WorldWideScience

Sample records for burner fuel oil

  1. Effect on Particulate and Gas Emissions by Combusting Biodiesel Blend Fuels Made from Different Plant Oil Feedstocks in a Liquid Fuel Burner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdul Rahim, Norwazan; Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad; Sapee, Syazwan; Elraheem, Hazir

    2016-01-01

    .... The biodiesel blend fuel combustion experiments were carried out using a liquid fuel burner and biodiesel fuel made from various plant oil feedstocks, including jatropha, palm and coconut oils...

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. 101-26.602-3 Section 101-26.602-3 Public... REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.6-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA...

  3. Pulverized fuel-oxygen burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Curtis; Patterson, Brad; Perdue, Jayson

    2017-09-05

    A burner assembly combines oxygen and fuel to produce a flame. The burner assembly includes an oxygen supply tube adapted to receive a stream of oxygen and a solid fuel conduit arranged to extend through the oxygen tube to convey a stream of fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel into a flame chamber. Oxygen flowing through the oxygen supply tube passes generally tangentially through a first set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and off-tangentially from a second set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and then mixes with fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel passing through the solid fuel conduit to create an oxygen-fuel mixture in a downstream portion of the solid fuel conduit. This mixture is discharged into a flame chamber and ignited in the flame chamber to produce a flame.

  4. Hazardous waste and used oil fuel burning; Continuing regulatory concerns for generators, marketers and burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelpel, J.W. (Honigman Miller Schwartz and Cohn, Detroit, MI (US))

    1987-01-01

    With the closing of interim status 'windows' and with the interest of many present HWF blenders and burners in restricting entry into the field, the concerns and opportunities associated with the blending and burning marketplace remain topical and in some areas not yet clearly defined. Also, further regulation, such as the promised rules for burners due in April, 1987, may force some to leave the field, thus creating additional concerns and opportunities. In any event, because hazardous wastes with substantial heat value will be generated for many years to come and because of the present load on available hazardous waste incinerators, blending and burning of HWF and used oil promise to remain an extremely important means of destruction of these materials. The author presents a discussion of the following areas: history, who can blend and who can't, who can burn and who can't, regulation of combustion residuals, impact of the land disposal ban rules, and state and other federal regulatory impacts.

  5. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  6. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leto, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  7. Fuel-flexible burner apparatus and method for fired heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, Darton J.; Isaacs, Rex K.; Jamaluddin, A. S. (Jamal); Benson, Charles E.; Pellizzari, Roberto O.; Little, Cody L.; Marty, Seth A.; Imel, K. Parker; Barnes, Jonathon E.; Parker, Chris S.

    2017-03-14

    A burner apparatus for a fired heating system and a method of burner operation. The burner provides stable operation when burning gas fuels having heating values ranging from low to high and accommodates sudden wide changes in the Wobbe value of the fuel delivered to the burner. The burner apparatus includes a plurality of exterior fuel ejectors and has an exterior notch which extends around the burner wall for receiving and combusting a portion of the gas fuel. At least a portion of the hot combustion product gas produced in the exterior notch is delivered through channels formed in the burner wall to the combustion area at the forward end of the burner. As the Wobbe value of the gas fuel decreases, one or more outer series of addition ejectors can be automatically activated as needed to maintain the amount of heat output desired.

  8. Market assessment for the fan atomized oil burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphalen, D. [A.D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The market potential for the fan atomized burner (FAB) in water and space heating applications was examined. The major findings of the study are as follows. (1). The FAB`s low-input capability allows development of oil-fired room heaters and wall furnaces, a new market area for oil heat. (2). Among conventional oil-fired products, furnaces will benefit most from the burner`s low input capability due to (1) their quick delivery of heat and (2) their more prevalent use in warmer climates and smaller homes. (3). The greatest potential for increased product sales or oil sales exists in the use of the burner with new products (i.e., room heaters). Sales of boilers and direct-fired water heaters are not likely to increase with the use of the burner. (4). Acceptance of the burner will be dependent on proof of reliability. Proof of better reliability than conventional burners would accelerate acceptance.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics in oil burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In Computational Fluid Dynamics, the differential equations which describe flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer are approximately solved using a very laborious numerical procedure. Flows of practical interest to burner designs are always turbulent, adding to the complexity of requiring a turbulence model. This paper presents a model for burner design.

  10. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, B. [Heat Wise Inc., Ridge, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  11. Combustion starter and maintenance burner for pulverized solid fossil fuels, and combustion chamber equipped with burners of the kind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.; Malaubier, F.; Mevel, J-C.

    1990-05-15

    A power station boiler is described, which is fired by pulverized coal. The boiler has an axial conduit for feeding the pulverized fuel in a primary combustion supporting gas. The burner incorporates a flame detector and an igniter in the refractory tap-hole or in the axial conduit. The advantage of the burner is improved efficiency and reduced operating cost.

  12. Effects of fractal grid on emissions in burner combustion by using fuel-water-air premix injector derived from biodiesel crude palm oil (CPO base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Mirnah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel is attracted good attention from worldwide especially for renewable and prