process efficiency. Alternative fuel substitution in the calciner unit has reached close to 100% at many cement plants and to further increase the use of alternative fuels rotary kiln substitution must be enhanced. At present, limited systematic knowledge of the alternative fuel combustion...... properties and the influence on the flame formation is available. In this project a scientific approach to increase the fundamental understanding of alternative fuel conversion in the rotary kiln burner is employed through literature studies, experimental combustion characterisation studies, combustion...

  13. Effect of energetic electrons on combustion of premixed burner flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Koichi

    2011-10-01

    In many studies of plasma-assisted combustion, authors superpose discharges onto flames to control combustion reactions. This work is motivated by more fundamental point of view. The standpoint of this work is that flames themselves are already plasmas. We irradiated microwave power onto premixed burner flame with the intention of heating electrons in it. The microwave power was limited below the threshold for a discharge. We obtained the enhancement of burning velocity by the irradiation of the microwave power, which was understood by the shortening of the flame length. At the same time, we observed the increases in the optical emission intensities of OH and CH radicals. Despite the increases in the optical emission intensities, the optical emission spectra of OH and CH were not affected by the microwave irradiation, indicating that the enhancement of the burning velocity was not attributed to the increase in the gas temperature. On the other hand, we observed significant increase in the optical emission intensity of the second positive system of molecular nitrogen, which is a clear evidence for electron heating in the premixed burner flame. Therefore, it is considered that the enhancement of the burning velocity is obtained by nonequilibrium combustion chemistry which is driven by energetic electrons. By irradiating pulsed microwave power, we examined the time constants for the increases and decreases in the optical emission intensities of N2, OH, CH, and continuum radiation.

  14. Combustion Characteristics of Butane Porous Burner for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the utilization of a porous burner for thermoelectric power generation. The porous burner was tested with butane gas using two sets of configurations: single layer porcelain and a stacked-up double layer alumina and porcelain. Six PbSnTe thermoelectric (TE modules with a total area of 54 cm2 were attached to the wall of the burner. Fins were also added to the cold side of the TE modules. Fuel-air equivalence ratio was varied between the blowoff and flashback limit and the corresponding temperature, current-voltage, and emissions were recorded. The stacked-up double layer negatively affected the combustion efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.20 to 0.42, but single layer porcelain shows diminishing trend in the equivalence ratio of 0.60 to 0.90. The surface temperature of a stacked-up porous media is considerably higher than the single layer. Carbon monoxide emission is independent for both porous media configurations, but moderate reduction was recorded for single layer porcelain at lean fuel-air equivalence ratio. Nitrogen oxides is insensitive in the lean fuel-air equivalence ratio for both configurations, even though slight reduction was observed in the rich region for single layer porcelain. Power output was found to be highly dependent on the temperature gradient.

  15. A burner for the combustion of spent tall oil soap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.M.; Wong, J.K.; Moffatt, B.; Belanger, G. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Soriano, D. [Brais Malouin and Associates, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Efficiency in industrial processes applies both to the form of energy involved and the many by-products resulting from the process. Tall oil soap (TOS) is a white frothy substance created during the pulping process. It contains chemicals that can be extracted for use in other industries. The processing of TOS results in a product called spent TOS. This study examined the incineration process to derive process heat from the calorific value in spent TOS. Brais Malouin and Associates (BMA) proposed that an atomizing nozzle should be used for use with this liquid in an incinerating burner. The efficiency of atomization of spent TOS with the BMA nozzle was determined by the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET), which also characterized the combustion in a simulated boiler situation. The combustion tests were performed in the Pilot-Scale Research Boiler at the CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC). Pre-heating was done with a number 2 oil flame. Flame stability was determined by observing the flame through sight ports and by measuring the gas in the furnace. The experiments showed that spent TOS could successfully burn with a number 2 oil, in a proportion of 81 spent TOS to 19 oil mass ratio. As the amount of spent TOS was increased, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide decreased. The number 2 fuel oil was responsible for the sulphur dioxide in the exhaust. It is believed that the reduction in the carbon monoxide in the exhaust is attributable to the water-gas shift reaction. As the proportion of spent TOS increased, it was shown that the amount of NOx in the exhaust decreased rapidly. A bluish-green molten deposit formed in the furnace near the burner came from copper and manganese found in the ash of the spent TOS. 7 refs., 7 tabs., 16 figs.

  16. Numerical investigation of a novel burner to combust anode exhaust gases of SOFC stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was a numerical investigation of the efficiency of the combustion process of a novel concept burner under different operating conditions. The design of the burner was a part of the development process of a complete SOFC based system and a challenging combination of technical requirements to be fulfilled. A Computational Fluid Dynamics model of a non-premixed burner was used to simulate combustion of exhaust gases from the anode region of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stacks. The species concentrations of the exhaust gases were compared with experimental data and a satisfactory agreement of the conversion of hydrocarbons was obtained. This validates the numerical methodology and also proves applicability of the developed approach that quantitatively characterized the interaction between the exhaust gases and burner geometry for proper combustion modelling. Thus, the proposed CFD approach can be safely used for further numerical optimisation of the burner design.

  17. Premixed Combustion of Coconut Oil on Perforated Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.G. Wirawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil premixed combustion behavior has been studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ varied from very lean until very rich. The results showed that burning of glycerol needs large number of air so that the laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture and the flame is in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole. As φ is increased the  SL decreases and the secondary Bunsen flame with open tip occurs from φ =0.54 at the downstream of perforated flame. The perforated flame disappears at φ = 0.66 while the secondary Bunsen flame still exist with SL increases following that of hexadecane flame trend and then extinct when the equivalence ratio reaches one or more. Surrounding ambient air intervention makes SL decreases, shifts lower flammability limit into richer mixture, and performs triple and cellular flames. The glycerol diffusion flame radiation burned fatty acids that perform cellular islands on perforated hole.  Without glycerol, laminar flame velocity becomes higher and more stable as perforated flame at higher φ. At rich mixture the Bunsen flame becomes unstable and performs petal cellular around the cone flame front. Keywords: cellular flame; glycerol; perforated flame;secondary Bunsen flame with open tip; triple flame

  18. LES and RANS modeling of pulverized coal combustion in swirl burner for air and oxy-combustion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warzecha, Piotr; Boguslawski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Combustion of pulverized coal in oxy-combustion technology is one of the effective ways to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The process of transition from conventional combustion in air to the oxy-combustion technology, however, requires a thorough investigations of the phenomena occurring during the combustion process, that can be greatly supported by numerical modeling. The paper presents the results of numerical simulations of pulverized coal combustion process in swirl burner using RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations) and LES (large Eddy simulation) methods for turbulent flow. Numerical simulations have been performed for the oxyfuel test facility located at the Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer at RWTH Aachen University. Detailed analysis of the flow field inside the combustion chamber for cold flow and for the flow with combustion using different numerical methods for turbulent flows have been done. Comparison of the air and oxy-coal combustion process for pulverized coal shows significant differences in temperature, especially close to the burner exit. Additionally the influence of the combustion model on the results has been shown for oxy-combustion test case. - Highlights: • Oxy-coal combustion has been modeled for test facility operating at low oxygen ratio. • Coal combustion process has been modeled with simplified combustion models. • Comparison of oxy and air combustion process of pulverized coal has been done. • RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations) and LES (large Eddy simulation) results for pulverized coal combustion process have been compared

  19. Characterization of a Rijke Burner as a Tool for Studying Distribute Aluminum Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, Brian R.

    1996-01-01

    As prelude to the quantitative study of aluminum distributed combustion, the current work has characterized the acoustic growth, frequency, and temperature of a Rijke burner as a function of mass flow rate, gas composition, and geometry. By varying the exhaust temperature profile, the acoustic growth rate can be as much as tripled from the baseline value of approximately 120 s-1• At baseline, the burner operated in the third harmonic mode at a frequency of 1300 Hz, but geometry or temperature...

  20. Combustion characteristics of porous media burners under various back pressures: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The porous media combustion technology is an effective solution to stable combustion and clean utilization of low heating value gas. For observing the combustion characteristics of porous media burners under various back pressures, investigating flame stability and figuring out the distribution laws of combustion gas flow and resistance loss, so as to achieve an optimized design and efficient operation of the devices, a bench of foamed ceramics porous media combustion devices was thus set up to test the cold-state resistance and hot-state combustion characteristic of burners in working conditions without back pressures and with two different back pressures. The following results are achieved from this experimental study. (1 The strong thermal reflux of porous media can preheat the premixed air effectively, so the flame can be kept stable easily, the combustion equivalent ratio of porous media burners is lower than that of traditional burners, and its pollutant content of flue gas is much lower than the national standard value. (2 The friction coefficient of foamed ceramics decreases with the increase of air flow rate, and its decreasing rate slows down gradually. (3 When the flow rate of air is low, viscosity is the dominant flow resistance, and the friction coefficient is in an inverse relation with the flow rate. (4 As the flow rate of air increases, inertia is the dominant flow resistance, and the friction coefficient is mainly influenced by the roughness and cracks of foamed ceramics. (5 After the introduction of secondary air, the minimum equivalent ratio of porous media burners gets much lower and its range of equivalent ratio is much larger than that of traditional burners.

  1. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Turbulence, Radiation, and Combustion Models for Natural Gas Combustion Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik Siang Pang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD study of a natural gas combustion burner focusing on the effect of combustion, thermal radiation and turbulence models on the temperature and chemical species concentration fields. The combustion was modelled using the finite rate/eddy dissipation (FR/EDM and partially premixed flame models. Detailed chemistry kinetics CHEMKIN GRI-MECH 3.0 consisting of 325 reactions was employed to model the methane combustion. Discrete ordinates (DO and spherical harmonics (P1 model were employed to predict the thermal radiation. The gas absorption coefficient dependence on the wavelength is resolved by the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM. Turbulence flow was simulated using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS based models. The findings showed that a combination of partially premixed flame, P1 and standard k-ε (SKE gave the most accurate prediction with an average deviation of around 7.8% of combustion temperature and 15.5% for reactant composition (methane and oxygen. The results show the multi-step chemistry in the partially premixed model is more accurate than the two-step FR/EDM. Meanwhile, inclusion of thermal radiation has a minor effect on the heat transfer and species concentration. SKE turbulence model yielded better prediction compared to the realizable k-ε (RKE and renormalized k-ε (RNG. The CFD simulation presented in this work may serve as a useful tool to evaluate a performance of a natural gas combustor. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 26th July 2017; Revised: 9th October 2017; Accepted: 30th October 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Pang, Y.S., Law, W.P., Pung, K.Q., Gimbun, J. (2018. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Turbulence, Radiation, and Combustion Models for Natural Gas Combustion Burner. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 155-169 (doi:10.9767/bcrec

  2. Preliminary Results on the Effects of Distributed Aluminum Combustion Upon Acoustic Growth Rates in a Rijke Burner

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Distributed particle combustion in solid propellant rocket motors may be a significant cause of acoustic combustion instability. A Rijke burner has been developed as a tool to investigate the phenomenon. Previous improvements and characterization of the upright burner lead to the addition of a particle injection flame. The injector flame increases the burner's acoustic driving by about 10% which is proportional to the injector's additional 2 g/min of gas. Frequency remained fairly constant fo...

  3. A small porous-plug burner for studies of combustion chemistry and soot formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. F.; Schrader, P. E.; Catalano, A. L.; Johansson, K. O.; Bohlin, G. A.; Richards-Henderson, N. K.; Kliewer, C. J.; Michelsen, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed and built a small porous-plug burner based on the original McKenna burner design. The new burner generates a laminar premixed flat flame for use in studies of combustion chemistry and soot formation. The size is particularly relevant for space-constrained, synchrotron-based X-ray diagnostics. In this paper, we present details of the design, construction, operation, and supporting infrastructure for this burner, including engineering attributes that enable its small size. We also present data for charactering the flames produced by this burner. These data include temperature profiles for three premixed sooting ethylene/air flames (equivalence ratios of 1.5, 1.8, and 2.1); temperatures were recorded using direct one-dimensional coherent Raman imaging. We include calculated temperature profiles, and, for one of these ethylene/air flames, we show the carbon and hydrogen content of heavy hydrocarbon species measured using an aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization (VUV-AMS) and soot-volume-fraction measurements obtained using laser-induced incandescence. In addition, we provide calculated mole-fraction profiles of selected gas-phase species and characteristic profiles for seven mass peaks from AMS measurements. Using these experimental and calculated results, we discuss the differences between standard McKenna burners and the new miniature porous-plug burner introduced here.

  4. 3-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION AND FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BIOMASS/COAL CO-COMBUSTION BURNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya DUNAYEVSKA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of solid biomass mixed with coal in existing boilers not only reduces harmful emissions, but also allows diversifying the available fuel base. Such technology allows to implement the efficient use of food industry solid wastes, which otherwise would be dumped in piles, and thus produce harmful environmental impact. The geometrical models of research reactor and a burner thermal preprocessing of pulverized coal were developed and calculational meshes were generated. The geometrical model of the VGP-100Vpresents only fluid domain whereas the effect of cooled walls was substituted by the equivalent biudary conditions deruved on the basis of direct experimentation. The model of the VGP-100V allowed accounting for the specifics of radiative heat transfer by comparison of experimental thermo-couple measurements to the simulated by the model one. A model has been developed allowing the determination of actual temperatures of combustion gases flow based upon the reading of unsheathed thermo-couples by taking into account the reradiation of the thermo-couple beads to the channel walls. Based on the ANSYS 3-D process model in the burner of the Trypilska Thermal Power Plant (TPP for the combustion of low-reactive coal with the thermochemical preparation of the design of an actual burner has been developed. On the basis of the experimental studies of the actual burner and the above-mentioned CFD calculations, the burner draft of the 65 MW for TPP-210A boiler aimed at the implementation of biomass-coal co-combustion was designed.

  5. Emission Modeling of an Interturbine Burner Based on Flameless Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perpignan, A.A.V.; Talboom, M.G.; Levy, Yeshayahou; Gangoli Rao, A.

    2018-01-01

    Since its discovery, the flameless combustion (FC) regime has been a promising alternative to reduce pollutant emissions of gas turbine engines. This combustion mode is characterized by well-distributed reaction zones, which potentially decreases temperature gradients, acoustic oscillations, and

  6. Emissions of Jatropha oil-derived biodiesel blend fuels during combustion in a swirl burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwazan, A. R.; Mohd. Jaafar, M. N.; Sapee, S.; Farouk, Hazir

    2018-03-01

    Experimental works on combustion of jatropha oil biodiesel blends of fuel with high swirling flow in swirl burner have been studied in various blends percentage. Jatropha oil biodiesel was produced using a two-step of esterification-transesterification process. The paper focuses on the emissions of biodiesel blends fuel using jatropha oil in lean through to rich air/fuel mixture combustion in swirl burner. The emissions performances were evaluated by using axial swirler amongst jatropha oil blends fuel including diesel fuel as baseline. The results show that the B25 has good emissions even though it has a higher emission of NOx than diesel fuel, while it emits as low as 42% of CO, 33% of SO2 and 50% of UHC emissions with high swirl number. These are due to the higher oxygen content in jatropha oil biodiesel.

  7. Investigation of micro burner performance during porous media combustion for surface and submerged flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvekar, Ayub Ahmed; Abdullah, M. Z.; Ahmad, Z. A.; Abas, Aizat; Hussien, Ahmed A.; Kataraki, Pramod S.; Mohamed, Mazlan; Husin, Azmi; Fadzli, Khairil

    2018-05-01

    Porous media combustion is considered to be one of the popular choice due to its tremendous advantages. Such type of combustion liberates not only super stable flame but also maintains emissions parameters below thresholds level. Present study incorporates reaction and preheat layer with discrete and foam type of materials respectively. Burner was made to run in ultra-lean mode. Optimum equivalence ratio was found out to be 0.7 for surface flame, while 0.6 during submerged flame condition. Maximum thermal efficiency was noted to be 81%. Finally, emissions parameters where recorded continuously to measure NOx and CO, which were under global limits.

  8. The Effects of Combustion Parameters on Pollutant Emissions in a Porous Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Moallemi Khiavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a two-dimensional numerical prediction of premixed methane/air combustion in inert porous media. The two dimensional Navier-stokes equations, the two separate energy equations for solid and gas and conservation equations for chemical species are solved using finite volume method based on SIMPLE algorithm. The burner under study is a rectangular one with two different regions. First region is a preheating zone (low porosity matrix that followed by the actual combustion region (high porosity matrix. For simulating the chemical reactions, skeletal mechanism (26 species and 77 reactions is used. For studying the pollutant emissions in this porous burner, the effects of porous matrix properties, excess air ratio and inlet velocity are studied. The predicted gas temperature contour and pollutant formations are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The results indicate that the downstream of the burner should be constructed from materials with high conductivity, high convective heat transfer coefficient and high porosity in order to decrease the CO and NO emissions. Also, with increasing the inlet velocity of gas mixture and the excess air ratio, the pollutant emissions are decreased.

  9. Numerical investigation of premixed combustion in a porous burner with integrated heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzaneh, Meisam; Shafiey, Mohammad; Shams, Mehrzad [K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Reza [K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    In this paper, we perform a numerical analysis of a two-dimensional axisymmetric problem arising in premixed combustion in a porous burner with integrated heat exchanger. The physical domain consists of two zones, porous and heat exchanger zones. Two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, gas and solid energy equations, and chemical species transport equations are solved and heat release is described by a multistep kinetics mechanism. The solid matrix is modeled as a gray medium, and the finite volume method is used to solve the radiative transfer equation to calculate the local radiation source/sink in the solid phase energy equation. Special attention is given to model heat transfer between the hot gas and the heat exchanger tube. Thus, the corresponding terms are added to the energy equations of the flow and the solid matrix. Gas and solid temperature profiles and species mole fractions on the burner centerline, predicted 2D temperature fields, species concentrations and streamlines are presented. Calculated results for temperature profiles are compared to experimental data. It is shown that there is good agreement between the numerical solutions and the experimental data and it is concluded that the developed numerical program is an excellent tool to investigate combustion in porous burner. (orig.)

  10. Burners. The decrease of nitrogen oxides in combustion process: the 2 nd generation GR LONOxFLAM burner; Les bruleurs, la reduction des oxydes d`azote dans la combustion: bruleur GR LONOxFLAM de 2. generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.C. [EGCI Pillard, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Pillard company has developed, in cooperation with GDF (the French national gas utility), the GR-LONOxFLAM burner concept for reducing NOx emission levels and solid combustion products. The concept consists, for gaseous fuels, in the combination of an internal recirculation and a gas staging process; for liquid fuels, a separated flame process and air staging are combined. These concepts allow for an important reduction in NOx and non-burned residues, even with standard-size burners

  11. Ensemble Diffraction Measurements of Spray Combustion in a Novel Vitiated Coflow Turbulent Jet Flame Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra, R.; Hamano, Y.; Chen, J. Y.; Dibble, R. W.; Acosta, F.; Holve, D.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented of a novel vitiated coflow spray flame burner. The vitiated coflow emulates the recirculation region of most combustors, such as gas turbines or furnaces; additionally, since the vitiated gases are coflowing, the burner allows exploration of the chemistry of recirculation without the corresponding fluid mechanics of recirculation. As such, this burner allows for chemical kinetic model development without obscurations caused by fluid mechanics. The burner consists of a central fuel jet (droplet or gaseous) surrounded by the oxygen rich combustion products of a lean premixed flame that is stabilized on a perforated, brass plate. The design presented allows for the reacting coflow to span a large range of temperatures and oxygen concentrations. Several experiments measuring the relationships between mixture stoichiometry and flame temperature are used to map out the operating ranges of the coflow burner. These include temperatures as low 300 C to stoichiometric and oxygen concentrations from 18 percent to zero. This is achieved by stabilizing hydrogen-air premixed flames on a perforated plate. Furthermore, all of the CO2 generated is from the jet combustion. Thus, a probe sample of NO(sub X) and CO2 yields uniquely an emission index, as is commonly done in gas turbine engine exhaust research. The ability to adjust the oxygen content of the coflow allows us to steadily increase the coflow temperature surrounding the jet. At some temperature, the jet ignites far downstream from the injector tube. Further increases in the coflow temperature results in autoignition occurring closer to the nozzle. Examples are given of methane jetting into a coflow that is lean, stoichiometric, and even rich. Furthermore, an air jet with a rich coflow produced a normal looking flame that is actually 'inverted' (air on the inside, surrounded by fuel). In the special case of spray injection, we demonstrate the efficacy of this novel burner with a

  12. Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. Of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Oxy-fuel combustion has been used previously in a wide range of industrial applications. Oxy- combustion is carried out by burning a hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen instead of air. Flames burning in this configuration achieve higher flame temperatures which present opportunities for significant efficiency improvements and direct capture of CO2 from the exhaust stream. In an effort to better understand and characterize the fundamental flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion this research presents the experimental measurements of flame stability of various oxyfuel flames. Effects of H2 concentration, fuel composition, exhaust gas recirculation ratio, firing inputs, and burner diameters on the flame stability of these fuels are discussed. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation i.e. CO2 and H2O (steam) acting as diluents on burner operability are also presented. The roles of firing input on flame stability are then analyzed. For this study it was observed that many oxy-flames did not stabilize without exhaust gas recirculation due to their higher burning velocities. In addition, the stability regime of all compositions was observed to decrease as the burner diameter increased. A flashback model is also presented, using the critical velocity gradient gF) values for CH4-O2-CO2 flames. The second part of the study focuses on the experimental measurements of the flow field characteristics of premixed CH4/21%O2/79%N2 and CH4/38%O2/72%CO2 mixtures at constant firing input of 7.5 kW, constant, equivalence ratio of 0.8, constant swirl number of 0.92 and constant Reynolds Numbers. These measurements were taken in a swirl stabilized combustor at atmospheric pressure. The flow field visualization using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique is implemented to make a better understanding of the turbulence characteristics of

  13. Oxy-Combustion Burner and Integrated Pollutant Removal Research and Development Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Schoenfield; Manny Menendez; Thomas Ochs; Rigel Woodside; Danylo Oryshchyn

    2012-09-30

    A high flame temperature oxy-combustion test facility consisting of a 5 MWe equivalent test boiler facility and 20 KWe equivalent IPR® was constructed at the Hammond, Indiana manufacturing site. The test facility was operated natural gas and coal fuels and parametric studies were performed to determine the optimal performance conditions and generated the necessary technical data required to demonstrate the technologies are viable for technical and economic scale-up. Flame temperatures between 4930-6120F were achieved with high flame temperature oxy-natural gas combustion depending on whether additional recirculated flue gases are added to balance the heat transfer. For high flame temperature oxy-coal combustion, flame temperatures in excess of 4500F were achieved and demonstrated to be consistent with computational fluid dynamic modeling of the burner system. The project demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness of the Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process with Integrated Pollutant Removal process for CCS and CCUS. With these technologies total parasitic power requirements for both oxygen production and carbon capture currently are in the range of 20% of the gross power output. The Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process has been demonstrated at a Technology Readiness Level of 6 and is ready for commencement of a demonstration project.

  14. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  15. The motion of discs and spherical fuel particles in combustion burners based on Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granada, E.; Patino, D.; Porteiro, J.; Collazo, J.; Miguez, J.L.; Moran, J. [University of Vigo, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36200-Vigo (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    The position of pellet fuel particles in a burner largely determines their combustion behaviour. This paper addresses the simulated motion of circles and spheres, equivalent to pellet, and their final position in a packed bed subject to a gravitational field confined inside rigid cylindrical walls. A simplified Monte Carlo statistical technique has been described and applied with the standard Metropolis method for the simulation of movement. This simplification provides an easier understanding of the method when applied to solid fuels in granular form, provided that they are only under gravitational forces. Not only have we contrasted one parameter, as other authors, but three, which are radial, bulk and local porosities, via Voronoi tessellation. Our simulations reveal a structural order near the walls, which declines towards the centre of the container, and no pattern was found in local porosity via Voronoi. Results with this simplified method are in agreement with more complex previously published studies. (author)

  16. Experiential study on temperature and emission performance of micro burner during porous media combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvekar, Ayub Ahmed; Abdullah, M. Z.; Ahmad, Z. A.; Abas, A.; Ismail, A. K.; Hussien, A. A.; Kataraki, P. S.; Ishak, M. H. H.; Mazlan, M.; Zubair, A. F.

    2018-05-01

    Addition of porous materials in reaction zone give rise to significant improvements in combustion performance. In this work, a dual layered micro porous media burner was tested for stable flame and emissions. Reaction and preheat layer was made up of discrete (zirconia) and foam (porcelain) type of materials respectively. Three different thickness of reaction zone was tested, each with 10, 20 and 30mm. Interestingly, only 20mm thick layer can able to show better thermal efficiency of 72% as compared to 10 and 30mm. Best equivalence ratio came out to be 0.7 for surface and 0.6 for submerged flame conditions. Moreover, emission was continuously monitored to detect presence of NOx and CO, which were under controlled limits.

  17. The motion of discs and spherical fuel particles in combustion burners based on Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, E.; Patino, D.; Porteiro, J.; Collazo, J.; Miguez, J.L.; Moran, J.

    2010-01-01

    The position of pellet fuel particles in a burner largely determines their combustion behaviour. This paper addresses the simulated motion of circles and spheres, equivalent to pellet, and their final position in a packed bed subject to a gravitational field confined inside rigid cylindrical walls. A simplified Monte Carlo statistical technique has been described and applied with the standard Metropolis method for the simulation of movement. This simplification provides an easier understanding of the method when applied to solid fuels in granular form, provided that they are only under gravitational forces. Not only have we contrasted one parameter, as other authors, but three, which are radial, bulk and local porosities, via Voronoi tessellation. Our simulations reveal a structural order near the walls, which declines towards the centre of the container, and no pattern was found in local porosity via Voronoi. Results with this simplified method are in agreement with more complex previously published studies.

  18. Fuel rich and fuel lean catalytic combustion of the stabilized confined turbulent gaseous diffusion flames over noble metal disc burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal S. Zakhary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic combustion of stabilized confined turbulent gaseous diffusion flames using Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 disc burners situated in the combustion domain under both fuel-rich and fuel-lean conditions was experimentally studied. Commercial LPG fuel having an average composition of: 23% propane, 76% butane, and 1% pentane was used. The thermal structure of these catalytic flames developed over Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 burners were examined via measuring the mean temperature distribution in the radial direction at different axial locations along the flames. Under-fuel-rich condition the flames operated over Pt catalytic disc attained high temperature values in order to express the progress of combustion and were found to achieve higher activity as compared to the flames developed over Pd catalytic disc. These two types of catalytic flames demonstrated an increase in the reaction rate with the downstream axial distance and hence, an increase in the flame temperatures was associated with partial oxidation towards CO due to the lack of oxygen. However, under fuel-lean conditions the catalytic flame over Pd catalyst recorded comparatively higher temperatures within the flame core in the near region of the main reaction zone than over Pt disc burner. These two catalytic flames over Pt and Pd disc burners showed complete oxidation to CO2 since the catalytic surface is covered by more rich oxygen under the fuel-lean condition.

  19. Flat-flame burner studies of pulverized-coal combustion. Experimental results on char reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, R.E.; Shi, L.

    1996-12-01

    Structure of laminar, premixed pulverized-coal flames in a 1-D reactor has been studied with emphasis on char reactivity. A 1.1-meter-long tube furnace accommodated high-temperature environments and long residence times for the laminar flames produced by a flat-flame, coal-dust burner. Experiments were conducted at different operating conditions (fuel type/size, fuel-air ratio). Measurements included solid sample composition, major gas species and hydrocarbon species concentrations, and gas- and particle-phase line-of-sight temperatures at different axial locations in flames. Degree of char burnout increased with coal volatiles content and decreased with coal particle size. Combustion in furnace was in oxidizer-deficient environment and higher burnout was achieved as the fuel-air ratio neared stoichiometric. For 0-45 {mu}m particles most of the fixed carbon mass loss occurred within 5 cm of the furnace inlet, and char reaction was slow downstream due to low oxidizer concentrations. Fixed carbon consumption of the 45-90 {mu}m particles generally was slower than for the small particles. About 40%-80% of the fixed carbon was oxidized in the furnace. Primary volatiles mass loss occurred within the first 4.5 cm, and more than 90% of the volatiles were consumed in the flames. The flames stabilized in the furnace produced less CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} in the burnt gas than similar unconfined flames. NO concentrations were found to decrease along the furnace and to increase with decreasing fuel/air ratio. Temperature measurement results showed that gas-phase temperatures were higher than solid-phase temperatures. Temperatures generally decreased with decreasing volatiles content and increased as the equivalence ratio approached one. The results can be used to interpret thermochemical processes occurring in pulverized-coal combustion. (au) 15 refs.

  20. Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.G. Wirawan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Availability of fossil fuels in the world decrease gradually due to excessive fuel exploitation. This situations push researcher to look for alternative fuels as a source of renewable energy, one of them is kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil. The aim this study was to know the behavior of laminar burning velocity, secondary Bunsen flame with open tip, cellular and triple flame. Premixed combustion of kapok seed oil was studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ varied from 0.30 until 1.07. The results showed that combustion of glycerol requires a large amount of air so that laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture (φ =0.36 in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole.  Perforated and secondary Bunsen flame both reached maximum SL similar with that of ethanol and higher than that of hexadecane. Slight increase of φ decreases drastically SL of perforated and secondary Bunsen flame. When the mixture was enriched, secondary Bunsen and perforated flame disappears, and then the flame becomes Bunsen flame with open tip and triple flame (φ = 0.62 to 1.07. Flame was getting stable until the mixture above the stoichiometry. Being isolated from ambient air, the SL of perforated flame, as well as secondary Bunsen flame, becomes equal with non-isolated flame. This shows the decreasing trend of laminar burning velocity while φ is increasing. When the mixture was enriched island (φ = 0.44 to 0.48 and petal (φ = 0.53 to 0.62 cellular flame take place. Flame becomes more unstable when the mixture was changed toward stoichiometry.

  1. Characterization of combustion in a fabric singeing burner operating with varsol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana M, Juan C; Mendoza S, Cesar Camilo; Molina Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The textile industry uses singeing burners to diminish the amount of pilling on surface fabrics. Some of these burners use Stoddard solvent which has high cost per unit of energy, high flammability and emits volatile organic compounds that pose an occupational safety hazard. This study characterized a singing burner operating with varsol performing measurements of temperature downstream the burner, air and fuel flows, and concentration of CO, CO 2 , O 2 and NO x . These measurements defined the most important characteristics of the Stoddard solvent flame that should be maintained to obtain a similar behavior in an eventual change to natural gas.

  2. ERA-Net Evaluation of technology status for small-scale combustion of pellets from new ash rich biomasses - combustion tests in residential burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Johansson, Mathias; Frida Claesson

    2008-07-01

    In this project, pellets with higher ash content compared to the wood pellets used today on the Swedish market were tested in three domestic-scale burners. The tests were carried out based on EN 303-5. In the flue gas, combustion parameters as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydro carbons were measured, and also more fuel specific parameters such as nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, total dust and particle mass- and number concentration. The dust (fly ash) and bottom ash were characterized chemically. The implications of high ash content on combustion performance are discussed in the report. Altogether five pellets with 8 mm diameter were tested: oilseed straw pellet, reed canary grass pellet (RCG), barley straw pellet, bark pellet and wood pellet. All fuels were dry ranging from 6.5-12 % moisture. The ash content varied from 0.3 weight-% dm in wood to 7.9 % in RCG. Barley straw has a noticeable low ash melting temperature, < 980 deg C, and could not be combusted in any of the burners. The nitrogen content varied nine times and sulphur more than 10 times. The chlorine content was very low in wood and bark and more than 20 times higher in oilseed and barley. The composition of inorganic species in the fuel ash was dominated by calcium, potassium and silica in wood, bark and oilseed pellet, while RCG and barley straw were dominated by silica. The three burners used were commercial and known to fulfil high quality requirements. Burner A is a pellet burner where fuel is supplied on top of the grate with no mechanical mean for moving bottom ash on the grate during combustion. Bottom ash is blown away, and any slag remaining on the grate is removed with a scrape before ignition. Burner B is an upward burning pellet burner where fuel and ash is pushed upwards and the glow bed is exposed to the surrounding combustion department. Burner C is a forward burning grain burner that pushes fuel and ash forwards, inside a cylinder. From the

  3. Development of stoker-burner wood chip combustion systems for the UK market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The document makes a case for the development of a design of wood chip stoker-burner more suited to the UK than those currently imported from Sweden and Finland. The differences would centre on market conditions, performance and cost-effectiveness and the devices would be manufactured or part-manufactured in the UK. Econergy Limited was contracted by the DTI as part of its Sustainable Energy Programmes to design and construct an operational prototype stoker-burner rated at 120 kWth. A test rig was built to: (i) study modified burner heads and (ii) develop control hardware and a control strategy. Both (i) and (ii) are described. Tests brought about an increase in performance of the burner head and its wet wood performance. It was considered that further improvements are achievable and six areas for future study were suggested.

  4. Ammonia-methane combustion in tangential swirl burners for gas turbine power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Valera Medina, Agustin; Marsh, Richard; Runyon, Jon; Pugh, Daniel; Beasley, Paul; Hughes, Timothy Richard; Bowen, Philip John

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia has been proposed as a potential energy storage medium in the transition towards a low-carbon economy. This paper details experimental results and numerical calculations obtained to progress towards optimisation of fuel injection and fluidic stabilisation in swirl burners with ammonia as the primary fuel. A generic tangential swirl burner has been employed to determine flame stability and emissions produced at different equivalence ratios using ammonia–methane blends. Experiments were...

  5. Numerical modeling of combustion of low-calorific-producer-gas from Mangium wood within a late mixing porous burner (LMPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokkarn Jirakulsomchok

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a numerical study of combustion of low-calorific-producer-gas from Mangium wood within a late mixing porous burner (LMPB. The LMPB consists of four main components, i.e., the fuel preheating porous (FP, the porous combustor (PC, the air jacket, and the mixing chamber. Interestingly, this LMPB was able to highly preheated and it still maintained high safety in operation. A single-step global reaction, steady state approach and a one-dimensional model were considered. The necessary information for burner characteristics, i.e., temperature profile, flame location and maximum temperature were also presented. The results indicated that stable combustion of a low-calorific-producer-gas within LMPB was possible achieved. Increasing equivalence ratio resulted in increasing in the flame temperature. Meanwhile, increasing the firing rate caused slightly decrease in flame temperature. The flame moved to downstream zone of the PC when the firing rate increased. Finally, it was found that the equivalence ratio did not affect the flame location.

  6. Numerical modeling for flame dynamics and combustion processes in a two-sectional porous burner with a detailed chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Jun; Kim, Yong Mo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A two-dimensional model with the detailed chemistry and variable transport properties has been applied to numerically investigate the combustion processes and flame dynamics in the bilayer porous burner. To account for the velocity transition and diffusion influenced by solid matrix, porosity terms are included in the governing equations. Heat transfer coefficient is calculated by Nusselt number to reflect the effect of gas velocity, pore diameter, and material properties. The detailed chemistry is based on GRI 2.11. Numerical results indicate that the present approach is capable of the essential features of the premixed combustion in the porous media in terms of the precise flame structure, pollutant formation, and stabilization characteristics. In this bilayer porous burner, the heat transferred from the downstream flame zone is conducted to the upstream flame region through the solid matrix. This heat transfer process through the solid matrix substantially influences the flame structure and stabilization characteristics in the porous media. The predicted results are compared with experimental data in terms of temperature for gaseous mixture and solid matrix, CO and NO emission level. Based on numerical results, a precise comparison has been made for the freely propagating premixed flames and the premixed flames with a porous media for various inlet velocities.

  7. Combustion stability and thermal efficiency in a porous media burner for LPG cooking in the food industry using Al_2O_3 particles coming from grinding wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Bernardo; Cacua, Karen; Olmos-Villalba, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Cooking is one of the most thermal-energy consuming processes in the food industry and development of devices that contribute to decrease the consumption of fossil fuel is a matter of great importance. This decreasing in consumption can both enlarge competitiveness in the enterprises of this sector and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other toxic combustion by products such as, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. A porous burner made of a bed of Al_2O_3 particles coming from grinding residues and combined with ceramic foam of SiSiC has been evaluated respect to Liquefied Petroleum Gas combustion stability and thermal efficiency for cooking in food industry. The results showed that for specific heat input rate lower than 154 kW/m"2, the upper and lower equivalence ratio on the stability limit follow approximately a linear trend, as well as the wide of the range of stability remains constant. But this trend is broken when higher heat input rate is applied. Also, every equivalence ratio for stable combustion was in the lean ratio and stoichiometric combustion values were not feasible because flashback occurred. Emissions of CO were in acceptable values lower than 25 ppm for specific heat input rate lower than 154 kW/m"2 but an important rising in the CO emissions could be seen when the burner worked at higher heat input rate due to a moderate lift-off and quenching on the surface of the burner. Thermal efficiency was calculated in two different working ways: the “radiation–convection” and “conduction”. Thermal efficiency in the “radiation–convection” was between 15.7% and 23.6%, which are lower than the average thermal efficiency of the conventional free-flame burner. But the “conduction” mode showed a significant advantage respect to free flame conventional burners, since it could improve the thermal efficiency between 7% and 14%. The improvement in efficiency and the possibility of interrupting the flow of fuel in a cyclical operation

  8. Numerical investigation into premixed hydrogen combustion within two-stage porous media burner of 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen Tzu-Hsiang; Chen Bao-Dong [Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, CPC Corporation, Chia-Yi City 60036, Taiwan (China); Hong Wen-Tang; Tsai Yu-Ching; Wang Hung-Yu; Huang Cheng-Nan; Lee Chien-Hsiung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-01

    Numerical simulations are performed to analyze the combustion of the anode off-gas / cathode off-gas mixture within the two-stage porous media burner of a 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In performing the simulations, the anode gas is assumed to be hydrogen and the combustion of the gas mixture is modeled using a turbulent flow model. The validity of the numerical model is confirmed by comparing the simulation results for the flame barrier temperature and the porous media temperature with the corresponding experimental results. Simulations are then performed to investigate the effects of the hydrogen content and the burner geometry on the temperature distribution within the burner and the corresponding operational range. It is shown that the maximum flame temperature increases with an increasing hydrogen content. In addition, it is found that the burner has an operational range of 1.2--6.5 kW when assigned its default geometry settings (i.e. a length and diameter of 0.17 m and 0.06 m, respectively), but increases to 2--9 kW and 2.6--11.5 kW when the length and diameter are increased by a factor of 1.5, respectively. Finally, the operational range increases to 3.5--16.5 kW when both the diameter and the length of the burner are increased by a factor of 1.5.

  9. Pollutant Formation during the Occurrence of Flame Instabilities under Very-Lean Combustion Conditions in a Liquid-Fuel Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in gas turbine combustor design are aimed at achieving low exhaust emissions, hence modern aircraft jet engines are designed with lean-burn combustion systems. In the present work, we report an experimental study on lean combustion in a liquid fuel burner, operated under a non-premixed (single point injection regime that mimics the combustion in a modern aircraft engine. The flame behavior was investigated in proximity of the blow-out limit by an intensified high rate Charge-Coupled Device (CCD camera equipped with different optical filters to selectively record single species chemiluminescence emissions (e.g., OH*, CH*. Analogous filters were also used in combination with photomultiplier (PMT tubes. Furthermore this work investigates well-mixed lean low NOx combustion where mixing is good and generation of solid carbon particulate emissions should be very low. An analysis of pollutants such as fine particles and gaseous emissions was also performed. Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured at the exhaust of the combustion chamber by two different particle size measuring instruments: a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS and an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI. NOx concentration measurements were performed by using a cross-flow modulation chemiluminescence detection system; CO concentration emissions were acquired with a Cross-flow modulation Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR absorption method. All the measurements were completed by diagnostics of the fundamental combustor parameters. The results herein presented show that at very-lean conditions the emissions of both particulate matter and CO was found to increase most likely due to the occurrence of flame instabilities while the NOx were observed to reduce.

  10. Experimental investigation of combustion instabilities in lean swirl-stabilized partially-premixed flames in single- and multiple-burner setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kraus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, combustion instabilities of a modular combustor are investigated. The combustor operates with partially premixed, swirl-stabilized flames and can be operated in single- and different multiple-burner setups. The design parameters of the combustor prevent large-scale flame–flame interactions in the multiple-burner arrangements. The objective is to investigate how the interaction of the swirl jets affects the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. Results of measurements of pressure oscillations and high-speed OH*-chemiluminescence imaging for the single-burner setup and two multiple-burner setups are discussed. Additionally, results of investigations with different flame characteristics are presented. These are achieved by varying the ratio of the mass flow rates through the swirlers of the double-concentric swirl nozzle. Several unstable modes with high pressure amplitudes are observed in the single-burner setup as well as in the multiple-burner setups. Numerical studies of the acoustic behavior of the combustor setups were performed that indicate that the different geometries show similar acoustic behaviors. The results lead to the conclusion that the interaction of the swirl jets in the multiple-burner setups affects the thermoacoustic response spectrum of the flame even in the absence of large-scale flame–flame interactions. Based on the findings in earlier studies, it is concluded that the differences in the flame response characteristics are induced by the reduction of the swirl intensity in the multiple-burner arrangements, which is caused by the exchange of momentum between the adjacent swirl jets.

  11. Experimental study of a separated jets burner: application to the natural gas-pure oxygen combustion; Etude experimentale du comportement de bruleurs a jets separes: application a la combustion gaz naturel-oxygene pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salentey, L.

    2002-04-15

    The evolution of pollution standards and the optimisation of furnaces performances require a development of new burner generation and also the improvement of combustion techniques. Actually, the use of oxy-combustion in separated jets burners offers interesting prospects for NO{sub x} emission reduction and on the modularity of flames properties (lift off, flame front topology, flame length). The complex geometry of those burners leads to several problems like the three-dimensional character of the flow, which may sometimes disturb the flame stability as flames are lifted above the burner. This experimental study deals with a simplified version of that kind of burner constituted with a central natural gas jet surrounded by two oxygen jets. Primary, the study of non-reactive jet was planned in order to understand dynamic and mixture phenomena involved between jets and to provide a database useful for the computer code validation. The reactive flow developed in a furnace, which simulates the real conditions, had been characterised. The studies of the dynamic field using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and of the turbulent mixture by conditional Laser tomography were supplemented in combustion by the visualisation of the spontaneous emission of radical OH, in the initial and final zone of the oxy-flames, like by the measurement of pollutants like NO{sub x} and soot. The measurements carried out while varying speeds of injection as well as the gap between the jets made possible the highlight of the influence of these parameters upon the stabilisation of the oxy-flames as well as the modification of the topology and the characteristics of the flows. The comparison of the measurements made in non-reactive and reactive flow shows the influence of oxy-combustion on the dynamic and scalar development of the flow for this type of burners. (author)

  12. LOW NOX BURNER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.

    2004-09-30

    The objective of the task is to develop concepts for ultra low NOx burners. One approach that has been tested previously uses internal recirculation of hot gases and the objective was to how to implement variable recirculation rates during burner operation. The second approach was to use fuel oil aerosolization (vaporization) and combustion in a porous medium in a manner similar to gas-fired radiant burners. This task is trying the second approach with the use of a somewhat novel, prototype system for aerosolization of the liquid fuel.

  13. Burners. Reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion: 2. generation of GR LONOxFLAM burner; Les bruleurs. La reduction des oxydes d`azote dans la combustion: bruleur GR LONOxFLAM de 2. generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.C. [EGCI Pillard, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the research work carried out by the French Pillard company in collaboration with Gaz de France for the design of low NO{sub x} burners. The different type of low NO{sub x} burners are presented according to the type of fuel: gas, liquid fuels and fuel oils. The gas burner uses the fuel staging principle and the recirculation of smokes and leads to NO{sub x} emissions lower than 100 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The liquid fuel and fuel oil burners use the separate flames and the smoke self-recirculation methods (fuel-air mixture staging, reduction of flame temperature and of the residence time in flames). (J.S.)

  14. Pulverized coal burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

    1998-11-03

    A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    The primary objective of the proposed study was the study and analysis of, and design recommendations for, a novel radiatively-conductively stabilized combustion (RCSC) process for pulverized coal, which, based on our prior studies with both fluid fuels and pulverized coal, holds a high promise to reduce NO{sub x} production significantly. We have primarily engaged in continuing and improving our process modeling and analysis, obtained a large amount of quantitative information about the effects of the major parameters on NO{sub x} production, conducted an extensive exergy analysis of the process, evaluated the practicalities of employing the Radiatively-Conductively Stabilized Combustor (RCSC) to large power and heat plants, and improved the experimental facility. Prior experimental work has proven the feasibility of the combustor, but slagging during coal combustion was observed and should be dealt with. The primary outcomes and conclusions from the study are: (1) we developed a model and computer program that represents the pulverized coal combustion in the RCSC, (2) the model predicts that NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by a number of methods, detailed in the report. (3) the exergy analysis points out at least a couple of possible ways to improve the exergetic efficiency in this combustor: increasing the effectiveness of thermal feedback, and adjusting the combustor mixture exit location, (4) because of the low coal flow rates necessitated in this study to obtain complete combustion in the burner, the size of a burner operating under the considered conditions would have to be up to an order of magnitude, larger than comparable commercial burners, but different flow configurations of the RCSC can yield higher feed rates and smaller dimensions, and should be investigated. Related to this contract, eleven papers were published in journals and conference proceedings, and ten invited presentations were given at university and research institutions, as well as at

  16. Influence of the technique for injection of flue gas and the configuration of the swirl burner throat on combustion of gaseous fuel and formation of nitrogen oxides in the flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoinishnikov, V. A.; Khokhlov, D. A.; Knyaz'kov, V. P.; Ershov, A. Yu.

    2017-05-01

    How the points at which the flue gas was injected into the swirl burner and the design of the burner outlet influence the formation and development of the flame in the submerged space, as well as the formation of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products, have been studied. The object under numerical investigation is the flame of the GMVI combined (oil/gas) burner swirl burner fitted with a convergent, biconical, cylindrical, or divergent throat at the burner outlet with individual supply of the air and injection of the gaseous fuel through tubing. The burners of two designs were investigated; they differ by the absence or presence of an inlet for individual injection of the flue gas. A technique for numerical simulation of the flame based on the CFD methods widely used in research of this kind underlies the study. Based on the summarized results of the numerical simulation of the processes that occur in jet flows, the specific features of the aerodynamic pattern of the flame have been established. It is shown that the flame can be conventionally divided into several sections over its length in all investigations. The lengths of each of the sections, as well as the form of the fields of axial velocity, temperatures, concentrations of the fuel, oxygen, and carbon and nitrogen oxides, are different and determined by the design features of the burner, the flow rates of the agent, and the compositions of the latter in the burner ducts as well as the configuration of the burner throat and the temperature of the environment. To what degree the burner throat configuration and the techniques for injection of the flue gas at different ambient temperatures influence the formation of nitrogen oxides has been established. It is shown that the supply of the recirculation of flue gas into the fuel injection zone enables a considerable reduction in the formation of nitrogen oxides in the flame combustion products. It has been established that the locations of the zones of

  17. Experimental and numerical study of the accuracy of flame-speed measurements for methane/air combustion in a slot burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selle, L.; Ferret, B. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); Poinsot, T. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); CERFACS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-01-15

    Measuring the velocities of premixed laminar flames with precision remains a controversial issue in the combustion community. This paper studies the accuracy of such measurements in two-dimensional slot burners and shows that while methane/air flame speeds can be measured with reasonable accuracy, the method may lack precision for other mixtures such as hydrogen/air. Curvature at the flame tip, strain on the flame sides and local quenching at the flame base can modify local flame speeds and require corrections which are studied using two-dimensional DNS. Numerical simulations also provide stretch, displacement and consumption flame speeds along the flame front. For methane/air flames, DNS show that the local stretch remains small so that the local consumption speed is very close to the unstretched premixed flame speed. The only correction needed to correctly predict flame speeds in this case is due to the finite aspect ratio of the slot used to inject the premixed gases which induces a flow acceleration in the measurement region (this correction can be evaluated from velocity measurement in the slot section or from an analytical solution). The method is applied to methane/air flames with and without water addition and results are compared to experimental data found in the literature. The paper then discusses the limitations of the slot-burner method to measure flame speeds for other mixtures and shows that it is not well adapted to mixtures with a Lewis number far from unity, such as hydrogen/air flames. (author)

  18. Investigation and modelling of fuel utilisation in the zone near the burner of technical combustion systems. Final report; Untersuchung und Modellierung der Brennstoffumsetzung im Brennernahbereich technischer Verbrennungssysteme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, H.; Wirtz, S.

    1999-06-01

    Optimisation and development of technical combustion systems in order to generate energy efficiently and reduce pollution is an ever-increasing challenge. Mathematical and numerical simulations play a very important role in this context. This project was dedicated to the implementation and improvement of mathematical models and subsequent verification of the modelling concepts. Verification used data measured by the university department for combined cyle turbines. The focal point of interest was the reaction zone near the burner. Further points of interest: development and improvement of models for two-phase effects, fuel consumption and turbulence interaction as well as further development of the methods of numerical simulation. Simulating the combustion chamber of the combined cycle turbines was prioritised.(orig.) [German] Die Optimierung und Weiterentwicklung technischer Verbrennungssysteme mit dem Ziel einer moeglichst effizienten und schadstoffarmen Energiebereitstellung stellt eine staendig wachsende Herausforderung dar. Bei der technologischen Umsetzung dieses Ziels kommt der mathematisch-numerischen Simulation eine immer groessere Bedeutung zu. In diesem Projekt sollte die Implementierung und Verbesserung von mathematischen Modellierungsansaetzen sowie die anschliessende Verifikation der Modellierungskonzepte anhand der Messdaten des Lehrstuhls fuer Dampf- und Gasturbinen (LDuG) durchgefuehrt werden. Der Schwerpunkt lag in der brennernahen Reaktionszone. Konkrete Arbeitsschwerpunkte waren die Weiterentwicklung und Verbesserung der Modellansaetze fuer Zweiphaseneffekte, Brennstoffumsatz und Turbulenzinteraktion sowie die Weiterentwicklung der Methodik der numerischen Simulation. Dabei stand die Simulation der Brennkammer des LDuG im Vordergrund. (orig.)

  19. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  20. High conversion burner type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To simply and easily dismantle and reassemble densified fuel assemblies taken out of a high conversion ratio area thereby improve the neutron and fuel economy. Constitution: The burner portion for the purpose of fuel combustion is divided into a first burner region in adjacent with the high conversion ratio area at the center of the reactor core, and a second burner region formed to the outer circumference thereof and two types of fuels are charged therein. Densified fuel assemblies charged in the high conversion ratio area are separatably formed as fuel assemblies for use in the two types of burners. In this way, dense fuel assembly is separated into two types of fuel assemblies for use in burner of different number and arranging density of fuel elements which can be directly charged to the burner portion and facilitate the dismantling and reassembling of the fuel assemblies. Further, since the two types of fuel assemblies are charged in the burner portion, utilization factor for the neutron fuels can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. The new low-NO{sub x} burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masato [Joban Joint Power Corporation, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan); Domoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Ryuichiro [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Boiler Engineering Dept. Power Systems; Matsumoto, Keigo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Combustion Lab.

    2013-11-01

    Burner design requires good ignitability, high burn-up rate and low NO{sub x} emissions. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (MHI) developed a low-NO{sub x} burner which meets the aforementioned requirements. It also needs less combustion air, the burner nozzle is subjected to less thermal stresses, and the potential of NO{sub x} corrosion is being reduced. (orig.)

  2. Numerical simulation of porous burners and hole plate surface burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Stevan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to the free flame burners the porous medium burners, especially those with flame stabilization within the porous material, are characterized by a reduction of the combustion zone temperatures and high combustion efficiency, so that emissions of pollutants are minimized. In the paper the finite-volume numerical tool for calculations of the non-isothermal laminar steady-state flow, with chemical reactions in laminar gas flow as well as within porous media is presented. For the porous regions the momentum and energy equations have appropriate corrections. In the momentum equations for the porous region an additional pressure drop has to be considered, which depends on the properties of the porous medium. For the heat transfer within the porous matrix description a heterogeneous model is considered. It treats the solid and gas phase separately, but the phases are coupled via a convective heat exchange term. For the modeling of the reaction of the methane laminar combustion the chemical reaction scheme with 164 reactions and 20 chemical species was used. The proposed numerical tool is applied for the analyses of the combustion and heat transfer processes which take place in porous and surface burners. The numerical experiments are accomplished for different powers of the porous and surface burners, as well as for different heat conductivity character is tics of the porous regions.

  3. Industrial burner and process efficiency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, S. R.; Prakash, S. N.; Hersh, D. B.

    1982-10-01

    There is an acute need for a burner that does not use excess air to provide the required thermal turndown and internal recirculation of furnace gases in direct fired batch type furnaces. Such a burner would improve fuel efficiency and product temperature uniformity. A high velocity burner has been developed which is capable of multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion. This burner is operated by a microprocessor to fire in a discrete pulse mode using Frequency Modulation (FM) for furnace temperature control by regulating the pulse duration. A flame safety system has been designed to monitor the pulse firing burners using Factory Mutual approved components. The FM combustion system has been applied to an industrial batch hardening furnace (1800 F maximum temperature, 2500 lbs load capacity).

  4. Flue gas recirculation to pellets burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, B.E.; Blohm, T.

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this project has been to study the influence of flue gas recirculation on the combustion results. Primarily regarding the turbulence, stability and air surplus of the flame, but also the influence on environmental factors (CO and unburnt hydrocarbons). Also studied was the possibility of automatic control of the mixing of recirculating flue gases in the combustion process through the use of a λ-sond and O 2 control Project report from the program: Small scale combustion of biofuels. 9 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Porosity effects in flame length of the porous burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahadori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Furnaces are the devices for providing heat to the industrial systems like boilers, gas turbines and etc. The main challenge of furnaces is emission of huge air pollutants. However, porous burners produce less contaminant compared to others. The quality of the combustion process in the porous burners depends on the length of flame in the porous medium. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD is used to investigate the porosity effects on the flame length of the combustion process in porous burner. The simulation results demonstrate that increasing the porosity increases the flame length and the combustion zone extends forward. So, combustion quality increases and production of carbon monoxide decrease. It is possible to conclude that temperature distribution in low porosity burner is lower and more uniform than high porosity one. Therefore, by increasing the porosity of the burner, the production of nitrogen oxides increases. So, using an intermediate porosity in the burner appears to be reasonable.

  6. Combustion-driven oscillation in a furnace with multispud-type gas burners. 4th Report. Effects of position of secondary air guide sleeve and openness of secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation condition; Multispud gata gas turner ni okeru nensho shindo. 4. Nijigen kuki sleeve ichi oyobi nijigen kuki vane kaido no shindo reiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, I.; Okiura, K.; Baba, A.; Orimoto, M. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-25

    Effects of the position of a secondary air guide sleeve and the openness of a secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation conditions were studied experimentally for multispud-type gas burners. Pressure fluctuation in furnaces was analyzed with the previously reported resonance factor which was proposed as an index to represent the degree of combustion oscillation. As a result, the combustion oscillation region was largely affected by both position of a guide sleeve and openness of a guide vane. As the openness having large effect on the ratio of primary and secondary air/tertiary air and the position hardly having effect on the ratio were adjusted skillfully, the burner with no combustion oscillation region was achieved in its normal operation range. In addition, as the effect of preheating combustion air was arranged with a standard flow rate or mass flow flux of air, it was suggested the combustion oscillation region due to preheating can be described with the same manner as that due to no preheating. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Influence of burner form and pellet type on domestic pellet boiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastvorov, D. V.; Osintsev, K. V.; Toropov, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    The study presents combustion and emission results obtained using two serial pellet boilers of the same heating capacity 40 kW. These boilers have been designed by producers for domestic conditions of exploitation. The principal difference between boilers was the type of the burner. The study concerns the efficiency and ecological performance difference between burners of circular and rectangular forms. The features of the combustion process in both types of burners were studied when boiler operated with different sorts of pellets. The results suggest that the burner of circular form excels the rectangular form burner. However, there is some difference of NOx emission between circular and rectangular burners.

  8. Case study for co and counter swirling domestic burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kotb

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, the influence of equivalence ratio for co and counter-swirl domestic burners compared with non-swirl design on the thermal efficiency as well as CO emissions has been studied using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. Also, the flame stability, and pot height, which is defined as the burner-to-pot distance (H, of the co and counter domestic burners were compared. The analysis of the results showed that, for both swirl burners co and counter one the thermal efficiency under all operation conditions tested is higher than the non-swirled burner (base burner. For example, the thermal efficiency increased by 8.8%, and 5.8% than base burner for co and counter swirl, respectively at Reynolds number equal 2000 and equivalence ratio 1. The co and counter swirl burners show lower CO emission than the base burner. The co swirl burner has wider operation range than counter swirl. With the increase of pot height, the thermal efficiency of all burners decreases because the flame and combustion gases are cooled due to mixing with ambient air. As a result, the heat transfer is decreased due to atmospheric loss, which decrease the thermal efficiency.

  9. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  10. Influence of staged-air on airflow, combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler with direct flow split burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Jia; Han, Yunfeng; Zhu, Qunyi; Yang, Lianjie; Kong, Weiguang

    2010-02-01

    Cold airflow experiments were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic field in a small-scale furnace of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler arranged with direct flow split burners enriched by cyclones. By increasing the staged-air ratio, a deflected flow field appeared in the lower furnace; larger staged-air ratios produced larger deflections. Industrial-sized experiments on a full-scale boiler were also performed at different staged-air damper openings with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner region and near the right-side wall, wall heat fluxes, and gas components (O(2), CO, and NO(x)) in the near-wall region. Combustion was unstable at staged-air damper openings below 30%. For openings of 30% and 40%, late ignition of the pulverized coal developed and large differences arose in gas temperatures and heat fluxes between the regions near the front and rear walls. In conjunction, carbon content in the fly ash was high and boiler efficiency was low with high NO(x) emission above 1200 mg/m(3) (at 6% O(2) dry). For fully open dampers, differences in gas temperatures and heat fluxes, carbon in fly ash and NO(x) emission decreased yielding an increase in boiler efficiency. The optimal setting is fully open staged-air dampers.

  11. Studies on a burner used biomass pellets as fuel. Performance of a spiral vortex pellet burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwao, Toshio

    1987-12-21

    In order to develop a small size burner with high performance using biomass pellets fuel substitute for fuel oil, the burning performance of a spiral vortex pallet burner has been studied. An experimental equipment for the pellet burning is made up of a fuel supply unit, combustion chamber and a furnace. The used woody pellet is made of mixed sawdust and bark; with water content of 10.29%, particle diameter of 5.5-9mm, length of 5-50mm, and, apparent and real specific gravities are 0.59 and 1.334 respectively. The pellets are sent to bottom of the combustion chamber, spiral vortex combustion are carried out with blown air, the ashes and unburnt residues are discharged to out of combustion chamber with spiral vortex hot gases. As the result, it was clarified that the formation of the burning layers in a burner is required to be in order of the layers of ash, oxidation, reduction and carbonization up to the upper layer for high burning performance, and the formation of the layer is influenced by the condition of sedimentation of pellets in the combustion chamber. In the meanwhile the burning performance of the burner is influenced by the quantity of blast, the rate of feeding, and by the time of pre-heating in the combustion chamber. (23 figs, 5 refs)

  12. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  13. Gradual combustion - method for nitrogen oxide suppression during brown coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.P.; Verzakov, V.N.; Lobov, T.V.

    1990-10-01

    Discusses combustion of brown coal in BKZ-500-140-1 boilers and factors that influence emission of nitrogen oxides. Temperature distribution in the furnace was evaluated. Effects of burner position, burner number and burner type as well as air excess ratio on chemical reactions during brown coal combustion, formation of nitrogen oxides and their emission were comparatively evaluated. Analyses showed that by optimum arrangement of burners and selecting the optimum air excess ratio a part of nitrogen oxides formed during the initial phase of combustion was reduced to molecular nitrogen in the second phase. On the basis of evaluations the following recommendations for furnace design are made: use of straight-flow burners characterized by a reduced mixing ratio with secondary air, parallel arrangement of burners which guarantees mixing of the combustion products from the burners with stable and unstable combustion (products of incomplete coal combustion), reducing the air excess ratio to below 1.0. 5 refs.

  14. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating units... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat...

  15. Performance and analysis by particle image velocimetry (PIV) of cooker-top burners in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makmool, U.; Jugjai, S.; Tia, S.; Vallikul, P.; Fungtammasan, B.

    2007-01-01

    Cooker-top burners are used extensively in Thailand because of the rapid combustion and high heating-rates created by an impinging flame, which is characteristic of these types of burners. High thermal efficiency with low level of CO emissions is the most important performance criteria for these burners. The wide variation in reported performances of the burners appears to be due to the ad hoc knowledge gained through trial and error of the local manufacturers rather than sound scientific principles. This is extremely undesirable in view of safety, energy conservation and environmental protection. In the present work, a nationwide cooker-top burner performance survey and an implementation of a PIV technique to analyze the burner performance as well as advising local manufacturers were carried out. Experimental data were reported for the base line value of thermal efficiency of all the burners. The thermal performance parameters and dynamic properties of the flow field at a flame impingement area, i.e. velocity magnitude, turbulent intensity, vorticity and strain rate were also reported as a function of burner type, which was categorized into four types based on the configuration of the burner head: radial flow burners, swirling flow burners, vertical flow burners and porous radiant burners

  16. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  17. Catalytic burners in larger boiler appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Persson, Mikael (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This project focuses on the scale up of a Catator's catalytic burner technology to enable retrofit installation in existing boilers and the design of new innovative combinations of catalytic burners and boilers. Different design approaches are discussed and evaluated in the report and suggestions are made concerning scale-up. Preliminary test data, extracted from a large boiler installation are discussed together with an accurate analysis of technical possibilities following an optimization of the boiler design to benefit from the advantages of catalytic combustion. The experimental work was conducted in close collaboration with ICI Caldaie (ICI), located in Verona, Italy. ICI is a leading European boiler manufacturer in the effect segment ranging from about 20 kWt to several MWt. The study shows that it is possibly to scale up the burner technology and to maintain low emissions. The boilers used in the study were designed around conventional combustion and were consequently not optimized for implementation of catalytic burners. From previous experiences it stands clear that the furnace volume can be dramatically decreased when applying catalytic combustion. In flame combustion, this volume is normally dimensioned to avoid flame impingement on cold surfaces and to facilitate completion of the gas-phase reactions. The emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by decreasing the residence time in the furnace. Even with the over-dimensioned furnace used in this study, we easily reached emission values close to 35 mg/kWh. The emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were negligible (less than 5 ppmv). It is possible to decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides further by designing the furnace/boiler around the catalytic burner, as suggested in the report. Simultaneously, the size of the boiler installation can be reduced greatly, which also will result in material savings, i.e. the production cost can be reduced. It is suggested to optimize the

  18. Effects of fractal grid on emissions in burner combustion by using fuel-water-air premix injector derived from biodiesel crude palm oil (CPO base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Mirnah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel is attracted good attention from worldwide especially for renewable and prevention energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the hydrocarbon fuels and it has potential for external combustion. As one of the different solutions to these problems, rapid mixing of biodiesel-water-air technique is one of the most significant approaches to improve the combustion and reduce the emissions. The gas emission can be reduced by two methods. First is by improving an injector with fractal and the other is by using a biodiesel-water mixture as an alternative fuel. Mixing of water with fuel in the combustion process is a low cost and effective way. This research used biodiesel Crude Palm Oil (CPO as fuels in which blended with diesel. This study investigated the effects of water content and equivalence ratio on emissions with the rapid mixing injector. Fuels used are diesel, CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 and the exhausts gaseous tested are CO, CO2, HC and NOX. The gas emissions processes are tested by using the gas analyzer. In this research, water premix of percentage up to 15vol% and blending biodiesel ratio was varied from 5vom% - 15vol%. The result shows that increasing of water content will effected decrement of CO, CO2 and HC emissions but increasing the NOX emissions.

  19. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    2008-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, a topic generally taught at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in most mechanical engineering programs, and many chemical engineering programs, is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications-from the generation of power such as the internal combustion automobile engine to the gas turbine engine. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions have kept the interest in this vital area of engineering high and brought about new developments in both fundamental knowledge of flame and combustion physics as well as new technologies for flame and fuel control. *New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion-all ...

  20. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1997-01-01

    This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features * Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics * Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures * Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability * Relates combustion concepts to practical applications.

  1. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial

  2. Hexaaluminate Combustion Catalysts for Fuel Cell Fuel Reformers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Fred S; Campbell, Timothy J; Shaaban, Aly H; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Frank H; Knight, James

    2004-01-01

    .... When heat is produced by combustion of logistics fuel in an open-flame or radiant burner, the rate of hydrogen production in the steam reforming reactor is generally limited by the rate of heat transfer from the burner...

  3. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  4. Developement of porous media burner operating on waste vegetable oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapirattanakun, Arwut; Charoensuk, Jarruwat

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam was successfully applied to promote combustion of WVO. • A specially designed porous domain was an essential element for stable combustion of WVO. • The performance of WVO burner was in the range of cooking stove. • Nozzle clog up in domestic WVO burner can be avoided when replacing it with a steam-assisted nozzle. - Abstract: A newly designed cooking stove using Wasted Vegetable Oil (WVO) as fuel was introduced. Porous media, containing 2 cm diameter of spherical ceramic balls, was used as a flame stabilizer. Steam was successfully applied in a burner at this scale to atomize WVO droplet and entrain air into the combustion zone as well as to reduce soot and CO emission. DIN EN 203-1 testing standard was adopted and the experiment was conducted at various firing rate with the water flow rate at 0.16, 0.20 and 0.22 kg/min. Temperature, emissions, visible flame length, thermal efficiency as well as combustion efficiency were evaluated. Under the current WVOB design, it was suitable to operate the burner at the range of nominal firing rate between 325 and 548 kW/m"2 with water flow rate of 0.16 kg/min, at burner height to diameter ratio of 0.75, giving CO and NO_x emissions up to 171 and 40 ppm, respectively (at 6% O_2). Thermal efficiency was at around 28% where the combustion efficiency was approximately at 99.5%. The performance of WVO burner could be improved further if increasing the H/D ratio to 1.5, yielding thermal efficiency up to 42%.

  5. Research on the Improvement of a Natural Gas Fired Burner for the CHP Application in a Central Heating Boiler using Radiant Burner Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieleveld, T.

    2010-08-15

    These days, the reduction of CO2 emissions from combustion devices is one of the main priorities for each design improvement. For the domestic use of the central heating boiler, Microgen Engine Corporation produces free piston Stirling engines for the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) application in these central heating boilers (Dutch: 'HRe ketel'). With CHP, the generation of electricity and heat are combined to increase overall efficiency, as heat is generally a waste product from the combustion to electric generation process. In this application, the Stirling engine, which can be defined as an external combustion engine, is heated by a natural gas fired engine-burner and cooled by a coolant flow. The heat transfer into the engine is converted into mechanical work and a heat flux from the engine. The mechanical work is used to produce electricity via a linear alternator. Heat in the flue gasses from the engine-burner is reused in a secondary burner and condensing heat exchanger. The coolant flow from the engine, after passing the secondary burner, is used for heating purposes. The heat transfer from engine-burner to the Stirling engine is analyzed and via several motivations it is found that it is favorable to improve fuel to electric conversion efficiency, for which the heat transfer efficiency of the engine-burner to the Stirling engine should be improved, as the engine design is not to be altered. From an initially developed linear free piston Stirling engine model and measurements performed at Microgen Engine Corporation, St. Petersborough, (UK), the engine power demand and engine-burner performance are found. The results are used to visualize the current energy flows of the Stirling engine and engine burner subsystem. The heat transfer to the engine is analyzed to find possible heat transfer improvements. It is concluded that heat transfer from the engine-burner to the engine can be approved if the flue losses due to convective heat transfer are

  6. CFD simulations on marine burner flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cafaggi, Giovanni; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    The marine industry is changing with new demands concerning high energy efficiency, fuel flexibility and lower emissions of NOX and SOX. A collaboration between the company Alfa Laval and Technical University of Denmark has been established to support the development of the next generation...... of marine burners. The resulting auxiliary boilers shall be compact and able to operate with different fuel types, while reducing NOX emissions. The specific boiler object of this study uses a swirl stabilized liquid fuel burner, with a pressure swirl spill-return atomizer (Fig.1). The combustion chamber...... is enclosed in a water jacket used for water heating and evaporation, and a convective heat exchanger at the furnace outlet super-heats the steam. The purpose of the present study is to gather detailed knowledge about the influence of fuel spray conditions on marine utility boiler flames. The main goal...

  7. CFD optimization of a pellet burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerlund Lars B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased capacity of computers has made CFD technology attractive for the design of different apparatuses. Optimization of a pellet burner using CFD was investigated in this paper. To make the design tool work fast, an approach with only mixing of gases was simulated. Other important phenomena such as chemical reactions were omitted in order to speed up the design process. The original design of the burner gave unsatisfactory performance. The optimized design achieved from simulation was validated and the results show a significant improvement. The power output increased and the emission of unburned species decreased but could be further reduced. The contact time between combustion gases and secondary air was probably too short. An increased contact time in high temperature conditions would possibly improve the design further.

  8. Dependence of flame length on cross sections of burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackeschmidt, M.

    1983-06-01

    This article analyzes the relation between the shape of burner muzzle and the resulting flame jet in a combustion chamber. Geometrical shapes of burner muzzles, either square, circular or triangular are compared as well as proportions of flame dimensions. A formula for calculating flame lengths is derived, for which the mathematical value 'contact profile radius' for burner muzzle shape is introduced. The formula for calculating flame lengths allows a partial replacement of the empirical flame mixing factor according to N.Q. Toai, 1981. The geometrical analysis does not include thermodynamic and reaction kinetic studies, which may be necessary for evaluating heterogenous (coal dust) combustion flames with longer burning time. (12 refs.)

  9. Multifuel burners based on the porous burner technology for the application in fuel cell systems; Mehrstofffaehige Brenner auf Basis der Porenbrennertechnik fuer den Einsatz in Brennstoffzellensystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezinger, S.

    2006-07-01

    The present doctoral thesis describes the development of multifuel burners based on the porous burner technology for the application in hydrocarbon driven fuel cell systems. One objective of such burners is the heating of the fuel cell system to the operating temperature at the cold start. In stationary operation the burner has to postcombust the waste gases from the fuel cell and the gas processing system in order to reduce the pollutant emissions. As the produced heat is required for endothermal processes like the steam reforming the burner has a significant influence on the system's efficiency. The performed investigations are targeting on a gasoline driven PEMFC-System with steam reforming. In such systems the burner has to be capable to combust the system's fuel gasoline at the cold start, a low calorific fuel cell offgas (HU = 6,4 MJ/kg) in stationary operation and a hydrogen rich gas in the case of an emergency shut down. Pre-tests revealed that in state of the art porous burners the flame front of hydrogen/air combustion can only be stabilized at very high excess air ratios. In basic investigations concerning the stabilization of flame fronts in porous media the dominant influence parameters were determined. Based on this findings a new flame trap was developed which increases the operational range with hydrogen rich mixtures significantly. Furthermore the burning velocity at stationary combustion in porous media was investigated. The dependency of the porous burning velocity on the excess air ratio for different hydrocarbons and hydrogen as well as for mixtures of both was determined. The results of these basic investigations were applied for the design of a multifuel burner. In order to achieve an evaporation of the gasoline without the use of additional energy, an internal heat exchanger section for heating the combustion air was integrated into the burner. Additionally different experimental and numerical methods were applied for designing the

  10. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or industrial furnace downstream of the combustion zone and prior to release of stack gases to the... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces...

  11. The generation of resonant turbulence for a premixed burner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Antonie Alex; Pos, R.C.; Stoffels, Genie G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to optimize the turbulent combustion of a low swirl burner by using resonance in turbulence? To that end an active grid is constructed that consists of two perforated disks of which one is rotating, creating a system of pulsating jets, which in the end can be used as a central

  12. The generation of resonant turbulence for a premixed burner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Antonie Alex; Pos, R.C.; Stoffels, Genie G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; van der Meer, Th.H.

    Is it possible to optimize the turbulent combustion of a low swirl burner by using resonance in turbu- lence? To that end an active grid is constructed that consists of two perforated disks of which one is rotat- ing, creating a system of pulsating jets, which in the end can be used as a central

  13. Design and construction of an air inductor burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Camilo; Cardona, Mario; Arrieta, Andres Amell

    2001-01-01

    This article presents research results performed with the purpose of obtain design parameters, construction, and air inductor burner operation, which are used in industrial combustion systems, in several processes such as: metal fusion (fusion furnaces), fluids heating (immerse heating tubes), steam production (steam boiler), drying processes, etc. In order to achieve such objectives, a prototype with thermal power modulation from 6 to 52 kW, was built to be either operated with natural gas or with LPG. The burner was built taking in mind the know how (design procedure) developed according to theoretical schemes of different bibliographic references and knowledge of the research group in gas science and technology of the University of Antioquia. However, with such procedure only the burner mixer is dimensioned and five parameters must to be selected by the designer: burner thermal power, primary aeration ratio, counter pressure at combustion chamber, air pressure admission and gas fuel intended to use. For head design we took in mind research done before by the group of science and technology in gas research: Mono port and bar burner heads with their respective stabilization flame systems

  14. Study and mathematical model of ultra-low gas burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguieva, A.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this project is prediction and reduction of NOx and CO 2 emissions under levels recommended from European standards for gas combustion processes. A mathematical model of burner and combustion chamber is developed based on interacting fluid dynamics processes: turbulent flow, gas phase chemical reactions, heat and radiation transfer The NOx prediction model for prompt and thermal NOx is developed. The validation of CFD (Computer fluid-dynamics) simulations corresponds to 5 MWI burner type - TEA, installed on CASPER boiler. This burner is three-stream air distribution burner with swirl effect, designed by ENEL to meet future NOx emission standards. For performing combustion computer modelling, FLUENT CFD code is preferred, because of its capabilities to provide accurately description of large number of rapid interacting processes: turbulent flow, phase chemical reactions and heat transfer and for its possibilities to present wide range of calculation and graphical output reporting data The computational tool used in this study is FLUENT version 5.4.1, installed on fs 8200 UNIX systems The work includes: study the effectiveness of low-NOx concepts and understand the impact of combustion and swirl air distribution and flue gas recirculation on peak flame temperatures, flame structure and fuel/air mixing. A finite rate combustion model: Eddy-Dissipation (Magnussen-Hjertager) Chemical Model for 1, 2 step Chemical reactions of bi-dimensional (2D) grid is developed along with NOx and CO 2 predictions. The experimental part of the project consists of participation at combustion tests on experimental facilities located in Livorno. The results of the experiments are used, to obtain better vision for combustion process on small-scaled design and to collect the necessary input data for further Fluent simulations

  15. Process development report: 0.40-m primary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.

    1978-04-01

    Fluidized bed combustion is required in reprocessing the graphite-based fuel elements from high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) cores. This burning process requires combustion of beds containing both large particles and very dense particles, and also of fine graphite particles which elutriate from the bed. This report documents the successful long-term operation of the 0.40-m primary burner in burning crushed fuel elements. The 0.40-m system operation is followed from its first short heatup test in September 1976 to a > 40-h burning campaign that processed 20 LHTGR blocks in September 1977. The 0.40-m perforated conical gas distributor, scaled up from the 0.20-m primary burner, has proven reliable in safely burning even the largest, densest adhered graphite/fuel particle clusters originating from the crushing of loaded fuel elements. Such clusters had never been fed to the 0.20-m system. Efficient combustion of graphite fines using the pressurized recycle technique was demonstrated throughout the long-duration operation required to reduce a high carbon fresh feed bed to a low carbon particle bed. Again, such operation had never been completed on the 0.20-m system from which the 0.40-m burner was scaled. The successful completion of the tests was due, in part, to implementation of significant equipment revisions which were suggested by both the initial 0.40-m system tests and by results of ongoing development work on the 0.2-m primary burner. These revisions included additional penetrations in the burner tube side-wall for above-bed fines recycle, replacement and deletion of several metal bellows with bellows of more reliable design, and improvements in designs for burner alignment and feeder mechanisms. 76 figures, 8 tables

  16. Wood pellets for stoker burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The author of this article has had a stoker for several years. Wood chips and sod peat has been used as fuels in the stoker, either separately or mixed. Last winter there occurred problems with the sod peat due to poor quality. Wood pellets, delivered by Vapo Oy were tested in the stoker. The price of the pellets seemed to be a little high 400 FIM/500 kg large sack. If the sack is returned in good condition 50 FIM deposit will be repaid to the customer. However, Vapo Oy informed that the calorific value of wood pellets is three times higher than that of sod peat so it should not be more expensive than sod peat. When testing the wood pellets in the stoker, the silo of the stoker was filled with wood pellets. The adjustments were first left to position used for sod peat. However, after the fire had ignited well, the adjustments had to be decreased. The content of the silo was combusted totally. The combustion of the content of the 400 litter silo took 4 days and 22 hours. Respectively combustion of 400 l silo of good quality sod peat took 2 days. The water temperature with wood pellets remained at 80 deg C, while with sod peat it dropped to 70 deg C. The main disadvantage of peat with small loads is the unhomogenous composition of the peat. The results of this test showed that wood pellets will give better efficiency than peat, especially when using small burner heads. The utilization of them is easier, and the amount of ash formed in combustion is significantly smaller than with peat. Wood pellets are always homogenous and dry if you do not spoil it with unproper storage. Pellets do not require large storages, the storage volume needed being less than a half of the volume needed for sod peat. When using large sacks the amount needed can even be transported at the trunk of a passenger car. Depending on the area to be heated, a large sack is sufficient for heating for 2-3 weeks. Filling of stoker every 2-5 day is not an enormous task

  17. Acoustic Pressure Oscillations Induced in I-Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kiyoshi

    Iwama et al. invented the I-burner to investigate acoustic combustion instability in solid-propellant rockets (Proceedings of ICT Conference, 1994, pp. 26-1 26-14). Longitudinal pressure oscillations were induced in the combustion chamber of a thick-walled rocket by combustion of a stepped-perforation grain (I-burner). These oscillations were studied here experimentally. Two I-burners with an internal diameter of 80 mm and a length of 1208 mm or 2240 mm were made. The grain had stepped perforations (20 and 42 mm in diameter and 657 and 160 mm in length, respectively). Longitudinal pressure oscillations always occur in two stages when an HTPB (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/AP (ammonium perchlorate)/aluminum-powder propellant burns (54 tests; the highest average pressure in the combustion chamber was 9.5 29 MPa), but no oscillations occur when an HTPB/AP propellant burns (29 tests). The pressure oscillations are essentially linear, but dissipation adds a nonlinear nature to them. In the first stage, the amplitudes are small and the first wave group predominates. In the next stage, the amplitudes are large and many wave groups are present. The change in the grain form accompanying the combustion affects the pressure oscillations.

  18. Altitude Performance Characteristics of Tail-pipe Burner with Convergingconical Burner Section on J47 Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, William R; Mcaulay, John E

    1950-01-01

    An investigation of turbojet-engine thrust augmentation by means of tail-pipe burning was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. Performance data were obtained with a tail-pipe burner having a converging conical burner section installed on an axial-flow-compressor type turbojet engine over a range of simulated flight conditions and tail-pipe fuel-air ratios with a fixed-area exhaust nozzle. A maximum tail-pipe combustion efficiency of 0.86 was obtained at an altitude of 15,000 feet and a flight Mach number of 0.23. Tail-pipe burner operation was possible up to an altitude of 45,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.23.

  19. Optimisation of efficiency and emissions in pellet burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskilsson, David; Roennbaeck, Marie; Samuelsson, Jessica; Tullin, Claes

    2004-01-01

    There is a trade-off between the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and of unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (OGC and CO). Decreasing the excess air results in lower NO x emission but also increased emission of unburnt. The efficiency increases, as the excess air is decreased until the losses due to incomplete combustion become too high. The often-high NO x emission in today's pellet burners can be significantly reduced using well-known techniques such as air staging. The development of different chemical sensors is very intensive and recently sensors for CO and OGC have been introduced on the market. These sensors may, together with a Lambda sensor, provide efficient control for optimal performance with respect to emissions and efficiency. In this paper, results from an experimental parameter study in a modified commercial burner, followed by Chemkin simulations with relevant input data and experiments in a laboratory reactor and in a prototype burner, are summarised. Critical parameters for minimisation of NO x emission from pellet burners are investigated in some detail. Also, results from tests of a new sensor for unburnt are reported. In conclusion, relatively simple design modifications can significantly decrease NO x emission from today's pellet burners

  20. The influence of the furnace design on emissions from small wood pellet burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspfors, Jonas; Larfeldt, Jenny

    1999-01-01

    Two pellet burners have been installed and tested in a small scale boiler for house heating. The boiler is representative for the Swedish households and the burners, upwards and forward burning, are commercially available on the Swedish market. This work focuses on the boiler operation and particularly the potential of improved emissions by changing the furnace design. An insulation of the fireplace lowered the emission of CO by 50% and the emission of OGC by 60% for the upwards burning burner at low load. Modifying the furnace using baffles did not have any influence on the emissions. It is concluded that an increased temperature in the furnace is more important than an increased residence time of the combustible gases to decrease the emissions. At full load both burners emit approximately 300 mg CO per nm 3 gas and the emission of OGC are negligible. At half load the emissions of CO increased to 1000 mg/m n 3 and OGC to 125 mg/m n 3 in the upward burning burner. The forwards burning burner had a small increase in OGC to about 10 mg/m n 3 at half load while the emission of CO increased to 800 mg/m n 3 . The forward burning burner is less influenced on the furnace design compared to the upward burning burner. The comparatively high emissions of OGC for the upward burning burner is explained by the intermittent operation. However, it was possible to reduce the emissions from this burner by ceramic insulation of the furnace Project report from the program: Small scale combustion of biofuels. 3 refs, 12 figs, 2 tab, 1 appendix with 33 figs and 12 tabs

  1. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  2. Utility boiler computer modeling experience in the USA for practical furnace air port and low NOx burner field design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, B.P.; Urich, J.A.; Krippene, B.C. [ESA, Inc. (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents several examples of where effective furnace and low NOx burner modeling has produced substantial advantages to the low NOx combustion system designer. Using practical boiler furnace air injection port and low NOx burner maths modeling as an integral part of the design process has often made the difference between a successful low NOx combustion system field conversion project and an unsuccessful one.

  3. Design and evaluation of a porous burner for the mitigation of anthropogenic methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susie; Fletcher, David F; Joseph, Stephen D; Dawson, Adrian; Harris, Andrew T

    2009-12-15

    Methane constitutes 15% of total global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The mitigation of these emissions could have a significant near-term effect on slowing global warming, and recovering and burning the methane would allow a wasted energy resource to be exploited. The typically low and fluctuating energy content of the emission streams makes combustion difficult; however porous burners-an advanced combustion technology capable of burning low-calorific value fuels below the conventional flammability limit-are one possible mitigation solution. Here we discuss a pilot-scale porous burner designed for this purpose. The burner comprises a cylindrical combustion chamber filled with a porous bed of alumina saddles, combined with an arrangement of heat exchanger tubes for preheating the incoming emission stream. A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to aid in the design process. Results illustrating the burner's stable operating range and behavior are presented: stable ultralean combustion is demonstrated at natural gas concentrations as low as 2.3 vol%, with transient combustion at concentrations down to 1.1 vol%; the system is comparatively stable to perturbations in the operating conditions, and emissions of both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons are negligible. Based on this pilot-scale demonstration, porous burners show potential as a methane mitigation technology.

  4. Mathematical model of stacked one-sided arrangement of the burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oraz J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper is aimed at computer simulation of the turbulent methane-air combustion in upgraded U-shaped boiler unit. To reduce the temperature in the flame and hence NOx release every burner output was reduced, but the number of the burners was increased. The subject of studying: complex of characteristics with space-time fields in the upgraded steam boiler E-370 with natural circulation. The flare structure, temperature and concentrations were determined computationally.

  5. Combustion and Ignition Studies of Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion,” M. Jackson, M. L. Pantoya and W. Gill, Combustion...of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion,” M. Jackson, M. L. Pantoya and W. Gill, Combustion and...changes in parameters such as particle size. The LFA measures these properties for bulk powders, consolidated pellets or even liquid mediums and is

  6. Structure of diffusion flames from a vertical burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Dan Jimenez; Jack D. Cohen; Isaac C. Grenfell; Cyle Wold

    2010-01-01

    Non-steady and turbulent flames are commonly observed to produce flame contacts with adjacent fuels during fire spread in a wide range of fuel bed depths. A stationary gas-fired burner (flame wall) was developed to begin study of flame edge variability along an analagous vertical fuel source. This flame wall is surrogate for a combustion interface at the edge of a deep...

  7. Numerical simulations of a large scale oxy-coal burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Taeyoung [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of). Energy System R and D Group; Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering; Park, Sanghyun; Ryu, Changkook [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering; Yang, Won [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of). Energy System R and D Group

    2013-07-01

    Oxy-coal combustion is one of promising carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies that uses oxygen and recirculated CO{sub 2} as an oxidizer instead of air. Due to difference in physical properties between CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, the oxy-coal combustion requires development of burner and boiler based on fundamental understanding of the flame shape, temperature, radiation and heat flux. For design of a new oxy-coal combustion system, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an essential tool to evaluate detailed combustion characteristics and supplement experimental results. In this study, CFD analysis was performed to understand the combustion characteristics inside a tangential vane swirl type 30 MW coal burner for air-mode and oxy-mode operations. In oxy-mode operations, various compositions of primary and secondary oxidizers were assessed which depended on the recirculation ratio of flue gas. For the simulations, devolatilization of coal and char burnout by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O were predicted with a Lagrangian particle tracking method considering size distribution of pulverized coal and turbulent dispersion. The radiative heat transfer was solved by employing the discrete ordinate method with the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGGM) optimized for oxy-coal combustion. In the simulation results for oxy-model operation, the reduced swirl strength of secondary oxidizer increased the flame length due to lower specific volume of CO{sub 2} than N{sub 2}. The flame length was also sensitive to the flow rate of primary oxidizer. The oxidizer without N{sub 2} that reduces thermal NO{sub x} formation makes the NO{sub x} lower in oxy-mode than air-mode. The predicted results showed similar trends with measured temperature profiles for various oxidizer compositions. Further numerical investigations are required to improve the burner design combined with more detailed experimental results.

  8. Research and Development of Natural Draft Ultra-Low Emissions Burners for Gas Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sholes, Darren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Combustion systems used in residential and commercial cooking appliances must be robust and easy to use while meeting air quality standards. Current air quality standards for cooking appliances are far greater than other stationary combustion equipment. By developing an advanced low emission combustion system for cooking appliances, the air quality impacts from these devices can be reduced. This project adapted the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Ring-Stabilizer Burner combustion technology for residential and commercial natural gas fired cooking appliances (such as ovens, ranges, and cooktops). LBNL originally developed the Ring-Stabilizer Burner for a NASA funded microgravity experiment. This natural draft combustion technology reduces NOx emissions significantly below current SCAQMD emissions standards without post combustion treatment. Additionally, the Ring-Stabilizer Burner technology does not require the assistance of a blower to achieve an ultra-low emission lean premix flame. The research team evaluated the Ring-Stabilizer Burner and fabricated the most promising designs based on their emissions and turndown.

  9. Firing in fluid beds and burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.; Lans, R. van der; Storm Pedersen, L.; Philbert Nielsen, H.; Aslaug Hansen, L.; Lin, W.; Johnsson, J.E.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1998-02-01

    An investigation of the effect of co-firing straw and pulverized coal was performed. Based on experiments from pilot-scale and full-scale it was concluded that a higher fraction of straw in the fuel feedstock mixture results in lower NO and SO{sub 2} emissions. The lower NO emission was mainly due to the higher volatile content of the straw, which leads to lower stoichiometry in the gas phase and in subsequent suppression of NO{sub x} formation. This conclusion is consistent with experimental and modeling results for pure coal combustion. The effect of coal quality on NO emissions has been investigated with three coals of different characteristics in three furnaces: in the Funen power station, unit 7 (FVO7), the Midtkraft Studstrup power station, unit 4 (MKS4), and the Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd (MBEL) test-rig. The MBEL test-rig was able to reproduce qualitatively the emissions from the MKS4 plant, and quantitatively the emissions from the FVO7 plant. The better agreement between the MBEL test-rig and FVO7 is presumed to be related to the existence of a large primary zone with a relatively low stoichiometry, diminishing the influence of near burner air and fuel mixing rate on the NO emissions. An engineering model has been developed for the prediction of NO emissions and burnout from pulverized fuel combustion in swirl burners. A simplified model for reduction of N{sub 2}O in CFBC has been developed, and simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from a 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler. (EG) EFP-94. 108 refs.

  10. Development of combined low-emissions burner devices for low-power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu. V.; Khokhlov, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Low-power water boilers are widely used for autonomous heat supply in various industries. Firetube and water-tube boilers of domestic and foreign manufacturers are widely represented on the Russian market. However, even Russian boilers are supplied with licensed foreign burner devices, which reduce their competitiveness and complicate operating conditions. A task of developing efficient domestic low-emissions burner devices for low-power boilers is quite acute. A characteristic property of ignition and fuel combustion in such boilers is their flowing in constrained conditions due to small dimensions of combustion chambers and flame tubes. These processes differ significantly from those in open combustion chambers of high-duty power boilers, and they have not been sufficiently studied yet. The goals of this paper are studying the processes of ignition and combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels, heat and mass transfer and NO x emissions in constrained conditions, and the development of a modern combined low-emissions 2.2 MW burner device that provides efficient fuel combustion. A burner device computer model is developed and numerical studies of its operation on different types of fuel in a working load range from 40 to 100% of the nominal are carried out. The main features of ignition and combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels in constrained conditions of the flame tube at nominal and decreased loads are determined, which differ fundamentally from the similar processes in steam boiler furnaces. The influence of the burner devices design and operating conditions on the fuel underburning and NO x formation is determined. Based on the results of the design studies, a design of the new combined low-emissions burner device is proposed, which has several advantages over the prototype.

  11. Burning low volatile fuel in tangentially fired furnaces with fuel rich/lean burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xiaolin; Xu Tongmo; Hui Shien

    2004-01-01

    Pulverized coal combustion in tangentially fired furnaces with fuel rich/lean burners was investigated for three low volatile coals. The burners were operated under the conditions with varied value N d , which means the ratio of coal concentration of the fuel rich stream to that of the fuel lean stream. The wall temperature distributions in various positions were measured and analyzed. The carbon content in the char and NO x emission were detected under various conditions. The new burners with fuel rich/lean streams were utilized in a thermal power station to burn low volatile coal. The results show that the N d value has significant influences on the distributions of temperature and char burnout. There exists an optimal N d value under which the carbon content in the char and the NO x emission is relatively low. The coal ignition and NO x emission in the utilized power station are improved after retrofitting the burners

  12. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  13. Dictionary of combustion engineering and heating engineering. Pt. 1. Woerterbuch der Feuerungs- und Heizungstechnik. T. 1. - Encyclopedie de la technique de combustion et de chauffage. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, M

    1984-01-01

    The dictionary lists technical terms of the fields of combustion engineering and heating engineering. The heating engineering part was kept as short as possible; only those terms are listed, that are directly or indirectly related to combustion engineering. Contents: Definitions, standard nomenclature, burner systems, treatment systems, burner components, dictionary, SI-units, drawings with translations. 26 figs.

  14. CFD simulation of a burner for syngas characterization and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Desideri, Umberto [University of Perugia (Italy). Dept. of Industrial Engineering], Emails: fanto@unipg.it, umberto.desideri@unipg.it; D' Amico, Michele [University of Perugia (Italy). Dept. of Energetic Engineering], E-mail: damico@crbnet.it

    2009-07-01

    Biomass and waste are distributed and renewable energy sources that may contribute effectively to sustainability if used on a small and micro scale. This requires the transformation through efficient technologies (gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion) into a suitable gaseous fuel to use in small internal combustion engines and gas turbines. The characterization of biomass derived syngas during combustion is therefore a key issue to improve the performance of small scale integrated plants because synthesis gas show significant differences with respect to Natural Gas (mixture of gases, low calorific value, hydrogen content, tar and particulate content) that may turn into ignition problems, combustion instabilities, difficulties in emission control and fouling. To this aim a burner for syngas combustion and LHV measurement through mass and energy balance was realized and connected to the rotary-kiln laboratory scale pyrolyzer at the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Perugia. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the burner was carried out considering the combustion of propane to investigate temperature and pressure distribution, heat transmission and distribution of the combustion products and by products. The simulation was carried out using the CFD program Star-CD. Before the simulation a geometrical model of the burner was built and the volume of model was subdivided in cells. A sensibility analysis of cells was carried out to estimate the approximation degree of the model. Experimental data about combustion emission were carried out with the propane combustion in the burner, the comparison between numerical results and experimental data was studied to validate the simulation for future works involved with the combustion of treated or raw (syngas with tar) syngas obtained from pyrolysis process. (author)

  15. IEN project - Fluidized bed burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Due to difficulties inherent to the organic waste storage from laboratories and institutes which use radioactive materials for scientific researches, the Nuclear Facilities Division (DIN/CNEN); elaborated a project for constructing a fluidized burner, in laboratory scale, for burning the low level organic radioactive wastes. The burning system of organic wastes is described. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

    1996-09-01

    Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

  17. Modeling of complex premixed burner systems by using flamelet-generated manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, van J.A.; Lammers, F.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2001-01-01

    The numerical modeling of realistic burner systems puts a very high demand on computational recources.The computational cost of combustion simulations can be reduced by reduction techniques which simplify the chemical kinetics. In this paper the recently introduced Flamelet-Generated Manifold method

  18. The influence of near burner region aerodynamics on the formation and emission of nitrogen oxides in a pulverized coal-fired furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, T.; Costen, P.; Lockwood, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that detailed measurements have been performed for two distinct pulverized-coal-fired burners in a large-scale laboratory furnace. Comparative in-flame data are archived and include gas temperature, O 2 , CO concentration, and an inventory of stable fuel nitrogen species and solids (HCN, NH 3 , N 2 O, NO, nitrogen release, mass flux, and particle burnout). A significant decrease in the NO concentration in the near burner region and a substantial decrease in the furnace exit values are observed when the central tube from a single annular orifice burner jet (normally the location of a gas or oil burner for light-up purposes) is replaced with a single central orifice burner jet of same cross-sectional area. The latter burner exhibits the delayed combustion phenomena normally associated with a tangentially fired system. The particle burnout remains unaffected due to the longer particles' residence time in the all-important oxygen lean internal recirculation zone

  19. Experience from performance testing of low NOx burners for refinery heaters; Tests de performance avec des bruleurs de raffinerie a basse emission de NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, J.C. [Refining Technology, BP Oil International, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Developments in low NOx burner technology have resulted in major reductions in NOx emissions from refinery process heaters. However, the techniques used in low NOx burners to reduce NOx emissions can potentially affect other key aspects of burner performance, particularly flame stability and completeness of combustion. BP has evaluated many of the currently available low and ultra-low NOx burners, both natural and forced draught, in its purpose-built test furnace. This extensive test programme has shown that to be a reliable predictor of actual performance a test rig must recreate accurately the real furnace conditions, particularly with respect to furnace and hearth temperatures. The testing has demonstrated the NOx emissions to be expected in practice from different generic types of burner, conventional, low NOx and ultra-low NOx, and has highlighted the sets of conditions most likely to lead to combustion performance problems. (authors)

  20. Free of pollution gas - an utopia or attainable goal? Gas radiant burner with a small capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofbauer, P.; Bornscheuer, W.

    1993-01-01

    The firm Viessmann has developed a gas radiant burner for boiler capacities up to 100 kN combusting gas with extremely low pollutant emissions. This is possible since from the reaction zone a considerable part of the combustion heat is delivered through radiation by means of a glowing special steel structure. The theoretical fundamentals are explained by means of considerations regarding the equilibrium and a reaction kinetic numerical model. (orig.) [de

  1. Design and construction of a regenerative radiant tube burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao, Diego Alberto; Cano C, Carlos Andres; Amell Arrieta, Andres A.

    2002-01-01

    The technological development of the gas industry in Colombia, aiming at efficient and safe use of the natural gas, requires the assimilation and adaptation of new generation, technologies for this purpose in this article results are presented on the design, construction and characterization of a prototype of a burner of regenerative radiant robe with a thermal power of 9,94 kW and a factor of air 1,05. This system takes advantage of the high exit temperature of the combustion smokes, after they go trough a metallic robe where they transfer the heat by radiation, to heat a ceramic channel that has the capacity to absorbing a part of the heat of the smokes and then transferring them to a current of cold air. The benefits of air heating are a saving in fuel, compared with other processes that don't incorporate the recovery of heat from the combustion gases. In this work it was possible to probe a methodology for the design of this type of burners and to reach maximum temperatures of heating of combustion air of 377,9 centigrade degrees, using a material available in the national market, whose regenerative properties should be studied in depth

  2. Thermo-Acoustic Properties of a Burner with Axial Temperature Gradient: Theory and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Kosztin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for thermo-acoustic effects in a gas turbine combustor. A quarter-wavelength burner with rectangular cross-section has been built and studied from an experimental and theoretical perspective. It has a premixed methane-air flame, which is held by a bluff body, and spans the width of the burner. The flame is compact, i.e. its length is much smaller than that of the burner. The fundamental mode of the burner is unstable; its frequency and pressure distribution have been measured. The complex pressure reflection coefficients at the upstream and downstream end of the burner were also measured. For the theoretical considerations, we divide the burner into three regions (the cold pre-combustion chamber, the flame region and the hot outlet region, and assume one-dimensional acoustic wave propagation in each region. The acoustic pressure and velocity are assumed continuous across the interface between the precombustion chamber and flame region, and across the interface between the flame region and outlet region. The burner ends are modelled by the measured pressure reflection coefficients. The mean temperature is assumed to have the following profile: uniformly cold and uniformly hot in the pre-combustion chamber and outlet region, respectively, and rising continuously from cold to hot in the flame region. For comparison, a discontinuous temperature profile, jumping directly from cold to hot, is also considered. The eigenfrequencies are calculated, and the pressure distribution of the fundamental mode is predicted. There is excellent agreement with the experimental results. The exact profile of the mean temperature in the flame region is found to be unimportant. This study gives us an experimentally validated Green's function, which is a very useful tool for further theoretical studies.

  3. Optimization of burners in oxygen-gas fired glass furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersbergen, M.J. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Sarmiento-Darkin, W.; Kobayashi, H.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency performance, production stability and emissions of oxygen-fired glass furnaces are influenced by the type of burner, burner nozzle sizes, burner positions, burner settings, oxygen-gas ratios and the fuel distribution among all the burners. These parameters have been optimized

  4. Southern Woods-Burners: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle; M.L. Lightsey

    1979-01-01

    About 40 percent of the South's nearly 60,000 wildfires yearly are set by woods-burners. A survey of 14 problem areas in four southern States found three distinct sets of woods-burners. Most active woods-burners are young, white males whose activities are supported by their peers. An older but less active group have probably retired from active participation but...

  5. Development and demonstration of a gas-fired recuperative confined radiant burner (deliverable 42/43). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate an innovative, efficient, low-pollutant, recuperative gas-fired IR-system (infrared radiation) for industrial processes (hereafter referred to as the CONRAD-system). The CONRAD-system is confined, so flue gases from the combustion can be kept separated from the product. The gas/air mixture to the burner is preheated by means of the flue gas, which increases the radiant efficiency of the CONRAD-system significantly over traditional gas-fired IR burners. During the first phase of the project, the CONRAD-system was designed and developed. The conducted work included a survey on suitable burner materials, modelling of the burner system, basic design of burner construction, control etc., experimental characterisation of several preprototypes and detailed design of the internal heat exchanger in the burner. The result is a cost effective burner system with a documented radiant efficiency up to 66% and low emissions (NO{sub x} and CO) all in accordance with the criteria of success set up at the start of the project. In the second phase of the project, the burner system was established and tested in laboratory and in four selected industrial applications: 1) Drying of coatings on sand cores in the automotive industry. 2) Baking of bread/cake. 3) General purpose painting/powder curing process 4. Curing of powder paint on wood components. The results from the preliminary tests Overe used to optimise the CONRAD-system, before it was applied in the industrial processes and demonstrated. However, the optimised burners manufactured for demonstration suffered from different 'infant failures', which made the installation in an industrial environment very cumbersome, and even impossible in the food industry and the automotive industry. In the latter cases realistic laboratory tests Overe carried out and the established know how reported for use when the burner problems are overcome.(au)

  6. Use of numerical modeling in design for co-firing biomass in wall-fired burners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    modification to the motion and reaction due to their non-sphericity. The simulation results show a big difference between the two cases and indicate it is very significant to take into account the non-sphericity of biomass particles in order to model biomass combustion more accurately. Methods to improve...... of numerical modeling. The models currently used to predict solid fuel combustion rely on a spherical particle shape assumption, which may deviate a lot from reality for big biomass particles. A sphere gives a minimum in terms of the surface-area-to-volume ratio, which impacts significantly both motion...... and reaction of a particle. To better understand biomass combustion and thus improve the design for co-firing biomass in wall-fired burners, non-sphericity of biomass particles is considered. To ease comparison, two cases are numerically studied in a 10m long gas/biomass co-fired burner model. (1) The biomass...

  7. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  8. Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

  9. Effect of fuel volatility on performance of tail-pipe burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, Zelmar; Sargent, Arthur F , Jr

    1951-01-01

    Fuels having Reid vapor pressures of 6.3 and 1.0 pounds per square inch were investigated in a tail-pipe burner on an axial-flow-type turbojet engine at a simulated flight Mach number of 0.6 and altitudes from 20,000 to 45,000 feet. With the burner configuration used in this investigation, having a mixing length of only 8 inches between the fuel manifold and the flame holder, the low-vapor-pressure fuel gave lower combustion efficiency at a given tail-pipe fuel-air ratio. Because the exhaust-nozzle area was fixed, the lower efficiency resulted in lower thrust and higher specific fuel consumption. The maximum altitude at which the burner would operate was practically unaffected by the change in fuel volatility.

  10. Burner for a wood burning furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolting, H

    1981-12-10

    The burner according to the invention consists of a horizontal tube, whose front wall is penetrated by an intake pipe, which is surrounded by a pipe duct and several divided shells, which are arranged below the pipe duct. The front wall is also provided with air openings. The intake pipe is provided with a spiral and moves chopped wood into the burner.

  11. Pollutant emissions reduction and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scribano, Gianfranco; Solero, Giulio; Coghe, Aldo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa, 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum equivalence ratio, thermal power and lower pollutant emissions. The analysis, which focused on the main parameters influencing the thermal efficiency and pollutant emissions at the exhaust (NO{sub x} and CO), has been carried out for different operating conditions of the burner: input thermal powers from 12.8 up to 18kW and equivalence ratio from 0.5 (very lean flame) to 0.95 (quasi-stoichiometric condition). To significantly reduce pollutant emissions ensuring at the same time the thermal requirements of the heating process, it has been developed a new burner configuration, in which a fraction of the exhaust gases recirculates in the main combustion region through a variable gap between the burner efflux and the inner flame tube. This internal recirculation mechanism (exhaust gases recirculation, EGR) has been favoured through the addition of a pre-combustion chamber terminated by a converging nozzle acting as a mixing/ejector to promote exhaust gas entrainment into the flame tube. The most important result of this solution was a decrease of NO{sub x} emissions at the exhaust of the order of 50% with respect to the original burner geometry, for a wide range of thermal power and equivalence ratio. (author)

  12. Characterization of a new Hencken burner with a transition from a reducing-to-oxidizing environment for fundamental coal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, Adewale; Huang, Qian; Li, Tianxiang; Gopan, Akshay; Wang, Xuebin; Li, Shuiqing; Axelbaum, Richard L.

    2018-02-01

    In pulverized coal burners, coal particles usually transition from a locally reducing environment to an oxidizing environment. The locally reducing environment in the near-burner region is due to a dense region of coal particles undergoing devolatilization. Following this region, the particles move into an oxidizing environment. This "reducing-to-oxidizing" transition can influence combustion processes such as ignition, particulate formation, and char burnout. To understand these processes at a fundamental level, a system is required that mimics such a transition. Hence, we have developed and characterized a two-stage Hencken burner to evaluate the effect of the reducing-to-oxidizing transition and particle-to-particle interaction (which characterizes dense region of coal particles) on ignition and ultrafine aerosol formation. The two-stage Hencken burner allows coal particles to experience a reducing environment followed by a transition to an oxidizing environment. This work presents the results of the design and characterization of the new two-stage Hencken burner and its new coal feeder. In a unique approach to the operation of the flat-flame of the Hencken burner, the flame configurations are operated as either a normal flame or inverse flame. Gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations for the Hencken burner are measured in reducing-to-oxidizing and oxidizing environments. The results show that stable flames with well-controlled conditions, relatively uniform temperatures, and species concentrations can be achieved in both flame configurations. This new Hencken burner provides an effective system for evaluating the effect of the reducing-to-oxidizing transition and particle-to-particle interaction on early-stage processes of coal combustion such as ignition and ultrafine particle formation.

  13. Parametric Study of High-Efficiency and Low-Emission Gas Burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhn-Shyurng Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of three significant parameters, namely, swirl flow, loading height, and semi-confined combustion flame, on thermal efficiency and CO emissions of a swirl flow gas burner. We focus particularly on the effects of swirl angle and inclination angle on the performance of the swirl flow burner. The results showed that the swirl flow burner yields higher thermal efficiency and emits lower CO concentration than those of the conventional radial flow burner. A greater swirl angle results in higher thermal efficiency and CO emission. With increasing loading height, the thermal efficiency increases but the CO emission decreases. For a lower loading height (2 or 3 cm, the highest efficiency occurs at the inclination angle 15°. On the other hand, at a higher loading height, 4 cm, thermal efficiency increases with the inclination angle. Moreover, the addition of a shield can achieve a great increase in thermal efficiency, about 4-5%, and a decrease in CO emissions for the same burner (swirl flow or radial flow.

  14. The method of waste liquid atomization/incineration by using ultrasonic industrial burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartonek, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The problem of burning a fuel is closely related to distributing that fuel and mixing it with the combustion air within a pre-designated space, the combustion chamber. For fuel engineers, the rule of thumb is unchanged: mix it and it will burn. That is why the burner designer focuses his attention on incorporating the best possible atomization and mixing, equipment, i.c. in the end, on the construction of the atomizer nozzle and the control of the combustion air. It was these considerations plus the inability of conventional burners to meet the tough demands of today's applications that led DUMAG to undertake an intensive program of research which has now been crowned with success. Below, basic points drawn from the fundamental knowledge of all fuel engineers have been included to bring into sharper focus the operating principles of the DUMAG Ultrasonic Industrial Burner, a world class Austrian product. This paper describes a plant which has been operating without incident since October 1977. Its level of operational effectiveness is at least equivalent to that of a standard oil burner plant. The plant is also in full compliance with current environmental standards following the installation of additional safety equipment such as pre-combustion chambers, sensors to monitor pre-combustion chamber temperatures, cut-off valves for reaction water and solvents to block their flow if no heating oil is being fed in, flue gas density monitor, and finer atomization and better mixing by means of an ultrasonic system - even with fluctuations in the viscosity. By eliminating disposal costs and recovering power from liquid waste materials, the entire plant pays for itself within one year. (Original)

  15. Engineering models for low-NO{sub x} burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm Pedersen, Lars

    1997-08-01

    The present Ph.D. thesis describes a theoretical investigation of NO formation in pulverised coal combustion and an experimental investigation of co-combustion of straw and pulverised coal. The theoretical work has resulted in a simplified mathematical model of a swirling pulverised coal flame able to predict the NO emission and the burnout of coal. In order to simplify the flow pattern of a confined swirling flame, the residence time distribution (RTD) in a swirling pulverised coal flame was determined. This was done by using the solution of a detailed fluid dynamic mathematical model for a 2.2 MW{sub th} and a 12 MW{sub th} pulverised coal flame. From the mathematical solution the RTD was simulated by tracing a number of fluid particles or inert particles. The RTD in the near burner zone was investigated by use of the mathematical model for the 2.2 MW{sub th} and 12 MW{sub th} flame. Results showed that the gas phase in the near burner zone may be approximated as a CSTR and that the mean residence time increased with particle size. In pulverised coal flames, the most important volatile nitrogen component forming NO{sub x} is HCN. To be able to model the nitrogen chemistry in coal flames it is necessary to have an adequate model for HCN oxidation. In order to develop a model for HCN/NH{sub 3}/NO conversion, a systematic reduction of a detailed chemical kinetic model was performed. Based on the simplification of the flow pattern for a swirling flame and the reduced chemistry developed, a chemical engineering model of pulverised coal flame was established. The objectives were to predict the NO emission, the CO emission, and the burnout of char. The effects of co-firing straw and pulverised coal was investigated in a 2.5 MW{sub th} pilot-scale burner and a 250 MW{sub e} utility boiler. In the 2.5 MW{sub th} trial the straw was chopped and fed separately to the burner, whereas in the full-scale experiment the straw was pre-processed as pellets and pulverised with the

  16. Premixed burner experiments: Geometry, mixing, and flame structure issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.; Gupta, M. [Univ of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This research program is exploring techniques for improved fuel-air mixing, with the aim of achieving combustor operations up to stoichiometric conditions with minimal NO x and maximum efficiency. The experimental studies involve the use of a double-concentric natural gas burner that is operable in either premixed or non-premixed modes, and the system allows systematic variation of equivalence ratio, swirl strength shear length region and flow momentum in each annulus. Flame structures formed with various combinations of swirl strengths, flow throughput and equivalence ratios in premixed mode show the significant impact of swirl flow distribution on flame structure emanating from the mixedness. This impact on flame structure is expected to have a pronounced effect on the heat release rate and the emission of NO{sub x}. Thus, swirler design and configuration remains a key factor in the quest for completely optimized combustion. Parallel numerical studies of the flow and combustion phenomena were carried out, using the RSM and thek-{epsilon} turbulence models. These results have not only indicated the strengths and limitations of CFD in performance and pollutants emission predictions, but have provided guidelines on the size and strength of the recirculation produced and the spatio-temporal structure of the combustion flowfield. The first stage of parametric studies on geometry and operational parameters at Morgan State University have culminated in the completion of a one-dimensional flow code that is integrated with a solid, virtual model of the existing premixed burner. This coupling will provide the unique opportunity to study the impact of geometry on the flowfield and vice-versa, with particular emphasis on concurrent design optimization.

  17. RF torch discharge combined with conventional burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janca, J.; Tesar, C.

    1996-01-01

    The design of the combined flame-rf-plasma reactor and experimental examination of this reactor are presented. For the determination of the temperature in different parts of the combined burner plasma the methods of emission spectroscopy were used. The temperatures measured in the conventional burner reach the maximum temperature 1900 K but in the burner with the superimposed rf discharge the neutral gas temperature substantially increased up to 2600 K but also the plasma volume increases substantially. Consequently, the resident time of reactants in the reaction zone increases

  18. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  19. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO(sub x) in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO(sub x) emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames-particularly under low NO(sub x) conditions. A CO/H(sub 2)/O(sub 2)/N(sub 2) flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state(sup 13)C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  20. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  1. A design of steady state fusion burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Hatori, Tadatsugu; Itoh, Kimitaka; Ikuta, Takashi; Kodama, Yuji.

    1975-01-01

    We present a brief design of a steady state fusion burner in which a continuous burning of nuclear fuel may be achieved with output power of a gigawatt. The laser fusion is proposed to ignite the fuel. (auth.)

  2. Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (FACT-vol. 23). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; and Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Moussa, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Gas turbine combustion; Advanced energy conversion; Low NOx solutions; Burner developments; Alternative fuels combustion; Advanced energy conversion technologies; Numerical modeling of combustion; Fluidized bed combustion; Coal combustion; Combustion research; Gasification systems; Mercury emissions; Highly preheated air combustion; Selective catalytic reduction; Special topics in combustion research; Gas turbines and advanced energy; and How can the nuclear industry become more efficient? Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  3. Experimental apparatus with full optical access for combustion experiments with laminar flames from a single circular nozzle at elevated pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Peter H; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan; Aldén, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    The design and features of a high pressure chamber and burner that is suitable for combustion experiments at elevated pressures are presented. The high pressure combustion apparatus utilizes a high pressure burner that is comprised of a chamber burner module and an easily accessible interchangeable burner module to add to its flexibility. The burner is well suited to study both premixed and non-premixed flames. The optical access to the chamber is provided through four viewports for direct visual observations and optical-based diagnostic techniques. Auxiliary features include numerous access ports and electrical connections and as a result, the combustion apparatus is also suitable to work with plasmas and liquid fuels. Images of methane flames at elevated pressures up to 25 atm and preliminary results of optical-based measurements demonstrate the suitability of the high pressure experimental apparatus for combustion experiments.

  4. The effects of chemical kinetics and wall temperature on performance of porous media burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    mohammadi, Iman; Hossainpour, Siamak

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports a two-dimensional numerical prediction of premixed methane-air combustion in inert porous media burner by using of four multi-step mechanisms: GRI-3.0 mechanism, GRI-2.11 mechanism and the skeletal and 17 Species mechanisms. The effects of these models on temperature, chemical species and pollutant emissions are studied. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model for premixed methane-air combustion in porous media burner has developed. The finite volume method has used to solve the governing equations of methane-air combustion in inert porous media burner. The results indicate that the present four models have the same accuracy in predicting temperature profiles and the difference between these profiles is not more than 2 %. In addition, the Gri-3.0 mechanism shows the best prediction of NO emission in comparison with experimental data. The 17 Species mechanism shows good agreement in prediction of temperature and pollutant emissions with GRI-3.0, GRI-2.11 and the skeletal mechanisms. Also the effects of wall temperature on the gas temperature and mass fraction of species such as NO and CH4 are studied.

  5. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  6. Altitude Performance Characteristics of Tail-pipe Burner with Variable-area Exhaust Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Emmert T; Thorman, H Carl

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel to determine effect of altitude and flight Mach number on performance of tail-pipe burner equipped with variable-area exhaust nozzle and installed on full-scale turbojet engine. At a given flight Mach number, with constant exhaust-gas and turbine-outlet temperatures, increasing altitude lowered the tail-pipe combustion efficiency and raised the specific fuel consumption while the augmented thrust ratio remained approximately constant. At a given altitude, increasing flight Mach number raised the combustion efficiency and augmented thrust ratio and lowered the specific fuel consumption.

  7. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  8. Combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants; Chimie de la combustion et formation des polluants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 7 papers on combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants presented during the workshop organized by the `Combustion and Flames` section of the French society of thermal engineers. The chemistry of combustion is analyzed in various situations such as: turbojet engines, spark ignition engines, industrial burners, gas turbines etc... Numerical simulation is used to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in combustion, to describe the kinetics of oxidation, combustion and flame propagation, and to predict the formation of pollutants. (J.S.)

  9. Low NOx combustion technologies for high-temperature natural gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamme, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Because of the high process temperature which is required for some processes like glass melting and the high temperature to which the combustion air is preheated, NOx emission are extremely high. Even at these high temperatures, NOx emissions could be reduced drastically by using advanced combustion techniques such as staged combustion or flame-less oxidation, as experimental work has shown. In the case of oxy-fuel combustion, the NOx emission are also very high if conventional burners are used. The new combustion techniques achieve similar NOx reductions. (author)

  10. Numerical study of turbulent normal diffusion flame CH4-air stabilized by coaxial burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riahi Zouhair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The practical combustion systems such as combustion furnaces, gas turbine, engines, etc. employ non-premixed combustion due to its better flame stability, safety, and wide operating range as compared to premixed combustion. The present numerical study characterizes the turbulent flame of methane-air in a coaxial burner in order to determine the effect of airflow on the distribution of temperature, on gas consumption and on the emission of NOx. The results in this study are obtained by simulation on FLUENT code. The results demonstrate the influence of different parameters on the flame structure, temperature distribution and gas emissions, such as turbulence, fuel jet velocity, air jet velocity, equivalence ratio and mixture fraction. The lift-off height for a fixed fuel jet velocity is observed to increase monotonically with air jet velocity. Temperature and NOx emission decrease of important values with the equivalence ratio, it is maximum about the unity.

  11. Parameter optimization through performance analysis of model based control of a batch heat treatment furnace with low NO x radiant tube burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Sanyal, Dipankar

    2005-01-01

    A model based control structure for heat treating a 0.5% C steel slab in a batch furnace with low NO x radiant tube burner is designed and tested for performance to yield optimal parameter values using the model developed in the companion paper. Combustion is considered in a highly preheated and product gas diluted mode. Controlled combustion with a proposed arrangement for preheating and diluting the air by recirculating the exhaust gas that can be retrofitted with an existing burner yields satisfactory performance and emission characteristics. Finally, the effect of variable property considerations are presented and critically analyzed

  12. Characteristics of premixed flames stabilized in an axisymmetric curved-wall jet burner with tip modification

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daejoong; Gil, Y. S.; Chung, TaeWon; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2009-01-01

    The stabilization characteristics of premixed flames in an axisymmetric curved-wall jet burner have been experimentally investigated. This burner utilized the Coanda effect on top of a burner tip. The initially spherical burner tip was modified to a

  13. NOx reduction and NO2 emission characteristics in rich-lean combustion of hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, Toshio; Omori, Kento; Hiyama, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen is a clean alternative to conventional hydrocarbon fuels, but it is very important to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions generated by hydrogen combustion. The rich-lean combustion or staged combustion is known to reduce NOx emissions from continuous combustion burners such as gas turbines and boilers, and NOx reduction effects have been demonstrated for hydrocarbon fuels. The authors applied rich-lean combustion to a hydrogen gas turbine and showed its NOx reduction effect in...

  14. Effects of stepwise gas combustion on NOx generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woperane Seredi, A.; Szepesi, E.

    1999-01-01

    To decrease NO x emission from gas boilers, the combustion process of gas has been modified from continuous combustion to step-wise combustion. In this process the combustion temperature, the temperature peaks in the flame, the residence time of combustion products in the high-temperature zone and the oxygen partial pressure are changed advantageously. Experiments were performed using multistage burners, and the NO x emission was recorded. It was found that the air factor of the primary combustion space has a determining effect on the NO x reduction. (R.P.)

  15. Design process and instrumentation of a low NOx wire-mesh duct burner for micro-cogeneration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, O.B.; Gauthier, J.E.D. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Hughes, P.M.; Brandon, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2007-07-01

    Air pollution and global climate change have become a serious environmental problem leading to increasingly stringent government regulations worldwide. New designs and methods for improving combustion systems to minimize the production of toxic emissions, like nitrogen oxides (NOx) are therefore needed. In order to control smog, acid rain, ozone depletion, and greenhouse-effect warming, a reduction of nitrogen oxide is necessary. One alternative for combined electrical power and heat generation (CHP) are micro-cogeneration units which use a micro-turbine as a prime mover. However, to increase the efficiencies of these units, micro-cogeneration technology still needs to be developed further. This paper described the design process, building, and testing of a new low NOx wire-mesh duct burner (WMDB) for the development of a more efficient micro-cogeneration unit. The primary goal of the study was to develop a practical and simple WMDB, which produces low emissions by using lean-premixed surface combustion concept and its objectives were separated into four phases which were described in this paper. Phase I involved the design and construction of the burner. Phase II involved a qualitative flow visualization study for the duct burner premixer to assist the new design of the burner by introducing an efficient premixer that could be used in this new application. Phase III of this research program involved non-reacting flow modeling on the burner premixer flow field using a commercial computational fluid dynamic model. In phase IV, the reacting flow experimental investigation was performed. It was concluded that the burner successfully increased the quantity and the quality of the heat released from the micro-CHP unit and carbon monoxide emissions of less than 9 ppm were reached. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Multi-ported, internally recuperated burners for direct flame impingement heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Hamid A. (Naperville, IL); Kurek, Harry (Dyer, IN); Chudnovsky, Yaroslav (Skokie, IL); Lisienko, Vladimir G. (Ekaterinburg, RU); Malikov, German K. (Ekaterinburg, RU)

    2010-08-03

    A direct flame impingement method and apparatus employing at least one multi-ported, internally recuperated burner. The burner includes an innermost coaxial conduit having a first fluid inlet end and a first fluid outlet end, an outermost coaxial conduit disposed around the innermost coaxial conduit and having a combustion products outlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a combustion products inlet end proximate the first fluid outlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit, and a coaxial intermediate conduit disposed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit, whereby a second fluid annular region is formed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the intermediate coaxial conduit and a combustion products annular region is formed between the intermediate coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit. The intermediate coaxial conduit has a second fluid inlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a second fluid outlet end proximate the combustion products inlet end of the outermost coaxial conduit.

  17. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  18. Central recirculation zone analysis in an unconfined tangential swirl burner with varying degrees of premixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera-Medina, A. [CIATEQ, Parque Industrial Bernardo Quintana, Turbomachinery Department, Queretaro (Mexico); Syred, N.; Kay, P.; Griffiths, A. [Cardiff University, School of Engineering, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Swirl-stabilised combustion is one of the most widely used techniques for flame stabilisation, uses ranging from gas turbine combustors to pulverised coal-fired power stations. In gas turbines, lean premixed systems are of especial importance, giving the ability to produce low NOx systems coupled with wide stability limits. The common element is the swirl burner, which depends on the generation of an aerodynamically formed central recirculation zone (CRZ) and which serves to recycle heat and active chemical species to the root of the flame as well as providing low-velocity regions where the flame speed can match the local flow velocity. Enhanced mixing in and around the CRZ is another beneficial feature. The structure of the CRZ and hence that of the associated flames, stabilisation and mixing processes have shown to be extremely complex, three-dimensional and time dependent. The characteristics of the CRZ depend very strongly on the level of swirl (swirl number), burner configuration, type of flow expansion, Reynolds number (i.e. flowrate) and equivalence ratio. Although numerical methods have had some success when compared to experimental results, the models still have difficulties at medium to high swirl levels, with complex geometries and varied equivalence ratios. This study thus focuses on experimental results obtained to characterise the CRZ formed under varied combustion conditions with different geometries and some variation of swirl number in a generic swirl burner. CRZ behaviour has similarities to the equivalent isothermal state, but is strongly dependent on equivalence ratio, with interesting effects occurring with a high-velocity fuel injector. Partial premixing and combustion cause more substantive changes to the CRZ than pure diffusive combustion. (orig.)

  19. Effects of bluff-body burner and coal particle size on NOx emissions and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.S.; Cheng, J.F.; Zeng, H.C. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Coal Combustion Lab.

    1999-12-01

    Investigations on air staging have been carried out using various coals with different degrees of fineness and a variety of burners with a 92.9 kw h{sup -1} tunnel furnace burning pulverized coal. It has been observed that using the bluff-body burner can reduce both the unburned carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions in the case of air staging. The experimental results show that air-staging combustion has a more remarkable effect on NOx reduction for higher-volatile coal than for lower-volatile coal. The results also show that there is a strong influence of coal particle size on NOx emissions and unburned carbon in the fly ash in the case of air staging. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Numerical study of geometric parameters effecting temperature and thermal efficiency in a premix multi-hole flat flame burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberi Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Saei Moghaddam, Mojtaba; Khorramdel, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the geometric parameters related to thermal efficiency and pollution emission of a multi-hole flat flame burner. Recent experimental studies indicate that such burners are significantly influenced by both the use of distribution mesh and the size of the diameter of the main and retention holes. The present study numerically simulated methane-air premixed combustion using a two-step mechanism and constant mass diffusivity for all species. The results indicate that the addition of distribution mesh leads to uniform flow and maximum temperature that will reduce NOx emissions. An increase in the diameter of the main holes increased the mass flow which increased the temperature, thermal efficiency and NOx emissions. The size of the retention holes should be considered to decrease the total flow velocity and bring the flame closer to the burner surface, although a diameter change did not considerably improve temperature and thermal efficiency. Ultimately, under temperature and pollutant emission constraints, the optimum diameters of the main and retention holes were determined to be 5 and 1.25 mm, respectively. - Highlights: • Using distribution mesh led to uniform flow and reduced Nox pollutant by 53%. • 93% of total heat transfer occurred by radiation method in multi-hole burner. • Employing retention hole caused the flame become closer to the burner surface.

  1. Environmental optimisation of waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Berge, Niclas; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    The regulations concerning waste combustion evolve through R and D and a strive to get better and common regulations for the European countries. This study discusses if these rules of today concerning oxygen concentration, minimum temperature and residence time in the furnace and the use of stand-by burners are needed, are possible to monitor, are the optimum from an environmental point of view or could be improved. No evidence from well controlled laboratory experiments validate that 850 deg C in 6 % oxygen content in general is the best lower limit. A lower excess air level increase the temperature, which has a significant effect on the destruction of hydrocarbons, favourably increases the residence time, increases the thermal efficiency and the efficiency of the precipitators. Low oxygen content is also necessary to achieve low NO{sub x}-emissions. The conclusion is that the demands on the accuracy of the measurement devices and methods are too high, if they are to be used inside the furnace to control the combustion process. The big problem is however to find representative locations to measure temperature, oxygen content and residence time in the furnace. Another major problem is that the monitoring of the operation conditions today do not secure a good combustion. It can lead to a false security. The reason is that it is very hard to find boilers without stratifications. These stratifications (stream lines) has each a different history of residence time, mixing time, oxygen and combustible gas levels and temperature, when they reach the convection area. The combustion result is the sum of all these different histories. The hydrocarbons emission is in general not produced at a steady level. Small clouds of unburnt hydrocarbons travels along the stream lines showing up as peaks on a THC measurement device. High amplitude peaks has a tendency to contain higher ratio of heavy hydrocarbons than lower peaks. The good correlation between some easily detected

  2. Surface ignition behaviors of methane–air mixture in a gas oven burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jungwan; Kwon, Jongseo; Kim, Ryanggyun; Kim, Minseong; Kim, Youngsoo; Jeon, Chunghwan; Song, Juhun

    2014-01-01

    In a gas oven burner, commonly used as a residential appliance, a surface igniter is a critical component for creating a pilot flame near the surface that can propagate safely back to the nozzle of the burner. The igniter should meet critical operating requirements: a lower surface temperature needed to ignite a methane–air mixture and a stable/safe ignition sustained. Otherwise, such failure would result in an instantaneous peak in carbon monoxide emission and a safety hazard inside a closed oven. Several theoretical correlations have been used to predict ignition temperature as well as the critical ignition/extinction limit for a stagnation flow ignition. However, there have only been a few studies on ignition modes or relevant stability analysis, and therefore a more detailed examination of the transient ignition process is required. In this study, a high-speed flame visualization technique with temperature measurement was employed to reveal a surface ignition phenomenon and subsequent flame propagation of a cold combustible methane–air mixture in a gas oven burner. The operating parameters were the temperature–time history of the igniter surface, mixture velocity, and the distance of the igniter from the nozzle. The surface ignition temperatures were analyzed for such parameters under a safe ignition mode, while several abnormal modes leading to ignition failure were also recognized. - Highlights: •We revealed a surface ignition behavior of combustible mixture in gas oven burner. •We employed a flame visualization technique with temperature measurement. •We evaluated effects of parameters such as lifetime, mixture velocity and igniter distance. •We recognized several abnormal modes leading to ignition failure

  3. On Bunsen Burners, Bacteria and the Bible

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. On Bunsen Burners, Bacteria and the Bible. Milind Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 84-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/02/0084-0089 ...

  4. Nitrogen oxide formation as a function of the shape of the flame in an experimental gas burner. Stikstofoxidenvorming als functie van de vlamvorm bij experimentele gasbrander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H J.M.; Thus, A W

    1992-01-01

    One of the options to reduce the emission of NO[sub x] from gas-fired or coal-fired power plants is to develop new burners or to improve the control of existing burners. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a measuring method to control the combustion process in each burner of a gas-fired or coal-fired power plant concerning NO[sub x]-emission, a constant energy production and stability of the combustion. A passive spectroscopic measuring method was developed, in which use is made of the light, emitted by the flame. Based on the measured values the NO[sub x]-emissions and the shape of the flame were correlated. From the correlations it appears that flame shape and NO[sub x]-emissions correspond quite well

  5. Integration of a wood pellet burner and a Stirling engine to produce residential heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, Evelyn; Erlich, Catharina; Malmquist, Anders; Alejo, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The integration a Stirling engine with a pellet burner is a promising alternative to produce heat and power for residential use. In this context, this study is focused on the experimental evaluation of the integration of a 20 kW th wood pellet burner and a 1 kW e Stirling engine. The thermal power not absorbed by the engine is used to produce hot water. The evaluation highlights the effects of pellet type, combustion chamber length and cycling operation on the Stirling engine temperatures and thermal power absorbed. The results show that the position of the Stirling engine is highly relevant in order to utilize as much as possible of the radiative heat from the burner. Within this study, only a 5 cm distance change between the Stirling engine and the pellet burner could result in an increase of almost 100 °C in the hot side of the engine. However, at a larger distance, the temperature of the hot side is almost unchanged suggesting dominating convective heat transfer from the hot flue gas. Ash accumulation decreases the temperature of the hot side of the engine after some cycles of operation when a commercial pellet burner is integrated. The temperature ratio, which is the relation between the minimum and maximum temperatures of the engine, decreases when using Ø8 mm wood pellets in comparison to Ø6 mm pellets due to higher measured temperatures on the hot side of the engine. Therefore, the amount of heat supplied to the engine is increased for Ø8 mm wood pellets. The effectiveness of the engine regenerator is increased at higher pressures. The relation between temperature of the hot side end and thermal power absorbed by the Stirling engine is nearly linear between 500 °C and 660 °C. Higher pressure inside the Stirling engine has a positive effect on the thermal power output. Both the chemical and thermal losses increase somewhat when integrating a Stirling engine in comparison to a stand-alone boiler for only heat production. The overall efficiency

  6. Numerical Simulation of the Thermal Process in a W-Shape Radiant Tube Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Jiyong; Zhang, Lifeng; Ling, Haitao; Li, Yanlong

    2014-07-01

    In the current work, three-dimensional mathematical models were developed for the heat transfer and combustion in a W-shape radiant tube burner (RTB) and were solved using Fluent software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The standard k- ɛ model, nonpremixed combustion model, and the discrete ordinate model were used for the modeling of turbulence, combustion, and radiant heat transfer, respectively. In addition, the NO x postprocessor was used for the prediction of the NO emission. A corresponding experiment was performed for the validation of mathematical models. The details of fluid flow, heat transfer, and combustion in the RTB were investigated. Moreover, the effect of the air/fuel ratio (A/F) and air staging on the performance of RTB was studied with the reference indexes including heat efficiency, maximum temperature difference on shell wall, and NO emission at the outlet. The results indicated that a low speed zone formed in the vicinity of the combustion chamber outlet, and there were two relative high-temperature zones in the RTB, one in combustion chamber that favored the flame stability and the other from the main flame in the RTB. The maximum temperature difference was 95.48 K. As the A/F increased, the temperature increased first and then decreased. As the ratio of the primary to secondary air increased, the recirculation zone at the outlet of combustion chamber shrank gradually to disappear, and the flame length was longer and the temperature in flame decreased correspondingly.

  7. Characterisation of heat transfer and flame length in a semi-scale industrial furnace equipped with HiTAC burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Nehme, W.; Biswas, A.K.; Yang, W.; Blasiak, W.; Bertin, D. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the effects of multiple burner nozzles on the combustion characteristics, such as flame volume, heat transfer and NOx emission in a high temperature air combustion (HiTAC) industrial furnace. Experiments were carried out in one semi-industrial furnace located in Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan (Stockholm, Sweden). Three different types of burners were tested, including both regenerative and recuperative types. Variable flame temperature and oxygen concentration were applied in experiments. Heat transfer characteristics of HiTAC are studied in this paper, and the influences of a variety of inertial fuel/air jets are investigated for both flame length and NOx emission. One improved correlation between chemical flame length and flame Froude number is established for HiTAC with manifold nozzles. NOx emission is also correlated to the flame Froude number. The HiTAC recirculation system effects on flame shape, NOx emission and heat transfer were also examined.

  8. Transient change in the shape of premixed burner flame with the superposition of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Zaima, Kazunori; Sasaki, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the transient phenomena in a premixed burner flame with the superposition of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The length of the flame was shortened by the superposition of DBD, indicating the activation of combustion chemical reactions with the help of the plasma. In addition, we observed the modulation of the top position of the unburned gas region and the formations of local minimums in the axial distribution of the optical emission intensity of OH. These experim...

  9. Characterization of Liquid Fuel Evaporation of a Lifted Methanol Spray Flame in a Vitiated Coflow Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra, Ricardo; Dibble, Robert W.; Chen, Jyh-Yuan

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation of lifted spray flames in a coflow of hot, vitiated gases is presented. The vitiated coflow burner is a spray flame that issues into a coaxial flow of hot combustion products from a lean, premixed H2/Air flame. The spray flame in a vitiated coflow emulates the combustion that occurs in many advanced combustors without the detailed fluid mechanics. Two commercially available laser diagnostic systems are used to characterize the spray flame and to demonstrate the vitiated coflow burner's amenability to optical investigation. The Ensemble Particle Concentration and Size (EPCS) system is used to measure the path-average droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction at several axial locations while an extractive probe instrument named the Real-time Fuel-air Analyzer (RFA) is used to measure the air to fuel ratio downstream of the spray nozzle with high temporal and spatial resolution. The effect of coflow conditions (stoichiometry) and dilution of the fuel with water was studied with the EPCS optical system. As expected, results show that water retards the evaporation and combustion of fuels. Measurements obtained by the RFA extractive probe show that while the Delavan manufactured nozzle does distribute the fuel over the manufacturer specified spray angle, it unfortunately does not distribute the fuel uniformly, providing conditions that may result in the production of unwanted NOx. Despite some limitations due to the inherent nature of the experimental techniques, the two diagnostics can be readily applied to spray flames in the vitiated coflow environment.

  10. Effect of operating parameters of a burner of oxygen conversion on flame characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glike, A P

    1980-01-01

    Combustion of high-calorie gases under pressure makes it possible to create compact fuel-burning devices. As applied to open-hearth furnaces, several types of these devices have been developed. The oxidizer used is oxygen, blowing, enriched with oxygen or compressed air. Reformation of natural gas in the chamber of the burner of oxygen conversion operating under pressure up to 2 kg-f/cm/sup 2/ makes it possible to obtain a high-temperature flame with satisfactory illumination without using mazut.

  11. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  12. Thermal-hydraulics of actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Takano, Hideki; Ogawa, Toru; Osakabe, Masahiro.

    1989-07-01

    As a part of conceptual study of actinide burner reactors, core thermal-hydraulic analyses were conducted for two types of reactor concepts, namely (1) sodium-cooled actinide alloy fuel reactor, and (2) helium-cooled particle-bed reactor, to examine the feasibility of high power-density cores for efficient transmutation of actinides within the maximum allowable temperature limits of fuel and cladding. In addition, calculations were made on cooling of actinide fuel assembly. (author)

  13. Effect of the superposition of a dielectric barrier discharge onto a premixed gas burner flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaima, Kazunori; Takada, Noriharu; Sasaki, Koichi

    2011-10-01

    We are investigating combustion control with the help of nonequilibrium plasma. In this work, we examined the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on a premixed burner flame with CH4/O2/Ar gas mixture. The premixed burner flame was covered with a quartz tube. A copper electrode was attached on the outside of the quartz tube, and it was connected to a high-voltage power supply. DBD inside the quartz tube was obtained between the copper electrode and the grounded nozzle of the burner which was placed at the bottom of the quartz tube. We clearly observed that the flame length was shortened by superposing DBD onto the bottom part of the flame. The shortened flame length indicates the enhancement of the burning velocity. We measured the optical emission spectra from the bottom region of the flame. As a result, we observed clear line emissions from Ar, which were never observed from the flame without DBD. We evaluated the rotational temperatures of OH and CH radicals by spectral fitting. As a result, the rotational temperature of CH was not changed, and the rotational temperature of OH was decreased by the superposition of DBD. According to these results, it is considered that the enhancement of the burning velocity is not caused by gas heating. New reaction pathways are suggested.

  14. Optimization of gas mixing system of premixed burner based on CFD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tian-Hu; Liu, Feng-Guo; You, Xue-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New multi-ejectors gas mixing system for premixed combustion burner is provided. • Two measures are proposed to improve the flow uniformity at the outlet of GMS. • Small improvement of uniformity induces significant decrease of pollutant emission. • Uniformity of velocity and fuel–gas mixing of ejector increases 234.2% and 2.9%. • Uniformity of flow rate and fuel–gas mixing of ejectors increases 1.9% and 2.2%. - Abstract: The optimization of gas mixing system (GMS) of premixed burner is presented by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the uniformity at the outlet of GMS is proved experimentally to have strong influence on pollutant emission. To improve the uniformity at the outlet of GMS, the eleven distribution orifice plates and a diversion plate are introduced. The quantified analysis shows that the uniformity at the outlet of GMS is improved significantly. With applying the distribution orifice plates, the uniformity of velocity and fuel–gas mixing of single ejector is increased by 234.2% and 2.9%, respectively. With applying the diversion plate, the uniformity of flow rate and fuel–gas mixing of different ejectors is increased by 1.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The optimal measures and geometrical parameters provide an applicable guidance for the design of commercial premixed burner

  15. Influence of the burner swirl on the azimuthal instabilities in an annular combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Marek; Nygård, Håkon; Worth, Nicholas; Dawson, James

    2017-11-01

    Improving our fundamental understanding of thermoacoustic instabilities will aid the development of new low emission gas turbine combustors. In the present investigation the effects of swirl on the self-excited azimuthal combustion instabilities in a multi-burner annular annular combustor are investigated experimentally. Each of the burners features a bluff body and a swirler to stabilize the flame. The combustor is operated with an ethylene-air premixture at powers up to 100 kW. The swirl number of the burners is varied in these tests. For each case, dynamic pressure measurements at different azimuthal positions, as well as overhead imaging of OH* of the entire combustor are conducted simultaneously and at a high sampling frequency. The measurements are then used to determine the azimuthal acoustic and heat release rate modes in the chamber and to determine whether these modes are standing, spinning or mixed. Furthermore, the phase shift between the heat release rate and pressure and the shape of these two signals are analysed at different azimuthal positions. Based on the Rayleigh criterion, these investigations allow to obtain an insight about the effects of the swirl on the instability margins of the combustor. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement n° 677931 TAIAC).

  16. Measurements of non-reacting and reacting flow fields of a liquid swirl flame burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cheng Tung; Hochgreb, Simone

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of the liquid fuel spray and flow field characteristics inside a combustor is crucial for designing a fuel efficient and low emission device. Characterisation of the flow field of a model gas turbine liquid swirl burner is performed by using a 2-D particle imaging velocimetry(PIV) system. The flow field pattern of an axial flow burner with a fixed swirl intensity is compared under confined and unconfined conditions, i.e., with and without the combustor wall. The effect of temperature on the main swirling air flow is investigated under open and non-reacting conditions. The result shows that axial and radial velocities increase as a result of decreased flow density and increased flow volume. The flow field of the main swirling flow with liquid fuel spray injection is compared to non-spray swirling flow. Introduction of liquid fuel spray changes the swirl air flow field at the burner outlet, where the radial velocity components increase for both open and confined environment. Under reacting condition, the enclosure generates a corner recirculation zone that intensifies the strength of radial velocity. The reverse flow and corner recirculation zone assists in stabilizing the flame by preheating the reactants. The flow field data can be used as validation target for swirl combustion modelling.

  17. COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-01-01

    Coal-fired electric utilities are facing a serious challenge with regards to curbing their NO(sub x) emissions. At issue are the NO(sub x) contributions to the acid rain, ground level ozone, and particulate matter formation. Substantial NO(sub x) control requirements could be imposed under the proposed Ozone Transport Rule, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and New Source Performance Standards. McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Fuel Tech are teaming to provide an integrated solution for NO(sub x) control. The system will be comprised of an ultra low-NO(sub x) pulverized coal (PC) burner technology plus a urea-based, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system. This system will be capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO(sub x)/10(sup 6) Btu and target ammonia (NH3) slip level targeted below 5 ppmV for commercial units. Our approach combines the best available combustion and post-combustion NO(sub x) control technologies. More specifically, B and W's DRB-4Z TM ultra low-NO(sub x) PC burner technology will be combined with Fuel Tech's NO(sub x)OUT (SNCR) and NO(sub x)OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) systems and jointly evaluated and optimized in a state-of-the-art test facility at MTI. Although the NO(sub x)OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) system will not be tested directly in this program, its potential application for situations that require greater NO(sub x) reductions will be inferred from other measurements (i.e., SNCR NO(sub x) removal efficiency plus projected NO(sub x) reduction by the catalyst based on controlled ammonia slip). Our analysis shows that the integrated ultra low-NO(sub x) burner and SNCR system has the lowest cost when the burner emissions are 0.25 lb NO(sub x)/10(sup 6) Btu or less. At burner NO(sub x) emission level of 0.20 lb NO(sub x)/10(sup 6) Btu, the levelized cost per ton of NO(sub x) removed is 52% lower than the SCR cost

  18. Combustion instability control in the model of combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmadullin, A N; Ahmethanov, E N; Iovleva, O V; Mitrofanov, G A

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study of the influence of external periodic perturbations on the instability of the combustion chamber in a pulsating combustion. As an external periodic disturbances were used sound waves emitted by the electrodynamics. The purpose of the study was to determine the possibility of using the method of external periodic perturbation to control the combustion instability. The study was conducted on a specially created model of the combustion chamber with a swirl burner in the frequency range from 100 to 1400 Hz. The study found that the method of external periodic perturbations may be used to control combustion instability. Depending on the frequency of the external periodic perturbation is observed as an increase and decrease in the amplitude of the oscillations in the combustion chamber. These effects are due to the mechanisms of synchronous and asynchronous action. External periodic disturbance generated in the path feeding the gaseous fuel, showing the high efficiency of the method of management in terms of energy costs. Power required to initiate periodic disturbances (50 W) is significantly smaller than the thermal capacity of the combustion chamber (100 kW)

  19. Specifics of phytomass combustion in small experimental device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, Richard; Mičieta, Jozef; Jandačka, Jozef; Gavlas, Stanislav

    2015-05-01

    A wood pellet combustion carries out with high efficiency and comfort in modern pellet boilers. These facts help to increase the amount of installed pellet boilers in households. The combustion process quality depends besides the combustion conditions also on the fuel quality. The wood pellets, which don`t contain the bark and branches represent the highest quality. Because of growing pellet demand, an herbal biomass (phytomass), which is usually an agricultural by-product becomes economically attractive for pellet production. Although the phytomass has the net calorific value relatively slightly lower than the wood biomass, it is often significantly worse in view of the combustion process and an emission production. The combustion of phytomass pellets causes various difficulties in small heat sources, mainly due to a sintering of fuel residues. We want to avoid the ash sintering by a lowering of temperature in the combustion chamber below the ash sintering temperature of phytomass via the modification of a burner design. For research of the phytomass combustion process in the small boilers is constructed the experimental combustion device. There will investigate the impact of cooling intensity of the combustion chamber on the combustion process and emissions. Arising specific requirements from the measurement will be the basis for the design of the pellet burner and for the setting of operating parameters to the trouble-free phytomass combustion was guaranteed.

  20. Specifics of phytomass combustion in small experimental device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Richard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wood pellet combustion carries out with high efficiency and comfort in modern pellet boilers. These facts help to increase the amount of installed pellet boilers in households. The combustion process quality depends besides the combustion conditions also on the fuel quality. The wood pellets, which don`t contain the bark and branches represent the highest quality. Because of growing pellet demand, an herbal biomass (phytomass, which is usually an agricultural by-product becomes economically attractive for pellet production. Although the phytomass has the net calorific value relatively slightly lower than the wood biomass, it is often significantly worse in view of the combustion process and an emission production. The combustion of phytomass pellets causes various difficulties in small heat sources, mainly due to a sintering of fuel residues. We want to avoid the ash sintering by a lowering of temperature in the combustion chamber below the ash sintering temperature of phytomass via the modification of a burner design. For research of the phytomass combustion process in the small boilers is constructed the experimental combustion device. There will investigate the impact of cooling intensity of the combustion chamber on the combustion process and emissions. Arising specific requirements from the measurement will be the basis for the design of the pellet burner and for the setting of operating parameters to the trouble-free phytomass combustion was guaranteed.

  1. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  2. The effect of orifice plate insertion on low NOx radial swirl burner performances (simulated variable area burner)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar

    2000-01-01

    The effect of inserting an outlet orifice plate of different sizes at the exit plane of the swirler outlet were studied for small radial swirler with fixed curves vanes. Tests were carried out using two different sizes flame tubes of 76 mm and 140 mm inside diameter, respectively and 330 mm in length. The system was fuelled via eight vane passage fuel nozzles of 3.5 mm diameter hole. This type of fuel injection helps in mixing the fuel and air better prior to ignition. Tests were carried out at 20 mm W.G. pressure loss which is representative of gas burners for domestic central heating system operating conditions. Tests were also carried out at 400 K preheated inlet air temperature and using only natural gas as fuel. The aim of the insertion of orifice plate was to create the swirler pressure loss at the swirler outlet phase so that the swirler outlet shear layer turbulence was maximize to assist with fuel/air mixing. For the present work, the smallest orifice plate exhibited a very low NO x emissions even at 0.7 equivalence ratio were NO x is well below 10 ppm corrected at 0% oxygen at dry basis. Other emissions such as carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon were below 10 ppm and 100 ppm, respectively, over a wide range of operating equivalence ratios. The implies that good combustion was achieved using the smallest orifice plate. (Author)

  3. The effectiveness of recirculating flue gasses on a gas-fuel oil boiler unit with hearth burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremeev, V V; Kovalenko, A L; Kozlov, V G

    1981-01-01

    The results of investigating the effect of recirculating flue gasses on a TP-87 boiler (D = 420 tons per hour, 14 MPa, 560 C) with a hearth composition of four gas-fuel oil burners are presented. The heat-release rate of the volume of the furnace is 136 Kw per m/sup 3/; that if a cross section of the combustion chamber is 3.2 MW/m/sup 2/. The hot air temperature is 420 C. The tests were carried out during the combustion of M-100 petroleum oil which has a moisture content of 3 / 4% and a sulfur content of 2.4%. The pressure of the oil against the mechanical sprayers is 2.9-3.0 MPa at the rated load; the temperature is 125-130 C. The recirculation of the flue gasses was organized in order to expand the regulatory stress range and decrease the discharge of nitric oxides into the atmosphere. Moreover, flue gasses with a temperature of 330-370/sup 0/C were removed from a first-degree BE gas conduit, and, using two BGD-15.5 type exhaust fans, were fed into the annular channels around the burners. The calculated velocity of the gasses at the output of the burner is equal to 35 M/s; the air velocity is 64 M/s. It is shown that the TP-87 furnace--with fuel oil hearth burners and recirculation to obtain flue gasses into independent burner ducts--makes it possible to obtain a useful stress range during almost complete fuel oil combustion with minimal air exceses by maintaining the calculated temperature of the superheated vapor. Recirculating flue gasses in a duct around the burners constitutes an effective means of decreasing the discharge of nitric oxides, and of decreasing local heat stress on the screens. However, increasing the recirculation coefficient to 0.17 causes a 0.35% increase in the loss of heat with the departing gasses (the temperature of which increases by 7 C), and a 0.15% decrease in the heat flow rate for SN, which leads to an overall drop of approx. 0.5% in the efficiency coefficient of the boiler.

  4. Reduction of NOx and particulate emissions from coal-fired boilers by modification of coal nozzles and combustion tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, B.; Talanker, A.; Mugenstein, A.; Shpon, G.; Vikhansky, A.; Elperin, T.; Bar-Ziv, E.; Bockelie, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.F. [Israel Electric Corporation, Haifa (Israel). Engineering Division

    2001-07-01

    In the present paper two issues are discussed: the effect of the burner replacement on boiler performance and NOx emissions and the effect of the burner replacement on performance and efficiency of electrostatic precipitators (ESP). We also have experimented with different coal types and found the coals that together with combustion tuning met commonly accepted emission limits for NOx (less than 600 mg/dNm{sup 3}) and levels of carbon in fly ash (LOI) (approximately 5-6%) for existing boilers without low NOx burners. Our measurements were accompanied by computer simulations of the combustion of the combustion process in the boiler. Special attention was paid to detailed simulation of the flow and ignition in the near-burner zone. 7 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of a high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R and D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. OIT has funded a multiyear R and D project by the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) to design, fabricate, field test, and evaluate a high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) system. This ceramic-based recuperator system recovers waste heat from the corrosive, high-temperature (2170 F) flue gas stream of a steel soaking pit to preheat combustion air to as high as 1700 F. The preheated air is supplied to a high-temperature burner. The B and W R and D program, which is now complete, involved several activities, including selecting and evaluating ceramic materials, designing the system, and developing and evaluating the prototype. In addition, a full-scale unit was tested at a B and W steel soaking pit. The full-scale system consisted of a modular single-stage ceramic recuperator, a conventional two-pass metallic recuperator, a high-temperature burner, fans, insulated ducting, and associated controls and instrumentation. The metallic recuperator preheated combustion air to about 750 F before it passed to the ceramic module. This technical case study describes the DOE/B and W recuperator project and highlights the field tests of the full-scale recuperator system. The document makes results of field tests and data analysis available to other researchers and private industry. It discusses project status, summarizes field tests, and reviews the potential effects the technology will have on energy use and system economics.

  6. Advanced Diagnostics in Oxy-Fuel Combustion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Clausen, Sønnik

    This report sums up the findings in PSO-project 010069, “Advanced Diagnostics in Oxy- Fuel Combustion Processes”. Three areas of optic diagnostics are covered in this work: - FTIR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a laboratory...... technique was an invaluable tool in the discussion of data obtained by gas analysis, and it allowed for estimation of combustion times in O2/CO2 where the high CO2 concentration prevents the use of the carbon mass balance for that purpose. During the project the data have been presented at a conference......, formed the basis of a publication and it is part of two PhD dissertations. The name of the conference the journal and the dissertations are listed below. - Joint Meeting of the Scandinavian-Nordic and French Sections of the Combustion Institute, Combustion of Char Particles under Oxy-Fuel Conditions...

  7. The influence of burner material properties on the acoustical transfer function of radiant surface burners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreel, K.R.A.M.; Tillaart, van den E.L.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Modern central heating systems use low NO$_x$ premixed burners with a largemodulation range. This can lead to noise problems which cannot be solved viatrial and error, but need accurate modelling. An acoustical analysis as part ofthe design phase can reduce the time-to-market considerably, but the

  8. Combustion of producer gas from gasification of south Sumatera lignite coal using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidian Fajri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of gasses from lignite coal gasification is one of alternative fuel for the boiler or gas turbine. The prediction of temperature distribution inside the burner is important for the application and optimization of the producer gas. This research aims to provide the information about the influence of excess air on the temperature distribution and combustion product in the non-premixed burner. The process was carried out using producer gas from lignite coal gasification of BA 59 was produced by the updraft gasifier which is located on Energy Conversion Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department Universitas Sriwijaya. The excess air used in the combustion process were respectively 10%, 30% and 50%. CFD Simulations was performed in this work using two-dimensional model of the burner. The result of the simulation showed an increase of excess air, a reduction in the gas burner temperature and the composition of gas (carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and water vapor.

  9. Optical diagnostics to adjust burners. Een optische diagnostiek voor het instellen van branders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braam, A L.H.; Hulshof, H J.M.; De Jongh, W [NV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1991-05-01

    The most efficient method to reduce nitrogen oxides in a natural gas flame or a coal flame is a correct adjustment of the burners. A newly developed optical method to measure the temperature distribution in the flame is discussed. KEMA (a Dutch Electrotechnical Equipment Testing Agency) developed the measuring method to control the combustion process in each burner of a natural gas- or coal-fired power plant for NOx formation for a constant energy production, and for the stability of the combustion. By means of data from the temperature distribution measurements some important parameters concerning NOx formation can be determined. Attention is paid to several active and passive spectroscopic methods to measure temperatures in flames. Passive spectroscopy is considered to be the best measuring method. Concentrations of radicals (CH, CN, NH) and temperature distribution are determined by means of a spectroheliograph and a camera, flame temperatures are measured by means of metal tracers. Experimental measurements carried out in the Flevo plant (EPON) are discussed. 8 figs.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF THE USE FOR FERTILISATION PURPOSES INCINERATION ASH PELLETS USING GASIFICATION BURNER LESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Gibczyńska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass in system energetics for the purpose of increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the overall energy mix by biomass and coal co-combustion is not an optimal solution in the light of previous experience in Poland. It is appropriate to develop local biomass market for energy purposes as a basis for future distributed energy generation based on biomass. This solution facilitates the use of ash from biomass combustion for plant fertilisation. The present paper concerns the assessment of the use of ash from combustion of pellets in an innovative gasifying pellet burner – LESTER type, for soil fertilisation. The paper presents the analysis of the content of macro- and microelements in ash against the chemical composition of pellets in relation to permissible contents in fertilisers. The content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in bottom and fly ash from combustion of wood pellet and rye straw in LESTER gasifying burner validates the use of this material for soil fertilisation purposes. However, due to low nitrogen content – comparable to that found in soil, the material is not to be considered as fertiliser supplying this macroelement to soil. The analysed bottom ash used for fertilisation meets the conditions set out in the Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 9 September 2002. However, fly ash should be used with considerable caution due to high content of iron, zinc and nickel. The yield of bottom ash is several times higher than that of fly ash, therefore the possibility of its use in the form of mixtures in adequate proportions should be considered.

  11. Local defect correction techniques : analysis and application to combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthonissen, M.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Combustion processes are of fundamental importance both for industry and for ordinary life. Numerical simulations may be used as a design tool for the development of more efficient burners with a lower exhaust of polluting gases. In the mathematical description of a flame, we consider it a flowing

  12. Analyzing a low NO[sub x] concentric combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Eremeev, A.V.

    1992-05-01

    Discusses concentric combustion technology developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. (USA) to reduce NO[sub x] emissions from pulverized coal-fired boilers. The major innovation consists in arranging existing independent secondary air burners into three pairs of concentric combustion burners. Using high-deflection angle concentric combustion burners, higher oxygen concentration near the boiler walls, reduced erosion and lower probability of slag deposition on the heat shield are achieved. The technology was tested at the 165 MW Valmont power plant and 350 MW Cherokee power plant. Reduction of 55.7% (to 0.294 kg/GJ) in NO[sub x] emissions with a boiler efficiency of 86.35% was achieved. Highest NO[sub x] reduction efficiency was observed at full load (highest tertiary air supply). Burner design, performance, relations of NO[sub x] emissions and tertiary air blast as well as fuel entrainment prior to and after upgrading are given. Methods of reducing slag deposition in boilers are considered. 2 refs.

  13. Combustion Characterization of Individual Bio-oil Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2015-01-01

    Single droplet combustion characteristics has been investigated for bio-oil slurries, containing biomass residue, and compared to conventional fuels for pulverized burners, such as fuel oil (start up) and wood chips (solid biomass fuel). The investigated fuels ignition delays and pyrolysis behavior...

  14. Fluidized-bed calciner with combustion nozzle and shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielang, J.A.; Palmer, W.B.; Kerr, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    A nozzle employed as a burner within a fluidized bed is coaxially enclosed within a tubular shroud that extends beyond the nozzle length into the fluidized bed. The open-ended shroud portion beyond the nozzle end provides an antechamber for mixture and combustion of atomized fuel with an oxygen-containing gas. The arrangement provides improved combustion efficiency and excludes bed particles from the high-velocity, high-temperature portions of the flame to reduce particle attrition. 4 claims, 2 figures

  15. Some parameters and conditions defining the efficiency of burners ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    irradiation in special burners, namely, in the blankets of ADS. Various views ... Ecologic gain – ratio of the ecologic threat level of initial LLW to that of final. LLW. .... For all burner types, the general tendency is that the increase of consumption.

  16. Studies on Decomposition and Combustion Mechanism of Solid Fuel Rich Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    thrust to cruise at supersonic speed. This was followed by the test of large diameter ramjet called burner test vehicle (BTV). Advanced low volume...propellant surface. Vernekar et al (43) found that in pressed AP-Al pellets , maximum burn rate is obtained at intermediate metal content. Jain et al...conjunction with high pressure window strand burner . They found that the propellant combustion was irregular and regression rate varied from 0.3 to 3

  17. Component Development to Accelerate Commercial Implementation of Ultra-Low Emissions Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, Jon; Berry, Brian; Lundberg, Kare; Anson, Orris

    2003-03-31

    This final report describes a 2000-2003 program for the development of components and processes to enhance the commercialization of ultra-low emissions catalytic combustion in industrial gas turbines. The range of project tasks includes: development of more durable, lower-cost catalysts and catalytic combustor components; development and design of a catalytic pre-burner and a catalytic pilot burner for gas turbines, and on-site fuel conversion processing for utilization of liquid fuel.

  18. Image-based spectroscopic sensor for the automatic control gas burners in the glass-processing industry. Multichannel spectral detection of flame emissions and multivariate analysis methods allow for optical quality monitoring and control of industrial burners; Bildgebende optische Spektralsensorik zur automatischen Regelung von Gasbrennern fuer die Glas verarbeitende Industrie. Durch mehrkanalige spektrale Aufnahmen der Flammenemission und multivariate Auswertemethoden kann die Qualitaet der Gasversorgung bei industriellen Brennern optisch ueberwacht und geregelt werden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knetsch, R.; Arnold, W. [Herbert Arnold GmbH und Co. KG, Weilburg (Germany); Erfurth, F.; Scheibe, A.; Nyuyki, B.; Schmidt, W.D. [GMBU e.V., Jena (Germany). Fachsektion Photonik und Sensorik

    2009-07-01

    The precise composition of the combustion gas mixture of burners is essential for the maximum achievable flame temperature as well as for the economic use of raw material. We present a mobile device for optical flame analysis and optimization of gas supply for industrial burners. The relative fuel-oxygen-ratio can be assessed by means of spectral emission in the visible and UV region by factoring in the distribution of gas emissions along the flame. Based on spectral imaging technology our sensor allows for calculation of a flame index stating the quality of fuel supply. A laboratory sample of the flame sensor has been tested with different burners using natural gas and propane. The flame index has been determined successful for several fuel-oxygen-ratios. Practical experiments showed that uncomplicated software-based adaptation of the device to several burner configurations is possible.

  19. 0.20-m (8-in.) primary burner development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stula, R.T.; Young, D.T.; Rode, J.S.

    1977-12-01

    High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) utilize graphite-base fuels. Fluidized-bed burners are being employed successfully in the experimental reprocessing of these fuels. The primary fluidized-bed burner is a unit operation in the reprocessing flowsheet in which the graphite moderator is removed. A detailed description of the development status of the 0.20-m (8-in.) diameter primary fluidized-bed burner as of July 1, 1977 is presented. Experimental work to date performed in 0.10; 0.20; and 0.40-m (4, 8, and 16 in.) diameter primary burners has demonstrated the feasibility of the primary burning process and, at the same time, has defined more clearly the areas in which additional experimental work is required. The design and recent operating history of the 0.20-m-diameter burner are discussed, with emphasis placed upon the evolution of the current design and operating philosophy

  20. Efficient industrial burner control of a flexible burner management system; Effiziente industrielle Brennertechnik durch Einsatz flexibler Feuerungsautomaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Saenger, Peter [Siemens AG, Rastatt (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Compactness and flexibility of a burner control system is a very important issue. With a few types a wide range in different industrial applications should be covered. This paper presents different applications of a new burner control system: heating of cooling lines in glass industry, steam generation and air heating for a pistachio roastery and in grain dryers. (orig.)

  1. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using a Double-Slit Curved Wall-Jet Burner

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Mohamed

    2016-05-04

    A novel double-slit curved wall-jet (DS-CWJ) burner was proposed and utilized for flame synthesis. This burner was comprised of double curved wall-jet nozzles with coaxial slits; the inner slit was for the delivery of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) precursor while the outer one was to supply premixed fuel/air mixture of ethylene (C2H4) or propane (C3H8). This configuration enabled rapid mixing between the precursor and reactants along the curved surface and inside the recirculation zone of the burner. Particle growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and their phases was investigated with varying equivalence ratio and Reynolds number. Flow field and flame structure were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques, respectively. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) for surface area analysis. The flow field consisted of a wall-jet region leading to a recirculation zone, an interaction jet region, followed by a merged-jet region. The DS-CWJ burner revealed appreciable mixing characteristics between the precursor and combustion gases near the nozzle regions, with a slight increase in the axial velocity due to the precursor injection. The precursor supply had a negligible effect on the flame structure. The burner produced a reasonably uniform size (13–18 nm) nanoparticles with a high BET surface area (>100 m2/g). The phase of TiO2 nanoparticles was mainly dependent on the equivalence ratio and fuel type, which impact flame height, heat release rate, and high temperature residence time of the precursor vapor. For ethylene flames, the anatase content increased with the equivalence ratio, whereas it decreased in the case of propane flames. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited high crystallinity and the anatase phase was dominant at high equivalence

  2. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX

  3. Influence of Coal Quality on Combustion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    mixing pattern on NO formation under these conditions. Emissions from the opposed fired plant with all combustion air introduced through the burners could only be qualitatively reproduced by the pilot furnace. Under single stage conditions the test rig provided higher NO levels. Carbon in ash levels did...... not show any correlation between the coals and the furnaces. An engineering, mathematical model has been developed describing radiation heat transfer and coal combustion in full scale furnaces. The model has been validated against measured temperatures and the amount of carbon in fly ash. The model...

  4. Operational limits of recuperative low NO{sub x}-burners using low calorific gas qualities; Einsatzgrenzen rekuperativer Low NO{sub x}-Brenner im Betrieb mit niederkalorischen Gasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moentmann, Dirk; Kleingries, Mirko; Pohland vom Schloss, Heide; Lucka, Klaus [OWI Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, An-Institut der RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The by products of several industrial processes are gases with lower calorific value. Rising energy prices make them a focus of interest for thermal utilization. The combuston of low calorific value gases is demanding with respect to the combustion process. The chemical composition varies depending on the application and process flow. A stable combustion has to be ensured at any time in spite of fluctuating properties like calorific value, wobbe index, flame temperature etc. Corrosive components may induce degradation of sealing materials employed in devices of the burner equipment like shut off valves. Within this research project of the research association 'Forschungsgemeinschaft Industrieofenbau (FOGI)' the operation and ignition behaviour of three commercial recuperator burners was investigated under operation with low calorific gases. It is demonstrated that these burners can basically be deployed under certain conditions. (orig.)

  5. Flame image monitoring and analysis in combustion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D [CEZ, a.s. Elektrarna Detmarovice, Detmarovice (Czech Republic); Huttunen, A J; Nihtinen, J J [Imatran Voima Oy, IVO Technology Centre, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    When NO{sub x} emissions are reduced with new low-NO{sub x} burners and infurnace modifications in old pulverised fuel boilers, many changes in the firing conditions may occur. Depending on coal quality and the original furnace design, low-NO{sub x} burners, overtire air, low-excess-air firing and other primary modifications in various combinations may cause flame instability, increased slagging, increased minimum load and other difficulties in controlling the burning process. To find and solve these problems quicker, a new type of burner management system for pulverised fuel and oil-fired boilers was developed by Imatran Voima Oy. The DIMAC combustion management system monitors and analyses individually each burner or burner level. There are special software for wall and corner fired boilers. The DIMAC system is comprised of two functional subsystems: flame monitoring and flame analysis. The DIMAC enables the power plant operators to minimise NO{sub x} emissions and optimise the burning efficiency with varying coal qualities and boiler loads at the same time so that slagging, unburnt carbon in fly ash and flame stability stay in acceptable limits. It also guarantees that burners operate in good safety conditions in each burner level. The DIMAC system monitors perpendicularly each individual burner and evaluates flame parameters. Real-time flame monitoring and analysis allows the operator to directly see the effect of changing fuel distribution on flame pattern and flame stability. Based on data from the DIMAC references the system can improve boiler efficiency by 0.2 - 0.5 per cent unit as a result of more efficient control of the burning process. At the same time, the NO{sub x} formation can be reduced by 10 - 20 % 2 refs.

  6. Flame image monitoring and analysis in combustion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D. [CEZ, a.s. Elektrarna Detmarovice, Detmarovice (Czech Republic); Huttunen, A.J.; Nihtinen, J.J. [Imatran Voima Oy, IVO Technology Centre, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    When NO{sub x} emissions are reduced with new low-NO{sub x} burners and infurnace modifications in old pulverised fuel boilers, many changes in the firing conditions may occur. Depending on coal quality and the original furnace design, low-NO{sub x} burners, overtire air, low-excess-air firing and other primary modifications in various combinations may cause flame instability, increased slagging, increased minimum load and other difficulties in controlling the burning process. To find and solve these problems quicker, a new type of burner management system for pulverised fuel and oil-fired boilers was developed by Imatran Voima Oy. The DIMAC combustion management system monitors and analyses individually each burner or burner level. There are special software for wall and corner fired boilers. The DIMAC system is comprised of two functional subsystems: flame monitoring and flame analysis. The DIMAC enables the power plant operators to minimise NO{sub x} emissions and optimise the burning efficiency with varying coal qualities and boiler loads at the same time so that slagging, unburnt carbon in fly ash and flame stability stay in acceptable limits. It also guarantees that burners operate in good safety conditions in each burner level. The DIMAC system monitors perpendicularly each individual burner and evaluates flame parameters. Real-time flame monitoring and analysis allows the operator to directly see the effect of changing fuel distribution on flame pattern and flame stability. Based on data from the DIMAC references the system can improve boiler efficiency by 0.2 - 0.5 per cent unit as a result of more efficient control of the burning process. At the same time, the NO{sub x} formation can be reduced by 10 - 20 % 2 refs.

  7. Examination of the Combustion Morphology of Ziconium Carbide Using Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, Brian R.

    1997-01-01

    Calculation of viscous particle damping of acoustic combustion instability in solid propellant motors requires an understanding of the combustion behavior of added particles and oxides. A simple hydrogen/oxygen flame was used to ignite carefully sieved zirconium carbide particles which were impacted on slides at different levels below the burner. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that zirconium carbide has a complex heterogeneous combustion morphology. Initially, particles are partly v...

  8. Large Eddy Simulation Analysis on Confined Swirling Flows in a Gas Turbine Swirl Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a Large Eddy Simulation (LES investigation into flow fields in a model gas turbine combustor equipped with a swirl burner. A probability density function was used to describe the interaction physics of chemical reaction and turbulent flow as liquid fuel was directly injected into the combustion chamber and rapidly mixed with the swirling air. Simulation results showed that heat release during combustion accelerated the axial velocity motion and made the recirculation zone more compact. As the combustion was taking place under lean burn conditions, NO emissions was less than 10 ppm. Finally, the effects of outlet contraction on swirling flows and combustion instability were investigated. Results suggest that contracted outlet can enhance the generation of a Central Vortex Core (CVC flow structure. As peak RMS of velocity fluctuation profiles at center-line suggested the turbulent instability can be enhanced by CVC motion, the Power Spectrum Density (PSD amplitude also explained that the oscillation at CVC position was greater than other places. Both evidences demonstrated that outlet contraction can increase the instability of the central field.

  9. Transient change in the shape of premixed burner flame with the superposition of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaima, Kazunori; Sasaki, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the transient phenomena in a premixed burner flame with the superposition of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The length of the flame was shortened by the superposition of DBD, indicating the activation of combustion chemical reactions with the help of the plasma. In addition, we observed the modulation of the top position of the unburned gas region and the formations of local minimums in the axial distribution of the optical emission intensity of OH. These experimental results reveal the oscillation of the rates of combustion chemical reactions as a response to the activation by pulsed DBD. The cycle of the oscillation was 0.18-0.2 ms, which could be understood as the eigenfrequency of the plasma-assisted combustion reaction system.

  10. Pulsed fan burner units with integrated automatic lambda control. Pt. 2; Impulsgeblaesebrennaggregate mit integrierter LAMBDA-Automatik. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiem, Ralph

    2010-02-15

    In recent years, pulsed firing technology has gained increasing importance in the ceramic industry for optimizing firing quality while saving energy through the use of PLC technology. To satisfy ever more stringent environmental regulations, including the German Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control (TA Luft) and the Federal Immission Control Act (Blmschg), the further improvement of proven systems currently in use is absolutely essential. Pulsed fan burners with automatic combustion-air adjustment are the development engineers' response to the need for flexibly automated turbulences in the combustion atmosphere that comply with statutory emission standards. In addition, energy savings of some 20% can be achieved with this technology compared to the older pulsed combustion systems. (orig.)

  11. Molten salt burner fuel behaviour and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.V.; Zakirov, R.Y.; Grebenkine, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of molten salt reactor technology for treatment of Pu, minor actinides and fission products, when the reactor and fission product clean-up unit are planned as an integral system. This contribution summarises the available R and D which led to selection of the fuel compositions for the molten salt reactor of the TRU burner type (MSB). Special characteristics of behaviour of TRUs and fission products during power operation of MSB concepts are presented. The present paper briefly reviews the processing developments underlying the prior molten salt reactor programmes and relates them to the separation requirements of the MSB concept, including the permissible range of processing cycle times and removal times. Status and development needs in the thermodynamic properties of fluorides, fission product clean-up methods and container materials compatibility with the working fluids for the fission product clean-up unit are discussed. (authors)

  12. AGA answers complaints on burner tip prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the American Gas Association has rebutted complaints that natural gas prices have dropped at the wellhead but not at the burner tip. AGA Pres. Mike Baly the an association study of the issue found that all classes of customers paid less for gas in 1991 than they did in 1984, when gas prices were at their peak. He the, the study also shows that 100% of the wellhead price decline has been passed through to natural gas consumers in the form of lower retail prices. Baly the the average cost of gas delivered to all customers classes fell by $1.12/Mcf from 1984 to 1991, which exceeds the $1.10/Mcf decline in average wellhead prices during the same period

  13. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Y Jia, W. Morris [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pedel, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rezeai, D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wang, L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  14. Trace emissions from gaseous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA) was amended in 1990 to include the development of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) for certain stationary sources by November 2000. MACT emissions standards would affect process heaters and industrial boilers since combustion processes are a potential source for many air toxins. The author noted that one of the problems with MACT is the lack of a clear solid scientific footing which is needed to develop environmentally responsible regulations. In order to amend some of these deficiencies, a 4-year, $7 million research project on the origin and fate of trace emissions in the external combustion of gaseous hydrocarbons was undertaken in a collaborative effort between government, universities and industry. This collaborative project entitled the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) Project 92-19 produced basic information and phenomenological understanding in two important areas, one basic and one applied. The specific objectives of the project were to measure emissions while operating different full-scale burners under various operating conditions and then to analyze the emission data to identify which operating conditions lead to low air toxic emissions. Another objective was to develop new chemical kinetic mechanisms and predictive models for the formation of air toxic species which would explain the origin and fate of these species in process heaters and industrial boilers. It was determined that a flame is a very effective reactor and that trace emissions from a typical gas-fired industry burner are very small. An unexpected finding was that trace emissions are not affected by hydrocarbon gaseous fuel composition, nor by the use of ultra low nitrous oxide burners. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  15. NO{sub x} emissions from combustion of hydrogen mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roertveit, Geir Johan

    2002-07-01

    This work includes five different parts each of which has resulted in a paper that is accepted and submitted for publication. Additionally, a short introductory background section precedes these papers. A significant amount of experimental data is presented for the combustion of hydrogen which focus on emission of NO{sub x}. Different dilutes were added to the hydrogen to reduce the flame temperature and subsequently the NO{sub x} emissions. These experiments were performed in a counterflow burner where a flat steady flame layer facilitated accurate measurements. The experiments were compared with numerical calculations to assist the interpretation and discussion of the results. It was found that the experimental results compared well with numerical calculations of NO{sub x} at temperatures of up to 1900 K, while for higher temperatures an increasing discrepancy was found due to the influence of the sampling equipment. Nitrogen diluted methane was enriched by hydrogen from 0to 100 % to study the effect of NO{sub x} with the use of different fuel mixtures in the same counterflow burner. For a similar temperature of the NO{sub x} emitted from a H{sub 2} flame is only 25 % of that of a methane flame. Experiments compared to the pure methane flame showed that there is only a reduction of NO{sub x} when there is very high hydrogen content in the fuel mixture and for most mixtures an actual increase in NO{sub x} is observed. This is found partly due to a triggering of the NO{sub x} from the prompt mechanism. Natural gas and methane have both been substituted by up to 30 % H{sub 2} at constant load in various burners to reveal the effect of H{sub 2} enrichment on emissions. The burners include a swirl burner, a fibre burner, a porous burner and a catalytically supported porous burner. The thermal loads were varied from 2.6 to 21 kW, while excess air ratios were varied form 1 to 1.8. In general little effect of H{sub 2} is found by enriching the fuel. At temperatures of up

  16. Impact of fuel quality and burner capacity on the performance of wood pellet stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Bećirović Sanja B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pellet stoves may play an important role in Serbia in the future when fossil fuel fired conventional heating appliances are replaced by more efficient and environmentally friendly devices. Experimental investigation was conducted in order to examine the influence of wood pellet quality, as well as burner capacity (6, 8 and 10 kW, used in the same stove configuration, on the performance of pellet stove with declared nameplate capacity of 8 kW. The results obtained showed that in case of nominal load and combustion of pellets recommended by the stove manufacturer, stove efficiency of 80.03% was achieved. The use of lower quality pellet caused additional 1.13 kW reduction in heat output in case of nominal load and 0.63 kW in case of reduced load. This was attributed to less favourable properties and lower bulk and particle density of lower quality pellet. The use of different burner capacity has shown to have little effect on heat output and efficiency of the stove when pre-set values in the control system of the stove were not altered. It is concluded that replacement of the burner only is not sufficient to increase/decrease the declared capacity of the same stove configuration, meaning that additional measures are necessary. These measures include a new set up of the stove control system, which needs to be properly adjusted for each alteration in stove configuration. Without the adjustment mentioned, declared capacity of the stove cannot be altered, while its CO emission shall be considerably increased.

  17. Pollution active control: a strategy for a clean and efficient combustion; Le controle actif des polluants: une strategie pour une combustion propre et efficace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacas, F. [CNRS Ecole Centrale de Paris, 75 (France). Laboratoire E.M2.C

    1996-12-31

    The active control NOx reduction concept has been applied on two burners (20 kW and 840 kW), using a rotary valve enabling an excitation in the 100 to 1000 Hz band, that can be mounted on existing appliances such as domestic or industrial boilers. NOx level reduction may reach 15 pc for the 20 kW burner, 25 pc for the 840 kW burner with domestic fuel oil and 35 pc for the 840 kW burner using pyridine doped domestic fuel oil. Mechanisms are detailed through flow visualization, and consist mainly in an annular vortex inducing a fuel/air pre-mixing favourable to a large decrease in NOx generation level and establishing a staged process such as in re-burning processes. The pulsed combustion process may be also combined to other pollution control systems

  18. Development of strand burner for solid propellant burning rate studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A; Mamat, R; Ali, W K Wan

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that a strand burner is an apparatus that provides burning rate measurements of a solid propellant at an elevated pressure in order to obtain the burning characteristics of a propellant. This paper describes the facilities developed by author that was used in his studies. The burning rate characteristics of solid propellant have be evaluated over five different chamber pressures ranging from 1 atm to 31 atm using a strand burner. The strand burner has a mounting stand that allows the propellant strand to be mounted vertically. The strand was ignited electrically using hot wire, and the burning time was recorded by electronic timer. Wire technique was used to measure the burning rate. Preliminary results from these techniques are presented. This study shows that the strand burner can be used on propellant strands to obtain accurate low pressure burning rate data

  19. Evaluating the efficacy of a minor actinide burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Nelson, J.V.; Omberg, R.P.; Wootan, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    The efficacy of a minor actinide burner can be evaluated by comparing safety and economic parameters to the support ratio. Minor actinide mass produced per unit time in this number of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) can be burned during the same time period in one burner system. The larger the support ratio for a given set of safety and economic parameters, the better. To illustrate this concept, the support ratio for selected Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) burner core designs was compared with corresponding coolant void worths, a fundamental safety concern following the Chernobyl accident. Results can be used to evaluate the cost in reduced burning of minor actinides caused by LMR sodium void reduction efforts or to compare with other minor actinide burner systems

  20. Assessment of PWR plutonium burners for nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, A.J.; Shapiro, N.L.

    1976-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the performance and safety characteristics of PWR plutonium burners, to identify modifications to current PWR designs to enhance plutonium utilization, to study the problems of deploying plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers, and to assess current industrial capability of the design and licensing of such reactors. A plutonium burner is defined to be a reactor which utilizes plutonium as the sole fissile addition to the natural or depleted uranium which comprises the greater part of the fuel mass. The results of the study and the design analyses performed during the development of C-E's System 80 plant indicate that the use of suitably designed plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers is technically feasible

  1. Importance of fragmentation on the steady state combustion of wood char in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, Carlos [Universidade do Porto (CEFT/FEUP), Porto (Portugal). Faculdade de Engenharia. Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte], E-mail: ctp@fe.up.pt

    2010-07-01

    A simple mathematical model for the analysis of the steady state behavior of a bubbling fluidized bed burner is presented, with the main intention of evaluating the importance of the primary fragmentation of fuel particles on the performance of this type of burners. This model has pedagogical advantages because of its simplicity and easiness of application to the analysis of realistic situations. The model is based upon the classical models used for the study of batch combustion processes in fluidized bed reactors. Experimental data from studies of fluidized bed combustion of portuguese vegetable chars are used to support the analysis of the performance of a 1 m diameter fluidized bed combustor. (author)

  2. Combustion and utilization of low calorific value gases (LCVG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, Puneet; Ray, Anjan

    2010-09-15

    Combustion becomes increasingly difficult / inefficient / impossible with decrease in hydrocarbon content / calorific value of gas with available technologies. Through analysis it was postulated that Low Calorific Value Gas would be combustible with Oxygen in existing burner equipment with minor changes, and experimentally tested in the laboratory. The broad conclusion is that LCVG (with 8% or more Hydrocarbon content) could be combusted as efficiently as a normal High CV natural gas. This creates opportunity to translate significant promise and potential of LCVG from a variety of un-conventional sources globally into reliable long term energy resources.

  3. Investigation of the submodels for combustion; Polton osamallien kaeytettaevyys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaeldman, L.; Huttunen, M.; Kyttaelae, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The capability for numerical analysis of flow, combustion and heat transfer in furnaces has been developed by improving the knowledge of the sensitivity of computed results on submodels recently implemented to the computational environment Ardemus owned by VTT Energy and Imatran Voima Oy. The submodels studied include models for combustion of gaseous (pyrolysed) fuel and for nitric oxide. The cases investigated included a gas flame and pulverized coal and peat combustion in single burner furnaces. The effect of grid refinement on the results was investigated for a corner fired power station furnace. (orig.)

  4. Propagating nonpremixed edge-flames in a counterflow, annular slot burner under DC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh

    2016-09-11

    Characteristics of propagating nonpremixed edge-flames were investigated in a counterflow, annular slot burner. A high-voltage direct current (DC) was applied to the lower part of the burner and the upper part was grounded, creating electric field lines perpendicular to the direction of edge-flame propagation. Upon application of an electric field, an ionic wind is caused by the migration of positive and negative ions to lower and higher electrical potential sides of a flame, respectively. Under an applied DC, we found a significant decrease in edge-flame displacement speeds unlike several previous studies, which showed an increase in displacement speed. Within a moderate range of field intensity, we found effects on flame propagation speeds to be negligible after correcting the flame displacement speed with respect to the unburned flow velocity ahead of the flame edge. This indicates that the displacement speed of an edge-flame strongly depends on ionic wind and that an electric field has little or no impact on propagation speed. The ionic wind also influenced the location of the stoichiometric contour in front of the propagating edge in a given configuration such that a propagating edge was relocated to the higher potential side due to an imbalance between ionic winds originating from positive and negative ions. In addition, we observed a steadily wrinkled flame following transient propagation of the edge-flame, a topic for future research. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  5. Numerical Investigation of the Low-Caloric Gas Burning Process in a Bottom Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redko A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of low-grade gases in the fuel and energy balance of enterprises makes it possible to increase the energy efficiency of technological processes. The volumes of low-grade gases (blast furnace and coke oven gases, synthesis gas of coal gasification processes, biogas, coal gas, etc. that are utilized more significant in technological processes but their calorific value are low. At the same time artificial gases contain ballast gaseous (СО2, H2O and mechanical impurities that are harmful gas impurities. Their use requires technological preparation. Thus coal methane is characterized of high humidity, coal dust and drip moisture, variable composition. Thus was effective burning of coal methane it is required the development of constructive and regime measures that ensure a stable and complete burning of gaseous fuels. In this article it is presented the results of computer simulation of a stationary turbulent diffusion flame in a restricted space in the process of burning natural gas and coal methane in a bottom burner. The calculation results contain the fields of gear, temperature, concentration of CH4‚ CO‚ H2O‚ CO2 and nitrogen oxides. The structural elements of the flame (recirculation zone, hot "dome", mixing layer and far trace are determined. It has been established that complete combustion of coal methane in a modified bottom burner is ensured and the numerical values of nitrogen oxide concentrations in the flame are consistent with the literature data.

  6. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an

  7. Advanced Catalysis Technologies: Lanthanum Cerium Manganese Hexaaluminate Combustion Catalysts for Flat Plate Reactor for Compact Steam Reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    packed-bed steam reformer reactor using an open-flame or radiant burner as the heat source, the rate of heat transfer is limited by wall film and bed...resistances. Heat transfer can be effectively improved by replacing the burner /packed-bed system with parallel channels containing metal foam...combustion reactor was tested using the hexaaluminate catalyst in pellets and supported on FeCrAlloy metal foam. Both tests burned propane and JP-8

  8. The Impact of Variable Inlet Mixture Stratification on Flame Topology and Emissions Performance of a Premixer/Swirl Burner Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Koutmos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the assessment of a low emissions premixer/swirl burner configuration utilizing lean stratified fuel preparation. An axisymmetric, single- or double-cavity premixer, formed along one, two, or three concentric disks promotes propane-air premixing and supplies the combustion zone at the afterbody disk recirculation with a radial equivalence ratio gradient. The burner assemblies are operated with a swirl co-flow to study the interaction of the recirculating stratified flame with the surrounding swirl. A number of lean and ultra-lean flames operated either with a plane disk stabilizer or with one or two premixing cavity arrangements were evaluated over a range of inlet mixture conditions. The influence of the variation of the imposed swirl was studied for constant fuel injections. Measurements of turbulent velocities, temperatures, OH* chemiluminescence and gas analysis provided information on the performance of each burner set up. Comparisons with Large Eddy Simulations, performed with an 11-step global chemistry, illustrated the flame front interaction with the vortex formation region under the influence of the variable inlet mixture stratifications. The combined effort contributed to the identification of optimum configurations in terms of fuel consumption and pollutants emissions and to the delineation of important controlling parameters and limiting fuel-air mixing conditions.

  9. Measurement of OH radical density in DBD-enhanced premixed burner flame by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaima, Kazunori; Sasaki, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    We examined OH density in DBD-enhanced premixed burner flame by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). We ignited a premixed flame with CH4 /O2 / Ar mixture using a burner which worked as the ground electrode. The upper part of the flame was covered with a quartz tube, and we attached an aluminum electrode on the outside of the quartz tube. DBD inside the quartz tube was obtained between the aluminum electrode and the burner nozzle. The planar beam from a pulsed tunable laser excited OH in X2 Π (v'' = 0) to A2Σ+ (v' = 0) , and we captured two-dimensional distribution of the LIF intensity using an ICCD camera. We employed three pump lines of Q1(J=4, 8 and 10), and the rotational temperature of OH(X) was deduced from the ratio of the LIF intensities. The total density of OH was obtained from the LIF intensities and the rotational temperature. A principal experimental result was that no remarkable increase was observed in the OH density by the superposition of DBD. The correlation between the pulsed discharge current and the temporal variation of the OH density was not clear, suggesting that the oscillation of the OH density with a small amplitude is related to the transittion time constant between equilibrium and nonequilibrium combustion chemistries.

  10. Altitude Performance Characteristics of Turbojet-engine Tail-pipe Burner with Variable-area Exhaust Nozzle Using Several Fuel Systems and Flame Holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lavern A; Meyer, Carl L

    1950-01-01

    A tail-pipe burner with a variable-area exhaust nozzle was investigated. From five configurations a fuel-distribution system and a flame holder were selected. The best configuration was investigated over a range of altitudes and flight Mach numbers. For the best configuration, an increase in altitude lowered the augmented thrust ratio, exhaust-gas total temperature, and tail-pipe combustion efficiency, and raised the specific fuel consumption. An increase in flight Mach number raised the augmented thrust ratio but had no apparent effect on exhaust-gas total temperature, tail-pipe combustion efficiency, or specific fuel consumption.

  11. Kecepatan Pembakaran Premixed Campuran Minyak Jarak - Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG pada Circular Tube Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defmit B.N. Riwu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of premixed combustion of a mixture of castor oil - LPG on a circular tube burner. Percentage of LPG fuel in a mixture of jatropha curcas oil - LPG varied as much as 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of the mass flow jatropha curcas oil vapor. Considering the flame of fire there are two angles formed which describe burning velocity. Also there are formed two cones of fire where the bright blue inside cone is a premixed flame, while the outer blue white cone is flame a diffusion flame. An increase in the percentage of LPG makes the value of top and bottom angle increase. So that the burning velocity on the upper angle decrease whilst on bottom angle increase.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of a Low Emissions High Performance Duct Burner for Variable Cycle Engines (VCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, R. P.; Mador, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted with a three stage Vorbix duct burner to determine the performance and emissions characteristics of the concept and to refine the configuration to provide acceptable durability and operational characteristics for its use in the variable cycle engine (VCE) testbed program. The tests were conducted at representative takeoff, transonic climb, and supersonic cruise inlet conditions for the VSCE-502B study engine. The test stand, the emissions sampling and analysis equipment, and the supporting flow visualization rigs are described. The performance parameters including the fuel-air ratio, the combustion efficiency/exit temperature, thrust efficiency, and gaseous emissions calculations are defined. The test procedures are reviewed and the results are discussed.

  13. Experiments on the TECFLAM standard burner. Final colloquium; Experimente am TECFLAM Standard-Brenner. Abschlusskolloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This year's annual seminar had two main subjects: First, the final colloquium of the CRAY-TECFLAM project in which an industrial code for simulation of combustion processes in furnaces and gas turbines was developed in cooperation with the relevant industry, and secondly, investigations on a TECFLAM standard burner which served to establish a reliable set of state variables by different methods that were applied simultaneously, as well as the validation of the mathematical models. [German] Das alljaehrliche oeffentliche Seminar stand in diesem Jahr unter zwei zentralen Themen: zum einen das Abschlusskolloquium des CRAY-TECFLAM-Projekts, in dem ein Industriecode zur Simulation der Verbrennungsvorgaenge in Feuerungen und Gasturbinen - unter Beteiligung der relevanten Industrie - entwickelt wurde, zum anderen die Untersuchungen am TECFLAM Standardbrenner, mit denen ein verlaesslicher Satz von Zustandsgroessen mit unterschiedlichen, aber simultan angewandten Messmethoden ermittelt wird und die mathematischen Modelle validiert werden. (orig.)

  14. Burner Rig Hot Corrosion of a Single Crystal Ni-48Al-Ti-Hf-Ga Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Darolia, Ram; Cuy, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of a single crystal Ni-48Al-1Ti-0.5Hf-0.2Ga alloy was examined in a Mach 0.3 burner rig at 900 C for 300 hours. The combustion chamber was doped with 2 ppmw synthetic sea salt. The hot corrosion attack produced a random mound morphology on the surface. Microstructurally, the hot corrosion attack appeared to initiate with oxide-filled pits which were often broad and shallow. At an intermediate stage, the pits increased in size to incorporate unoxidized Ni islands in the corrosion product. The rampant attack stage, which was observed only at sharp sample corners, was characterized by rapid inward growth of alumina in finger-like protrusions incorporating significant amounts of Al-depleted Ni islands. Aluminum consumption in the oxide fingers resulted in the growth of a gamma' layer ahead of the advancing oxide fingers.

  15. Burner rig hot corrosion of a single crystal Ni-48Al-Ti-Hf-Ga alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesbitt, J.A.; Darolia, R.; Cuy, M.D.

    1999-07-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of a single crystal Ni-48Al-1Ti-0.5Hf-0.2Ga alloy was examined in a Mach 0.3 burner rig at 900 C for 300 hours. The combustion chamber was doped with 2 ppmw synthetic sea salt. The hot corrosion attack produced a random mound morphology on the surface. Microstructurally, the hot corrosion attack appeared to initiate with oxide-filled pits which were often broad and shallow. At an intermediate stage, the pits increased in size to incorporate unoxidized Ni islands in the corrosion product. The rampant attack stage, which was observed only at sharp sample corners, was characterized by rapid inward growth of alumina in finger-like protrusions incorporating significant amounts of Al-depleted Ni islands. Aluminum consumption in the oxide fingers resulted in the growth of a {gamma}{prime} layer ahead of the advancing oxide fingers.

  16. The influence of droplet evaporation on fuel-air mixing rate in a burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, K.; Flagan, R. C.; Heywood, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments involving combustion of a variety of hydrocarbon fuels in a simple atmospheric pressure burner were used to evaluate the role of droplet evaporation in the fuel/air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames. Both air-assist atomization and pressure atomization processes were studied; fuel/air mixing rates were determined on the basis of cross-section average oxygen concentrations for stoichiometric overall operation. In general, it is concluded that droplets act as point sources of fuel vapor until evaporation, when the fuel jet length scale may become important in determining nonuniformities of the fuel vapor concentration. In addition, air-assist atomizers are found to have short droplet evaporation times with respect to the duration of the fuel/air mixing process, while for the pressure jet atomizer the characteristic evaporation and mixing times are similar.

  17. Cathalitic burners for residential gas appliances; Bruciatori catalitici di gas naturale per apparecchi domestici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accornero, R.; Canci, F. [Italgas Spa, Rome (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    The growing interest for the rational use of natural gas as a primary source of energy and for the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion processes has kindled, in recent years, a widespread interest in studies and experimental investigations on the use of premix burners (either ceramic or metallic) for heat generators in domestic applications. The present paper deals with the R and D activities developed in this field by Italgas, Politecnico di Torino (Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica) and Merloni TermoSanitari, (an Italian gas boiler manufacturer). The technology hereby presented aims at reducing the pollutants emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, HC) in a wide range of working regimes of the burner, typical of residential heat appliances. The positive results in a lab scale experimental pilot plant have been in some cases confirmed in experimental runs performed on boiler prototypes suitable for large scale industrial production. Some projects, financially supported by the European Community and involving, beyond the above mentioned partners, also other gas distribution companies, universities, research institutes and burner manufacturers, are currently in progress to further analyse the performance of these burners. [Italian] Il crescente interesse per l'uso razionale del gas naturale quale fonte energetica primaria e quale combustibile a basso impatto ambientale, ha suscitato, nei tempi piu' recenti, un vasto interesse per gli studi e per le ricerche nel settore dei bruciatori di gas di tipo a premiscelazione, siano essi in materiale ceramico che metallico, allo scopo di rendere praticabile la loro applicazione nei generatori di calore di tipo domestico. L'articolo descrive l'attivita' di R e S sviluppata da Italgas, Politecnico di Torino - Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica - e da Merloni TermoSanitari. La tecnologia sperimentata e' finalizzata alla riduzione delle emissioni di

  18. High temperature cogeneration with thermionic burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, G.O.; Britt, E.J.; Dick, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The thermionic cogeneration combustor was conceived to meet industrial requirements for high-temperature direct heat, typically in the form of gas at temperatures from 800 to 1900 K, while at the same time supplying electricity. The thermionic combustor is entirely self-contained, with heat from the combustion region absorbed by the emitters of thermionic converters to be converted to electric power and the high-temperature reject heat from the converters used to preheat the air used for combustion. Depending on the temperature of the process gas produced, energy savings of around 10% with respect to that used to produce the same amount of electricity and heat without cogeneration are possible with present technology, and savings of up to 20% may be possible with advanced converters. Possible thermionic combustor designs currently under investigation include a configuration in which heat is collected by heat pipes lining the periphery of the combustion region, and a fire-tube converter in which combustion occurs within the cylindrical emitter of each converter. Preliminary component tests of these designs have been encouraging

  19. High temperature cogeneration with thermionic burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, G. O.; Britt, E. J.; Dick, R. S.

    The thermionic cogeneration combustor was conceived to meet industrial requirements for high-temperature direct heat, typically in the form of gas at temperatures from 800 to 1900 K, while at the same time supplying electricity. The thermionic combustor is entirely self-contained, with heat from the combustion region absorbed by the emitters of thermionic converters to be converted to electric power and the high-temperature reject heat from the converters used to preheat the air used for combustion. Depending on the temperature of the process gas produced, energy savings of around 10% with respect to that used to produce the same amount of electricity and heat without cogeneration are possible with present technology, and savings of up to 20% may be possible with advanced converters. Possible thermionic combustor designs currently under investigation include a configuration in which heat is collected by heat pipes lining the periphery of the combustion region, and a fire-tube converter in which combustion occurs within the cylindrical emitter of each converter. Preliminary component tests of these designs have been encouraging.

  20. Evaluation of partially premixed turbulent flame stability from mixture fraction statistics in a slot burner

    KAUST Repository

    Kruse, Stephan

    2018-04-11

    Partially premixed combustion is characterized by mixture fraction inhomogeneity upstream of the reaction zone and occurs in many applied combustion systems. The temporal and spatial fluctuations of the mixture fraction have tremendous impact on the combustion characteristics, emission formation, and flame stability. In this study, turbulent partially premixed flames are experimentally studied in a slot burner configuration. The local temperature and gas composition is determined by means of one-dimensional, simultaneous detection of Rayleigh and Raman scattering. The statistics of the mixture fraction are utilized to characterize the impact of the Reynolds number, the global equivalence ratio, the progress of mixing within the flame, as well as the mixing length on the mixing field. Furthermore, these effects are evaluated by means of a regime diagram for partially premixed flames. In this study, it is shown that the increase of the mixing length results in a significantly more stable flame. The impact of the Reynolds number on flame stability is found to be minor.

  1. Evaluation of partially premixed turbulent flame stability from mixture fraction statistics in a slot burner

    KAUST Repository

    Kruse, Stephan; Mansour, Mohy S.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Varea, Emilien; Grü nefeld, Gerd; Beeckmann, Joachim; Pitsch, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Partially premixed combustion is characterized by mixture fraction inhomogeneity upstream of the reaction zone and occurs in many applied combustion systems. The temporal and spatial fluctuations of the mixture fraction have tremendous impact on the combustion characteristics, emission formation, and flame stability. In this study, turbulent partially premixed flames are experimentally studied in a slot burner configuration. The local temperature and gas composition is determined by means of one-dimensional, simultaneous detection of Rayleigh and Raman scattering. The statistics of the mixture fraction are utilized to characterize the impact of the Reynolds number, the global equivalence ratio, the progress of mixing within the flame, as well as the mixing length on the mixing field. Furthermore, these effects are evaluated by means of a regime diagram for partially premixed flames. In this study, it is shown that the increase of the mixing length results in a significantly more stable flame. The impact of the Reynolds number on flame stability is found to be minor.

  2. Linear accelerator for burner-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batskikh, G.I.; Murin, B.P.; Fedotov, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Future development of nuclear power engineering depends on the successful solution of two key problems of safety and utilization of high level radioactive wastes (HLRW) of atomic power plants (APP). Modern methods of HLRW treatment involve solidification, preliminary storing for a period of 30-50 years necessary for the decay of long-living nuclides and final burial in geological formations several hundred meters below the ground surface. The depth burial of the radioactive wastes requires complicated under ground constructions. It's very expensive and doesn't meet modern ecological requirements. Alternative modern and more reasonable methods of APP HLRW treatment are under consideration now. One of the methods involves separation of APP waste radionuclides for use in economy with subsequent transmutation of the long-living isotopes into the short-living ones by high-intensity neutron fluxes generated by proton accelerators. The installation intended for the long-living radionuclides transmutation into the short-living ones is called burner-reactor. It can be based on the continuous regime proton accelerator with 1.5 GeV energy, 0.3 A current and beam mean power of 450 MW. The preferable type of the proton accelerator with the aforementioned parameters is the linear accelerator

  3. The effect of control parameters to the quality of small-scale wood pellet combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruusunen, M. (Oulu Univ. (Finland). Contol Engineering Lab.), Email: mika.ruusunen@oulu.fi; Korpela, T.; Bjoerkqvist, T. (Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Automation Science and Engineering), Email: timo.korpela@tut.fi, Email: tomas.bjorqvist@tut.fi

    2009-07-01

    The target is to clear out control variables and requirements for clean small-scale wood pellet combustion (<100 kW{sub th}). Experimental runs were carried out in the form of design of experiments (DOE) with two commercial 15 kW pellet burners, namely a horizontal gas-burner and a conventional horizontal burner in a 20 kW commercial pellet boiler. Analysed variables were fuel power, draught, air flows, and fuel feed period, and research variables were CO, O{sub 2} and efficiency. The target was to identify and characterise separately the magnitude and direction of the effect of each factor. After process identification and variable optimisation, the results show strong influence of the studied control parameters on the efficiency and the emissions. The effects and interactions between different process variables were rather similar with both burners. The major effects for CO levels were fuel feed and additionally draught affected in case of wood gas combustion. Additionally, the effects on combustion efficiency is described by draught, air feed and fuel feed period. Furthermore, the fuel feed period affected the excess air level in case of direct combustion principle. It was noticed, however, that the combustion properties and optimal parameter values vary significantly between the two cases. (orig.)

  4. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  5. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  6. Gaseous emissions from burning diesel, crude and prime bleachable summer yellow cottonseed oil in a burner for drying seedcotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, G.A.; Hooker, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Cottonseed oil has been used as a fuel source either as a blend with diesel in varying proportions or undiluted (100 %) in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in internal combustion engines. However, limited research is available on the use of cottonseed oil as a fuel source in a multi-fueled burner similar to those used by cottonseed oil mills and cotton gins in their drying operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate emissions from five fuel oil treatments while firing a multi-fueled burner in a setup similar to those used for drying operations of both cottonseed oil mills and cotton gins. For each treatment, gaseous emissions were measured while firing the burner at three fuel flow rates. The five fuel oil treatments evaluated were: (1) No.2 diesel at 28.3 deg C, (2) prime bleachable summer yellow (PBSY) cottonseed oil at 28.3 deg C (PBSY-28), (3) crude cottonseed oil at 28.3 deg C (Crude-28), (4) PBSY at 60 deg C (PBSY-60), and (5) crude at 60 deg C (Crude-60). Results indicate that PBSY treatments had the lowest overall emissions of all treatments. The other treatments varied in emission rates based on treatment and fuel flow rate. Preheating the oil to 60 deg C resulted in higher NO x emissions but displayed varying results in regards to CO. The CO emissions for the crude treatments were relatively unaffected by the 60 deg C preheat temperature whereas the preheated PBSY treatments demonstrated lower CO emissions. Overall, both cottonseed oils performed well in the multi-fueled burner and displayed a promising potential as an alternative fuel source for cottonseed oil mills and cotton gins in their drying operations. (Author)

  7. Reducing emission of nitrogen oxides during combustion of black coal from the Kuzbass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Lobov, G.V.; Gedike, I.A.

    1983-02-01

    Black coal from the Kuzbass used as fuel by the ZapSibTEhTs fossil-fuel power plant is rich in nitrogen: nitrogen content ranges from 2.8% to 3.5%. Under these conditions conventional methods of combustion cause air pollution exceeding permissible levels. A method for combustion of coal dust in stages has been successfully tested at the plant: some of the burners located in the top zone of the furnace (the BKZ-210-140F boiler) are used for air supply. From 16% to 18% of air supplied to the furnace is directed to the upper burners. Use of this system (called tertiary air supply as opposed to the secondary air system) reduced nitrogen oxide emission by 1.5 times (from 0.87 to 0.57 g/m/sup 3/). Position of nozzles used for tertiary air supply in relation to the burners used for supply of coal dust in the tangential shaped furnace is shown in a scheme. The optimum position of tertiary air supply system in relation to burners taking into account corrosion hazards as well as the hazards of reducing combustion efficiency is discussed. Recommendation on furnace design and burner position which prevent efficiency decrease and corrosion hazards are made.

  8. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are: SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption...... in stationary combustion has increased by 12% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 6%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants have decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable...... plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated....

  9. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption...... in stationary combustion has increased by 14% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 8%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants has decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable...... plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated...

  10. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  11. System analyse cellulose ethanol in combines - Combustion characterisation of lignin from cellulose based ethanol production; Systemanalys foer cellulosabaserad etanol i kombinat - Foerbraenningskarakterisering av lignin fraan cellulosabaserad etanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstedt, Jan; Wingren, Anders; Magnusson, Staffan; Wiinikka, Henrik; Westbom, Urban; Lidman, Marcus; Groenberg, Carola

    2012-02-15

    In this work 3 different hydrolysed lignin fractions produced from Sugarcane Bagasse, Spruce and Wheat Straw were burned in a 150 kW horizontal furnace equipped with a powder burner to assess the combustion behaviour of hydrolysed lignin fuels. The combustion experiments showed that the feeding properties of all three lignin fractions were better compared to ordinary wood powder

  12. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  13. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric

  14. Burner flow regulators with mechanisms performing two variable function. Meccanismi che generano una funzione di due variabili applicati alla regolazione dei bruciatori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, L.; Tagliaferro, B. (R.B.L. Riello Bruciatori, Legnago Spa, Legnago (Italy)); Cossalter, V.; Da Lio, M. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Meccanica)

    1993-08-01

    A new class of fuel oil burners has recently been developed by an Italian firm with the aim of obtaining high performances in terms of both energy efficiency and air pollution abatement. The innovative feature of these burners is that they are equipped with a device which permits the automatic and optimum regulation of the air fuel mixture independent of ambient and operating conditions. To reduce costs, the regulation system is a mechanical one instead of electronic which would require an expensive lambda probe. The mechanical regulating system controls air intake by simply taking into account two main combustion factors - ambient temperature and the nominal fuel flow rate. The special cam mechanism is thus classified as one which performs a single function with two degrees of freedom, i.e., the independent variables of ambient temperature and nominal fuel flow. One of the air intake valve's movements is governed by a temperature transducer, the other (primary), by a screw which allows the registering of the air flow during burner installation or upon completion of periodic maintenance checks. In addition to optimizing combustion control, this control technique affords the possibility to adapt the air flow to the different fuel flows obtained by changing the type of nozzle or supply pressure.

  15. Increasing energy efficiency by in-situ oxygen measurement in combustion gas and optimized fuel-air-ratio control; Effizienzsteigerung durch in-situ Sauerstoffmessung im Verbrennungsgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Yvonne [Marathon Sensors Inc., West Chester, OH (United States); Winter, Karl-Michael [PROCESS-ELECTRONIC GmbH, Heiningen (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    High energy costs as well as the necessity to minimize exhaust emissions require a most efficient usage of fossil primary energy resources. In heat treating but also in power generation natural gas is mostly used. Efficient burner systems and preheating combustion air using recuperators or regenerators minimize exhaust losses to a high extent. Another well known but seldom used optimization method controls the excess oxygen percentage in the exhaust gas. Already partially in use in households and state-of-the-art in the combustion control of car engines this technique is still not widely used in industrial sized systems. For closed burners there are few sensor options available that can be integrated into the burner. This article presents a variety of measuring and control systems that have been tailored to this particular task, able to increase the efficiency of both, existing older installations and new burner systems. (orig.)

  16. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation on the thermal efficiency and combustion characteristics for premixed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Byeonghun; Kum, Sung-Min; Lee, Chang-Eon; Lee, Seungro

    2013-01-01

    In this research, a boiler in a premixed combustion system used to achieve exhaust gas recirculation was investigated as a way to achieve high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. The effects of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratios, equivalence ratios and boiler capacities on thermal efficiency, NO x and CO emissions and the flame behavior on the burner surface were examined both experimentally and numerically. The results of the experiments showed that when EGR was used, the NO x and CO concentrations decreased and the thermal efficiency increased. In the case of a 15% EGR ratio at an equivalence ratio of 0.90, NO x concentrations were found to be smaller than for the current operating condition of the boiler, and the thermal efficiency was approximately 4.7% higher. However, unlike NO x concentrations, although the EGR ratio was increased to 20% at an equivalence ratio of 0.90, the CO concentration was higher than in the current operating condition of the boiler. From the viewpoint of burner safety, the red glow on the burner surface was noticeably reduced when EGR was used. These results confirmed that the EGR method is advantageous from the standpoint of reducing emission concentrations and ensuring burner safety. -- Highlights: ► The premixed boiler system applied EGR was investigated to achieve high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. ► Thermal efficiency and emission characteristics were examined with EGR ratios, equivalence ratios and boiler capacities. ► EGR method is advantageous from the standpoint of reducing emission concentrations and ensuring burner safety.

  17. A novel approach to predict the stability limits of combustion chambers with large eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, B.; Magagnato, F.; Gabi, M.

    2010-06-01

    Lean premixed combustion, which allows for reducing the production of thermal NOx, is prone to combustion instabilities. There is an extensive research to develop a reduced physical model, which allows — without time-consuming measurements — to calculate the resonance characteristics of a combustion system consisting of Helmholtz resonator type components (burner plenum, combustion chamber). For the formulation of this model numerical investigations by means of compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were carried out. In these investigations the flow in the combustion chamber is isotherm, non-reacting and excited with a sinusoidal mass flow rate. Firstly a combustion chamber as a single resonator subsequently a coupled system of a burner plenum and a combustion chamber were investigated. In this paper the results of additional investigations of the single resonator are presented. The flow in the combustion chamber was investigated without excitation at the inlet. It was detected, that the mass flow rate at the outlet cross section is pulsating once the flow in the chamber is turbulent. The fast Fourier transform of the signal showed that the dominant mode is at the resonance frequency of the combustion chamber. This result sheds light on a very important source of self-excited combustion instabilities. Furthermore the LES can provide not only the damping ratio for the analytical model but the eigenfrequency of the resonator also.

  18. Incineration of ion exchange resins using concentric burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, T.; Chino, K.; Kawamura, F.; Kuriyama, O.; Yusa, H.

    1985-01-01

    A new incineration method, using concentric burners, is studied to reduce the volume of spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants. Resins are ejected into the center of a propane-oxygen flame and burned within it. The flame length is theoretically evaluated by the diffusion-dominant model. By reforming the burner shape, flame length can be reduced by one-half. The decomposition ratio decreases with larger resin diameters due to the loss of unburned resin from the flame. A flame guide tube is adapted to increase resin holding time in the flame, which improves the decomposition ratio to over 98 wt%

  19. BURNER RIG TESTING OF A500 C/SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-17

    AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2018-0071 BURNER RIG TESTING OF A500® C /SiC Larry P. Zawada Universal Technology Corporation Jennifer Pierce UDRI...TITLE AND SUBTITLE BURNER RIG TESTING OF A500® C /SiC 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6...test program characterized the durability behavior of A500® C /SiC ceramic matrix composite material at room and elevated temperature. Specimens were

  20. On hydrogen addition effects in turbulent combustion using the Flamelet Generated Manifold technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fancello, A.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; de Goey, L.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    The idea of reducing emissions and pollution in turbo-machinery technology is growing significantly in the last decades. In order to reach these standards and to guarantee, at the same time, efficient combustion systems, new configurations for burners are required. Classical approaches such as

  1. Use of a perfume composition as a fuel for internal combustion engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to fuel compositions containing perfume fractions, that is to say compositions of fragrance materials, and to the use of such perfume fractions containing fuel compositions to provide a fuel for internal combustion engines and burners. According to the present fuel

  2. Robust active combustion control for the optimization of environmental performance and energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demayo, Trevor Nat

    Criteria pollutant regulations, climate change concerns, and energy conservation efforts are placing strict constraints in the design and operation of advanced, stationary combustion systems. To ensure minimal pollutant emissions and maximal efficiency at every instant of operation while preventing reaction blowout, combustion systems need to react and adapt in real-time to external changes. This study describes the development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multivariable feedback control system, designed to maximize the performance of natural gas-fired combustion systems. A feedback sensor array was developed to monitor reaction stability and measure combustion performance as a function of NOx, CO, and O, emissions. Acoustic and UV chemiluminescent emissions were investigated for use as stability indicators. Modulated signals of CH* and CO2* chemiluminescence were found to correlate well with the onset of lean blowout. A variety of emissions sensors were tested and evaluated, including conventional CEMS', micro-fuel cells, a zirconia NOx transducer, and a rapid response predictive NOx sensor based on UV flame chemiluminescence. A dual time-scale controller was designed to actively optimize operating conditions by maximizing a multivariable performance function J using a linear direction set search algorithm. The controller evaluated J under slow, quasi steady-state conditions, while dynamically monitoring the reaction zone at high speed for pre-blowout instabilities or boundary condition violations. To establish the input control parameters, two burner systems were selected: a 30 kW air-swirl, generic research burner, and a 120 kW scaled, fuel-staged, industrial boiler burner. The parameters, chosen to most affect burner performance, consisted of air swirl intensity and excess air for the generic burner, and fuel-staging and excess air for the boiler burner. A set of optimization parameters was also established to ensure efficient and deterministic

  3. Burner redesign for the reduction of the unburned particulate emission in thermal power stations of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Rediseno de quemadores para la reduccion de la emision de particulas inquemadas en centrales termicas de la Comisionon Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta Espino, Mario; Espipnoza Garza, Jesus; Mani Gonzalez, Alejandro; Giles Alarcon, Armando; Pena Garcia, Adriana; Albarran Sanchez, Irma L; Mendez Aranda, Angel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In the presence of the increasing demand for reaching higher efficiencies and a smaller production of polluting emissions in combustion systems, studies focused to the optimization of the present designs of burners are required. The Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) have established a project that contemplates the redesign of burners in ten of its units of thermoelectric generation. In this work the redesign of the flame stabilizer or diffuser for the reduction of the unburned particulate emission is explained. The results of the modeling of a burner of rotational flow of steam generators of the CFE are shown, as well as the graphs of the contours of the recirculation zone generated by each diffuser without combustion and a figure of the velocity profile that is generated in front of the diffuser. In agreement with the results obtained in the aerodynamic evaluation of frontal burners of rotational flow, it is possible to established that the characteristics of the recirculation zone, generated by this type of burners, are related to geometric parameters of the diffuser that identify with the number of turns and the pressure drop, where it is necessary to look for designs that improve the conditions of the mixing process and combustion in the burner. [Spanish] Ante la creciente demanda por alcanzar mayores eficiencias y una menor produccion de emisiones contaminantes en sistemas de combustion, se requieren estudios enfocados a la optimizacion de los disenos actuales de quemadores. La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) han establecido un proyecto que contempla el rediseno de quemadores en diez de sus unidades de generacion termoelectrica. En este trabajo se explica el rediseno del estabilizador de flama o difusor para la reduccion de la emision de particulas inquemadas. Se muestran los resultados de la modelacion de un quemador de flujo rotacional de

  4. The acoustic response of burner-stabilised flat flames : a two-dimensional numerical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, R.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2003-01-01

    The response of burner-stabilized flat flames to acoustic perturbations is studied numerically. So far, one-dimensional models have been used to study this system. However, in most practical surface burners, the scale of the perforations in the burner plate is of the order of the flame thickness.

  5. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  6. Investigation of pore-scale flow physics in porous media burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Sadaf; Muhunthan, Priyanka; Boigne, Emeric; Mohaddes, Danyal; Ihme, Matthias; Stanford University Team

    2017-11-01

    Porous media burners (PMBs) operate on the principle that the solid porous matrix serves as a means of internally recirculating heat from the combustion products upstream to the reactants, enabling a reduction of the lean-flammability limit, higher power dynamic range, and lower NOx and CO emissions as compared to conventional systems. Accurate predictions of the flow features and properties such as pressure loss in reticulated ceramic foams is an important step in the characterization and optimization of combustion in porous media. In this work, an integrated framework is proposed from obtaining the porous sample to performing a computational fluid dynamics simulation, including X-ray microtomography scanning, digital topology rendering, and volume meshing. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flow in the complex geometries of porous foams are obtained by solution of the Navier-Stokes equations using an unstructured, finite-volume solver. This capability enables the investigation of pore-scale flow physics in a wide range of porous materials used in PMBs. In this talk, results obtained at pore-scale Reynolds numbers of order 10 to 100 in a Silicone Carbide foam are presented to demonstrate this capability.

  7. Flame emission spectroscopy measurement of a steam blast and air blast burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozsa Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Control and online monitoring of combustion have become critical to meet the increasingly strict pollutant emission standards. For such a purpose, optical sensing methods, like flame emission spectrometry, seem to be the most feasible technique. Spectrometry is capable to provide information about the local equivalence ratio inside the flame through the chemiluminescence intensity ratio measurement of various radicals. In the present study, a 15 kW atmospheric burner was analyzed utilizing standard diesel fuel. Its plain jet type atomizer was operated with both air and steam atomizing mediums. Up to now, injection of steam into the reaction zone has attracted less scientific attention contrary to its practical importance. Spatial plots of OH*, CH*, and C2* excited radicals were analyzed at 0.35, 0.7, and 1 bar atomization gauge pressures, utilizing both atomizing mediums. The C2* was found to decrease strongly with increasing steam addition. The OH*/CH* and OH*/C2* chemiluminescence intensity ratios along the axis showed a divergent behavior in all the analyzed cases. Nevertheless, CH*/C2* chemiluminescence intensity ratio decreased only slightly, showing low sensitivity to the position of the spectrometer. The findings may be directly applied in steady operating combustion systems, i. e., gas turbines, boilers, and furnaces.

  8. The application of zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system to coal boilers for efficiency improvement and emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang; Zhou, Wei; Widmer, Neil C.; Moyeda, David K. [GE Energy, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO{sub x} Burner (LNB) and Overfire Air (OFA) are challenged with maintaining good combustion conditions. In many cases, the significant increases in carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned carbon levels can be attributed to local poor combustion conditions as a result of poorly controlled fuel-air distribution within the furnace. The Zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system developed by GE is available to detect and correct the furnace air-fuel distribution imbalance. The system monitors the boiler excess oxygen (O{sub 2}) and combustible gases, primarily carbon monoxide (CO), by using spatially distributed multipoint sensors located in the boiler's high temperature upper convective backpass region. At these locations, the furnace flow is still significantly stratified allowing tracing of poor combustion zones to specific burners and OFA ports. Using a model-based tuning system, operators can rapidly respond to poor combustion conditions by redistributing airflows to select burners and OFA ports. By improving combustion at every point within the furnace, the boiler can operate at reduced excess O{sub 2} and reduced furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) while also reducing localized hot spots, corrosive gas conditions, slag formation, and carbon-in-ash. Benefits include improving efficiency, reducing NO{sub X} emissions, increasing output and maximizing availability. This chapter presents the results from implementing the Zonal combustion monitoring and tuning system on a 460 MW tangential-fired coal boiler in the Western United States.

  9. Review of fuel oil quality and combustion of fast pyrolysis bio-oils from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, Jani; Oasmaa, Anja; Solantausta, Yrjö; Kytö, Matti; Chiaramonti, David

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of state-of-the-art fast pyrolysis oil combustion in burner applications. • Fast pyrolysis oil has been found to be suitable for industrial scale utilization. • Curves for NO x -emissions for air-assisted atomization burners are presented. • Quality control, combined with standards and specifications is recommended. - Abstract: Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are completely different from petroleum fuels and other bio-fuels available in the market, as regards both to their physical properties and chemical composition. When the unusual properties of these bio-oils are carefully taken into account in system and burner design, their combustion without a pilot flame or support fuel is possible on an industrial scale. The aim of the paper is to review the work done on combustion of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and highlight the latest and most important findings of its combustion from laboratory fundamentals to industrial scale. The main focus of the paper is on the bio-oil burner applications. In recent industrial scale bio-oil combustion tests, bio-oil has been found to be technically suitable for replacing heavy fuel oil in district heating. In addition, it has also been found out that limited possibilities for further lowering particulate emissions exist, since the majority of the particulates are typically incombustible matter. Curves for NO x -emissions of fast pyrolysis bio-oil combustion for air-assisted atomization burners are presented in the paper. Current burner designs are quite sensitive to the changes in the quality of the bio-oil, which may cause problems in ignition, flame detection and flame stabilization. Therefore, in order to be able to create reliable bio-oil combustion systems that operate at high efficiency, bio-oil grades should be standardized for combustion applications. Careful quality control, combined with standards and specifications, all the way from feedstock harvesting through production to end-use is recommended in

  10. Use of artificial intelligence techniques for optimisation of co-combustion of coal with biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, C.K.; Wilcox, S.J.; Ward, J. [University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd (United Kingdom). Division of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-03-15

    The optimisation of burner operation in conventional pulverised-coal-fired boilers for co-combustion applications represents a significant challenge This paper describes a strategic framework in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied to solve such an optimisation problem. The effectiveness of the proposed system is demonstrated by a case study that simulates the co-combustion of coal with sewage sludge in a 500-kW pilot-scale combustion rig equipped with a swirl stabilised low-NOx burner. A series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to generate data for different operating conditions, which were then used to train several Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict the co-combustion performance. Once trained, the ANNs were able to make estimations of unseen situations in a fraction of the time taken by the CFD simulation. Consequently, the networks were capable of representing the underlying physics of the CFD models and could be executed efficiently for a large number of iterations as required by optimisation techniques based on Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs). Four operating parameters of the burner, namely the swirl angles and flow rates of the secondary and tertiary combustion air were optimised with the objective of minimising the NOx and CO emissions as well as the unburned carbon at the furnace exit. The results suggest that ANNs combined with EAs provide a useful tool for optimising co-combustion processes.

  11. Efficiency of using direct-flow burners and nozzles in implementation of dry-bottom ash removal at the TPP-210A boiler furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, A. M.; Kanunnikov, A. A.; Kirichkov, V. S.; Prokhorov, V. B.; Fomenko, M. V.; Chernov, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    In reconstruction of operating pulverized coal-fired boilers, one of the main factors is the choice of a method for slag removal: dry bottom ash removal (DBAR) or slag-tap removal (STR). In this case, ecological and economic aspects should be taken into account, and also the early ignition of pulverized coal fuel, the reliability of operation of the furnace walls in the mode without slagging, and the stability of slag removal should be provided. In this work, issues of changeover of the pulverized coal-fired boilers of the TPP-210A type from the STR mode to the DBAR mode are considered. As of today, the main problems during the operation of these boilers are the high emissions of nitrogen oxides together with flue gases into the atmosphere and the appropriated payoffs, a small range of loads available, the necessity of stabilization of the pulverizedcoal flame sustainability by using the highly reactive fuel, large mechanical fuel underburning, etc. Results of studying aerodynamics of a furnace with DBAR obtained in the process of physical simulation are given; technical solutions and preliminary design (configuration of burners and nozzles in the boiler furnace, conceptual design of the pulverized coal burner, configuration of TPP-210A boiler with the low heat liberation of furnace cross-section and volumetric heat release) are set forth, which are associated with the optimization of aerodynamics of furnace volume, when the direct-flow burners and nozzles are used, and with organization of the efficient staged combustion of solid fuel. Two versions of possible modernization of a boiler unit are considered. Under conditions of the planned increase in the steam production capacity, the most promising measures are as follows: the DBAR implementation with reducing heat releases of the cross-section and volume of the furnace approximately by half, the installation of the direct-flow burners and nozzles with injection of recirculation gases into the active combustion

  12. Large eddy simulation and combustion instabilities; Simulation des grandes echelles et instabilites de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartigue, G.

    2004-11-15

    The new european laws on pollutants emission impose more and more constraints to motorists. This is particularly true for gas turbines manufacturers, that must design motors operating with very fuel-lean mixtures. Doing so, pollutants formation is significantly reduced but the problem of combustion stability arises. Actually, combustion regimes that have a large excess of air are naturally more sensitive to combustion instabilities. Numerical predictions of these instabilities is thus a key issue for many industrial involved in energy production. This thesis work tries to show that recent numerical tools are now able to predict these combustion instabilities. Particularly, the Large Eddy Simulation method, when implemented in a compressible CFD code, is able to take into account the main processes involved in combustion instabilities, such as acoustics and flame/vortex interaction. This work describes a new formulation of a Large Eddy Simulation numerical code that enables to take into account very precisely thermodynamics and chemistry, that are essential in combustion phenomena. A validation of this work will be presented in a complex geometry (the PRECCINSTA burner). Our numerical results will be successfully compared with experimental data gathered at DLR Stuttgart (Germany). Moreover, a detailed analysis of the acoustics in this configuration will be presented, as well as its interaction with the combustion. For this acoustics analysis, another CERFACS code has been extensively used, the Helmholtz solver AVSP. (author)

  13. Process development report: 0.20-m primary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, W.S.

    1978-09-01

    HTGR reprocessing consists of crushing the spent fuel elements to a size suitable for burning in a fluidized bed to remove excess graphite, separating the fissile and fertile particles, crushing and burning the SiC-coated fuel particles to remove the remainder of the carbon, dissolution and separation of the particles from insoluble materials, and solvent extraction separation of the dissolved uranium and thorium. Burning the crushed fuel elements is accomplished in a primary burner. This is a batch-continuous, fluidized-bed process utilizing above-bed gravity fines recycle. In gas-solid separation, a combination of a cyclone and porous metal filters is used. This report documents operational tests performed on a 0.20-m primary burner using crushed fuel representative of both Fort St. Vrain and large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cores. The burner was reconstructed to a gravity fines recycle mode prior to beginning these tests. Results of two separate and successful 48-hour burner runs and several short-term runs have indicated the operability of this concept. Recommendations are made for future work

  14. 300 MWe Burner Core Design with two Enrichment Zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Sang Ji; Kim, Yeong Il

    2008-01-01

    KAERI has been developing the KALIMER-600 core design with a breakeven fissile conversion ratio. The core is loaded with a ternary metallic fuel (TRU-U-10Zr), and the breakeven characteristics are achieved without any blanket assembly. As an alternative plan, a KALIMER-600 burner core design has been also performed. In the early stage of the development of a fast reactor, the main purpose is an economical use of a uranium resource but nowadays in addition to the maximum utilization of a uranium resource, the burning of a high level radioactive waste is taken as an additional interest for the harmony of the environment. In way of constructing the commercial size reactor which has the power level ranging from 800 MWe to 1600 MWe, the demonstration reactor which has the power level ranging from 200 MWe to 600 MWe was usually constructed for the midterm stage to commercial size reactor. In this paper, a 300 MWe burner core design was performed with purpose of demonstration reactor for KALIMER-600 burner of 600 MWe. As a means to flatten the power distribution, instead of a single fuel enrichment scheme adapted in design of KALIMER-600 burner, the 2 enrichment zoning approach was adapted

  15. Regulator of Dust and Coal Burner of Power Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wujcik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The papers considers problems concerning introduction of neutron regulator into engineering practice. The regulator makes it possible to regulate CO, N0^ and O2 values with the purpose to optimize ejections into environment. The paper contains scheme of automation control of cyclone dust and coal burner with the help of a neutron regulator.

  16. Low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - hydrogen - air mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E; Roth, F von; Hottinger, P; Truong, T B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - air mixtures would allow the development of no-NO{sub x} burners for heating and power applications. Using commercially available catalysts, the room temperature ignition of methane-propane-air mixtures has been shown in laboratory reactors with combustion efficiencies over 95% and maximum temperatures less than 700{sup o}C. After a 500 hour stability test, severe deactivation of both methane and propane oxidation functions was observed. In cooperation with industrial partners, scaleup to 3 kW is being investigated together with startup dynamics and catalyst stability. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  17. Chemical kinetics and combustion modelling with CFX 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopford, P [AEA Technology, Computational Fluid Dynamics Services Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation describes some recent developments in combustion and kinetics models used in the CFX software of AEA Technology. Three topics are highlighted: the development of coupled solvers in a traditional `SIMPLE`-based CFD code, the use of detailed chemical kinetics mechanism via `look-up` tables and the application of CFD to large-scale multi-burner combustion plant. The aim is identify those physical approximations and numerical methods that are likely to be most useful in the future and those areas where further developments are required. (author) 6 refs.

  18. Chemical kinetics and combustion modelling with CFX 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopford, P. [AEA Technology, Computational Fluid Dynamics Services Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation describes some recent developments in combustion and kinetics models used in the CFX software of AEA Technology. Three topics are highlighted: the development of coupled solvers in a traditional `SIMPLE`-based CFD code, the use of detailed chemical kinetics mechanism via `look-up` tables and the application of CFD to large-scale multi-burner combustion plant. The aim is identify those physical approximations and numerical methods that are likely to be most useful in the future and those areas where further developments are required. (author) 6 refs.

  19. Effects of elliptical burner geometry on partially premixed gas jet flames in quiescent surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Benjamin

    This study is the investigation of the effect of elliptical nozzle burner geometry and partial premixing, both 'passive control' methods, on a hydrogen/hydrocarbon flame. Both laminar and turbulent flames for circular, 3:1, and 4:1 aspect ratio (AR) elliptical burners are considered. The amount of air mixed with the fuel is varied from fuel-lean premixed flames to fuel-rich partially premixed flames. The work includes measurements of flame stability, global pollutant emissions, flame radiation, and flame structure for the differing burner types and fuel conditions. Special emphasis is placed on the near-burner region. Experimentally, both conventional (IR absorption, chemiluminecent, and polarographic emission analysis,) and advanced (laser induced fluorescence, planar laser induced fluorescence, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), Rayleigh scattering) diagnostic techniques are used. Numerically, simulations of 3-dimensional laminar and turbulent reacting flow are conducted. These simulations are run with reduced chemical kinetics and with a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) for the turbulence modeling. It was found that the laminar flames were similar in appearance and overall flame length for the 3:1 AR elliptical and the circular burner. The laminar 4:1 AR elliptical burner flame split into two sub-flames along the burner major axis. This splitting had the effect of greatly shortening the 4:1 AR elliptical burner flame to have an overall flame length about half of that of the circular and 3:1 AR elliptical burner flames. The length of all three burners flames increased with increasing burner exit equivalence ratio. The blowout velocity for the three burners increased with increase in hydrogen mass fraction of the hydrogen/propane fuel mixture. For the rich premixed flames, the circular burner was the most stable, the 3:1 AR elliptical burner, was the least stable, and the 4:1 AR elliptical burner was intermediate to the two other burners. This order of stability was due

  20. The energetic performance of a novel hybrid solar thermal and chemical looping combustion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid solar chemical looping combustion power cycle is reported. • The cycle is studied for two configurations, with and without an after-burner. • The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for solar thermal energy. • Total solar shares of 41.4% and 60% are achieved with and without the after-burner. • Efficiencies of 50% and 44.0% are achieved with and without the after-burner. - Abstract: The overall energetic performance of a gas turbine combined cycle powered by a hybrid cycle between a solar thermal and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system firing methane is reported for two configurations. In one case, the outlet from the air reactor is fed directly to a gas turbine, while in the other an after-burner, also firing methane, is added to increase the gas turbine inlet temperature. The cycle is simulated using Aspen Plus software for the average diurnal profile of normal irradiance for Port Augusta, South Australia. The first law efficiency, total solar absorption efficiency, average and peak fractional power boosts, total solar share, net solar to electrical efficiency, fraction of pressurised CO 2 , incremental CO 2 avoidance and the exergy efficiency for both cycles are reported. The calculations predict a first law efficiency of 50.0% for the cycle employing an after-burner, compared with 44.0% for that without the after-burner. However, this is achieved at the cost of decreasing the solar share from 60.0%, without the after-burner, to 41.4% with it. Also reported is the sensitivity analysis of performance to variations in key operating parameters. The sensitivity analysis shows that further improvements to the performance of the cycle are possible

  1. NASA GRC's High Pressure Burner Rig Facility and Materials Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig

    1999-01-01

    The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) at NASA Glenn Research Center is a high-velocity. pressurized combustion test rig used for high-temperature environmental durability studies of advanced materials and components. The facility burns jet fuel and air in controlled ratios, simulating combustion gas chemistries and temperatures that are realistic to those in gas turbine engines. In addition, the test section is capable of simulating the pressures and gas velocities representative of today's aircraft. The HPBR provides a relatively inexpensive. yet sophisticated means for researchers to study the high-temperature oxidation of advanced materials. The facility has the unique capability of operating under both fuel-lean and fuel-rich gas mixtures. using a fume incinerator to eliminate any harmful byproduct emissions (CO, H2S) of rich-burn operation. Test samples are easily accessible for ongoing inspection and documentation of weight change, thickness, cracking, and other metrics. Temperature measurement is available in the form of both thermocouples and optical pyrometery. and the facility is equipped with quartz windows for observation and video taping. Operating conditions include: (1) 1.0 kg/sec (2.0 lbm/sec) combustion and secondary cooling airflow capability: (2) Equivalence ratios of 0.5- 1.0 (lean) to 1.5-2.0 (rich), with typically 10% H2O vapor pressure: (3) Gas temperatures ranging 700-1650 C (1300-3000 F): (4) Test pressures ranging 4-12 atmospheres: (5) Gas flow velocities ranging 10-30 m/s (50-100) ft/sec.: and (6) Cyclic and steady-state exposure capabilities. The facility has historically been used to test coupon-size materials. including metals and ceramics. However complex-shaped components have also been tested including cylinders, airfoils, and film-cooled end walls. The facility has also been used to develop thin-film temperature measurement sensors.

  2. Pollutant Concentrations and Emission Rates from Scripted Natural Gas Cooking Burner Use in Nine Northern California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lorenzetti, David M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    METHODS: Combustion pollutant concentrations were measured during the scripted operation of natural gas cooking burners in nine homes. In addition to a base condition of closed windows, no forced air unit (FAU) use, and no mechanical exhaust, additional experiments were conducted while operating an FAU and/or vented range hood. Test homes included a 26m2 two-room apartment, a 134m2 first floor flat, and seven detached homes of 117–226m2. There were four single-story, four two-story and one 1.5 story homes. Cooktop use entailed boiling and simmering activities, using water as a heat sink. Oven and broiler use also were simulated. Time-resolved concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particles with diameters of 6 nm or larger (PN), carbon monoxide (CO), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were measured in the kitchen (K) and bedroom area (BR) of each home. CO2, NO, NO2, and PN data from sequential experiments were analyzed to quantify the contribution of burner use to the highest 1h and 4h time-integrated concentrations in each room. RESULTS: Four of the nine homes had kitchen 1h NO2 exceed the national ambient air quality standard (100 ppb). Two other homes had 1h NO2 exceed 50 ppb in the kitchen, and three had 1h NO2 above 50 ppb in the bedroom, suggesting substantial exposures to anyone at home when burners are used for a single substantial event. In all homes, the highest 1h kitchen PN exceeded 2 x105 cm-3-h, and the highest 4h PN exceeded 3 x105 cm-3-hr in all homes. The lowest 1h kitchen/bedroom ratios were 1.3–2.1 for NO in the apartment and two open floor plan homes. The largest K/BR ratios of 1h NO2 were in a two-story 1990s home retrofitted for deep energy savings: ratios in this home were 3.3 to 6.6. Kitchen 1h ratios of NO, NO2 and PN to CO2 were used to calculate fuel normalized emission factors (ng J-1). Range hood use substantially reduced cooking burner pollutant concentrations both

  3. The release of nitrogen in coal combustion and pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varey, J.E.; Hindmarsh, C.J.; Thomas, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental aspects of coal utilization are a major concern. Recent advances in the development of low NO x burners and the emerging technologies of fluidized bed combustion have led to the identification of coal char nitrogen as the major contributor to the nitrogen oxides released during combustion. The temperature programmed combustion and pyrolysis of a series of coals covering a wide range of rank have been investigated. In addition, maceral concentrates have been investigated to assess the variation in the combustion behavior and the release of nitrogen in the pyrolysis and combustion of macerals. This investigation has involved the use of thermogravimetric analysis - mass spectrometry (TG-MS) with two sampling options: (1) ∼1cm from the sample and (2) at the exit of the TG. The former allows reactive species to be identified in the combustion of the coals. These temperature programmed combustion results have been compared with similar measurements carried out at the exit of the TG where the products are at equilibrium. In addition, pyrolysis studies have been carried out under similar conditions. The results show that reactive intermediate species such as HCN, (CN) 2 , COS etc. can be detected in the combustion products. The evolution of these species during combustion are compared with the pyrolysis products of the coal. The results are discussed in relation to the structure of the coals and the conversion of volatile species and char nitrogen to nitrogen oxides

  4. Modelling and exergoeconomic-environmental analysis of combined cycle power generation system using flameless burner for steam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Barzegaravval, Hasan; Ganjehkaviri, Abdolsaeid; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Mohd Jaafar, M.N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Using flameless burner as a supplementary firing system after gas turbine is modeled. • Thermodynamic, economic and environmental analyses of this model are performed. • Efficiency of the plant increases about 6% and CO_2 emission decreases up to 5.63% in this design. • Available exergy for work production in both gas cycle and steam cycle increases in this model. - Abstract: To have an optimum condition for the performance of a combined cycle power generation, using supplementary firing system after gas turbine was investigated by various researchers. Since the temperature of turbine exhaust is higher than auto-ignition temperature of the fuel in optimum condition, using flameless burner is modelled in this paper. Flameless burner is installed between gas turbine cycle and Rankine cycle of a combined cycle power plant which one end is connected to the outlet of gas turbine (as primary combustion oxidizer) and the other end opened to the heat recovery steam generator. Then, the exergoeconomic-environmental analysis of the proposed model is evaluated. Results demonstrate that efficiency of the combined cycle power plant increases about 6% and CO_2 emission reduces up to 5.63% in this proposed model. It is found that the variation in the cost is less than 1% due to the fact that a cost constraint is implemented to be equal or lower than the design point cost. Moreover, exergy of flow gases increases in all points except in heat recovery steam generator. Hence, available exergy for work production in both gas cycle and steam cycle will increase in new model.

  5. Experimental investigation on NO{sub x} emission and carbon burnout from a radially biased pulverized coal whirl burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shan; Hui, Shi' en; Zhou, Qulan; Xu, Tongmo; Hu, Hongli [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Taisheng [Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd., Zigong, Sichuan 643001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Experiments have been performed on 1 MW pulverized coal (pc) furnace in order to investigate the characteristics of coal combustion and NO{sub x} emission from a new type of radially biased dual register whirl burner. The burner is characterized by a primary air pipe with a continuously changing cross-section and an impact ring. The mixture of pulverized coal and air inside the primary pipe is split into two streams, which are the outer pc rich annular jet and the inner pc lean annular jet respectively. Three Chinese coals, which are high rank bituminous coal, low rank bituminous coal and meager coal respectively, are used in the experiments. We examine the influences of various parameters such as the relative position of the over-fire air (OFA) nozzle, over-fire air ratio (19.1%), primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, inner secondary air swirling intensity, and outer secondary air swirling intensity on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash. With the primary air ratio increasing from 13.4% to 23.4%, the value of the NO{sub x} emission of the SH coal decreases by 26.7% at first, and then increases by 21.7%. In contrast, the value of the carbon in fly ash (C{sub FA}) increases by 40.1% at first, and then decreases by 58.3%. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased whirl burner, the configuration of the furnace and the distribution of the air. (author)

  6. Emissions from small scale combustion of pelletized wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachs, A.

    1998-01-01

    Combustion of wood pellets in small scale heating systems with an effect below 20 kW has increased. During the winter season 1995/96 1500 small plants for heating houses are estimated to be in operation. Stack emissions from three pellet burners and two pellet stoves have been studied at laboratory. Different pellet qualities were tested. When the fraction of fines increased also the NO x emissions increased with about 10 %. As reference fuel 8 mm pellets was used. Tests with 6 mm pellets gave, in most cases, significant lower emissions of CO and THC. Eleven stoves, burners and boilers were studied in a field test. The results show that all the plants generally have higher emissions in the field than during conditions when the plants are adjusted with a stack gas monitoring instrument. A conclusion is that it is difficult for the operator to adjust the plant without a monitoring instrument. The emissions from the tested plants give an estimation of stack gas emissions from small scale pellet plants. The difference between the 'best' and 'worst' technologies is big. The span of emissions with the best technology to the worst is given below. The interval is concerning normal combustion . During abnormal conditions the emissions are on a significant higher level: * CO 80-1 000 mg/MJ; * Tar 0,3-19 mg/MJ; * THC (as methane equivalents) 2-100 mg/MJ; * NO x 50-70 mg/W;, and * Dust emissions 20-40 mg/MJ. Emissions from pellets heating are lower than from wood combustion and the best technology is close to the emission from oil burners. Wood and pellets have the same origin but the conditions to burn them in an environmental friendly way differ. Combustion of pellets could be improved through improved control of the air and fuel ratio that will create more stable conditions for the combustion

  7. Testing fireproof materials in a combustion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhavy Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a prototype concept, real experiment and numerical simulation of a combustion chamber, designed for testing fire resistance some new insulating composite materials. This concept of a device used for testing various materials, providing possibility of monitoring temperatures during controlled gas combustion. As a fuel for the combustion process propane butane mixture has been used and also several kinds of burners with various conditions of inlet air (forced, free and fuel flows were tested. The tested samples were layered sandwich materials based on various materials or foams, used as fillers in fire shutters. The temperature distribution was measured by using thermocouples. A simulation of whole concept of experimental chamber has been carried out as the non-premixed combustion process in the commercial final volume sw Pyrosim. The result was to design chamber with a construction suitable, according to the international standards, achieve the required values (temperature in time. Model of the combustion based on a stoichiometric defined mixture of gas and the tested layered samples showed good conformity with experimental results – i.e. thermal distribution inside and heat release rate that has gone through the sample.

  8. Concept for premixed combustion of hydrogen-containing fuels in gas turbines; Konzept zur vorgemischten Verbrennung wasserstoffhaltiger Brennstoffe in Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Christoph

    2012-07-19

    One of the main challenges for future gas turbines and their combustion systems is to provide fuel flexibility. The fuel range is expected to reach from the lowly reactive natural gas to highly reactive hydrogen-containing syngases. The objective of the project in which this work was pursued is to develop such a combustion system. The burner has to ensure premixed operation with an aerodynamically stabilized flame. The focus of this work is on characterizing and optimizing the operational safety of the system, but also on ensuring sufficientmixing and lowemissions. A burner and fuel injection design is achieved that leads not only to emissions far below the permissible values, but also to flashback safety for hydrogen combustion that comes close to the theoretically achievable maximum at atmospheric pressure conditions. In this design flashback due to combustion-induced vortex breakdown and wall boundary layer flashback is avoided. Flashback only takes place when the flow velocity reaches the flame velocity.

  9. Multi-load Optimal Design of Burner-inner-liner Under Performance Index Constraint by Second-Order Polynomial Taylor Series Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Gaoqiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using maximum expansion pressure of n-decane, the aeroengine burner-inner-liner combustion pressure load is computed. Aerodynamic loads are obtained from internal gas pressure load and gas momentum. Multi-load second-order Taylor series equations are established using multi-variant polynomials and their sensitivities. Optimal designs are carried out using various performance index constraints. When 0.25 to 0.8 rectifications of different design variants are implemented, they converge under 5×10‒4 d-norm difference ratio.

  10. Passive safety design characteristics of the KALIMER-600 burner reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Young-Min; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Cho, Chung-Ho; Ha, Ki-Seok; Kim, Sang-Ji

    2009-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has recently studied several burner core designs for a transuranics (TRU) transmutation based on the breakeven core geometry of KALIMER-600. The KALIMER-600 is a net electrical rating of 600MWe, sodium-cooled, metallic-fueled, pool-type reactor. For the burner core concept selected for the present analysis, the smearing fractions of the fuel rods in three fuel zones are changed while maintaining the cladding outer diameter and cladding thickness. The resulting fuel slug smearing fractions of the inner, middle, and outer core zones are 36%, 40%, and 48%, respectively. The TRU conversion ratio is 0.57 and the TRU enrichment of the driver fuel is set to 30.0 w/o because of the current practical limitation of the U-TRU-10%Zr metal fuel database. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the safety performance characteristics provided by the passive safety design features in the KALIMER-600 burner reactor by using a system-wide safety analysis code. The present scoping analysis focuses on an assessment of the enhanced safety design features that provide passive and self-regulating responses to transient conditions and an evaluation of the safety margin during unprotected overpower, unprotected loss of flow, and unprotected loss of heat sink events. The analysis results show that the KALIMER-600 burner reactor provides larger safety margins with respect to the sodium boiling, fuel rod integrity, and structural integrity. The overall inherent safety can be enhanced by accounting for the reactivity feedback mechanisms in the design process. (author)

  11. CFD based exploration of the dry-low-NOx hydrogen micromix combustion technology at increased energy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haj Ayed

    2017-03-01

    The study reveals great optimization potential of the micromix combustion technology with respect to the DLN characteristics and gives insight into the impact of geometry modifications on flame structure and NOx emission. This allows to further increase the energy density of the micromix burners and to integrate this technology in industrial gas turbines.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigations of the dry-low-NOx hydrogen micromix combustion chamber of an industrial gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haj Ayed

    2015-09-01

    The study reveals great potential for the successful application of numerical flow simulation to predict flame structure and NOx emission level of micromix hydrogen combustion, help understanding the flow phenomena related with the micromixing, reaction zone and NOx formation and support further optimization of the burner performance.

  13. Appraisal of BWR plutonium burners for energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The design of BWR cores with plutonium loadings beyond the self-generation recycle (SGR) level is investigated with regard to their possible role as plutonium burners in a nuclear energy center. Alternative plutonium burner approaches are also examined including the substitution of thorium for uranium as fertile material in the BWR and the use of a high-temperature gas reactor (HTGR) as a plutonium burner. Effects on core design, fuel cycle facility requirements, economics, and actinide residues are considered. Differences in net fissile material consumption among the various plutonium-burning systems examined were small in comparison to uncertainties in HTGR, thorium cycle, and high plutonium-loaded LWR technology. Variation in the actinide content of high-level wastes is not likely to be a significant factor in determining the feasibility of alternate systems of plutonium utilization. It was found that after 10,000 years the toxicity of actinide high-level wastes from the plutonium-burning fuel cycles was less than would have existed if the processed natural ores had not been used for nuclear fuel. The implications of plutonium burning and possible future fuel cycle options on uranium resource conservation are examined in the framework of current ERDA estimates of minable uranium resources

  14. Process development report: 0.20-m secondary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, W.S.

    1977-09-01

    HTGR fuel reprocessing consists of crushing the spent fuel elements to a size suitable for burning in a fluidized bed to remove excess graphite; separating, crushing, and reburning the fuel particles to remove the remainder of the burnable carbon; dissolution and separation of the particles from insoluble materials; and solvent extraction separation of the dissolved uranium and thorium. Burning the crushed fuel particles is accomplished in a secondary burner. This is a batch fluidized-bed reactor with in-vessel, off-gas filtration. Process heat is provided by an induction heater. This report documents operational tests performed on a commercial size 0.20-m secondary burner using crushed Fort St. Vrain type TRISO fuel particles. Analysis of a parametric study of burner process variables led to recommending lower bed superficial velocity (0.8 m/s), lower ignition temperature (600 0 C), lower fluid bed operating temperature (850 0 C), lower filter blowback frequency (1 cycle/minute), and a lower fluid bed superficial velocity during final bed burnout

  15. Comparison calculations for an accelerator-driven minor actinide burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    International interest in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) has recently been increasing in view of the important role that these systems may play as efficient minor actinide and long-lived fission-product (LLFP) burners and/or energy producers with an enhanced safety potential. However, the current methods of analysis and nuclear data for minor actinide and LLFP burners are not as well established as those for conventionally fuelled reactor systems. Hence, in 1999, the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee organised a benchmark exercise for an accelerator-driven minor actinide burner to check the performances of reactor codes and nuclear data for ADS with unconventional fuel and coolant. The benchmark model was a lead-bismuth-cooled subcritical system driven by a beam of 1 GeV protons. This report provides an analysis of the results supplied by seven participants from eight countries. The analysis reveals significant differences in important neutronic parameters, indicating a need for further investigation of the nuclear data, especially minor actinide data, as well as the calculation methods. This report will be of particular interest to reactor physicists and nuclear data evaluators developing nuclear systems for nuclear waste management. (authors)

  16. Experimental study on the influence of oxygen content in the combustion air on the combustion characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bělohradský, Petr; Skryja, Pavel; Hudák, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the experimental investigation of the very promising combustion technology called as the oxygen-enhanced combustion (OEC), which uses the oxidant containing higher proportion of oxygen than in the atmospheric air, i.e. more than 21%. The work investigated and compared the characteristics of two OEC methods, namely the premix enrichment and air-oxy/fuel combustion, when the overall oxygen concentration was varied from 21% to 46%. The combustion tests were performed with the experimental two-gas-staged burner of low-NO x type at the burner thermal input of 750 kW for two combustion regimes – one-staged and two-staged combustion. The oxygen concentration in the flue gas was maintained in the neighborhood of 3% vol. (on dry basis). The aim of tests was to assess the impact of the oxidant composition, type of OEC method and fuel-staging on the characteristic combustion parameters in detail. The investigated parameters included the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in the flue gas, flue gas temperature, heat flux to the combustion chamber wall, and lastly the stability, shape and dimensions of flame. It was observed that NO x emission is significantly lower when the air-oxy/fuel method is used compared to the premix enrichment method. Moreover, when the fuel was staged, NO x emission was below 120 mg/Nm 3 at all investigated oxygen flow rates. Increasing oxygen concentration resulted in higher heating intensity due to higher concentrations of CO 2 and H 2 O. The available heat at 46% O 2 was higher by 20% compared with that at 21% O 2 . - Highlights: • Premix-enrichment and air-oxy/fuel combustion methods were experimentally studied. • NO x increased sharply as oxygen concentration increased during PE tests. • NO x was below 120 mg/Nm 3 for all investigated oxygen flow rates in AO tests. • Radiative heat transfer was enhanced ca. 20% as O 2 concentration was increased. • OEC flames were observed stable, more luminous and

  17. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Wagner

    2004-03-31

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  18. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Gas Technology

    2004-01-30

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  19. 8th International symposium on transport phenomena in combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The 8th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Combustion will be held in San Francisco, California, U.S.A., July 16-20, 1995, under the auspices of the Pacific Center of Thermal-Fluids Engineering. The purpose of the Symposium is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners from around the world to present new developments and discuss the state of the art and future directions and priorities in the areas of transport phenomena in combustion. The Symposium is the eighth in a series; previous venues were Honolulu 1985, Tokyo 1987, Taipei 1988, Sydney 1991, Beijing 1992, Seoul 1993 and Acapulco 1994, with emphasis on various aspects of transport phenomena. The current Symposium theme is combustion. The Symposium has assembled a balanced program with topics ranging from fundamental research to contemporary applications of combustion theory. Invited keynote lecturers will provide extensive reviews of topics of great interest in combustion. Colloquia will stress recent advances and innovations in fire spread and suppression, and in low NO{sub x} burners, furnaces, boilers, internal combustion engines, and other practical combustion systems. Finally, numerous papers will contribute to the fundamental understanding of complex processes in combustion. This document contains abstracts of papers to be presented at the Symposium.

  20. A practical approach in porous medium combustion for domestic application: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. K.; Ibrahim, N. H.; Shamsuddin, K. A.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Zubair, M.

    2018-05-01

    Combustion in porous media has been widely studied. Many application involving the combustion of porous media has been reported in various way with most consider on numerical works and industrial application. Besides, recent application of porous medium combustion for domestic is the topic of interest among researchers. In this paper, a review was conducted on the combustion of porous media in term of practical application for domestic consumers. Details on the type of fuel used including bio fuel and their system have been search thoroughly. Most of the system have utilized compressed air system to provide lean combustion in domestic application. Some self-aspirating system of porous medium burner was also reported. The application of new technology such as cogeneration by using thermoelectric cells in tandem with porous medium combustion is also revised according to recent work which have already been published. Besides, the recent advances which include coating of porous material is also considered at the end of this paper.

  1. Development and evaluation of a new depressurization spillage test for residential gas-fired combustion appliances : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, P.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed combustion depressurization spillage test for residential combustion appliances. The test uses carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that is produced in the fuel combustion process as a tracer gas. The test accurately measures the amount of combustion spillage from residential combustion appliances and their venting systems when they operate at certain levels of depressurization. Seven commonly used gas-fired appliances were used to evaluate the new test as well as the appliances. These included 2 power-vented storage-tank water heaters, 1 mid-efficiency furnace, 2 high-efficiency condensing furnaces, and 2 direct-vent gas fireplaces. Tests were performed for each unit with the test room initially depressurized by 50 Pa compared with the pressure outside the room. If the combustion spillage exceeded 2 per cent, the test was repeated with the room depressurized by 20 Pa, and then by 5 Pa. Each appliance was operated for 5 minutes of burner operation during which time the burner fuel consumption, the concentration of CO 2 and the exhaust fan flow rate were monitored. Measurements were taken for 2 minutes following burner shut off. The amount of CO 2 that was released into the test room from the appliance and its venting system was determined from the measurements and then compared with the amount of CO 2 that would be produced by combustion of the fuel that was consumed during the test. The ratio of the 2 provided a direct measure of the combustion spillage of the appliance and its venting system. The study revealed that 3 products had undetectable levels of combustion spillage, 3 products had low, but measurable combustion spillage, and 1 product had significant combustion spillage. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Combustion tests with different pellet qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachs, A.; Dahlstroem, J.E.; Persson, Henrik; Tullin, C.

    1999-05-01

    Eight different pellet qualities with the diameters 6, 8 and 10 mm, from eight different producers has been tested in three pellet burners and two pellet stoves. The objective was to investigate how different diameter affect the emissions of CO, OGC and NO x . Previous experience has indicated that the pellet diameter could have significant importance for the combustion. This was not verified in the study. It showed contradictory that the diameter has a minor effect on the combustion result. The study shows that different combustion equipment give different emission. For e g hydrocarbon emissions the difference is a factor 2.2 between the 'best' and the 'worst' equipment fired on full load. The difference increases to 2.7 with lower load. The choice of fuel has a big importance for the quality of the combustion. For hydrocarbons the emissions could in an extreme situation differ with a factor 25 between 'best' and 'worst' fuel. More normally the difference is about a factor of five. Nitrogen oxide emissions are to a major part related to the nitrogen contents in the fuel. The difference between the 'best' and 'worst' fuel is in the range of a factor two. Tests with the same fuel in different equipment gives a variation of 20-30%. The combustion result depends on both the pellet quality and the equipment and there is no fuel that is good in all equipment. The big variation in combustion results shows that there is a big indifference between fuels used for small scale heating Project report from the program: Small scale combustion of biofuels. 2 refs, 15 figs, 5 tabs

  3. Short Communication: Emission of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Biomass Pellet Burning in a Modern Burner for Cooking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Tao, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Biomass pellets are undergoing fast deployment widely in the world, including China. To this stage, there were limited studies on the emissions of various organic pollutants from the burning of those pellets. In addition to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) have been received increased concerns. In this study, emission factors of oPAHs (EF oPAHs ) were measured for two types of pellets made from corn straw and pine wood, respectively. Two combustion modes with (mode II) and without (mode I) secondary side air supply in a modern pellet burner were investigated. For the purpose of comparison, EF oPAHs for raw fuels combusted in a traditional cooking stove were also measured. EF oPAHs were 348±305 and 396±387 µg/kg in the combustion mode II for pine wood and corn straw pellets, respectively. In mode I, measured EF oPAHs were 77.7±49.4 and 189±118 µg/kg, respectively. EFs in mode II were higher (2-5 times) than those in mode I mainly due to the decreased combustion temperature under more excess air. Compared to EF oPAHs for raw corn straw and pine wood burned in a traditional cooking stove, total EF oPAHs for the pellets in mode I were significantly lower ( p < 0.05 ), likely due to increased combustion efficiencies and change in fuel properties. However, the difference between raw biomass fuels and the pellets burned in mode II was not statistically significant. Taking both the increased thermal efficiencies and decreased EFs into consideration, substantial reduction in oPAH emission can be expected if the biomass pellets can be extensively used by rural residents.

  4. Nitrogen oxide suppression by using a new design of pulverized-coal burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Cameron, S.D.; Grekhov, L.L. [All-Russian Thermal Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-07-01

    The results of testing a low-NO{sub x} swirl burner are presented. This burner was developed by Babcock Energy Ltd., for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions when burning Ekibastuz and Kuznetsk low-caking coals in power boilers. The tests conducted at a large plant of the BEL Technological Center showed that the new burner reduces NO{sub x} emissions by approximately two times. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Design and analysis of the federal aviation administration next generation fire test burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Robert Ian

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration makes use of threat-based fire test methods for the certification of aircraft cabin materials to enhance the level of safety in the event of an in-flight or post-crash fire on a transport airplane. The global nature of the aviation industry results in these test methods being performed at hundreds of laboratories around the world; in some cases testing identical materials at multiple labs but yielding different results. Maintenance of this standard for an elevated level of safety requires that the test methods be as well defined as possible, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of critical test method parameters. The tests have evolved from simple Bunsen burner material tests to larger, more complicated apparatuses, requiring greater understanding of the device for proper application. The FAA specifies a modified home heating oil burner to simulate the effects of large, intense fires for testing of aircraft seat cushions, cargo compartment liners, power plant components, and thermal acoustic insulation. Recently, the FAA has developed a Next Generation (NexGen) Fire Test burner to replace the original oil burner that has become commercially unavailable. The NexGen burner design is based on the original oil burner but with more precise control of the air and fuel flow rates with the addition of a sonic nozzle and a pressurized fuel system. Knowledge of the fundamental flow properties created by various burner configurations is desired to develop an updated and standardized burner configuration for use around the world for aircraft materials fire testing and airplane certification. To that end, the NexGen fire test burner was analyzed with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to resolve the non-reacting exit flow field and determine the influence of the configuration of burner components. The correlation between the measured flow fields and the standard burner performance metrics of flame temperature and

  6. Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Natole, R.; Sanyal, A.; Veilleux, J.

    1998-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry; Efficient and environmentally benign conversion of wastes to energy; Artificial intelligence monitoring, control, and optimization of power plants; Combustion modeling and diagnostics; Advanced combustion technologies and combustion synthesis; Aero and industrial gas turbine presentations IGTI gas turbine division; NOx/SO 2 ; Plant cooling water system problems and solutions; Issues affecting plant operations and maintenance; and Costs associated with operating and not operating a nuclear power plant. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  7. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  8. Chemical and biological characterization of residential oil burner emission. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerholm, R.; Peterson, A.

    1994-02-01

    This literature study covers the time period 1980 to 1993 and is concerned with oil burners used for residential heating with a nominal heating power of less than 20 kW, which are normally used in one-family houses. Emission samples from domestic heaters using organic fuels consists of a very complex matrix of pollutants ranging from aggregate states solid to gaseous. Biological effects elicited by exhaust emissions have been detected and determined. It has been shown for diesel vehicles that selection of fuel properties has an impact on combustion reaction paths which results in different exhaust chemical compositions. It was also determined that diesel fuel properties have an impact on the biological activity of diesel exhaust emissions, which is to be expected from their chemical characterization. As a result of this, Sweden has an environmental classification of diesel fuels which has been in force since 1991. Analogously, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has asked whether detrimental environmental and health effects from residential heating can be reduced by selection of fuel properties, and if so by how much? In addition, which properties are most important to control in a future environmental classification of heating oils? As a first step in this process, a literature survey was performed. Major topics were: Sampling technology, chemical composition, biological activity, and risk assessment of emissions. 33 refs, 11 tabs

  9. Energy and exergy analysis of an annular shaft kiln with opposite burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Wenjie; Li, Baokuan; Qi, Fengsheng; Cheung, Sherman C.P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An OBASK is investigated for the energy and exergy performance. • The energy and exergy efficiency of the OBASK is of 63.6% and 35.7%, respectively. • The exergy destruction accounts for 44.5% of the total exergy input. - Abstract: Annular shaft kilns with opposite burners (OBASK) has been widely adopted due to the advantages of cost saving and easy controlling. Nonetheless, compared with the traditional annular shaft kiln, the OBASK is not favorable in terms of thermal performance and energy efficiency. Aiming to improve the thermal performance, a comprehensive energy and exergy analysis of an OBASK has been conducted based on the actual operational data obtained from on-site measurements. For making a thorough thermal analysis of the OBASK, special attentions have been focused in considering magnesium decomposition reaction and moisture in limestone in the methodology. The energy and exergy efficiencies are determined to be 63.6% and 35.7%, respectively. The exergy destruction is 44.0% of total exergy input of which fuel combustion causes 56.6% of the exergy destruction. Furthermore, the effects of CaO and moisture contents in limestone on energy and exergy efficiencies are analyzed. The results have demonstrated the potential energy saving of the OBASK and identified three proposed energy conservation measures. Improvement and effect of the three proposed measures on the thermal performance are verified via further analysis.

  10. Curved wall-jet burner for synthesizing titania and silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    A novel curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner was designed for flame synthesis, by injecting precursors through a center tube and by supplying fuel/air mixtures as an annular-inward jet for rapid mixing of the precursors in the reaction zone. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles were produced in ethylene (C2H4)/air premixed flames using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as the precursors, respectively. Particle image velocimetry measurements confirmed that the precursors can be injected into the flames without appreciably affecting flow structure. The nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In the case of TiO2, the phase of nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the equivalence ratio, while the particle size was dependent on the precursor loading rate and the flame temperature. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited high crystallinity and the anatase phase was dominant at high equivalence ratios (φ > 1.3). In the case of SiO2, the particle size could be controlled from 11 to 18 nm by adjusting the precursor loading rate. © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2000-04-01

    Reduction of NO{sub x} emission is an important environmental issue in pulverized coal combustion. The most cost-effective approach to NO{sub x} reduction is air-staging which can also operate with additional down-stream techniques such as reburning [1]. Air staging promotes the conversion of NO{sub x} precursors (HCN, NH{sub 3}, etc.) to N{sub 2} by delaying the oxygen supply to the greatest extent when those nitrogen species are released during devolatilization. Such a delay gives the primary volatiles a chance to undergo secondary reactions, including tar cracking and soot formation. Secondary reactions of volatiles largely determine the fate of the ultimate NO{sub x} production from pyrolysis, therefore a detailed investigation into the transformation of nitrogen species during secondary reactions and effects of soot on nitrogen release is critical for design and implementation of new pollution control strategies. Current nitrogen models (including the CPD model at BYU) only simulate the nitrogen release during primary pyrolysis, which happens at low temperatures. This project helps to build a nitrogen release model that accounts for secondary reactions and the effects of soot at temperatures relevant to industrial burners.

  12. Low NO sub x heavy fuel combustor concept program. Phase 1A: Combustion technology generation coal gas fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    Combustion tests of two scaled burners using actual coal gas from a 25 ton/day fluidized bed coal gasifier are described. The two combustor configurations studied were a ceramic lined, staged rich/lean burner and an integral, all metal multiannual swirl burner (MASB). The tests were conducted over a range of temperature and pressures representative of current industrial combustion turbine inlet conditions. Tests on the rich lean burner were conducted at three levels of product gas heating values: 104, 197 and 254 btu/scf. Corresponding levels of NOx emissions were 5, 20 and 70 ppmv. Nitrogen was added to the fuel in the form of ammonia, and conversion efficiencies of fuel nitrogen to NOx were on the order of 4 percent to 12 percent, which is somewhat lower than the 14 percent to 18 percent conversion efficiency when src-2 liquid fuel was used. The MASB was tested only on medium btu gas (220 to 270 btu/scf), and produced approximately 80 ppmv NOx at rated engine conditions. Both burners operated similarly on actual coal gas and erbs fuel, and all heating values tested can be successfully burned in current machines.

  13. Effects of Burner Configurations on the Natural Oscillation Characteristics of Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. V. Manikantachari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, effects of burner configurations on the natural oscillations of methane laminar diffusion flames under atmospheric pressure and normal gravity conditions have been studied experimentally. Three regimes of laminar diffusion flames, namely, steady, intermittent flickering and continuous flickering have been investigated. Burner configurations such as straight pipe, contoured nozzle and that having an orifice plate at the exit have been considered. All burners have the same area of cross section at the exit and same burner lip thickness. Flame height data has been extracted from direct flame video using MATLAB. Shadowgraph videos have been captured to analyze the plume width characteristics. Results show that, the oscillation characteristics of the orifice burner is significantly different from the other two burners; orifice burner produces a shorter flame and wider thermal plume width in the steady flame regime and the onset of the oscillation/flickering regimes for the orifice burner occurs at a higher fuel flow rate. In the natural flickering regime, the dominating frequency of flame flickering remains within a small range, 12.5 Hz to 15 Hz, for all the burners and for all fuel flow rates. The time-averaged flame length-scale parameters, such as the maximum and the minimum flame heights, increase with respect to the fuel flow rate, however, the difference in the maximum and the minimum flame heights remains almost constant.

  14. Measurements of the concentration of major chemical species in the flame of a test burner with a air swirling system; Mesures de concentration d`especes chimiques majoritaires dans la flamme d`un bruleur modele avec mise en rotation de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, St. [Gaz de France (GDF), 93 - La Plaine-Saint-Denis (France); Most, J.M.; Poireault, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The study of combustion in industrial burners remains difficult because of the complexity of the equipments used: materials geometry, tri-dimensional flows etc.. The phenomena that control the combustion in a gas burner with a swirl air system has been studied thanks to a collaboration between the Direction of Research of Gaz de France (GdF) and the Laboratory for Combustion and Detonation Research (LCD) of the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS). The burner used is developed by the LCD and the measurements of stable chemical species were performed by the CERSTA centre of GdF. These series of tests, performed in confined environment, have permitted to identify some of the parameters that influence combustion chemistry. Mapping of chemical species allows to distinguish 5 zones of flame development and also the zones of nitrogen oxides formation. Methane is rapidly centrifuged a few millimeters above the injection pipe and centrifuged with rotating combustion air. Carbon monoxide occurs immediately in the central recirculation zone which is weakly reactive (no oxygen and no methane). Oxygen content increases downflow from this area and carbon dioxide reaches its concentration maxima. CO formation decreases when the swirl number increases and CO{sub 2} formation occurs earlier. On the contrary, the emissions of CO and CH{sub 4} do not depend on the swirl value and the NO{sub x} values are only slightly dependent on this value. (J.S.)

  15. Co-combustion: A summary of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leckner Bo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of biomass or waste together with a base fuel in a boiler is a simple and economically suitable way to replace fossil fuels by biomass and to utilize waste. Co-combustion in a high-efficiency power station means utilization of biomass and waste with a higher thermal efficiency than what otherwise had been possible. Due to transport limitations, the additional fuel will only supply a minor part (less than a few hundreds MW fuel of the energy in a plant. There are several options: co-combustion with coal in pulverized or fluidized bed boilers, combustion on added grates inserted in pulverized coal boilers, combustors for added fuel coupled in parallel to the steam circuit of a power plant, external gas producers delivering its gas to replace an oil, gas or pulverized fuel burner. Furthermore biomass can be used for reburning in order to reduce NO emissions or for afterburning to reduce N2O emissions in fluidized bed boilers. Combination of fuels can give rise to positive or negative synergy effects, of which the best known are the interactions between S, Cl, K, Al, and Si that may give rise to or prevent deposits on tubes or on catalyst surfaces, or that may have an influence on the formation of dioxins. With better knowledge of these effects the positive ones can be utilized and the negative ones can be avoided.

  16. Pembakaran Premixed Minyak Nabati Pada Bunsen Burner Type Silinder

    OpenAIRE

    La Muhaya, Syamsul Bahri; Wardana, ING; Widhiyanuriyawan, Denny

    2015-01-01

    In the premixed combustion wave propagation combustion occurs is called the flame front. Premixed flame will propagate at the speed of moving towards the reactants unique. If the speed of the reactants is equal to the speed of propagation of fire, the fire (reaction zone) will be stationary. It is necessary to follow up on the influence of equivalence ratio (φ) varied with laminar flame speed (SL) in the premixed combustion of vegetable oil (virgin coconut oil, jatropha and cotton seeds). Res...

  17. Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2008-01-01

    with implementation of low-NOx combustion technologies. The present thesis concerns three areas of importance within this field: 1) testing of fly ash adsorption behavior; 2) the influence of fuel type and combustion conditions on the ash adsorption behaviour including full-scale experiments at the power plant...... has a low sensitivity toward small variations in AEA adsorption between different fly ashes and it requires further work before a finished procedure is accomplished. Finally, it was shown that changes in temperature affect both test methods. Pulverized fuel has been combusted in an entrained flow...... formation. It was found that the AEA adsorption of the fly ash was reduced up to five times compared to reference operation, when the plant was operated with minimum furnace air staging, three levels of burners instead of four and without recycled flue gas. The lower AEA requirements of the fly ash...

  18. 3rd International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Gutheil, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This book reflects the results of the 2nd and 3rd International Workshops on Turbulent Spray Combustion. The focus is on progress in experiments and numerical simulations for two-phase flows, with emphasis on spray combustion. Knowledge of the dominant phenomena and their interactions allows development of predictive models and their use in combustor and gas turbine design. Experts and young researchers present the state-of-the-art results, report on the latest developments and exchange ideas in the areas of experiments, modelling and simulation of reactive multiphase flows. The first chapter reflects on flame structure, auto-ignition and atomization with reference to well-characterized burners, to be implemented by modellers with relative ease. The second chapter presents an overview of first simulation results on target test cases, developed at the occasion of the 1st International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion. In the third chapter, evaporation rate modelling aspects are covered, while the fourth ...

  19. Biogas utilization: Experimental investigation on biogas flameless combustion in lab-scale furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High costs of biogas purification and low calorific value of biogas are the main obstacles of biogas utilization. • The energy of biogas can be extracted by flameless combustion without any modification in burner or combustion system. • The efficiency of biogas flameless combustion and conventional combustion were 53% and 32% respectively. • The temperature inside the biogas flameless chamber is uniform. • In biogas flameless combustion, NO x and CO 2 formation decrease drastically in comparison with traditional combustion. - Abstract: Biogas generated in the anaerobic digestion of biomass and organic wastes by micro-organisms can be applied for heating, transportation and power generation as a renewable energy source. However, low calorific value (LCV) of biogas is one the most important bottlenecks of biogas conversion into electrical or thermal energy. Indeed, the presence of corrosive gases such as H 2 S and water vapor in biogas components makes some dilemmas in biogas purification and utilization. In order to obtain the efficient biogas utilization method, different biogas resources, physical and chemical properties of biogas and biogas combustion characteristics should be considered. In this paper biogas was utilized in lab-scale flameless combustion furnace and the performance of flameless combustion chamber fueled by biogas has been presented. Results demonstrated that flameless combustion is one of the best feasible strategies for biogas utilization. Uniformity of temperature in the flameless furnace increases the durability of refractory and related equipment. Simplicity of the flameless burner, pollutant formation reduction and fuel consumption decreases are the main causes of biogas flameless combustion supremacy

  20. Safety aspects of Particle Bed Reactor plutonium burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1993-01-01

    An assessment is made of the safety aspects peculiar to using the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) as the burner in a plutonium disposal system. It is found that a combination of the graphitic fuel, high power density possible with the PBR and engineered design features results in an attractive concept. The high power density potentially makes it possible to complete the plutonium burning without requiring reprocessing and remanufacturing fuel. This possibility removes two hazardous steps from a plutonium burning complex. Finally, two backup cooling systems depending on thermo-electric converters and heat pipes act as ultimate heat removal sinks in the event of accident scenarios which result in loss of fuel cooling

  1. Inherent safe fast breeder reactors and actinide burners, metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, S.; Schumacher, G.

    1991-04-01

    Nuclear power without breeder strategy uses the possibilities for the energy supply only to a small extend compared to the possibilities of fast breeder reactors, which offer an energy supply for thousands of years. Moreover, a fast neutron device offers the opportunity to run an actinide-burner that could improve the situation of waste management. Within this concept metallic fuel could play a key role. The present report shows some important aspects of the concept like the pyrometallic reprocessing, the behaviour of metallic fuel during a core meltdown accident and others. The report should contribute to the discussion of these problems and initialize further work

  2. Experimental study on the combustion characteristics of liquid fuel in the straight tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fei; Li, JunWei; Zhou, ZhaoQiu; Zhang, Xin; Wang, NingFei [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China). School of Aerospace Engineering

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates combustion characteristics of liquid hydrocarbon fuel (n-heptane, c7h16) under different operating conditions. In the paper we designed a burner consisting of a stainless steel capillary which is used to dump the fuel and a larger stainless steel tube (or quartz tube) used as a combustion chamber. The inner diameter (ID) of the capillary is 0.24 mm, the inner and external diameter of the larger tube is 4 and 6 mm, respectively. According to the experimental results, the combustion process reaches a stable status after about 100 s. Wall temperature distribution and combustion products are analyzed under conditions with different equivalence ratios, gas flow velocities and materials. As equivalence ratio (ER) whose range is in 0.56-1.08 increases, the wall temperature declines, and wall temperature gradient increases slightly. The range of gas flow velocity is in 0.6-1 m/s, the overall trend of wall temperature distribution is the second point from left boundary as a line, the wall temperature distribution of the four points in the right side increases with the flow velocity increasing, but the left point is rapidly declining. When the burner made of stainless steel, the wall temperature distribution varies slightly due to the larger thermal conductivity of stainless steel than that of quartz, which makes the heat transfer in stainless steel faster and the temperature distribution is more uniform. The thermodynamic calculation software is also used to study the compositions of combustion products. In a word, this structure of the burner shows poor combustion characteristics, we should change the structure and the experimental conditions to achieve better combustion characteristics in the future.

  3. Furnace devices aerodynamics optimization for fuel combustion efficiency improvement and nitrogen oxide emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, E. P.; Prokhorov, V. B.; Arkhipov, A. M.; Chernov, S. L.; Kirichkov, V. S.; Kaverin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    MPEI conducts researches on physical and mathematical models of furnace chambers for improvement of power-generation equipment fuel combustion efficiency and ecological safety. Results of these researches are general principles of furnace aerodynamics arrangement for straight-flow burners and various fuels. It has been shown, that staged combustion arrangement with early heating and igniting with torch distribution in all furnace volume allows to obtain low carbon in fly ash and nitrogen oxide emission and also to improve boiler operation reliability with expand load adjustment range. For solid fuel combustion efficiency improvement it is practical to use high-placed and strongly down-tilted straight-flow burners, which increases high-temperature zone residence time for fuel particles. In some cases, for this combustion scheme it is possible to avoid slag-tap removal (STR) combustion and to use Dry-bottom ash removal (DBAR) combustion with tolerable carbon in fly ash level. It is worth noting that boilers with STR have very high nitrogen oxide emission levels (1200-1800 mg/m3) and narrow load adjustment range, which is determined by liquid slag output stability, so most industrially-developed countries don’t use this technology. Final decision about overhaul of boiler unit is made with regard to physical and mathematical modeling results for furnace and zonal thermal calculations for furnace and boiler as a whole. Overhaul of boilers to provide staged combustion and straight-flow burners and nozzles allows ensuring regulatory nitrogen oxide emission levels and corresponding best available technology criteria, which is especially relevant due to changes in Russian environmental regulation.

  4. Emission of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from biomass pellet burning in a modern burner for cooking in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Tao, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Biomass pellets are undergoing fast deployment widely in the world, including China. To this stage, there were limited studies on the emissions of various organic pollutants from the burning of those pellets. In addition to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) have been received increased concerns. In this study, emission factors of oPAHs (EFoPAHs) were measured for two types of pellets made from corn straw and pine wood, respectively. Two combustion modes with (mode II) and without (mode I) secondary side air supply in a modern pellet burner were investigated. For the purpose of comparison, EFoPAHs for raw fuels combusted in a traditional cooking stove were also measured. EFoPAHs were 348 ± 305 and 396 ± 387 μg kg-1 in the combustion mode II for pine wood and corn straw pellets, respectively. In mode I, measured EFoPAHs were 77.7 ± 49.4 and 189 ± 118 μg kg-1, respectively. EFs in mode II were higher (2-5 times) than those in mode I mainly due to the decreased combustion temperature under more excess air. Compared to EFoPAHs for raw corn straw and pine wood burned in a traditional cooking stove, total EFoPAHs for the pellets in mode I were significantly lower (p pellets burned in mode II was not statistically significant. Taking both the increased thermal efficiencies and decreased EFs into consideration, substantial reduction in oPAH emission can be expected if the biomass pellets can be extensively used by rural residents.

  5. Interim results: fines recycle testing using the 4-inch diameter primary graphite burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.B.

    1975-05-01

    The results of twenty-two HTGR primary burner runs in which graphite fines were recycled pneumatically to the 4-inch diameter pilot-plant primary fluidized-bed burner are described. The result of the tests showed that zero fines accumulation can easily be achieved while operating at plant equivalent burn rates. (U.S.)

  6. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using a Double-Slit Curved Wall-Jet Burner

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Mohamed; Mansour, Morkous S.; Memon, Nasir K.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A novel double-slit curved wall-jet (DS-CWJ) burner was proposed and utilized for flame synthesis. This burner was comprised of double curved wall-jet nozzles with coaxial slits; the inner slit was for the delivery of titanium tetraisopropoxide

  7. Oil fired boiler/solar tank- and natural gas burner/solar tank-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Frederiksen, Karsten Vinkler

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new units consisting of a solar tank and either an oil fired boiler or a natural gas burner have been introduced on the Danish market. Three different marketed units - two based on a natural gas burner and one based on an oil fired boiler - have been tested in a heat...

  8. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  9. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  10. Comparison methods between methane and hydrogen combustion for useful transfer in furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiea, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen use by industrial combustion are critically presented. Greenhouse effect due natural water vapors from atmosphere and these produced by hydrogen industrial combustion is critically analyzed, together with problems of gas fuels containing hydrogen as the relative largest component. A comparison method between methane and hydrogen combustion for pressure loss in burner feeding pipe, is conceived. It is deduced the ratio of radiation useful heat transfer characteristics and convection heat transfer coefficients from combustion gases at industrial furnaces and heat recuperators for hydrogen and methane combustion, establishing specific comparison methods. Using criterial equations special processed for convection heat transfer determination, a calculation generalizing formula is established. The proposed comparison methods are general valid for different gaseous fuels. (author)

  11. Combustion and environment. The answers from the energy and equipment suppliers; Combustion et environnement. Les reponses des fournisseurs d`energie et d`equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a reprint of an article published in `Energie Plus` magazine which questions the capability of commercial fuels and combustion equipments (central heating plants, burners, turbines and engines) available today of respecting the limit values of pollutant emissions (SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, CO, dusts) of forthcoming regulations. An analysis of the situation is given separately for the fuels (natural gas, coal, heavy fuels) with a stress on the competition aspects, and for the combustion systems (turbines, diesel and gas engines, central heating plants). (J.S.)

  12. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner - Phase III Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Sullivan; A. Webb

    1999-12-01

    The development and demonstration of the Radiation Stabilized Burner (RSB) was completed as a project funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies. The technical goals of the project were to demonstrate burner performance that would meet or exceed emissions targets of 9 ppm NOx, 50 ppm CO, and 9 ppm unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), with all values being corrected to 3 percent stack oxygen, and incorporate the burner design into a new industrial boiler configuration that would achieve ultra-low emissions while maintaining or improving thermal efficiency, operating costs, and maintenance costs relative to current generation 30 ppm low NOx burner installations. Both the ultra-low NOx RSB and the RSB boiler-burner package are now commercially available.

  13. Equipment for heating the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines in order to improve afterburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki,

    1976-04-15

    The device described here serves to heat exhaust gases of internal combustion engines by heat exchange with hot gases and also, in cold engines, to raise the temperature of the fuel-air mixture drawn in by the engine. The device is installed next to the outlet opening of the engine. It consists of a burner to generate the hot gas, as well as a heat exchanger permitting heat supply to the exhaust gases and a hot-gas line leading to the intake line. Heating of the air is taken in leads to a better atomization of the mixture and thus to improved combustion. Heating of the exhaust gases improves afterburning. The burner generating the hot gas is shut off when the normal operational temperature of the engine is reached. The temperature is controlled by means of a temperature sensor installed in the device.

  14. Investigation of a Boiler's Furnace Aerodynamics with a Vortex Solid Fuel Combustion Scheme on Physical and Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov V.B.,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The important problem of developing the low-cost technologies that will be able to provide a deep decrease in the concentration of nitrogen oxides while maintaining fuel burn-up efficiency is considered. This paper presents the results of the aerodynamics study of the furnace of boiler TPP-210A on the base of the physical and mathematical models in the case when boiler retrofitting from liquid to solid slag removal with two to three times reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions and replacing the vortex burners with direct-flow burners. The need for these studies is due to the fact that the direct-flow burners are "collective action" burners, and efficient fuel combustion can be provided only by the interaction of fuel jets, secondary and tertiary air jets in the furnace volume. The new scheme of air staged combustion in a system of vertical vortexes of opposite rotation with direct-flow burners and nozzles and direct injection of Kuznetsky lean coal dust was developed. In order to test the functional ability and efficiency of the proposed combustion scheme, studies on the physical model of the boiler furnace and the mathematical model of the experimental furnace bench for the case of an isothermal fluid flow were carried out. Comparison showed an acceptable degree of coincidence of these results. In all studied regimes, pronounced vortices remain in both the vertical and horizontal planes, that indicates a high degree of mass exchange between jets and combustion products and the furnace aerodynamics stability to changes in regime factors.

  15. Modelling of EAF off-gas post combustion in dedusting systems using CFD methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X.; Kirschen, M.; Pfeifer, H. [Inst. for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering in Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Abel, M. [VAI-Fuchs GmbH, Willstaett (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    To comply with the increasingly strict environmental regulations, the poisonous off-gas species, e.g. carbon monoxide (CO), produced in the electric arc furnace (EAF) must be treated in the dedusting system. In this work, gas flow patterns of the off-gas post combustion in three different dedusting system units were simulated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code: (1) post combustion in a horizontal off-gas duct, (2) post combustion in a water cooled post combustion chamber without additional energy supply (no gas or air/oxygen injectors) and (3) post combustion in a post combustion chamber with additional energy input (gas, air injectors and ignition burner, case study of VAI-Fuchs GmbH). All computational results are illustrated with gas velocity, temperature distribution and chemical species concentration fields for the above three cases. In case 1, the effect of different false air volume flow rates at the gap between EAF elbow and exhaust gas duct on the external post combustion of the off-gas was investigated. For case 2, the computed temperature and chemical composition (CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}) of the off-gas at the post chamber exit are in good agreement with additional measurements. Various operating conditions for case 3 have been studied, including different EAF off-gas temperatures and compositions, i. e. CO content, in order to optimize oxygen and burner gas flow rates. Residence time distributions in the external post combustion chambers have been calculated for cases 2 and 3. Derived temperature fields of the water cooled walls yield valuable information on thermally stressed parts of post combustion units. The results obtained in this work may also gain insight to future investigation of combustion of volatile organic components (VOC) or formation of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and permit the optimization of the operation and design of the off-gas dedusting system units. (orig.)

  16. Energy-saving and reduing harmful substancing harmful substances in industrial furnaes of the steel industry and NF metal industry by the further development and optimisation of regenerator burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamme, M.; Kuhn, P.

    1992-01-01

    The rational use of energy is an important measure to reduce CO 2 emission. One possibility of reducing the energy demand is the increase of the combustion efficiency. There are high waste gas losses, particularly in the area of high temperature processes in the conversion of energy from the fuel into process heat. The many aspects of the task led to a divided execution of the research work. The Gas Heat Institute, apart from the co-ordination of the whole project, is mainly concerned with the burners of the regenerator burner system, while the Operating Research Institute is mainly busy with the regenerators and with the effects of the cyclically varying furnace temperature on the process. (orig./HW) [de

  17. Effect of combustion characteristics on wall radiative heat flux in a 100 MWe oxy-coal combustion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.; Ryu, C. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering; Chae, T.Y. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering; Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of). Energy System R and D Group; Yang, W. [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of). Energy System R and D Group; Kim, Y.; Lee, S.; Seo, S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Power Generation Lab.

    2013-07-01

    Oxy-coal combustion exhibits different reaction, flow and heat transfer characteristics from air-coal combustion due to different properties of oxidizer and flue gas composition. This study investigated the wall radiative heat flux (WRHF) of air- and oxy-coal combustion in a simple hexahedral furnace and in a 100 MWe single-wall-fired boiler using computational modeling. The hexahedral furnace had similar operation conditions with the boiler, but the coal combustion was ignored by prescribing the gas properties after complete combustion at the inlet. The concentrations of O{sub 2} in the oxidizers ranging between 26 and 30% and different flue gas recirculation (FGR) methods were considered in the furnace. In the hexahedral furnace, the oxy-coal case with 28% of O{sub 2} and wet FGR had a similar value of T{sub af} with the air-coal combustion case, but its WRHF was 12% higher. The mixed FGR case with about 27% O{sub 2} in the oxidizer exhibited the WRHF similar to the air-coal case. During the actual combustion in the 100 MWe boiler using mixed FGR, the reduced volumetric flow rates in the oxy-coal cases lowered the swirl strength of the burners. This stretched the flames and moved the high temperature region farther to the downstream. Due to this reason, the case with 30% O{sub 2} in the oxidizers achieved a WRHF close to that of air-coal combustion, although its adiabatic flame temperature (T{sub af}) and WHRF predicted in the simplified hexahedral furnace was 103 K and 10% higher, respectively. Therefore, the combustion characteristics and temperature distribution significantly influences the WRHF, which should be assessed to determine the ideal operating conditions of oxy- coal combustion. The choice of the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGGM) was not critical in the large coal-fired boiler.

  18. Development of rapid mixing fuel nozzle for premixed combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuki, Masashi; Chung, Jin Do; Kim, Jang Woo; Hwang, Seung Min; Kim, Seung Mo; Ahn, Chul Ju

    2009-01-01

    Combustion in high-preheat and low oxygen concentration atmosphere is one of the attractive measures to reduce nitric oxide emission as well as greenhouse gases from combustion devices, and it is expected to be a key technology for the industrial applications in heating devices and furnaces. Before proceeding to the practical applications, we need to elucidate combustion characteristics of non-premixed and premixed flames in high-preheat and low oxygen concentration conditions from scientific point of view. For the purpose, we have developed a special mixing nozzle to create a homogeneous mixture of fuel and air by rapid mixing, and applied this rapidmixing nozzle to a Bunsen-type burner to observe combustion characteristics of the rapid-mixture. As a result, the combustion of rapid-mixture exhibited the same flame structure and combustion characteristics as the perfectly prepared premixed flame, even though the mixing time of the rapid-mixing nozzle was extremely short as a few milliseconds. Therefore, the rapid-mixing nozzle in this paper can be used to create preheated premixed flames as far as the mixing time is shorter than the ignition delay time of the fuel

  19. Flashback analysis in tangential swirl burners; Analisis de reflujo de flama en combustores tangenciales de flujo giratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera-Medina, A. [CIATEQ A.C., Centro de Tecnologia Avanzada, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: agustin.valera@ciateq.mx; Syred, N. Abdulsada, M. [United Kingdom Cardiff University (United Kingdom)]. E-mails: syredn@cf.ac.uk; abdulsadam@cf.ac.uk

    2011-10-15

    Premixed lean combustion is widely used in Combustion Processes due to the benefits of good flame stability and blow off limits coupled with low NO{sub x} emissions. However, the use of novel fuels and complex flows have increased the concern about flashback, especially for the use of syngas and highly hydrogen enriched blends. Thus, this paper describes a combined practical and numerical approach to study the phenomenon in order to reduce the effect of flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential swirl burner. Natural gas is used to establish the baseline results and effects of different parameters changes. The flashback phenomenon is studied with the use of high speed photography. The use of a central fuel injector demonstrates substantial benefits in terms of flashback resistance, eliminating coherent structures that may appear in the flow channels. The critical boundary velocity gradient is used for characterization, both via the original Lewis and von Elbe formula and via analysis using CFD and investigation of boundary layer conditions in the flame front. [Spanish] La combustion ligera premezclada se utiliza ampliamente en los procesos de combustion debido a los beneficios que brinda en terminos de buena estabilidad de flama y limites de extincion, aunado a la baja emision de NO{sub x}. Sin embargo, el uso de nuevos combustibles y de flujos complejos han incrementado la preocupacion por el reflujo de flama, especialmente para el uso de gas sintetico (syngas) y mezclas altamente hidrogenadas. Por ello, en este articulo se describe un metodo practico y numerico para el estudio del fenomeno a modo de reducir los efectos del reflujo de flama en un combustor piloto de tipo tangencial de flujo giratorio de 100 kW. Se usa gas natural para establecer la linea base de resultados y los efectos del cambio de diferentes parametros. El fenomeno de reflujo de flama se estudia por medio de fotografia de rapida adquisicion. El uso de un inyector central de combustible

  20. Combustion of pulverized fuel under oxycoal conditions at low oxygen concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toporov D.; Foerster M.; Kneer R. [RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer

    2007-07-01

    Oxycoal combustion followed by post-combustion CO{sub 2} sequestration has gained justified interest as an option for significant and relatively quick reduction of emissions from fossil fuel power generation, while taking advantage of the existing power plant infrastructure. Burning pulverised coal in a mixture of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} instead of air, however, will lead to modified distributions of temperature, species, and radiation fluxes inside the combustion chamber causing a retroaction on the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Utilizing a burner design, which was optimised for coal combustion in air, for oxycoal combustion will lead to flame instability and poor burnout. Stabilisation of the combustion process can be obtained by: i) an increased oxygen concentration (more than 21% vol.) in the oxidiser mixture, thus achieving similar reaction rates and temperature levels to a pulverised fuel-air flame without significant changes to the flame aerodynamics. ii) modifications to the burner aerodynamics, as presented here. The results in this study are obtained in the frame of OXYCOAL-AC, the research project, having the aim to burn a pulverised coal in a CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-atmosphere with oxygen, produced from high-temperature ceramic membrane thus leading to higher efficiency of the whole oxycoal process. Numerical and experimental investigations of a stable oxycoal flame, obtained with {le} 21% oxygen concentration in the burning mixture at the RWTH test facility are reported. Two different burner designs are considered, conclusions concerning the achievement of a stable oxycoal flame at O{sub 2} volume concentrations equal and less to the one of oxygen in air are derived. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Study on Characteristics of Co-firing Ammonia/Methane Fuels under Oxygen Enriched Combustion Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hua; Wang, Zhaolin; Valera-Medina, Agustin; Bowen, Philip J.

    2018-06-01

    Having a background of utilising ammonia as an alternative fuel for power generation, exploring the feasibility of co-firing ammonia with methane is proposed to use ammonia to substitute conventional natural gas. However, improvement of the combustion of such fuels can be achieved using conditions that enable an increase of oxygenation, thus fomenting the combustion process of a slower reactive molecule as ammonia. Therefore, the present study looks at oxygen enriched combustion technologies, a proposed concept to improve the performance of ammonia/methane combustion. To investigate the characteristics of ammonia/methane combustion under oxygen enriched conditions, adiabatic burning velocity and burner stabilized laminar flame emissions were studied. Simulation results show that the oxygen enriched method can help to significantly enhance the propagation of ammonia/methane combustion without changing the emission level, which would be quite promising for the design of systems using this fuel for practical applications. Furthermore, to produce low computational-cost flame chemistry for detailed numerical analyses for future combustion studies, three reduced combustion mechanisms of the well-known Konnov's mechanism were compared in ammonia/methane flame simulations under practical gas turbine combustor conditions. Results show that the reduced reaction mechanisms can provide good results for further analyses of oxygen enriched combustion of ammonia/methane. The results obtained in this study also allow gas turbine designers and modellers to choose the most suitable mechanism for further combustion studies and development.

  2. Cutting edge SRU control : improved environmental compliance with Jacobs advanced burner control+ (ABC+)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenaar, G. [Jacobs Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Henning, A.; Kobussen, S. [Jacobs Nederland BV, Hoogvliet (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands bitumen contains approximately 4 to 5 per cent sulphur by weight and the bitumen is upgraded to produce lighter fractions. During coking the bitumen is heated and cracked into lighter molecules and a mixture of kerosene, naphtha and gas oil is recovered via fractionation. Then, the vapors leaving the fractionator are processed through hydrodesulphurization, followed by removal by amine based sweetening units. The acid gas from the ASUs is sent to the sulphur recovery units (SRUs) where most of the sulphur is recovered as elemental sulphur. The oil sands industry faces many challenges with respect to environmental impact, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions including the recovery of sulphur and minimizing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from the oil sands production facilities. In order to improve the SRU control response to acid gas feed variations, Jacobs Comprimo Sulphur Solutions implemented advanced burner control+ (ABC+) at Suncor's Simonette Gas Plant's SRU in northern Alberta. This control system used an acid gas feed analyzer and dynamic algorithms to control the combustion air to the reaction furnace. The analyzer measures H{sub 2}S, total hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water (H{sub 2}O) accurately and quickly, which is important for having effective and fast air-to-acid gas ratio control. The paper provided background information on the Suncor Simonette Gas Plant and discussed ABC+ versus conventional control. An overview of the simplified ABC and ABC+ systems was then illustrated and presented. The ABB multiwave process photometer was also explained. Last, a dynamic simulation of the potential benefits of ABC+ was discussed and the ABC+ benefits for oil sands were presented. It was concluded that ABC+ provides improved SRU performance, reduced SO{sub 2} emissions and violations, and reduced flaring. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  3. A new scaling methodology for NO(x) emissions performance of gas burners and furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tse-Chih

    1997-11-01

    A general burner and furnace scaling methodology is presented, together with the resulting scaling model for NOsb{x} emissions performance of a broad class of swirl-stabilized industrial gas burners. The model is based on results from a set of novel burner scaling experiments on a generic gas burner and furnace design at five different scales having near-uniform geometric, aerodynamic, and thermal similarity and uniform measurement protocols. These provide the first NOsb{x} scaling data over the range of thermal scales from 30 kW to 12 MW, including input-output measurements as well as detailed in-flame measurements of NO, NOsb{x}, CO, Osb2, unburned hydrocarbons, temperature, and velocities at each scale. The in-flame measurements allow identification of key sources of NOsb{x} production. The underlying physics of these NOsb{x} sources lead to scaling laws for their respective contributions to the overall NOsb{x} emissions performance. It is found that the relative importance of each source depends on the burner scale and operating conditions. Simple furnace residence time scaling is shown to be largely irrelevant, with NOsb{x} emissions instead being largely controlled by scaling of the near-burner region. The scalings for these NOsb{x} sources are combined in a comprehensive scaling model for NOsb{x} emission performance. Results from the scaling model show good agreement with experimental data at all burner scales and over the entire range of turndown, staging, preheat, and excess air dilution, with correlations generally exceeding 90%. The scaling model permits design trade-off assessments for a broad class of burners and furnaces, and allows performance of full industrial scale burners and furnaces of this type to be inferred from results of small scale tests.

  4. Exposure calculation code module for reactor core analysis: BURNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1979-02-01

    The code module BURNER for nuclear reactor exposure calculations is presented. The computer requirements are shown, as are the reference data and interface data file requirements, and the programmed equations and procedure of calculation are described. The operating history of a reactor is followed over the period between solutions of the space, energy neutronics problem. The end-of-period nuclide concentrations are determined given the necessary information. A steady state, continuous fueling model is treated in addition to the usual fixed fuel model. The control options provide flexibility to select among an unusually wide variety of programmed procedures. The code also provides user option to make a number of auxiliary calculations and print such information as the local gamma source, cumulative exposure, and a fine scale power density distribution in a selected zone. The code is used locally in a system for computation which contains the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other modules.

  5. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  6. Exposure calculation code module for reactor core analysis: BURNER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1979-02-01

    The code module BURNER for nuclear reactor exposure calculations is presented. The computer requirements are shown, as are the reference data and interface data file requirements, and the programmed equations and procedure of calculation are described. The operating history of a reactor is followed over the period between solutions of the space, energy neutronics problem. The end-of-period nuclide concentrations are determined given the necessary information. A steady state, continuous fueling model is treated in addition to the usual fixed fuel model. The control options provide flexibility to select among an unusually wide variety of programmed procedures. The code also provides user option to make a number of auxiliary calculations and print such information as the local gamma source, cumulative exposure, and a fine scale power density distribution in a selected zone. The code is used locally in a system for computation which contains the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other modules

  7. Oxy combustion with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    An update for oxyfuel-combustion carbon capture in the power industry is provided. The report was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on behalf of the Global CCS Institute. In the oxyfuel-combustion processes, the bulk nitrogen is removed from the air before combustion. The resulting combustion products will have CO2 content up to about 90 per cent (dry basis). The flue gas impurities (predominantly O2, N2, and Ar) may be removed by reducing the flue gas (at moderate pressure) to a temperature at which the CO2 condenses and the impurities do not. Oxyfuel-combustion may be employed with solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, and biomass, as well as liquid and gaseous fuels. Some key points raised in the oxyfuel-combustion carbon capture report are: The oxyfuel-combustion/CO2 capture power plant designs being developed and deployed for service in the next four or five years are based on individual component technologies and arrangements which have demonstrated sufficient maturity, with the greatest remaining technical challenge being integrating the systems into a complete steam-electric power plant; By its nature, an oxyfuel-coal power plant is likely to be a 'near zero' emitter of all criteria pollutants; Existing air-fired power plants might be retrofitted with an air separation unit, oxyfuel-fired burners, flue gas recycle, and a CO2 processing unit, with the large fleet of air-fired power plants in service calling for more study of this option; and, Future efficiency improvements to the oxyfuel-combustion process for power generation point toward an oxyfuel-combustion plant with near zero emissions of conventional pollutants, up to 98 per cent CO2 capture, and efficiency comparable to the best power plants currently being built.

  8. A Modeling Tool for Household Biogas Burner Flame Port Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Thomas J.

    Anaerobic digestion is a well-known and potentially beneficial process for rural communities in emerging markets, providing the opportunity to generate usable gaseous fuel from agricultural waste. With recent developments in low-cost digestion technology, communities across the world are gaining affordable access to the benefits of anaerobic digestion derived biogas. For example, biogas can displace conventional cooking fuels such as biomass (wood, charcoal, dung) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), effectively reducing harmful emissions and fuel cost respectively. To support the ongoing scaling effort of biogas in rural communities, this study has developed and tested a design tool aimed at optimizing flame port geometry for household biogas-fired burners. The tool consists of a multi-component simulation that incorporates three-dimensional CAD designs with simulated chemical kinetics and computational fluid dynamics. An array of circular and rectangular port designs was developed for a widely available biogas stove (called the Lotus) as part of this study. These port designs were created through guidance from previous studies found in the literature. The three highest performing designs identified by the tool were manufactured and tested experimentally to validate tool output and to compare against the original port geometry. The experimental results aligned with the tool's prediction for the three chosen designs. Each design demonstrated improved thermal efficiency relative to the original, with one configuration of circular ports exhibiting superior performance. The results of the study indicated that designing for a targeted range of port hydraulic diameter, velocity and mixture density in the tool is a relevant way to improve the thermal efficiency of a biogas burner. Conversely, the emissions predictions made by the tool were found to be unreliable and incongruent with laboratory experiments.

  9. Experimental verification of altitude effect over thermal power in an atmospheric burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amell Arrieta, Andres; Agudelo, John Ramiro; Cortes, Jaime

    1992-01-01

    Colombian national massive gasification plan is carried out in a variety of geographic altitudes ranging from 0 to 2.600 meter. The biggest market is located in the Andinan Region, which is characterized by great urban centres located at high altitudes. Commercial, domestic and industrial applications are characterized by the utilization of appliances using atmospheric burners. The thermal power of these burners is affected by altitude. This paper shows experimental results of thermal power reduction in atmospheric burners due to altitude changes. It was found that thermal power is reduced by 1,5% each 304 meters of altitude

  10. Industrial applications of Tenova FlexyTech flame-less low NOx burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantuzzi, M.; Ballarino, L.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental emissions constraints have led manufacturers to improve their low NO x recuperative burners. The development by Tenova of the FlexyTech Flame-less burners with low NO x emissions, even below the present 'Best Available Technology' limit of 40 ppm at 3% O 2 with furnace temperature 1250 C, air preheat 450 C, is described. The results achieved during the R and D programme have been also improved in the industrial installations. Some details and performances of the recent furnaces equipped with such burners are provided. (authors)

  11. Chimney emissions from small-scale burning of pellets and fuelwood - examples referring to different combustion appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaellstrand, Jennica; Olsson, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Most wood boilers used for residential heating today are old-fashioned and emit large quantities of organic compounds. The installation of a pellet burner and a change to wood pellets as fuel normally decreases the emissions remarkably. In this study, the emissions from different equipment for burning of wood and pellets are compared. The organic fraction of smoke from traditional wood burning is to a great extent composed of methoxyphenols, with antioxidant effects. Methoxyphenols were also identified in smoke from pellet stoves. A fuel wood boiler or a furnace with an inserted pellet burner is heated to a higher combustion temperature, decreasing the total amount of organic compounds in the smoke. Above 800 deg C, methoxyphenols are thermally decomposed and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are formed. The combustion-formed aromatic hydrocarbon benzene is present in smoke from all kinds of burning, but the proportion relative to primary organic compounds increases with increasing combustion temperature. In smoke from an environmentally labelled wood boiler and from some pellet burning devices, the levels of PAC and benzene were found to be low. Evidently, the combustion was nearly complete. Although the change from wood to pellets significantly decreases the emissions, considerable differences exist between various combinations of pellet burners and boiler furnaces. (Author)

  12. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  13. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  14. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  15. Super-adiabatic combustion in Al2O3 and SiC coated porous media for thermoelectric power conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Kyle T.; Waters, Oliver; Bubnovich, Valeri; Orlovskaya, Nina; Chen, Ruey-Hung

    2013-01-01

    The combustion of ultra-lean fuel/air mixtures provides an efficient way to convert the chemical energy of hydrocarbons and low-calorific fuels into useful power. Matrix-stabilized porous medium combustion is an advanced technique in which a solid porous medium within the combustion chamber conducts heat from the hot gaseous products in the upstream direction to preheat incoming reactants. This heat recirculation extends the standard flammability limits, allowing the burning of ultra-lean and low-calorific fuel mixtures and resulting a combustion temperature higher than the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature of the mixture (i.e., super-adiabatic combustion). The heat generated by this combustion process can be converted into electricity with thermoelectric generators, which is the goal of this study. The design of a porous media burner coupled with a thermoelectric generator and its testing are presented. The combustion zone media was a highly-porous alumina matrix interposed between upstream and downstream honeycomb structures with pore sizes smaller than the flame quenching distance, preventing the flame from propagating outside of the central section. Experimental results include temperature distributions inside the combustion chamber and across a thermoelectric generator; along with associated current, voltage and power output values. Measurements were obtained for a catalytically inert Al 2 O 3 medium and a SiC coated medium, which was tested for the ability to catalyze the super-adiabatic combustion. The combustion efficiency was obtained for stoichiometric and ultra-lean (near the lean flammability limit) mixtures of CH 4 and air. - Highlights: • Design of a porous burner coupled with a thermoelectric module. • Super-adiabatic combustion in a highly-porous ceramic matrix was investigated. • Both alumina and silicon carbide ceramic surfaces were used as porous media. • Catalytic properties of Al 2 O 3 and SiC ceramic surfaces were studied

  16. Blow-off characteristics of turbulent premixed flames in curved-wall Jet Burner

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Morkous S.; Mannaa, O.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    and simultaneously stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) quantified the turbulent flow field features. Ethylene/air flames were stabilized in CWJ burner to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff. For stably burning flames far from blowoff

  17. Behaviors of tribrachial edge flames and their interactions in a triple-port burner

    KAUST Repository

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Yusuke; Hayashi, Naoki; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In a triple-port burner, various non-premixed flames have been observed previously. Especially for the case with two lifted flames, such configuration could be suitable in studying interaction between two tribrachial flames. In the present study

  18. Time evolution of propagating nonpremixed flames in a counterflow, annular slot burner under AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    alternating current electric fields to a gap between the upper and lower parts of a counterflow, annular slot burner and present the characteristics of the propagating nonpremixed edge-flames produced. Contrary to many other previous studies, flame

  19. Device to lower NOx in a gas turbine engine combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Walter R; Schilp, Reinhard; Wiebe, David J

    2015-02-24

    An emissions control system for a gas turbine engine including a flow-directing structure (24) that delivers combustion gases (22) from a burner (32) to a turbine. The emissions control system includes: a conduit (48) configured to establish fluid communication between compressed air (22) and the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24). The compressed air (22) is disposed at a location upstream of a combustor head-end and exhibits an intermediate static pressure less than a static pressure of the combustion gases within the combustor (14). During operation of the gas turbine engine a pressure difference between the intermediate static pressure and a static pressure of the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24) is effective to generate a fluid flow through the conduit (48).

  20. Measurement of O2 in the Combustion Chamber of Apulverized Coal Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Janeba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational measurements of the O2 concentration in the combustion chamber of a pulverized coal boiler are not yet common practice. Operators are generally satisfied with measuring the O2 concentration in the second pass of the boiler, usually behind the economizer, where a flue gas sample is extracted for analysis in a classical analyzer. A disadvantage of this approach is that there is a very weak relation between the measured value and the condition in specific locations in the fireplace, e.g. the function of the individual burners and the combustion process as a whole. A new extractionline was developed for measuring the O2 concentration in the combustion chamber. A planar lambda probe is used in this approach. The extraction line is designed to get outputs that can be used directly for diagnosis or management of the combustion in the boiler.

  1. Optimal Switching Control of Burner Setting for a Compact Marine Boiler Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Maciejowski, Jan M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses optimal control strategies for switching between different burner modes in a novel compact  marine boiler design. The ideal behaviour is defined in a performance index the minimisation of which defines an ideal trade-off between deviations in boiler pressure and water level...... approach is based on a generalisation of hysteresis control. The strategies are verified on a simulation model of the compact marine boiler for control of low/high burner load switches.  ...

  2. Duct burners in heat recovery system for cogeneration and captive power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, J.

    1992-01-01

    Our oil explorations both onshore and offshore have thrown open bright prospects of cogeneration by using natural gas in gas turbine power plants with heat recovery units. Both for co-gen and combined cycle systems, supplementary firing of GT exhaust gas is normally required. Hence, duct burners have significant role for effective contribution towards of efficacy of heat recovery system for gas turbine exhaust gas. This article details on various aspects of duct burners in heat recovery systems. (author)

  3. Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of methane cup-burner flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubát P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulsation frequency of the cup-burner flame was determined by means of experimental investigations and numerical simulations. Simplified chemical kinetics was successfully implemented into a laminar fluid flow model applied to the complex burner geometry. Our methodical approach is based on the monitoring of flame emission, fast Fourier transformation and reproduction of measured spectral features by numerical simulations. Qualitative agreement between experimental and predicted oscillatory behaviour was obtained by employing a two-step methane oxidation scheme.

  4. Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri; Eldrainy, Yehia A; Mat Ali, Muhammad Faiser; Wan Omar, W Z; Mohd Hizam, Mohd Faizi Arif

    2012-02-21

    The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber.

  5. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Brian R [Chicago, IL; Ochs, Thomas Lilburn [Albany, OR; Summers, Cathy Ann [Albany, OR; Oryshchyn, Danylo B [Philomath, OR; Turner, Paul Chandler [Independence, OR

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  6. Rotary combustion device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Rotary combustion device (1) with rotary combustion chamber (4). Specific measures are taken to provide ignition of a combustible mixture. It is proposed that a hollow tube be provided coaxially with the axis of rotation (6), so that a small part of the mixture is guided into the combustion chamber.

  7. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-25

    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  8. Design evaluation of the 20-cm (8-inch) secondary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, J.S.

    1977-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of the design of the existing 20-cm (8-inch) engineering-scale secondary burner system in the HTGR reprocessing cold pilot plant at General Atomic Co. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the suitability of the existing design as a prototype of the HTGR Recycle Demonstration Facility (HRDF) secondary burner system and to recommend alternatives where the existing design is thought to be unsuitable as a prototype. This evaluation has led to recommendations for the parallel development of two integrated design concepts for a prototype secondary burner system. One concept utilizes the existing burner heating and cooling subsystems in order to minimize development risk, but simplifies a number of other features associated with remote maintenance and burner operation. The other concept, which offers maximum cost reduction, utilizes internal gas cooling of the burner, retains the existing heating subsystem for design compatibility, but requires considerable development to reduce the risk to acceptable limits. These concepts, as well as other design alternatives, are described and evaluated

  9. Design evaluation of the 40-cm (16-inch) primary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, J.S.

    1977-06-01

    An evaluation is given of the design of the existing 40-cm (16-in.) engineering-scale primary burner system in the HTGR reprocessing cold pilot plant at General Atomic Co. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the suitability of the existing design as a prototype of the HTGR Recycle Demonstration Facility (HRDF) primary burner system and to recommend alternatives where the existing design is thought to be unsuitable as a prototype. This evaluation has led to recommendations for the parallel development of two integrated design concepts for a prototype primary burner system. One concept utilizes the existing burner heating and cooling sub-systems in order to minimize development risk, but simplifies a number of other features associated with remote maintenance and burner operation. The other concept, which offers maximum cost reduction, utilizes direct contact hot gas heating and internal gas cooling of the burner, but requires considerable development to reduce the risk to acceptable limits. These concepts, as well as other design alternatives, are described and evaluated

  10. Non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapan, R.C.; Costa, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Oliveira, A.A.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Professor Joao David Ferreira Lima, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Industrial processes where the heating of large surfaces is required lead to the possibility of using large surface porous radiant burners. This causes additional temperature uniformity problems, since it is increasingly difficult to evenly distribute the reactant mixture over a large burner surface while retaining its stability and keeping low pollutant emissions. In order to allow for larger surface area burners, a non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner using a single large injection hole is proposed and analyzed for a double-layered burner operating in open and closed hot (laboratory-scale furnace, with temperature-controlled, isothermal walls) environments. In both environments, local mean temperatures within the porous medium have been measured. For lower reactant flow rate and ambient temperature the flame shape is conical and anchored at the rim of the injection hole. As the volumetric flow rate or furnace temperature is raised, the flame undergoes a transition to a plane flame stabilized near the external burner surface. However, the stability range envelope remains the same in both regimes. (author)

  11. Analysis of the current–voltage curves and saturation currents in burner-stabilised premixed flames with detailed ion chemistry and transport models

    KAUST Repository

    Belhi, Memdouh

    2018-05-22

    Current-voltage, or i–V, curves are used in combustion to characterise the ionic structure of flames. The objective of this paper is to develop a detailed modelling framework for the quantitative prediction of the i–V curves in methane/air flames. Ion and electron transport coefficients were described using methods appropriate for charged species interactions. An ionic reaction mechanism involving cations, anions and free electrons was used, together with up-to-date rate coefficients and thermodynamic data. Because of the important role of neutral species in the ion production process, its prediction by the detailed AramcoMech 1.4 mechanism was optimised by using available experimental measurements. Model predictions were evaluated by comparing to i–V curves measured in atmospheric-pressure, premixed, burner-stabilised flames. A detailed evaluation of the reliability of ion kinetic and transport parameters adopted was performed. The model provides good quantitative agreement with experimental data for various conditions.

  12. Investigations of coal ignition in a short-range flame burner using optical measuring systems; Untersuchungen zur Kohlezuendung am Flachflammenbrenner unter Verwendung optischer Messtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackert, G.; Kremer, H.; Wirtz, S. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik

    1999-09-01

    The short-range flame burner and the KOALA reactor of DMT are experimental facilities for realistic simulation of coal conversion processes at high temperatures and pressures in atmospheric conditions. The TOSCA system enable measurements of temperatures, sizes, shapes and velocities of the fuel particles, which serve as a basis for a three-dimensional simulation model of coal combustion. In the future, further parameter studies will deepen the present knowledge of coal dust combustion under pressure and enable optimisation of the numerical models for simulation of industrial-scale systems for coal dust combustion under pressure. [Deutsch] Mit dem Flachflammenbrenner und dem KOALA-Reaktor der DMT stehen Versuchsapparaturen zur Verfuegung, mit deren Hilfe die Kohleumwandlungsprozesse bei hohen Temperaturen unter Druck und unter atmosphaerischen Bedingungen realistisch wiedergegeben werden. Das TOSCA-System erlaubt dabei die Bestimmung von Temperaturen, Groessen, Formen und Geschwindigkeiten der Brennstoffpartikel. Diese Daten liefern die Grundlage fuer die Erstellung eines dreidimensionalen Simulationsmodells zur Modellierung der Kohleverbrennung. In Zukunft werden weitere Parameterstudien das Verstaendnis der Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennung vertiefen und ein Optimierung der numerischen Modelle ermoeglichen, so dass die Simulation grosstechnischer Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennungsanlagen realisiert werden kann. (orig.)

  13. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  14. Reduced NOX combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  15. Mechanism of influence water vapor on combustion characteristics of propane-air mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sachovskii, A. V.; Kozar, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the results of an experimental study of the effect of water vapor at the flame temperature. Propane-butane mixture with air is burning on a modified Bunsen burner. Steam temperature was varied from 180 to 260 degrees. Combustion parameters changed by steam temperature and its proportion in the mixture with the fuel. The fuel-air mixture is burned in the excess air ratio of 0.1. It has been established that the injection of steam changes the characteristics of combustion fuel-air mixture and increase the combustion temperature. The concentration of CO in the combustion products is substantially reduced. Raising the temperature in the combustion zone is associated with increased enthalpy of the fuel by the added steam enthalpy. Reducing the concentration of CO is caused by decrease in the average temperature in the combustion zone by applying steam. Concentration of active hydrogen radicals and oxygen increases in the combustion zone. That has a positive effect on the process of combustion.

  16. Feasibility study of utilizing jatropha curcas oil as bio-diesel in an oil firing burner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiful, A. I. M.; Jaafar, M. N. Mohd; Sahar, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Jatropha oil derived from the Jatropha Curcas Linnaeus is one of the high potential plants to be use as bio-diesel. The purpose of this research is to carry out a feasibility study of using jatropha oil as bio-diesel on oil firing burner system. Like other bio-diesels, jatropha oil can also be used in any combustion engine and the performance and emissions such as NOx, SO2, CO and CO2 as well as unburned hydocarbon (UHC) from the engine will vary depending on the bio-diesel blends. The properties of Conventional Diesel Fuel (CDF) obtained will be used as baseline and the jatropha oil properties will be compared as well as other bio-diesels. From several researches, the properties of jatropha oil was found to be quite similar with other bio-diesel such as palm oil, neem, keranja and pongamia bio-diesel and complying with the ASTM standard for bio-diesel. Still, there are factors and issues concerning the use of jatropha oil such as technology, economy, legislation and resource. Plus, there several challenges to the growth of bio-diesel industry development since the world right now do not totally depend on the bio-diesel.

  17. Simulasi Numeris Karakteristik Pembakaran CH4/CO2/Udara dan CH4/CO2/O2 pada Counterflow Premixed Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangga Wicaksono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The high amount of CO2 produced in a conventional biogas reactor needs to be considered. A further analysis is needed in order to investigate the effect of CO2 addition especially in thermal and chemical kinetics aspect. This numerical study has been held to analyze the effect of CO2 in CH4/CO2/O­2 and CH4/CO2/Air premixed combustion. In this study one dimensional analisys in a counterflow burner has been performed. The volume fraction of CO2 used in this study was 0%-40% from CH4’s volume fraction, according to the amount of CO2 in general phenomenon. Based on the flammability limits data, the volume fraction of CH4 used was 5-61% in O2 environment and 5-15% in air environment. The results showed a decreasing temperature along with the increasing percentage of CO2 in each mixtures, but the effect was quite smaller especially in stoichiometric and lean mixture. CO2 could affects thermally (by absorbing heat due to its high Cp and also made the production of unburnt fuel species such as CO relatively higher.

  18. Co-firing straw with coal in a swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner: modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study of co-firing wheat straw with coal in a 150 kW swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner flow reactor, in which the pulverized straw particles (mean diameter of 451μm) and coal particles (mean diameter of 110.4μm...... conversion. It is found that for pulverized biomass particles of a few hundred microns in diameter the intra-particle heat and mass transfer is a secondary issue at most in their conversion, and the global four-step mechanism of Jones and Lindstedt may be better used in modelling volatiles combustion......-lean core zone; whilst the coal particles are significantly affected by secondary air jet and swirled into the oxygen-rich outer radius with increased residence time (in average, 8.1s for coal particles vs. 5.2s for straw particles in the 3m high reactor). Therefore, a remarkable difference in the overall...

  19. Experimental study of a laminar premixed LFG/air flame in a slot burner using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafian Ashrafi Zabihollah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the influence of Reynolds number and equivalence ratio on flame temperature field and thermal flame height of laminar premixed LFG fuel. Mach-Zehnder interferometry technique is used to obtain an insight to the overall temperature field. The slot burner with large aspect ratio (L/W, length of L=60 mm and width of W=6 mm was used to eliminate the three- dimensional effect of temperature field. Two kinds of mixed fuels, LFG70 (70%CH4- 30%CO2 on volume basis and LFG50 (50%CH4- 50%CO2 were used to investigate flame characteristics under the test conditions of 100 ≤ Re ≤ 600 and 0.7 ≤ φ ≤ 1.3. The present measurement reveals that the variation of maximum flame temperature with increment of Reynolds number is mainly due to heat transfer effects and is negligible. On the other hand, the equivalence ratio and fuel composition have a noticeable effect on flame temperature. In addition, the results show that the LFG flames compared to the CH4 ones have a lower flame temperature. With increment of CO2 volume fraction at lean combustion, thermal flame height is augmented while at stoichiometric and rich combustion, its value reduced. Thermal flame height augments linearly by Reynolds number increase, while its increment at rich mixture is higher and the effect of Reynolds number at lean mixtures is insignificant. For validation of experimental results from Mach-Zehnder Interferometry, K-type thermocouples are used at peripherally low and moderate isotherm lines.

  20. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations

  1. Evaluating the influence of particulate matter on spectroscopic measurements of a combusting flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlan, Jonathan; Murray, Nathan

    2017-11-01

    An adiabatic table-top burner has been used to develop a method for estimating the temperature and concentration of OH in a measurement volume of a non-premixed, hydrogen-air flame. The estimation method uses a nonlinear curve-fitting routine to compare experimental absorption spectra with a model derived, using statistical mechanics, from the Beer-Lambert law. With the aim of applying this method to the analysis of rocket exhaust plumes, this study evaluates whether or not it provides faithful estimates of temperature and OH concentration when the combusting flow contains particulate matter-such as soot or tracers used for particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The hydrogen line of the table-top burner will be seeded with alumina, Al2O3, particles and their influence on spectroscopic measurements elucidated. The authors wish to thank Mr. Bernard Jansen for his support and insight in laboratory activities.

  2. Combustion-Driven Oscillation in Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Corporation (Retired), 198 James Avenue, Atherton, CA 94027 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    At this moment in thousands of process heaters all over the world there are, to borrow a phrase from the late Carl Sagan, 'billions and billions' of Btu/hr beneficially being released entirely free of pulsation. On those few occasions, perhaps a dozen and a half in my career, when I would get the inevitable 'Why me?' call, I have generally responsed with something like, 'Consider yourself lucky, you have a rare scientific curiosity on your hands'. Reflecting on the solutions ultimately found, I'm reminded that many years ago my friend Abbott Putnam shared with me an early AGA (American Gas Association) field-service bulletin that included a prescription for eliminating combustion-driven oscillations in home heating units; viz., 'Drill a hole; if that doesn't work, drill another hole' or words to that effect. Many times have I wished that I still had a copy of that bulletin and in this paper we will have occasion, once again, to reflect upon the value of that advice. In this paper we will discuss an instance that arose in a pioneering installation of a breakthrough development of 'extremely', to distinguish it from 'ultra', low-NOx lean premix burner technology. We will illustrate how, when and under what circumstances combustion-driven oscillation can arise; we will touch on the many alternatives for its elimination that were considered and investigated; and we will discuss three practical alternatives for eliminating combustion-driven oscillations.

  3. MA-burners efficiency parameters allowing for the duration of transmutation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, A.; Zemskov, E.; Kalugin, A.; Ponomarev, L.; Seliverstov, V.; Seregin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) means their transforming into the fission products. Usually, MA-burner's transmutation efficiency is characterized by the static parameters only, such as the number of neutrons absorbed and the rate of MA feeding. However, the proper characterization of MA-burner's efficiency additionally requires the consideration of parameters allowing for the duration of the MA transmutation process. Two parameters of that kind are proposed: a) transmutation time τ - mean time period from the moment a mass of MA is loaded into the burner's fuel cycle to be transmuted to the moment this mass is completely transmuted; b) number of reprocessing cycles n rep - effective number of reprocessing cycles a mass of loaded MA has to undergo before being completely transmuted. Some of MA-burners' types have been analyzed from the point of view of these parameters. It turned out that all of them have the value of parameters too high from the practical point of view. It appears that some new approaches to MA-burner's design have to be used to significantly reduce the value of these parameters in order to make the large-scale MA transmutation process practically reasonable. Some of such approaches are proposed and their potential efficiency is discussed. (authors)

  4. MA-burners efficiency parameters allowing for the duration of transmutation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulevich, A.; Zemskov, E. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk, Kaluga Region 249020 (Russian Federation); Kalugin, A.; Ponomarev, L. [Russian Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Seliverstov, V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics ul.B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117259 (Russian Federation); Seregin, M. [Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology Kashirskoe Shosse 33, Moscow 115230 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) means their transforming into the fission products. Usually, MA-burner's transmutation efficiency is characterized by the static parameters only, such as the number of neutrons absorbed and the rate of MA feeding. However, the proper characterization of MA-burner's efficiency additionally requires the consideration of parameters allowing for the duration of the MA transmutation process. Two parameters of that kind are proposed: a) transmutation time {tau} - mean time period from the moment a mass of MA is loaded into the burner's fuel cycle to be transmuted to the moment this mass is completely transmuted; b) number of reprocessing cycles n{sub rep} - effective number of reprocessing cycles a mass of loaded MA has to undergo before being completely transmuted. Some of MA-burners' types have been analyzed from the point of view of these parameters. It turned out that all of them have the value of parameters too high from the practical point of view. It appears that some new approaches to MA-burner's design have to be used to significantly reduce the value of these parameters in order to make the large-scale MA transmutation process practically reasonable. Some of such approaches are proposed and their potential efficiency is discussed. (authors)

  5. Modelling of NO formation in the combustion of coal blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Backreedy, R.I.; Jones, J.M.; Pis, J.J.; Pourkashanian, M.; Rubiera, F.; Williams, A. [CSIC, Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)

    2002-03-01

    Coal blending is becoming of increasing importance in power stations firing pulverised coal as a result of increasing competition, stricter emission legislation and is an attractive way of improving plant economic and combustion performance. Presently, the two general methods used by power station operators to assess or predict the performance of an unknown coal blend to be fired in power station boilers are by the use of experimental large scale rig tests or correlation indices derived from experience of firing other coal blends in the power station environment. The first is expensive and the second is of doubtful accuracy in some cases. This paper evaluates the application of mathematical modelling of the combustion of a series of binary coal blends in the test situation of a drop tube reactor to predict the NO emissions and degree of char burnout. Its applicability to low NOx burners used in power stations is discussed and it is concluded that present mathematical coal combustion models are not developed sufficiently to enable an adequate description of the binary blends and the physical and chemical processes, which may include interactions, during combustion of the blend. This means that accurate predictions cannot be made. 20 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Analysis of combustion efficiency in a pelletizing furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Vieira de Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to assess how much the improvement in the combustion reaction efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, maintaining the same thermal energy rate provided by the reaction in a pelletizing furnace. The furnace for pelletizing iron ore is a complex thermal machine, in terms of energy balance. It contains recirculation fan gases and constant variations in the process, and the variation of a single process variable can influence numerous changes in operating conditions. This study demonstrated how the main variables related to combustion in the burning zone influence fuel consumption (natural gas from the furnace of the Usina de Pelotização de Fábrica (owned by VALE S/A, without changing process conditions that affect production quality. Variables were analyzed regarding the velocity and pressure of the fuel in the burners, the temperature of the combustion air and reactant gases, the conversion rate and the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of the reaction. For the analysis, actual data of the furnace in operation was used, and for the simulation of chemical reactions, the software Gaseq® was used. The study showed that the adjustment of combustion reaction stoichiometry provides a reduction of 9.25% in fuel consumption, representing a savings of US$ 2.6 million per year for the company.

  7. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  8. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  9. Effect of the methyl substitution on the combustion of two methylheptane isomers: Flame chemistry using vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem

    2015-04-16

    Alkanes with one or more methyl substitutions are commonly found in liquid transportation fuels, so a fundamental investigation of their combustion chemistry is warranted. In the present work, stoichiometric low-pressure (20 Torr) burner-stabilized flat flames of 2-methylheptane and 3-methylheptane were investigated. Flame species were measured via time-of-flight molecular-beam mass spectrometry, with vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation as the ionization source. Mole fractions of major end-products and intermediate species (e.g., alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aldehydes, and dienes) were quantified axially above the burner surface. Mole fractions of several free radicals were also measured (e.g., CH3, HCO, C2H3, C3H3, and C3H5). Isomers of different species were identified within the reaction pool by an energy scan between 8 and 12 eV at a distance of 2.5 mm away from the burner surface. The role of methyl substitution location on the alkane chain was determined via comparisons of similar species trends obtained from both flames. The results revealed that the change in CH3 position imposed major differences on the combustion of both fuels. Comparison with numerical simulations was performed for kinetic model testing. The results provide a comprehensive set of data about the combustion of both flames, which can enhance the erudition of both fuels combustion chemistry and also improve their chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  10. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  11. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, G.C.; McGrath, T.P. [GE-Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Gilmer, L. [Equilon Enterprises, Bellaire, TX (United States); Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Lev-On, M. [ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NO{sub x} emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. (author)

  12. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, G.C.; McGrath, T.P.; Gilmer, L.; Seebold, J.G.; Lev-On, M.; Hunt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NO x emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. (author)

  13. Analyses of the performance of the ASTRID-like TRU burners in regional scenario studies - 5136

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezzoni, B.; Gabrielli, F.; Rineiski, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the past, large Sodium Fast Reactors systems (earlier CAPRA/CADRA, later ESFR and ESFR-like systems) and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS-EFIT) were considered and extensively studied in Europe for managing MAs/Pu within regional or national scenario studies. After the ASTRID system was proposed in France, ASTRID-like burners could be considered as further options to be investigated. Low conversion ratio (CR) ASTRID-like burner cores (1200 MWth) have been considered at KIT by introducing few modifications with respect to the original French ASTRID design. These modifications allow keeping almost unchanged the main characteristics of the system (e.g. thermal power) and avoiding a strong deterioration of safety parameters (such as sodium void effect) after introduction of large amounts of Pu (more than 20%) and MAs (2-12%) in the fuel. These cores have already been studied at KIT for phase-out scenarios. A constant energy production case, relevant for a European or another regional scenario is considered in the paper. Cases with different shares (from 10 to 30%) of ASTRID-like burners in the nuclear energy fleet are compared. The results show that the ASTRID-like burners allow the use of all TRUs compositions foreseen in the fuel cycle with a proper choice of the MAs to Pu ratios and of the U/TRUs fractions either in phasing-out and on-going nuclear energy utilization conditions. The results show that a mixed fleet composed of 11% burners and 89% ESFR is able to stabilize the MAs in the cycle. The same stabilization is obtained with a fleet composed by 33% burner in combination with LWRs only

  14. Regenerative burner systems for batch furnaces in the steel industry; Regenerativbrenner fuer Doppel-P-Strahlheizrohre in einer Feuerverzinkungslinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiew, A. [Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Wuenning, J.G.; Bonnet, U. [WS Waermeprozesstechnik GmbH, Renningen (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    This article will describe the application of a new self regenerative burner in a continuous galvanizing line. After a brief introduction of the process line, the self regenerative burner will be described. Very high air preheat temperatures enable considerable energy savings and flameless oxidation suppresses the formation of NO{sub x}. (orig.)

  15. Regenerative burner systems for batch furnaces in the steel industry; Regenerativbrenner fuer Doppel-P-Strahlheizrohre in einer Feuerverzinkungslinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiew, Alexander [Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Wuenning, Joachim G.; Bonnet, Uwe [WS Waermeprozesstechnik GmbH, Renningen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This article will describe the application of a new self regenerative burner in a continuous galvanizing line. After a brief introduction of the process line, the self regenerative burner will be described. Very high air preheat temperatures enable considerable energy savings and flameless oxidation suppresses the formation of NO{sub X}. (orig.)

  16. Uncertainties in hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamps, D.W.; Wong, C.C.; Nelson, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three important areas of hydrogen combustion with uncertainties are identified: high-temperature combustion, flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition, and aerosol resuspension during hydrogen combustion. The uncertainties associated with high-temperature combustion may affect at least three different accident scenarios: the in-cavity oxidation of combustible gases produced by core-concrete interactions, the direct containment heating hydrogen problem, and the possibility of local detonations. How these uncertainties may affect the sequence of various accident scenarios is discussed and recommendations are made to reduce these uncertainties. 40 references

  17. Successful design and application of SNCR parallel to combustion modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongxian; Tang, Leping; Shao, Xiaozhen; Meng, Derun; Li, Hongjian [Tongfang Environment CO., LTD., Beijing (China); Zhou, Wei; Xu, Guang [GE Energy, Anaheim, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Various De-NOx methods have been recently adopted in China to control NOx emissions including Selective Non-Catalytic Reaction (SNCR) technology. Usually, the design of SNCR system is carried out after the combustion modification technologies, such as low NOx burner (LNB) and over fire air (OFA), have already been installed and in operation. This article discusses how to design the SNCR system parallel to the combustion modification. The SNCR process design consists of three steps: (1) boiler baseline test, (2) computational fluid dynamics simulation (CFD) facilitated design and (3) SNCR system performance predictions and optimizations. The first step is to conduct boiler baseline test to characterize the boiler operating conditions at a load range. The test data can also be used to calibrate the CFD model. The second step is to develop a three-dimensional boiler coal combustion CFD model to simulate the operation of the boilers at both baseline and post combustion modification conditions. The simulation reveals velocity, temperature and combustible distributions in the furnace. The last step is to determine the position and numbers of the injectors for SNCR reagent. The final field tests upon the project completion have shown that the average SNCR De-NOx efficiency has reached 35.1% with the maximum removal efficiency of 45% on full load. The project also couples the SNCR and SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technologies. The combined removal efficiency of combustion modifications, SNCR and SCR is higher than 82%. This paper shows a successful example for retrofitting aged power-generating units with limited space.

  18. Application of roof radiant burners in large pusher-type furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Varga

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of roof flat-flame burners in the pusher-type steel slab reheating furnaces, after furnace reconstruction and replacement of conventional torch burners, with the objective to increase the efficiency of radiative heat transfer from the refractory roof to the charge. Based on observations and on measurements of the construction and process parameters under operating conditions, the advantages and disadvantages of indirectly oriented radiant heat transfer are analysed in relation to the heat transfer in classically fired furnaces.

  19. Polonium release from an ATW burner system with liquid lead-bismuth coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.; Yefimov, E.; Pankratov, D.

    1998-04-01

    The authors analyzed polonium release hazards in a conceptual pool-type ATW burner with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant. Simplified quantitative models are used based on experiments and real NPP experience. They found little Po contamination outside the burner under normal operating conditions with nominal leakage from the gas system. In sudden gas leak and/or coolant spill accidents, the P contamination level can reach above the regulation limit but short exposure would not lead to severe health consequences. They are evaluating and developing mitigation methods

  20. Development, study and use of GN type high-speed burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipenko, R A; Yerinov, A Y

    1981-01-01

    The design of a tunnel high speed gas burner for thermal, tunnel, and annealing furnaces is described. The use of GN type burners and heat treating processes and annealing of articles allows one to attain high uniformity of heating, to reduce fuel consumption, and to simplify the lining. A high degree of (+ or - f/sup 0/C) heating uniformity and significant (up to 30%) fuel saving was obtained in a heat treatment furnace with a roll-out hearth at the Uralkhimmash plant.

  1. The effect of heat transfer on acoustics in burner stabilized flat flames

    OpenAIRE

    Schreel, K.R.A.M.; Tillaart, van den, E.L.; Janssen, R.W.M.; Goey, de, L.P.H.; Vovelle, C.; Lucka, K.

    2003-01-01

    Modern central heating systems use low NO$_x$ premixed burners with a large modulation range. This can lead to noise problems which cannot be solved via trial and error, but need accurate modelling. An acoustic analysis as part of the design phase can reduce the time-to-market considerably, but the acoustic response of the flame is an unknown and complex key-factor. In this study, the influence of the heat transfer between the gas and the burner on the acoustic transfer coefficient is studied...

  2. Effect of Low Frequency Burner Vibrations on the Characteristics of Jet Diffusion Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kanthasamy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical vibrations introduced in diffusion flame burners significantly affect the flame characteristics. In this experimental study, the effects of axial vibrations on the characteristics of laminar diffusion flames are investigated systematically. The effect of the frequency and amplitude of the vibrations on the flame height oscillations and flame stability is brought out. The amplitude of flame height oscillations is found to increase with increase in both frequency and amplitude of burner vibrations. Vibrations are shown to enhance stability of diffusion flames. Although flame lifts-off sooner with vibrations, stability of the flame increases.

  3. Thermionic cogeneration burner assessment study. Third quarterly technical progress report, April-June, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The specific tasks of this study are to mathematically model the thermionic cogeneration burner, experimentally confirm the projected energy flows in a thermal mock-up, make a cost estimate of the burner, including manufacturing, installation and maintenance, review industries in general and determine what groups of industries would be able to use the electrical power generated in the process, select one or more industries out of those for an in-depth study, including determination of the performance required for a thermionic cogeneration system to be competitive in that industry. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  4. New class of combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaya, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    A short review is given of the results of work carried out since 1967 on studying the combustion processes caused by the interaction of chemical elements in the condensed phase and leading to the formation of refractory compounds. New phenomena and processes are described which are revealed when investigating the combustion of the systems of this class, viz solid-phase combustion, fast combustion in the condensed phase, filtering combustion, combustion in liquid nitrogen, spinning combustion, self-oscillating combustion, and repeated combustion. A new direction in employment of combustion processes is discussed, viz. a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory nitrides, carbides, borides, silicides and other compounds

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  6. Modeling of electron behaviors under microwave electric field in methane and air pre-mixture gas plasma assisted combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Sasaki, K.; Yoshinaga, T.

    2011-10-01

    Recently, plasma-assisted combustion has been focused on for achieving more efficient combustion way of fossil fuels, reducing pollutants and so on. Shinohara et al has reported that the flame length of methane and air premixed burner shortened by irradiating microwave power without increase of gas temperature. This suggests that electrons heated by microwave electric field assist the combustion. They also measured emission from 2nd Positive Band System (2nd PBS) of nitrogen during the irradiation. To clarify this mechanism, electron behavior under microwave power should be examined. To obtain electron transport parameters, electron Monte Carlo simulations in methane and air mixture gas have been done. A simple model has been developed to simulate inside the flame. To make this model simple, some assumptions are made. The electrons diffuse from the combustion plasma region. And the electrons quickly reach their equilibrium state. And it is found that the simulated emission from 2nd PBS agrees with the experimental result. Recently, plasma-assisted combustion has been focused on for achieving more efficient combustion way of fossil fuels, reducing pollutants and so on. Shinohara et al has reported that the flame length of methane and air premixed burner shortened by irradiating microwave power without increase of gas temperature. This suggests that electrons heated by microwave electric field assist the combustion. They also measured emission from 2nd Positive Band System (2nd PBS) of nitrogen during the irradiation. To clarify this mechanism, electron behavior under microwave power should be examined. To obtain electron transport parameters, electron Monte Carlo simulations in methane and air mixture gas have been done. A simple model has been developed to simulate inside the flame. To make this model simple, some assumptions are made. The electrons diffuse from the combustion plasma region. And the electrons quickly reach their equilibrium state. And it is found

  7. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  8. Risk analysis of a biomass combustion process using MOSAR and FMEA methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, P-X; Bultel, Y; Delpech, F

    2008-02-28

    Thermal and chemical conversion processes that convert in energy the sewage sludge, pasty waste and other pre-processed waste are increasingly common, for economic and ecological reasons. Fluidized bed combustion is currently one of the most promising methods of energy conversion, since it burns biomass very efficiently, and produces only very small quantities of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. The hazards associated with biomass combustion processes are fire, explosion and poisoning from the combustion gases (CO, etc.). The risk analysis presented in this paper uses the MADS-MOSAR methodology, applied to a semi-industrial pilot scheme comprising a fluidization column, a conventional cyclone, two natural gas burners and a continuous supply of biomass. The methodology uses a generic approach, with an initial macroscopic stage where hazard sources are identified, scenarios for undesired events are recognized and ranked using a grid of SeverityxProbability and safety barriers suggested. A microscopic stage then analyzes in detail the major risks identified during the first stage. This analysis may use various different tools, such as HAZOP, FMEA, etc.: our analysis is based on FMEA. Using MOSAR, we were able to identify five subsystems: the reactor (fluidized bed and centrifuge), the fuel and biomass supply lines, the operator and the environment. When we drew up scenarios based on these subsystems, we found that malfunction of the gas supply burners was a common trigger in many scenarios. Our subsequent microscopic analysis, therefore, focused on the burners, looking at the ways they failed, and at the effects and criticality of those failures (FMEA). We were, thus, able to identify a number of critical factors such as the incoming gas lines and the ignition electrode.

  9. Risk analysis of a biomass combustion process using MOSAR and FMEA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivel, P.-X.; Bultel, Y.; Delpech, F.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal and chemical conversion processes that convert in energy the sewage sludge, pasty waste and other pre-processed waste are increasingly common, for economic and ecological reasons. Fluidized bed combustion is currently one of the most promising methods of energy conversion, since it burns biomass very efficiently, and produces only very small quantities of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. The hazards associated with biomass combustion processes are fire, explosion and poisoning from the combustion gases (CO, etc.). The risk analysis presented in this paper uses the MADS-MOSAR methodology, applied to a semi-industrial pilot scheme comprising a fluidization column, a conventional cyclone, two natural gas burners and a continuous supply of biomass. The methodology uses a generic approach, with an initial macroscopic stage where hazard sources are identified, scenarios for undesired events are recognized and ranked using a grid of Severity x Probability and safety barriers suggested. A microscopic stage then analyzes in detail the major risks identified during the first stage. This analysis may use various different tools, such as HAZOP, FMEA, etc.: our analysis is based on FMEA. Using MOSAR, we were able to identify five subsystems: the reactor (fluidized bed and centrifuge), the fuel and biomass supply lines, the operator and the environment. When we drew up scenarios based on these subsystems, we found that malfunction of the gas supply burners was a common trigger in many scenarios. Our subsequent microscopic analysis, therefore, focused on the burners, looking at the ways they failed, and at the effects and criticality of those failures (FMEA). We were, thus, able to identify a number of critical factors such as the incoming gas lines and the ignition electrode

  10. Experimental study on combustion characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigang; Peng Kangwei; Guo Ming; Huo Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the accident caused by the leakage and combustion of liquid sodium is common and frequent in sodium-related facilities. This paper is based on an experimental study of sodium fire in a columnar flow, which was carried out to focus on the burning characteristics by analyzing the temperature fields in the burner. The injection of 200°C liquid sodium with the flux of 0.5 m 3 /h was poured into a 7.9 m 3 volume stainless steel cylindrical burner to shape a sodium fire, and the data of temperature fields in the burner have been collected by dozens of thermocouples which are laid in the combustion space and sodium collection plate. These results show that the sodium fire in a columnar flow is composed of the foregoing centered columnar fire, the subsequent spray fire caused by atomization and the pool fire on the collection plate. The temperature close to the burning sodium flow maximally reaches up to 950°C. The radial temperatures apart from the sodium flow are relatively low and generally about 200°C, and maximally just 300°C even when close to the sodium collection plate. The maximum temperature of the burning sodium dropping on the collection plate rises in the center of plate, about 528°C. This study is helpful to evaluate the combustion characteristics, formation process and composing forms of the sodium fire in the sodium-related facilities. (author)

  11. Mass spectrometric analysis and aerodynamic properties of various types of combustion-related aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Weimer, S.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Helas, G.; Gwaze, P.; Schmid, O.; Andreae, M. O.; Kirchner, U.

    2006-12-01

    Various types of combustion-related particles in the size range between 100 and 850 nm were analyzed with an aerosol mass spectrometer and a differential mobility analyzer. The measurements were performed with particles originating from biomass burning, diesel engine exhaust, laboratory combustion of diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as from spark soot generation. Physical and morphological parameters like fractal dimension, effective density, bulk density and dynamic shape factor were derived or at least approximated from the measurements of electrical mobility diameter and vacuum aerodynamic diameter. The relative intensities of the mass peaks in the mass spectra obtained from particles generated by a commercial diesel passenger car, by diesel combustion in a laboratory burner, and by evaporating and re-condensing lubrication oil were found to be very similar. The mass spectra from biomass burning particles show signatures identified as organic compounds like levoglucosan but also others which are yet unidentified. The aerodynamic behavior yielded a fractal dimension (Df) of 2.09 +/- 0.06 for biomass burning particles from the combustion of dry beech sticks, but showed values around three, and hence more compact particle morphologies, for particles from combustion of more natural oak. Scanning electron microscope images confirmed the finding that the beech combustion particles were fractal-like aggregates, while the oak combustion particles displayed a much more compact shape. For particles from laboratory combusted diesel fuel, a Df value of 2.35 was found, for spark soot particles, Df [approximate] 2.10. The aerodynamic properties of fractal-like particles from dry beech wood combustion indicate an aerodynamic shape factor [chi] that increases with electrical mobility diameter, and a bulk density of 1.92 g cm-3. An upper limit of [chi] [approximate] 1.2 was inferred for the shape factor of the more compact particles from oak combustion.

  12. Comparison of heat transfer and soil impacts of air curtain burner burning and slash pile burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woongsoon Jang; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Han-Sup Han

    2017-01-01

    We measured soil heating and subsequent changes in soil properties between two forest residue disposal methods: slash pile burning (SPB) and air curtain burner (ACB). The ACB consumes fuels more efficiently and safely via blowing air into a burning container. Five burning trials with different fuel sizes were implemented in northern California, USA. Soil temperature...

  13. Curved wall-jet burner for synthesizing titania and silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Mohamed; Memon, Nasir; Mansour, Morkous S.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    A novel curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner was designed for flame synthesis, by injecting precursors through a center tube and by supplying fuel/air mixtures as an annular-inward jet for rapid mixing of the precursors in the reaction zone. Titanium

  14. Flame stability and emission characteristics of turbulent LPG IDF in a backstep burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Mahesh; D.P. Mishra [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Combustion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering

    2008-09-15

    The stability characteristics and emissions from turbulent LPG inverse diffusion flame (IDF) in a backstep burner are reported in this paper. The blow-off velocity of turbulent LPG IDF is observed to increase monotonically with fuel jet velocity. In contrast to normal diffusion flames (NDF), the flame in the present IDF burner gets blown out without getting lifted-off from the burner surface. The soot free length fraction, SFLF, defined as the ratio of visible premixing length, H{sub p}, to visible flame length, H{sub f}, is used for qualitative estimation of soot reduction in this IDF burner. The SFLF is found to increase with central air jet velocity indicating the occurrence of extended premixing zone in the vicinity of flame base. Interestingly, the soot free length fraction (SFLF) is found to be correlated well with the newly devised parameter, global momentum ratio. The peak value of EINOX happens to occur closer to stoichiometric overall equivalence ratio. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Modeling of confined and unconfined laminar premixed flames on slit and tube burners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallens, R.M.M.; Lange, de H.C.; Ven, van de C.J.H.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    1995-01-01

    A model is presented for laminar premixed Bunsen flames on slit and cylindrical burners burning in a surrounding atmosphere. A comparison between modeling and experimental results shows that the model can reproduce the experimental results within 10% accuracy. The influence of a surrounding

  16. Transfer function calculations of segregated elements in a simplified slit burner with heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, N.; Kornilov, V.N.; Teerling, O. J.; Lopez Arteaga, I.; de Goey, Ph.

    A simplified burner-heat exchanger system is numerically modeled in order to investigate the effects of different elements on the response of the whole system to velocity excitation. We model the system in a 2D CFD code, considering a linear array of multiple Bunsen-type flames with heat exchanger

  17. The effect of heat transfer on acoustics in burner stabilized flat flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreel, K.R.A.M.; Tillaart, van den E.L.; Janssen, R.W.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Vovelle, C.; Lucka, K.

    2003-01-01

    Modern central heating systems use low NO$_x$ premixed burners with a large modulation range. This can lead to noise problems which cannot be solved via trial and error, but need accurate modelling. An acoustic analysis as part of the design phase can reduce the time-to-market considerably, but the

  18. Correction of edge-flame propagation speed in a counterflow, annular slot burner

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh; Cha, Min

    2015-01-01

    to study the fundamental behaviors of edge-flames. In addition, our burner has easy optical access for detailed laser diagnostics. Flame displacement speeds were measured using a high-speed camera and related flow fields of unburned gases were visualized

  19. Highly stabilized partially premixed flames of propane in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Senosy, M.S.; Zayed, M.F.; Roberts, William L.; Mansour, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    . Regardless the value of Φ, increasing the coflow velocity improves the flame stability. The correlation between recessed distance of the burner tubes and the fluctuation of the mixture fraction, Δξ, shows that at Δξ around 40% of the flammability limits leads

  20. A numerical study of a premixed flame on a slit burner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, L.M.T.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical study of a premixed methane/air flame on a 4 mm slit burner is presented. A local grid refinement technique is used to deal with large gradients and curvature of all variables encountered in the flame, keeping the number of grid points within reasonable bounds. The method used here leads

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of the acoustic response of multi-slit Bunsen burners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornilov, V.N.; Rook, R.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental and numerical techniques to characterize the response of premixed methane-air flames to acoustic waves are discussed and applied to a multi-slit Bunsen burner. The steady flame shape, flame front kinematics and flow field of acoustically exited flames, as well as the flame transfer

  2. The effect of heat transfer on acoustics in burner stabilized flat flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreel, K.R.A.M.; Tillaart, van den E.L.; Janssen, R.W.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Koehne, H.; Lucka, K.

    2003-01-01

    Modern central heating systems use low NOx premixed burners with a largemodulation range. This can lead to noise problems which cannot be solved viatrial and error, but need accurate modelling. An acoustic analysis as part ofthe design phase can reduce the time-to-market considerably, but the

  3. Formation of nitric oxide in an industrial burner measured by 2-D laser induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, A; Bombach, R; Kaeppeli, B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    We have performed two-dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (2-D LIF) measurements of nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical distributions in an industrial burner at atmospheric pressure. The relative 2-D LIF data of NO were set to an absolute scale by calibration with probe sampling combined with gas analysis. (author) 3 figs., 7 refs.

  4. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  5. Emission characteristics and axial flame temperature distribution of producer gas fired premixed burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhoi, P.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, L and T-Sargent and Lundy Limited, L and T Energy Centre, Near Chhani Jakat Naka, Baroda 390 002 (India); Channiwala, S.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Deemed University, Ichchhanath, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the emission characteristics and axial flame temperature distribution of producer gas fired premixed burner. The producer gas fired premixed burner of 150 kW capacity was tested on open core throat less down draft gasifier system in the present study. A stable and uniform flame was observed with this burner. An instrumented test set up was developed to evaluate the performance of the burner. The conventional bluff body having blockage ratio of 0.65 was used for flame stabilization. With respect to maximum flame temperature, minimum pressure drop and minimum emissions, a swirl angle of 60 seems to be optimal. The experimental results also showed that the NO{sub x} emissions are inversely proportional to swirl angle and CO emissions are independent of swirl angle. The minimum emission levels of CO and NO{sub x} are observed to be 0.167% and 384 ppm respectively at the swirl angle of 45-60 . The experimental results showed that the maximum axial flame temperature distribution was achieved at A/F ratio of 1.0. The adiabatic flame temperature of 1653 C was calculated theoretically at A/F ratio of 1.0. Experimental results are in tune with theoretical results. It was also concluded that the CO and UHC emissions decreases with increasing A/F ratio while NO{sub x} emissions decreases on either side of A/F ratio of 1.0. (author)

  6. Small scale combustion of reed canary grass - inventory and evaluation of available technology; Smaaskalig foerbraenning av roerflen - inventering och vaerdering av tillgaenglig teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Paulrud, Susanne

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of commercially available boilers in the interval 50 kW to 1 MW for use with reed canary grass (RCG) as fuel has been preliminary evaluated. The capacity to handle the large ash volumes generated by RCG both in terms of ash withdrawal and combustion quality was used as the main criteria. Nine boilers and two burners were identified and classified in a three-step scale from verified functioning on RCG to possible functioning with some design changes

  7. Research of power fuel low-temperature vortex combustion in industrial boiler based on numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova K.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the presented research is to perform numerical modelling of fuel low-temperature vortex combustion in once-through industrial steam boiler. Full size and scaled-down furnace model created with FIRE 3D software and was used for the research. All geometrical features were observed. The baseline information for the low-temperature vortex furnace process are velocity and temperature of low, upper and burner blast, air-fuel ratio, fuel consumption, coal dust size range. The obtained results are: temperature and velocity three dimensional fields, furnace gases and solid fuel ash particles concentration.

  8. Chemical effects of a high CO2 concentration in oxy-fuel combustion of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Bentzen, L.L.B.

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation of methane in an atmospheric-pres sure flow reactor has been studied experimentally under highly diluted conditions in N-2 and CO2, respectively. The stoichiometry was varied from fuel-lean to fuel-rich, and the temperatures covered the range 1200-1800 K. The results were interpreted...... CO2. The high local CO levels may have implications for near-burner corrosion and stagging, but increased problems with CO emission in oxy-fuel combustion are not anticipated....

  9. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  10. Influence of Process Parameters on Coal Combustion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der

    investigated experimentally in a 400 MWe corner fired boiler with over fire air, a 350 MWe opposed fired boiler, and in a 160 kWt pilot scale test rig. Three different coals were fired in each of the furnaces as part of the activities in group 3 of the European Union JOULE 2 Extension project "Atmospheric......The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of nitrogen oxide formation and carbon burnout during the combustion of pulverized coal, and to contribute to addressing the potential of chemical engineering models for the prediction of furnace temperatures, NO emissions and the amount...... of carbon in ash. To this purpose, the effect of coal quality on NO and burnout has been investigated experimentally, a radiation heat balance has been developed based on simple chemical engineering methodology, and a mixing study has been conducted in order to describe the near burner macro mixing in terms...

  11. Ablation in the slit in combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairova, A. A.; Belyakov, G. V.; Chervinchuk, S. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    The understanding of the patterns of the front of exothermic reaction propagation in permeable media is necessary for a correct description of both natural and technological processes. The study of mechanisms of combustion and filtration flow in the slit consists in determining the conditions of propagation of melting waves and evaporation in a cocurrent gas flow as well the associated mass loss of the surface material. This paper presents the heat flow effect on the hydrocarbon reservoir model. The poly methyl methacrylate with the boiling point Tboil = 200°C and sublimation heat ΔHsubl = 40.29 kJ/mol was chosen as the model of the hydrocarbon layer, which on heating becomes liquid and gaseous (ethers and methyl methacrylate pairs). Heated gas flows along the slit preliminary created. The flow was maintained by a pump. The gas burner was installed at the entrance to the slit. The heat flow was constant. The impulse of gas flow and the mass loss of the material from the surface of the gap were continuously measured with scales. The pressure in the flow was controlled by the manometer.

  12. Low-NO{sub x}, wood chip combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J.; Oravainen, H.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The regulations for nitrogen oxide emissions vary in different countries, but the general trend in the future will probably be that the emissions limits will be lowered also for wood combustion plants, which are small or medium size units. Thus, the development of wood chip burning furnaces (grate furnaces, fluidized bed combustors, stoker furnaces) with lower nitrogen oxide emissions, is important. The wood used in the combustor, its particle size, moisture and fuel properties (nitrogen content) affect the nitrogen emissions. The nitrogen oxide release is also much affected by the design and operation of the combustor (air staging, fuel air preheat, flue gas circulation, air to fuel mass ratio). The fate of nitrogen compounds originally in the virgin wood depends much on the design of the combustor system and by proper planning it is possible to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides. Basic knowledge of the release of nitrogen compounds from single wood particles is attained. The release of gaseous nitrogen compounds from wood particles during pyrolysis and combustion is studied experimentally and by modelling. Nitrogen release is studied experimentally by two ways, by analysing the gas and by quenching the particle and analysing the char residue. Formation of nitrogen oxide emissions in a fuel bed is studied by modelling and by combustion experiments with a pot furnace. This research gives general information of nitrogen oxide formation in wood bunting especially in fixed beds. The development of a horizontal stoker burner for wood chips with low emissions is the practical aim of the research. (orig.)

  13. Characteristics of premixed flames stabilized in an axisymmetric curved-wall jet burner with tip modification

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daejoong

    2009-11-10

    The stabilization characteristics of premixed flames in an axisymmetric curved-wall jet burner have been experimentally investigated. This burner utilized the Coanda effect on top of a burner tip. The initially spherical burner tip was modified to a flat tip and a concave tip in order to improve flame stabilization by providing enough space for flow recirculation above the burner tip region. The flow characteristics have been visualized using a schlieren technique. Small-scale turbulence structure has been observed mainly in the interaction jet region (located downstream of the recirculation region) for large jet velocity (Reynolds number >11,500). An appreciable amount of air entrainment was exhibited from the half-angle of the jet spread, approximately 20. The averaged planar laser-induced fluorescence images of the flames for this large velocity demonstrated that the strong signal of OH radicals, representing reaction zones, existed in the recirculation zone, while it was weak in the interaction jet region due to intermittency and local extinction by the generation of small scale turbulence. The OH radical signals strengthened again in the merged jet region (downstream of the interaction jet region). In extreme cases of Reynolds number over 19,000, a unique flame exhibiting OH radicals only in the recirculation zone was observed for the concave tip. The flame stabilization has been mapped by varying jet velocity and equivalence ratio, and the result showed that the stabilization characteristics were improved appreciably from the initial spherical tip design, especially for rich mixtures. The flow fields measured by a laser Doppler velocimetry confirmed the existence of recirculation zone and the expansion of the recirculation zones for the modified tips. The temperature profile measured by a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy exhibited an intermittent nature, especially near the recirculation zone.

  14. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutmark, Ephraim

    2005-01-01

    .... "Flameless Combustion" is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability limits and therefore extremely low NOx production, efficient...

  15. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  16. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  17. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Yanzhao; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON

  18. Energetic study of combustion instabilities and genetic optimisation of chemical kinetics; Etude energetique des instabilites thermo-acoustiques et optimisation genetique des cinetiques reduites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ch.E.

    2005-12-15

    Gas turbine burners are now widely operated in lean premixed combustion mode. This technology has been introduced in order to limit pollutants emissions (especially the NO{sub x}), and thus comply with environment norms. Nevertheless, the use of lean premixed combustion decreases the stability margin of the flames. The flames are then more prone to be disturbed by flow disturbances. Combustion instabilities are then a major problem of concern for modern gas turbine conception. Some active control systems have been used to ensure stability of gas turbines retro-fitted to lean premixed combustion. The current generation of gas turbines aims to get rid of these control devices getting stability by a proper design. To do so, precise and adapted numerical tools are needed even it is impossible at the moment to guarantee the absolute stability of a combustion chamber at the design stage. Simulation tools for unsteady combustion are now able to compute the whole combustion chamber. Its intrinsic precision, allows the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to take into account numerous phenomena involved in combustion instabilities. Chemical modelling is an important element for the precision of reactive LES. This study includes the description of an optimisation tools for the reduced chemical kinetics. The capacity of the LES to capture combustion instabilities in gas turbine chamber is also demonstrated. The acoustic energy analysis points out that the boundary impedances of the combustion systems are of prime importance for their stability. (author)

  19. Intrinsic Turbulence Stabilization in a Stellarator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xanthopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic surfaces of modern stellarators are characterized by complex, carefully optimized shaping and exhibit locally compressed regions of strong turbulence drive. Massively parallel computer simulations of plasma turbulence reveal, however, that stellarators also possess two intrinsic mechanisms to mitigate the effect of this drive. In the regime where the length scale of the turbulence is very small compared to the equilibrium scale set by the variation of the magnetic field, the strongest fluctuations form narrow bandlike structures on the magnetic surfaces. Thanks to this localization, the average transport through the surface is significantly smaller than that predicted at locations of peak turbulence. This feature results in a numerically observed upshift of the onset of turbulence on the surface towards higher ion temperature gradients as compared with the prediction from the most unstable regions. In a second regime lacking scale separation, the localization is lost and the fluctuations spread out on the magnetic surface. Nonetheless, stabilization persists through the suppression of the large eddies (relative to the equilibrium scale, leading to a reduced stiffness for the heat flux dependence on the ion temperature gradient. These fundamental differences with tokamak turbulence are exemplified for the QUASAR stellarator [G. H. Neilson et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42, 489 (2014].

  20. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  1. Combustion characterization of rape seed meal and suggestions for optimal use in combustion appliances; Foerbraenningskarakterisering av rapsmjoel och foerslag till optimalt nyttjande i olika foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Pettersson, Esbjoern; Pommer, Linda; Lindstroem, Erica; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Rikard

    2007-12-15

    pellet burner, were roughly doubled with fuels containing rape seed meal compared to bark. In the powder burner tests, particle emissions increased with a factor 17 with rape seed meal compared to wood powder. The emitted particles were mainly found in the fine (< 1 mum) mode during grate and powder combustion. During fluidized bed combustion the total particulate matter consisted both of a coarse (>1 mum) and a fine mode fraction. The particles from grate combustion of bark contain mostly K, S, Na and Cl apart from oxygen and carbon. When rape seed meal is present, Cl and Na concentrations decrease considerably and the main contents of the particles are K and S (and O and C). The results from the X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (XRD) analyses showed the presence of crystalline K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and KCl. The fine particles (<1 mum) from powder combustion contain mainly K, P and S. The only identified crystalline phase was K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, suggesting that most phosphorus was in the amorphous phase, i.d. most probably molten. The deposit formation on a cooled probe was studied during the fluidized bed and powder combustion experiments. The fine particles deposited during fluidised bed combustion contained K, Cl and S. When bark was combusted in the fluidised bed, the coarse fraction contained Ca and Si, when rape seed meal in different mixes was combusted this changed to P, K, Ca and Mg. The deposits formed during combustion of rape seed meal in the powder burner were mainly made up of phosphates (Ca-, Mg/K-, Ca/Mg-phosphates) and MgO. Sintered material (slag) from grate combustion of bark contained mainly Si, Ca, K and Al, probably as silicates. Adding rape seed meal tended to increase P, Ca and Mg while Si and Ca content tended to decrease. Through XRD a number o crystalline phases in the sintered material and the rest of the bottom ashes could be identified. NO emissions from the combustions tests increased two to four times with rape seed meal compared to typical wood

  2. Advanced diagnostics in oxy-fuel combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, J.; Clausen, Soennik; Degn Jensen, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. CHEC Research Centre, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Boeg Toftegaard, M. (DONG Energy Power, Hvidovre (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    This report sums up the findings in PSO-project 010069, ''Advanced Diagnostics in Oxy-Fuel Combustion Processes''. Three areas of optic diagnostics are covered in this work: - FTIR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. The results obtained in the swirl burner have proved the FTIR method as a valuable technique for gas phase temperature measurements. When its efficacy is evaluated against traditional thermocouple measurements, two cases, with and without probe beam stop, must however be treated separately. When the FTIR probe is operated with the purpose of gas phase concentration measurements the probe needs to operate with a beam stop mounted in front of it. With this beam stop in place it was shown that the measured gas phase temperature was affected by cooling, induced by the cooled beam stop. Hence, for a more accurate determination of gas phase temperatures the probe needed to operate without the beam stop. When this was the case, the FTIR probe showed superior to traditional temperature measurements using a thermocouple as it could measure the fast temperature fluctuations. With the beam stop in place the efficacy of the FTIR probe for gas temperature determination was comparable to the use of a traditional thermocouple. The evaluation of the FTIR technique regarding estimation of gas phase concentrations of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CO showed that the method is reliable though it cannot be stated as particularly accurate. The accuracy of the method is dependent on the similarity of the reference emission spectra of the gases with those obtained in the experiments, as the transmittance intensity is not a linear function of concentration. The length of the optical path also affects the steadiness of the measurements. The length of the optical path is difficult to adjust on the small scales that are the focus of this work. However

  3. IEA low NOx combustion project Stage III. Low NOx combustion and sorbent injection demonstration projects. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, R.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the main results from an IES project concerning the demonstration of low-NO x combustion and sorbent injection as techniques for the control of NO x and SO x emissions from pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The project has built upon information generated in two previous stages of activity, where NO x and SO x control processes were evaluated at both fundamental and pilot-scales. The concept for this stage of the project was for a unique collaboration, where the participating countries (Canada, Denmark and Sweden, together with the United States) have pooled information from full scale boiler demonstrations of low-NO x burner and sorbent injection technologies, and have jointly contributed to establishing a common basis for data evaluation. Demonstration testing was successfully carried out on five wall-fired commercial boiler systems which ranged in size from a 20 MW thermal input boiler used for district heating, up to a 300 MW electric utility boiler. All of these units were fired on high-volatile bituminous coals with sulfur contents ranging from 0.6-3.2 percent. At each site the existing burners were either modified or replaced to provide for low-NO x combustion, and provisions were made to inject calcium based sorbent materials into the furnace space for SO 2 emission control. The results of sorbent injection testing showed moderate levels of SO 2 removal which ranged from approximately 15 to 55 percent at an injected calcium to sulfur molar ratio to 2.0 and with boiler operation at nominal full load. Sulfur capture was found to depend upon the combined effects of parameters such as: sorbent type and reactivity; peak sorbent temperature; coal sulfur content; and the thermal characteristics of the boilers. (8 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs.)

  4. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  5. Strobes: An oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the

  6. Catalytically enhanced combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel having improved combustion efficiency. It comprises a petroleum based liquid hydrocarbon; and a combustion catalyst comprising from about 18 to about 21 weight percent naphthalene, from about 75 to about 80 weight percent toluene, and from about 2.8 to about 3.2 weight percent benzyl alcohol

  7. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers

  8. Pursuing the pre-combustion CCS route in oil refineries – The impact on fired heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weydahl, Torleif; Jamaluddin, Jamal; Seljeskog, Morten; Anantharaman, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The aim is to approach Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to refinery fired heaters. ► An identical simplified burner configuration is applied where refinery fuel is replaced with hydrogen. ► Initial simulations indicate that hydrogen replacement do not alter heater operation in a negative way. ► Despite the higher flame temperature in the hydrogen case, the NO x emissions are not higher. ► The prompt-NO mechanism contributes significantly in the refinery fuel case. -- Abstract: The work presented in this paper investigates the effect of replacing refinery fuel gas in the radiant section burners of a fired heater with hydrogen. The aim is to approach pre-combustion CCS to refinery fired heaters by identifying the impact on heat-, flow- and radiation distribution in the lower radiant section of the fired heater when simply switching refinery gas with hydrogen at equivalent power using the same burner geometrics. Additionally the formation of NO x is considered. The investigations are performed using a conventional Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach using detailed reaction kinetics consisting of 325 elementary reactions and 53 species. Simplified and generalized furnace and burner geometries are used in the present work. The results show that approximately the same average wall heat flux density is achieved when the refinery fuel is replaced by hydrogen. However, the distribution of heat on the inner surfaces changes. The hydrogen case has, as expected, a higher flame temperature than the base case, nevertheless, the nitric oxide (NO x ) emissions are comparable to base case emissions. Several indications point in the direction of a significant contribution to the base case emissions from the less temperature dependent prompt-NO mechanism, which obviously is not contributing to the hydrogen case emissions.

  9. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  10. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  11. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    .... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...

  12. IR sensor for monitoring of burner flame; IR sensor foer oevervakning av braennarflamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanberg, Marcus; Funkquist, Jonas; Clausen, Soennik; Wetterstroem, Jonas

    2007-12-15

    To obtain a smooth operation of the coal-fired power plants many power plant managers have installed online mass flow measurement of coal to all burners. This signal is used to monitor the coal mass flow to the individual burner and match it with appropriate amount of air and also to monitor the distribution of coal between the burners. The online mass flow measurement system is very expensive (approximately 150 kEUR for ten burners) and is not beneficial for smaller plants. The accuracy of the measurement and the sample frequency are also questionable. The idea in this project has been to evaluate a cheaper system that can present the same information and may also provide better accuracy and faster sample frequency. The infrared sensor is a cheap narrow banded light emission sensor that can be placed in a water cooed probe. The sensor was directed at the burner flame and the emitted light was monitored. Through calibration the mass flow of coal can be presented. Two measurement campaigns were performed. Both campaigns were carried out in Nordjyllandsverket in Denmark even though the second campaign was planned to be in Uppsala. Due to severe problems in the Uppsala plant the campaign was moved to Nordjyllandsverket. The pre-requisites for the test plant were that online measurement of coal flow was installed. In Nordjyllandsverket 4 out of 16 burners have the mass flow measurement installed. Risoe Laboratories has vast experiences in the IR technology and they provided the IR sensing equipment. One IR sensor was placed in the flame guard position just behind the flame directed towards the ignition zone. A second sensor was placed at the boiler wall directed towards the flame. The boiler wall position did not give any results and the location was not used during the second campaign. The flame-guard-positioned-sensor- signal was thoroughly evaluated and the results show that there is a clear correlation between the coal mass flow and the IR sensor signal. Tests were

  13. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 8 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen combustion turbines/development of combustion control technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET) subtask 8 suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu nensho seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the development of hydrogen combustion turbines, the paper described the fiscal 1997 results. As a hydrogen/oxygen combustor, the annular combustor was studied. Based on the results obtained by the last fiscal year, a combustor for the evaluation test was designed/fabricated. Oxygen is mixed with vapor at the portion of the burner, rotated/jetted (flame held by the circulation flow generated) and made to burn with hydrogen (porous injection). The smooth ignition and equilibrium wall temperature distribution were made possible. Concentrations of the residual hydrogen/oxygen in the stoichiometric mixture ratio combustion were both less than 1%. Further, can type combustor I is a type in which hydrogen and oxygen are burned near the burner and then are diluted by vapor. Improved of the burner structure and diluted vapor hole, it was tested. In can type combustor II, a mixture of oxygen and vapor is supplied and burned with hydrogen. The appropriate supply of oxygen was 20% distribution to the primary scoop and 80% to secondary. In both combustors, smooth ignition was possible, and concentrations of the residual hydrogen/oxygen in the stoichiometric mixture ratio combustion were controlled at minimum (approximately 1%). The evaluation method for the optimum hydrogen/oxygen combustor was studied. 142 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. The flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Zayed, M.F.; Samy, M.; Roberts, William L.; Mansour, Mohy S.

    2015-01-01

    The stability limits, the stabilization mechanism, and the flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed methane flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with air co-flow have been investigated and presented in this work

  15. Increased Coal Replacement in a Cement Kiln Burner by Feeding a Mixture of Solid Hazardous Waste and Shredded Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W. K. Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by combined feeding of plastic waste and solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW) in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. The coal replacement should be achieved without negative impacts on product quality, emissions or overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement kiln by varying SHW and plastic waste feeding rates. Experimental result...

  16. Fuel Combustion Laboratory | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Combustion Laboratory Fuel Combustion Laboratory NREL's Fuel Combustion Laboratory focuses on designs, using both today's technology and future advanced combustion concepts. This lab supports the combustion chamber platform for fuel ignition kinetics research, was acquired to expand the lab's

  17. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  18. Correction of edge-flame propagation speed in a counterflow, annular slot burner

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh

    2015-10-22

    To characterize the propagation modes of flames, flame propagation speed must be accurately calculated. The impact of propagating edge-flames on the flow fields of unburned gases is limited experimentally. Thus, few studies have evaluated true propagation speeds by subtracting the flow velocities of unburned gases from flame displacement speeds. Here, we present a counterflow, annular slot burner that provides an ideal one-dimensional strain rate and lengthwise zero flow velocity that allowed us to study the fundamental behaviors of edge-flames. In addition, our burner has easy optical access for detailed laser diagnostics. Flame displacement speeds were measured using a high-speed camera and related flow fields of unburned gases were visualized by particle image velocimetry. These techniques allowed us to identify significant modifications to the flow fields of unburned gases caused by thermal expansion of the propagating edges, which enabled us to calculate true flame propagation speeds that took into account the flow velocities of unburned gases.

  19. ZZ WPPR-FR-MOX/BNCMK, Benchmark on Pu Burner Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.C.; Ikegami, T.

    1993-01-01

    Description of program or function: In order to intercompare the characteristics of the different reactors considered for Pu recycling, in terms of neutron economy, minor actinide production, uranium content versus Pu burning, the NSC Working Party on Physics of Plutonium Recycling (WPPR) is setting up several benchmark studies. They cover in particular the case of the evolution of the Pu quality and Pu fissile content for Pu recycling in PWRs; the void coefficient in PWRs partly fuelled with MOX versus Pu content; the physics characteristics of non-standard fast reactors with breeding ratios around 0.5. The following benchmarks are considered here: - Fast reactors: Pu Burner MOX fuel, Pu Burner metal fuel; - PWRs: MOX recycling (bad quality Pu), Multiple MOX recycling

  20. A comparative neutronic analysis of 150MWe TRU burner according to the coolant alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J. W.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, Y. I.

    2000-01-01

    A comparative neutronic analysis has been conducted for the small TRU burner according to their coolant material. The use of Pb-Bi coolant gave a low burnup reactivity swing and negative or less positive coolant void coefficient with harder neutron spectrum. By a lower burnup reactivity swing and higher conversion ratio of Pb-Bi cooled core, the total amount of TRU consumption was found to be small compared with Na cooled core despite of the higher MA consumption ratio of Pb-Bi cooled core. However, Pb-Bi cooled reactor have a lager margin in the coolant void coefficient, so that a variable MA composition can be loaded in the core. Accordingly, even though the Pb-Bi cooled TRU burner has not effectiveness on TRU burning in the same geometry and material condition, a flexible MA loading is envisaged to result in 10 times larger MA burning amount, still preserving a low coolant void worth

  1. CFD analysis of the pulverized coal combustion processes in a 160 MWe tangentially-fired-boiler of a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano V. da; Beskow, Arthur B. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (LABSIM/GEAPI/URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Ciencia da Computacao. Grupo de Engenharia Aplicada a Processos Industriais], Emails: cristiano@uricer.edu.br, Arthur@uricer.edu.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza S. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: sperbindrusiak@via-rs.net

    2010-10-15

    The strategic role of energy and the current concern with greenhouse effects, energetic and exegetic efficiency of fossil fuel combustion greatly enhance the importance of the studies of complex physical and chemical processes occurring inside boilers of thermal power plants. The state of the art in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of commercial codes encourage numeric studies of the combustion processes. In the present work the commercial software CFX Ansys Europe Ltd. was used to study the combustion of coal in a 160 MWe commercial thermal power plant with the objective of simulating the operational conditions and identifying factors of inefficiency. The behavior of the flow of air and pulverized coal through the burners was analyzed, and the three-dimensional flue gas flow through the combustion chamber and heat exchangers was reproduced in the numeric simulation. (author)

  2. Flame Motion In Gas Turbine Burner From Averages Of Single-Pulse Flame Fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylli, N.; Hubschmid, W.; Inauen, A.; Bombach, R.; Schenker, S.; Guethe, F. [Alstom (Switzerland); Haffner, K. [Alstom (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    Thermo acoustic instabilities of a gas turbine burner were investigated by flame front localization from measured OH laser-induced fluorescence single pulse signals. The average position of the flame was obtained from the superposition of the single pulse flame fronts at constant phase of the dominant acoustic oscillation. One observes that the flame position varies periodically with the phase angle of the dominant acoustic oscillation. (author)

  3. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-06-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health

  4. Impact of fuel quality and burner capacity on the performance of wood pellet stove

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović-Bećirović Sanja B.; Manić Nebojša G.; Stojiljković Dragoslava D.

    2015-01-01

    Pellet stoves may play an important role in Serbia in the future when fossil fuel fired conventional heating appliances are replaced by more efficient and environmentally friendly devices. Experimental investigation was conducted in order to examine the influence of wood pellet quality, as well as burner capacity (6, 8 and 10 kW), used in the same stove configuration, on the performance of pellet stove with declared nameplate capacity of 8 kW. The results o...

  5. Exhaust gas aftertreatment with online burner; Abgasnachbehandlung mit Online-Brenner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rembor, Hans-Joerg; Bischler, Thomas [Huss Technologies GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    In order to fulfil continuously tightened emission standards, modern Diesel engines for on and off road have to meet demands of catalytic exhaust gas aftertreatment with their thermomanagement. With an online burner from Huss Technologies, even with low load duty cycles, catalytic exhaust gas aftertreatment is possible. Diesel engine development can therefore be redirected again more on efficiency enhancement and other direct customer demands. (orig.)

  6. Improvement of methods of combustion of natural gas in steel furnaces. Usovershenstvovanie metodov szhiganiya prirodnogo gaza v staleplavil'nykh pechakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisienko, V G; Kitaev, B I; Kokarev, N I

    1977-01-01

    An examination is made of the properties of various kinds of high-energy fuel used for steel-making furnaces (natural gas, new brands of fuel oils), and a description is given of designs for gas-fuel oil burners. A flare theory is presented and the principles of designing jet and gas-fuel oil burners are discussed. Results are given for industrial tests and recommendations are made for improving gas and fuel oil combustion in operating furnaces. Formulas are given for designing burner devices and spray burners. A description is given of research and industrial tests of new designs of natural gas reformers that make it possible to reduce the amount of fuel oil required in smelting high quality steel. The book is intended for engineering and technical personnel of metallurgical and machine-building plants and scientific-research and design institutes. It can also be used by senior students in metallurgical departments at higher institutions of learning, and particularly at evening and correspondent divisions. 273 references, 88 figures, 13 tables.

  7. A Mechanistic Investigation of Nitrogen Evolution and Corrosion with Oxy-Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Tree; Andrew Mackrory; Thomas Fletcher

    2008-12-31

    A premixed, staged, down-fired, pulverized coal reactor and a flat flame burner were used to study the evolution of nitrogen in coal contrasting differences in air and oxy-combustion. In the premixed reactor, the oxidizer was staged to produce a fuel rich zone followed by a burnout zone. The initial nominal fuel rich zone stoichiometric ratio (S.R.) of 0.85 selected produced higher NO reductions in the fuel rich region under oxy-combustion conditions. Air was found to be capable of similar NO reductions when the fuel rich zone was at a much lower S.R. of 0.65. At a S.R. of 0.85, oxy-combustion was measured to have higher CO, unburned hydrocarbons, HCN and NH{sub 3} in the fuel rich region than air at the same S.R. There was no measured difference in the initial formation of NO. The data suggest devolatilization and initial NO formation is similar for the two oxidizers when flame temperatures are the same, but the higher CO{sub 2} leads to higher concentrations of CO and nitrogen reducing intermediates at a given equivalence ratio which increases the ability of the gas phase to reduce NO. These results are supported by flat flame burner experiments which show devolatilization of nitrogen from the coal and char to be similar for air and oxy-flame conditions at a given temperature. A model of premixed combustion containing devolatilization, char oxidation and detailed kinetics captures most of the trends seen in the data. The model suggests CO is high in oxy-combustion because of dissociation of CO{sub 2}. The model also predicts a fraction (up to 20%, dependent on S.R.) of NO in air combustion can be formed via thermal processes with the source being nitrogen from the air while in oxy-combustion equilibrium drives a reduction in NO of similar magnitude. The data confirm oxy-combustion is a superior oxidizer to air for NO control because NO reduction can be achieved at higher S.R. producing better char burnout in addition to NO from recirculated flue gas being reduced

  8. Numerical investigations of combustion and emissions of syngas as compared to methane in a 200 MW package boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Mohamed A.; Mokheimer, Esmail M.A.; Sanusi, Sofihullahi Y.; Nemitallah, Medhat A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Syngas combustion is numerically investigated in a two-burner 200 MW package boiler. • Different syngas compositions were considered for combustion with air. • The 33% CO:67% H 2 syngas composition was found to have the shortest flame. • The boiler exit temperature was found to increase with the increase of hydrogen contents. • The 50% CO:50% H 2 syngas composition had the best combustion characteristics. - Abstract: During the last decades, focus has been made on the use of syngas instead of conventional hydrocarbon fuels targeting NO x emission reduction in the exhaust gases. With advances in solar-steam methane reforming for the production of synthesis gas, the applicability of syngas at industrial scale becomes imperative. In the present work, syngas combustion and emission characteristics are numerically investigated and compared with the case of pure methane combustion in a two-burner 200 MW package boiler. A detailed reaction kinetics mechanism of 21 steps and 11 species was considered for the modeling of syngas–air combustion. Different syngas compositions were considered for combustion with air including 67% CO:33% H 2 , 50% CO:50% H 2 and 33% CO:67% H 2 . The results showed a combustion delay in case of pure methane combustion as compared to syngas combustion. The case of 33% CO:67% H 2 syngas composition was found to have the shortest flame as compared to that of other syngas compositions. The case of 50% CO:50% H 2 syngas resulted in lowest maximum boiler temperature while 67% CO:33% H 2 syngas resulted in highest maximum boiler temperature. The boiler exit temperature was found to increase with the increase of hydrogen content in the syngas. The excess air factor was found to have a significant effect on both CO and NO x emissions. NO x emission decreases by about 30% when the amount of excess air is increased from 5% to 25%, which is very promising. Among the tested syngas compositions, the 50% CO:50% H 2 syngas composition

  9. Combustion Stability Assessments of the Black Brant Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The Black Brant variation of the Standard Brant developed in the 1960's has been a workhorse motor of the NASA Sounding Rocket Project Office (SRPO) since the 1970's. In March 2012, the Black Brant Mk1 used on mission 36.277 experienced combustion instability during a flight at White Sands Missile Range, the third event in the last four years, the first occurring in November, 2009, the second in April 2010. After the 2010 event the program has been increasing the motor's throat diameter post-delivery with the goal of lowering the chamber pressure and increasing the margin against combustion instability. During the most recent combustion instability event, the vibrations exceeded the qualification levels for the Flight Termination System. The present study utilizes data generated from T-burner testing of multiple Black Brant propellants at the Naval Air Warfare Center at China Lake, to improve the combustion stability predictions for the Black Brant Mk1 and to generate new predictions for the Mk2. Three unique one dimensional (1-D) stability models were generated, representing distinct Black Brant flights, two of which experienced instabilities. The individual models allowed for comparison of stability characteristics between various nozzle configurations. A long standing "rule of thumb" states that increased stability margin is gained by increasing the throat diameter. In contradiction to this experience based rule, the analysis shows that little or no margin is gained from a larger throat diameter. The present analysis demonstrates competing effects resulting from an increased throat diameter accompanying a large response function. As is expected, more acoustic energy was expelled through the nozzle, but conversely more acoustic energy was generated due to larger gas velocities near the propellant surfaces.

  10. Numerical Modeling of MILD Combustion at High Pressure to Predict the Optimal Operating Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    This Chapter presents numerical simulation on MILD combustion operating at high pressure. Influence of preheat and dilution of oxidizer and operating pressure on stabilization of MILD combustion are presented. Three different preheat temperatures (1100, 1300 and 1500 K) and three different dilution levels (3, 6 and 9% O2) are simulated over an operating pressure variation from 1 atm to 16 atm. A classical jet in hot coflow burner is considered for this study. Total of 45 cases are simulated and analyzed. Essential characteristics of MILD combustion, i.e., maximum temperature (Tmax), temperature rise (ΔT) and temperature distributions, are analyzed. The distribution of emissions OH and CO are also studied and presented. Well-stabilized MILD combustion is observed for all cases except for two cases with high preheated (1500 K). Peak temperature is observed to decrease with increasing operating pressure for a given level of preheat and dilution. OH mass faction is reduced with increasing pressure. The CO emissions show little sensitivity to operating pressure. However, CO mass fraction is slightly higher at 1 atm operating pressure as compared to 4 to 16 atm. Since the residence time of reactants increases as the operating pressure increases, well-stabilized MILD combustion is observed for all highly diluted and low temperature preheat cases (3% O2 and 1100 K).

  11. Numerical Modeling of MILD Combustion at High Pressure to Predict the Optimal Operating Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy

    2017-02-01

    This Chapter presents numerical simulation on MILD combustion operating at high pressure. Influence of preheat and dilution of oxidizer and operating pressure on stabilization of MILD combustion are presented. Three different preheat temperatures (1100, 1300 and 1500 K) and three different dilution levels (3, 6 and 9% O2) are simulated over an operating pressure variation from 1 atm to 16 atm. A classical jet in hot coflow burner is considered for this study. Total of 45 cases are simulated and analyzed. Essential characteristics of MILD combustion, i.e., maximum temperature (Tmax), temperature rise (ΔT) and temperature distributions, are analyzed. The distribution of emissions OH and CO are also studied and presented. Well-stabilized MILD combustion is observed for all cases except for two cases with high preheated (1500 K). Peak temperature is observed to decrease with increasing operating pressure for a given level of preheat and dilution. OH mass faction is reduced with increasing pressure. The CO emissions show little sensitivity to operating pressure. However, CO mass fraction is slightly higher at 1 atm operating pressure as compared to 4 to 16 atm. Since the residence time of reactants increases as the operating pressure increases, well-stabilized MILD combustion is observed for all highly diluted and low temperature preheat cases (3% O2 and 1100 K).

  12. Combustion chemistry of alcohols: Experimental and modeled structure of a premixed 2-methylbutanol flame

    KAUST Repository

    Lucassen, Arnas; Park, Sungwoo; Hansen, Nils; Sarathy, Mani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of 2-methylbutanol combustion chemistry in low-pressure premixed flames. This chemistry is of particular interest to study because this compound is potentially a lignocellulosic-based, next-generation biofuel. The detailed chemical structure of a stoichiometric low-pressure (25 Torr) flame was determined using flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry. A total of 55 species were identified and subsequently quantitative mole fraction profiles as function of distance from the burner surface were determined. In an independent effort, a detailed flame chemistry model for 2-methylbutanol was assembled based on recent knowledge gained from combustion chemistry studies for butanol isomers ([Sarathy et al. Combust. Flame 159 (6) (2012) 2028-2055]) and iso-pentanol (3-methylbutanol) [Sarathy et al. Combust. Flame 160 (12) (2013) 2712-2728]. Experimentally determined and modeled mole fraction profiles were compared to demonstrate the model's capabilities. Examples of individual mole fraction profiles are discussed together with the most significant fuel consumption pathways to highlight the combustion chemistry of 2-methylbutanol. Discrepancies between experimental and modeling results are used to suggest areas where improvement of the kinetic model would be needed. © 2014.

  13. Combustion chemistry of alcohols: Experimental and modeled structure of a premixed 2-methylbutanol flame

    KAUST Repository

    Lucassen, Arnas

    2014-06-14

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of 2-methylbutanol combustion chemistry in low-pressure premixed flames. This chemistry is of particular interest to study because this compound is potentially a lignocellulosic-based, next-generation biofuel. The detailed chemical structure of a stoichiometric low-pressure (25 Torr) flame was determined using flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry. A total of 55 species were identified and subsequently quantitative mole fraction profiles as function of distance from the burner surface were determined. In an independent effort, a detailed flame chemistry model for 2-methylbutanol was assembled based on recent knowledge gained from combustion chemistry studies for butanol isomers ([Sarathy et al. Combust. Flame 159 (6) (2012) 2028-2055]) and iso-pentanol (3-methylbutanol) [Sarathy et al. Combust. Flame 160 (12) (2013) 2712-2728]. Experimentally determined and modeled mole fraction profiles were compared to demonstrate the model\\'s capabilities. Examples of individual mole fraction profiles are discussed together with the most significant fuel consumption pathways to highlight the combustion chemistry of 2-methylbutanol. Discrepancies between experimental and modeling results are used to suggest areas where improvement of the kinetic model would be needed. © 2014.

  14. Numerical studies of the integration of a trapped vortex combustor into traditional combustion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrignani, L.; Losurdo, M.; Bruno, C. [Sapienza Univ. de Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    Exhaust emissions from furnace burners can be reduced by premixing reactants with combustion products. This paper discussed the use of a trapped vortex combustor (TVC) as a very promising technology for gas turbines. The TVC can reduce emissions and ensure that the temperature is uniform in the exhaust products, which is a key aspect for certain types of heat treatments, such as in steel rolling mills. The TVC for gas turbines is configured to mix air, fuel and hot products at turbulent scales fine enough to render the combustion mode flameless, or close to flameless. The vortex ensures a high recirculation factor between hot combustion products and reactants, and ultimately flame stability. In this study, the TVC configuration for an existing gas turbine was numerically investigated by means of RANS and LES. According to preliminary results of the fast-flameless combustion (FFC) strategy, the proposed TVC is a suitable candidate to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while keeping the pressure drop below 1 per cent. Both RANS and LES show that too much fuel burns along the main duct. Better fuel splitting or a different position for the injectors may enhance combustion inside the recirculation zone. Behaviour of the main vortices showed that a more accurate design of the internal shape of the combustor is needed to prevent excessive velocity fluctuation or vortex instabilities and therefore emissions. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Sensitivity of Transmutation Capability to Recycling Scenarios in KALIMER-600 TRU Burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Kyo; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test transmutation and design feasibility of KALIMER burner caused from many limitations in recycling options; such as low recovery factors and external feed. Design impact from many recycling options will be tested as a sensitivity to various recycling process parameters under many recycling scenarios. Through this study, possibilities when Pyro-processing is realized with SFR can be expected in the recycling scenarios. For the development of sodium-cooled fast reactor(SFR) technology, prototype KALIMER plant is now under R and D stage in Korea. For the future application of SFR for waste transmutation, KALIMER core was designed for TRU burner by KAERI. Feasibility of TRU burner cannot be evaluated exactly because overall functional parameters in pyro-processing recycling process has not been verified yet. There is great possibility to accept undesirable process functions in pyro-processing. Only TRU nuclides composition a little differs between PWR SF and CANDU SF so first scenario has no problem operating SFR. In second scenario, the radiotoxicity of waste at 99% of TRU RF have to be confirmed whether it is proper level to reposit as Low and Intermediate Level Wastes or not. And the reactor safety at high RF of RE must be inspected. Not only third scenario but also several scenarios for good measure are being calculated and will be evaluated

  16. Fuel Evaporation in an Atmospheric Premixed Burner: Sensitivity Analysis and Spray Vaporization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Csemány

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of evaporation requires accurate thermophysical properties of the liquid. Such data are well-known for conventional fossil fuels. In contrast, e.g., thermal conductivity or dynamic viscosity of the fuel vapor are rarely available for modern liquid fuels. To overcome this problem, molecular models can be used. Currently, the measurement-based properties of n-heptane and diesel oil are compared with estimated values, using the state-of-the-art molecular models to derive the temperature-dependent material properties. Then their effect on droplet evaporation was evaluated. The critical parameters were liquid density, latent heat of vaporization, boiling temperature, and vapor thermal conductivity where the estimation affected the evaporation time notably. Besides a general sensitivity analysis, evaporation modeling in a practical burner ended up with similar results. By calculating droplet motion, the evaporation number, the evaporation-to-residence time ratio can be derived. An empirical cumulative distribution function is used for the spray of the analyzed burner to evaluate evaporation in the mixing tube. Evaporation number did not exceed 0.4, meaning a full evaporation prior to reaching the burner lip in all cases. As droplet inertia depends upon its size, the residence time has a minimum value due to the phenomenon of overshooting.

  17. Numerical investigation of influence thermal preparation coal on nitric oxides formation in combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernetskaya, N. [Siberian Federal Univ., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Chernetsky, M.; Dekterev, A. [Siberian Federal Univ., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides from coal combustion are a major environmental problem because they have been shown to contribute to the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. Coal thermalpreparation before furnace delivery is effective method to reduce NOx emissions, shown by experiments in small-scale facilities (Babiy VI, Alaverdov PI, Influence of thermal preparation pulverized coal on nitric oxides outlet for combustion different metamorphized coal. ATI, 1983). This paper presents the mathematical model of burning thermal preparation coal. Validation of the model was carried out on laboratory-scale plant of All-Russia thermal engineering institute. Modeling of low-emissive burner with preliminary heating coal dust is made for the purpose of search of burner optimal constructions which provides low concentration of nitric oxides in the boiler. For modeling are used in-house CFD code ''{sigma}Flow'' (Dekterev AA, Gavrilov AA, Harlamov EB, Litvintcev KY, J Comput Technol 8(Part 1):250-255, 2003).

  18. Development of pre-combustion decarbonization technologies for zero-CO{sub 2} power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner Renzenbrink; Karl-Josef Wolf; Frank Hannemann; Gerhard Zimmermann; Erik Wolf [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The drastic rise in power generation that is expected on a global scale will also lead to a strong increase in CO{sub 2} emissions due to the high share of fossil energy sources used, which is quite contrary to the objectives of climate protection. In this dilemma, zero-CO{sub 2} power generation technologies might permit to make a decisive step on the road toward a necessary CO{sub 2} reduction. In the integrated ENCAP project (EU FP 6), a consortium of engineering companies, power plant manufacturers and research institutes lead-managed by RWE Power is drawing up technical IGCC/IRCC concepts including CO{sub 2} capture and spurring the necessary development of new gas turbine burners for the combustion of hydrogen-rich gases. Based on the working structure within ENCAP, this paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, the results of the process development for the different concepts based on hard coal, lignite and natural gas including CO{sub 2} capture is presented giving the technical and economic key figures of the processes. In the second part, the current status of burner development for the combustion of H{sub 2}-rich gases within ENCAP is given. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effect of primary air content on formation of nitrogen oxides during combustion of Ehkibastuz coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Imankulov, Eh.R.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations are discussed carried out in a pilot plant at the Kaz. Power Engineering Scientific Research Institute into the effect of the amount of primary air in coal-dust flame on the final concentration of nitrogen oxides in flue gases. The tests were carried out in a 7500 mm high, 1600 mm dia vertical cylindrical combustion chamber having type P-57 burner, and air dispersed fuel plus additional air supplies located at the top. Amounts of coal dust fed by a drum feeder along the air pipe varied from 100-600 kg/h. The required air was supplied by 5000 m/sup 3//h Type TK-700/5 blowers at 0.04 MPa. Ehkibastuz coal samples contained: 1.3% moisture; 48.1% ash; 38.02% carbon; 2.56% hydrogen; 0.73% sulfur; 0.60% nitrogen; heat of combustion was 14.3 MJ/kg. Results obtained indicate that variations in the amount of primary air in swirl flow burners affect formation of fuel nitrogen; there is an optimum volume at which minimum quantities of nitrogen oxides are formed. Either an increase or decrease in the primary air results in a rise in nitrogen oxide concentration. 3 references.

  20. Numerical modelling of biomass combustion: Solid conversion processes in a fixed bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Naser, Jamal

    2017-06-01

    Increasing demand for energy and rising concerns over global warming has urged the use of renewable energy sources to carry a sustainable development of the world. Bio mass is a renewable energy which has become an important fuel to produce thermal energy or electricity. It is an eco-friendly source of energy as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. Combustion of solid biomass is a complex phenomenon due to its large varieties and physical structures. Among various systems, fixed bed combustion is the most commonly used technique for thermal conversion of solid biomass. But inadequate knowledge on complex solid conversion processes has limited the development of such combustion system. Numerical modelling of this combustion system has some advantages over experimental analysis. Many important system parameters (e.g. temperature, density, solid fraction) can be estimated inside the entire domain under different working conditions. In this work, a complete numerical model is used for solid conversion processes of biomass combustion in a fixed bed furnace. The combustion system is divided in to solid and gas phase. This model includes several sub models to characterize the solid phase of the combustion with several variables. User defined subroutines are used to introduce solid phase variables in commercial CFD code. Gas phase of combustion is resolved using built-in module of CFD code. Heat transfer model is modified to predict the temperature of solid and gas phases with special radiation heat transfer solution for considering the high absorptivity of the medium. Considering all solid conversion processes the solid phase variables are evaluated. Results obtained are discussed with reference from an experimental burner.

  1. Deposition of biomass combustion aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndahl, Jakob; Pagels, Joakim; Boman, Christoffer; Swietlicki, Erik; Massling, Andreas; Rissler, Jenny; Blomberg, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Sandström, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Smoke from biomass combustion has been identified as a major environmental risk factor associated with adverse health effects globally. Deposition of the smoke particles in the lungs is a crucial factor for toxicological effects, but has not previously been studied experimentally. We investigated the size-dependent respiratory-tract deposition of aerosol particles from wood combustion in humans. Two combustion conditions were studied in a wood pellet burner: efficient ("complete") combustion and low-temperature (incomplete) combustion simulating "wood smoke." The size-dependent deposition fraction of 15-to 680-nm particles was measured for 10 healthy subjects with a novel setup. Both aerosols were extensively characterized with regard to chemical and physical particle properties. The deposition was additionally estimated with the ICRP model, modified for the determined aerosol properties, in order to validate the experiments and allow a generalization of the results. The measured total deposited fraction of particles from both efficient combustion and low-temperature combustion was 0.21-0.24 by number, surface, and mass. The deposition behavior can be explained by the size distributions of the particles and by their ability to grow by water uptake in the lungs, where the relative humidity is close to saturation. The experiments were in basic agreement with the model calculations. Our findings illustrate: (1) that particles from biomass combustion obtain a size in the respiratory tract at which the deposition probability is close to its minimum, (2) that particle water absorption has substantial impact on deposition, and (3) that deposition is markedly influenced by individual factors.

  2. Numerical modelling of the CHEMREC black liquor gasification process. Conceptual design study of the burner in a pilot gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Magnus

    2001-02-01

    The work presented in this report is done in order to develop a simplified CFD model for Chemrec's pressurised black liquor gasification process. This process is presently under development and will have a number of advantages compared to conventional processes for black liquor recovery. The main goal with this work has been to get qualitative information on influence of burner design for the gas flow in the gasification reactor. Gasification of black liquor is a very complex process. The liquor is composed of a number of different substances and the composition may vary considerably between liquors originating from different mills and even for black liquor from a single process. When a black liquor droplet is gasified it loses its organic material to produce combustible gases by three stages of conversion: Drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. In the end of the conversion only an inorganic smelt remains (ideally). The aim is to get this smelt to form a protective layer, against corrosion and heat, on the reactor walls. Due to the complexity of gasification of black liquor some simplifications had to be made in order to develop a CFD model for the preliminary design of the gasification reactor. Instead of modelling droplets in detail, generating gas by gasification, sources were placed in a prescribed volume where gasification (mainly drying and pyrolysis) of the black liquor droplets was assumed to occur. Source terms for the energy and momentum equations, consistent with the mass source distribution, were derived from the corresponding control volume equations by assuming a symmetric outflow of gas from the droplets and a uniform degree of conversion of reactive components in the droplets. A particle transport model was also used in order to study trajectories from droplets entering the reactor. The resulting model has been implemented in a commercial finite volume code (AEA-CFX) through customised Fortran subroutines. The advantages with this simple

  3. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-dabbas, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  4. Shale oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-dabbas, M A

    1992-05-01

    A `coutant` carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs.

  5. Indoor combustion and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W

    2008-08-01

    Indoor combustion produces both gases (eg, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide) and particulate matter that may affect the development or exacerbation of asthma. Sources in the home include both heating devices (eg, fireplaces, woodstoves, kerosene heaters, flued [ie, vented] or nonflued gas heaters) and gas stoves for cooking. This article highlights the recent literature examining associations between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma development and severity. Since asthma is a chronic condition affecting both children and adults, both age groups are included in this article. Overall, there is some evidence of an association between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma, particularly asthma symptoms in children. Some sources of combustion such as coal stoves have been more consistently associated with these outcomes than other sources such as woodstoves.

  6. Fuel oil combustion with low production of nitrogen oxides; Combustion de combustoleo con baja produccion de oxidos de nitrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalera Campoverde, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    This work presents the results of the theoretical-experimental study of the effects of the secondary air jet directed perpendicularly to the flame axis in the fuel oil combustion in a 500 Kw furnace. The main purpose of this study was to obtain low nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions without increasing the CO, which is observed in low NO{sub x} conventional burners. The experimental results showed a significative reduction of the NO{sub x} and of the CO, from 320 to 90 ppm and from 50 ppm to negligible values, respectively. A commercial computational code of fluid dynamics was employed for modeling the combustion in base line conditions, without secondary air and with the injection of secondary air. The experimental results were compared with calculated ones. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio teorico experimental de los efectos de los chorro de aire secundario dirigidos en forma perpendicular al eje de la flama en la combustion del combustoleo en un horno de 500 kW. El proposito principal del estudio fue obtener bajas emisiones de oxidos de nitrogeno (NO{sub x}) sin incrementar el CO, lo cual se observa en quemadores convencionales de bajo NO{sub x}. Los resultados experimentales demostraron una reduccion significativa del NO{sub x} y del CO: de 320 a 90 ppm y de 50 ppm a valores despreciables, respectivamente. Se empleo un codigo computacional comercial de dinamica de fluidos para modelar la combustion en condiciones de linea base, sin aire secundario, y con la inyeccion del aire secundario. Se comparan resultados experimentales con los calculados.

  7. Size distribution and concentration of soot generated in oil and gas-fired residential boilers under different combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Santiago; Barroso, Jorge; Pina, Antonio; Ballester, Javier

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the relevance of residential heating burners in the global emission of soot particles to the atmosphere, relatively little information on their properties (concentration, size distribution) is available in the literature, and even less regarding the dependence of those properties on the operating conditions. Instead, the usual procedure to characterize those emissions is to measure the smoke opacity by several methods, among which the blackening of a paper after filtering a fixed amount of gas (Bacharach test) is predominant. In this work, the size distributions of the particles generated in the combustion of a variety of gaseous and liquid fuels in a laboratory facility equipped with commercial burners have been measured with a size classifier coupled to a particle counter in a broad range of operating conditions (air excesses), with simultaneous determination of the Bacharach index. The shape and evolution of the distribution with progressively smaller oxygen concentrations depends essentially on the state of the fuel: whereas the combustion of the gases results in monomodal distributions that 'shift' towards larger diameters, in the case of the gas-oils an ultrafine mode is always observed, and a secondary mode of coarse particle grows in relevance. In both cases, there is a strong, exponential correlation between the total mass concentration and the Bacharach opacity index, quite similar for both groups of fuels. The empirical expressions proposed may allow other researchers to at least estimate the emissions of numerous combustion facilities routinely characterized by their smoke opacities.

  8. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  9. Incidence of secondary aeration in confined flames of high pressure premixed atmospheric burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadavid Sierra, Francisco Javier; Buitrago Garcia, Jorge Enrique; Velasquez, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    In this work an experimental study about the variables that affect the secondary aeration has been applied. The relationships with phenomena that affect the proper operation of the combustion chamber are discussed in detail. These phenomena are quenching, flame stabilization and the combustion product recirculation. A flexible combustion system developed to allow variations in the volume of combustion chamber, the area of secondary air entrance, the outlet of combustion products and the thermal output is presented. Also, the system could vary the inlet of primary air, though the study is carried out with maximal working area. The experimental setup allowed to compare and to find the influence of design parameters mentioned above on the secondary aeration and also to obtain the insight that the most important design parameters were combustion product outlet and the combustion intensity

  10. Numerical study on NO formation in a pulverized coal-fired furnace using oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aiyue; Chen, Yuan; Sheng, Changdong [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was employed to numerically investigate NO formation in a 600 MW wall-fired pulverized coal-fired furnace retrofitted for oxy-coal combustion, aimed at the impacts of flue gas recycle ratio, O{sub 2} staging and recycled NO with the recycled flue gas (RFG) on NO formation and emission. An in-house CFD research code for conventional air combustion was developed and extended to simulate O{sub 2}/RFG combustion with specific considerations of the change of gas properties and its impact on coal particle combustion processes. The extended De Soete mechanisms including NO reburning mechanism were applied to describe transformations of fuel nitrogen. It was shown that CFD simulation represented the significant reduction of NO formation during O{sub 2}/RFG combustion compared to that during air combustion. The in-burner and particularly the in-furnace O{sub 2} staging were confirmed still to play very important roles in NO formation control. Changing the recycle ratio had significant impact on the combustion performance and consequently on NO formation and emission. With the combustion performance ensured, decreasing the flue gas recycle ratio or increasing the inlet O{sub 2} concentration of combustion gas led to reduction of NO formation and emission. Although NO formation and emission was found to increase with increasing the inlet NO concentration of combustion gas, CFD simulation indicated that {proportional_to}74% of the inlet NO was reduced in the furnace, consistent with the experimental data reported in the literature. This demonstrated the significant contribution of reburning mechanism to the reduction of the recycled NO in the furnace.

  11. Fuel combustion in thermal power plants in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1983-11-01

    The position of black coal in the energy balance of Japan is discussed. About 75% of electric energy is produced by thermal power plants. Eighty-five per cent of electricity is produced by power plants fired with liquid fuels and 3% by coal fired plants. Coal production in Japan, the forecast coal import to the country by 1990 (132 Mt/year), proportion of coal imported from various countries, chemical and physical properties of coal from Australia, China and Japan are discussed. Coal classification used in Japan is evaluated. The following topics associated with coal combustion in fossil-fuel power plants in Japan are discussed: coal grindability, types of pulverizing systems, slagging properties of boiler fuel in Japan, systems for slag removal, main types of steam boilers and coal fired furnaces, burner arrangement and design, air pollution control from fly ash, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, utilization of fly ash for cement production, methods for removal of nitrogen oxides from flue gas using ammonia and catalysts or ammonia without catalysts, efficiency of nitrogen oxide control, abatement of nitrogen oxide emission from boilers by flue gas recirculation and reducing combustion temperatures. The results of research into air pollution control carried out by the Nagasaki Technical Institute are reviewed.

  12. A computer code for the prediction of mill gases and hot air distribution between burners sections as input parameters for 3D CFD furnace calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucakovic, Dragan; Zivanovic, Titoslav; Beloshevic, Srdjan

    2006-01-01

    Current computer technology development enables application of powerful software packages that can provide a reliable insight into real operating conditions of a steam boiler in the Thermal Power Plant. Namely, an application of CFD code to the 3D analysis of combustion and heat transfer in a furnace provides temperature, velocity and concentration fields in both cross sectional and longitudinal planes of the observed furnace. In order to obtain reliable analytical results, which corresponds to real furnace conditions, it is necessary to accurately predict a distribution of mill gases and hot air between burners' sections, because these parameters are input values for the furnace 3D calculation. Regarding these tasks, the computer code for the prediction of mill gases and hot air distribution has been developed at the Department for steam boilers of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade. The code is based on simultaneous calculations of material and heat balances for fan mill and air tracts. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology of performed calculations and results obtained for the steam boiler furnace of 350 MWe Thermal Power Plant equipped with eight fan mills. Key words: mill gases, hot air, aerodynamic calculation, air tract, mill tract.

  13. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shim [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, Eric [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Paschedag, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  14. Energy efficiency and the influence of gas burners to the energy related carbon dioxide emissions of electric arc furnaces in steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschen, Marcus; Risonarta, Victor; Pfeifer, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Determining the complete energy balance of an electric arc furnace (EAF) provides an appropriate method to examine energy efficiency and identify energy saving potentials. However, the EAF energy balance is complex due to the combined input of electrical energy and chemical energy resulting from natural gas (NG) combustion and oxidation reactions in the steel melt. In addition, furnace off-gas measurements and slag analysis are necessary to reliably determine energy sinks. In this paper 70 energy balances and energy efficiencies from multiple EAFs are presented, including data calculated from plant measurements and compiled from the literature. Potential errors that can be incorporated in these calculations are also highlighted. The total energy requirement of these modern EAFs analysed ranged from 510 to 880 kWh/t, with energy efficiency values (η = ΔH Steel /E Total ) of between 40% and 75%. Furthermore, the focus was placed on the total energy related CO 2 emissions of EAF processes comprising NG combustion and electrical energy input. By assessing multiple EAF energy balances, a significant correlation between the total energy requirement and energy related specific CO 2 emissions was not evident. Whilst the specific consumption of NG in the EAF only had a minor impact on the EAF energy efficiency, it decreased the specific electrical energy requirement and increased EAF productivity where transformer power was restricted. The analysis also demonstrated that complementing and substituting electrical energy with NG was beneficial in reducing the total energy related CO 2 emissions when a certain level of substitution efficiency was achieved. Therefore, the appropriate use of NG burners in modern EAFs can result in an increased EAF energy intensity, whilst the total energy related CO 2 emissions remain constant or are even decreased.

  15. Numerical study of flow, combustion and emissions characteristics in a 625 MWe tangentially fired boiler with composition of coal 70% LRC and 30% MRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adiyah, Devy; Bangga, Galih; Widodo, Wawan; Ikhwan, Nur

    2017-08-01

    Tangential fired boiler is one of the methods that can produce more complete combustion. This method applied in Suralaya Power Plant, Indonesia. However, the boiler where supposed to use low rank coal (LRC), but at a given time must be mixed with medium rank coal (MRC) from another unit because of lack of LRC coal. Accordingly to the situation, the study about choosing the right position of LRC and MRC in the burner elevation must be investigated. The composition of coal is 70%LRC / 30%MRC where MRC will be placed at the lower (A & C - Case I)) or higher (E & G - Case II) elevation as the cases in this study. The study is carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The simulation with original case (100%LRC) has a good agreement with the measurement data. As the results, MRC is more recommended at the burner elevation A & C rather than burner elevation E & G because it has closer temperature (880 K) compared with 100%LRC and has smaller local heating area between upper side wall and front wall with the range of temperature 1900 - 2000 K. For emissions, case I has smaller NOx and higher CO2 with 104 ppm and 15,6%. Moreover, it has samller O2 residue with 5,8% due to more complete combustion.

  16. Prediction method of unburnt carbon for coal fired utility boiler using image processing technique of combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Sugano, A.; Kimura, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method predicting unburnt carbon in a coal fired utility boiler developed using an image processing technique. The method consists of an image processing unit and a furnace model unit. temperature distribution of combustion flames can be obtained through the former unit. The later calculates dynamics of the carbon reduction from the burner stages to the furnace outlet using coal feed rate, air flow rate, chemical and ash content of coal. An experimental study shows that the prediction error of the unburnt carbon can be reduced to 10%

  17. Intelligent Combustion. A gas boiler with a new control and safety device using the signals of a semiconductor-sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, S.; Kostrzewa, G.

    1999-01-01

    The present controls of small gas boilers use an actual differential pressure of the flowing air to regulate the gas valve. It is also possible to combine the change of the gas flow rate and the air volume mechanically. In both of these methods, it is neglected that the air volume required for complete combustion is strongly affected by changing gas quality. The article discusses the use of a BaSnO3 semiconductor control sensor, which is heated by the flame and changes electrical resistance with temperature, O2 and CO content in the burning chamber. It also describes a new burner concept using the sensor

  18. Catalytic combustion in gas stoves - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Anna-Karin [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Several independent studies show that gas stoves to some degree contribute to the indoor emissions of NO{sub x} especially in situations were the ventilation flow is poor. The peak-NO{sub x} concentrations can reach several hundred ppb but the integral concentration seldom exceeds about 20 - 50 ppb, which corresponds to an indoor-outdoor ratio of about 1 - 2.5. Epidemiological studies indicate increasing problems with respiratory symptoms in sensitive people at concentrations as low as 15 ppb of NO{sub 2}. Consequently, the NO{sub x}-concentration in homes where gas stoves are used is high enough to cause health effects. However, in situations where the ventilation flow is high (utilisation of ventilation hoods) the NO{sub x}-emissions are not likely to cause any health problems. This study has been aimed at investigating the possibilities to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions from gas stoves by replacing the conventional flame combustion with catalytic combustion. The investigation is requested by Swedish Gas Center, and is a following-up work of an earlier conducted feasibility study presented in April-2002. The present investigation reports on the possibility to use cheap and simple retro-fit catalytic design suggestions for traditional gas stoves. Experiments have been conducted with both natural and town gas, and parameters such as emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and unburned fuel gas and thermal efficiency, etc, have been examined and are discussed. The results show that it is possible to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions up to 80% by a simple retro-fit installation, without decreasing the thermal efficiency of the cooking plate. The measured source strengths correspond to indoor NO{sub x} concentrations that are below or equal to the average outdoor concentration, implying that no additional detrimental health effects are probable. The drawback of the suggested installations is that the concentration of CO and in some cases also CH{sub 4} are increased in the flue gases

  19. Low-Emission combustion of fuel in aeroderivative gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Vasil'ev, V. D.; Berne, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is the first of a planned set of papers devoted to the world experience in development of Low Emission combustors (LEC) for industrial Gas Turbines (GT). The purpose of the article is to summarize and analyze the most successful experience of introducing the principles of low-emission combustion of the so-called "poor" (low fuel concentration in air when the excess air ratio is about 1.9-2.1) well mixed fuelair mixtures in the LEC for GTs and ways to reduce the instability of combustion. The consideration examples are the most successful and widely used aero-derivative GT. The GT development meets problems related to the difference in requirements and operation conditions between the aero, industrial, and power production GT. One of the main problems to be solved is the LEC development to mitigate emissions of the harmful products first of all the Nitrogen oxides NOx. The ways to modify or convert the initial combustors to the LEC are shown. This development may follow location of multiburner mixers within the initial axial envelope dimensions or conversion of circular combustor to the can type one. The most interesting are Natural Gas firing GT without water injection into the operating process or Dry Low emission (DLE) combustors. The current GT efficiency requirement may be satisfied at compressor exit pressure above 3 MPa and Turbine Entry temperature (TET) above 1500°C. The paper describes LEC examples based on the concept of preliminary prepared air-fuel mixtures' combustion. Each combustor employs its own fuel supply control concept based on the fuel flow-power output relation. In the case of multiburner combustors, the burners are started subsequently under a specific scheme. The can type combustors have combustion zones gradually ignited following the GT power change. The combustion noise problem experienced in lean mixtures' combustion is also considered, and the problem solutions are described. The GT test results show wide ranges of stable

  20. Transient flow combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Non-steady combustion problems can result from engine sources such as accelerations, decelerations, nozzle adjustments, augmentor ignition, and air perturbations into and out of the compressor. Also non-steady combustion can be generated internally from combustion instability or self-induced oscillations. A premixed-prevaporized combustor would be particularly sensitive to flow transients because of its susceptability to flashback-autoignition and blowout. An experimental program, the Transient Flow Combustion Study is in progress to study the effects of air and fuel flow transients on a premixed-prevaporized combustor. Preliminary tests performed at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, a reference velocity of 30 m/s, and a pressure of 700 kPa. The airflow was reduced to 1/3 of its original value in a 40 ms ramp before flashback occurred. Ramping the airflow up has shown that blowout is more sensitive than flashback to flow transients. Blowout occurred with a 25 percent increase in airflow (at a constant fuel-air ratio) in a 20 ms ramp. Combustion resonance was found at some conditions and may be important in determining the effects of flow transients.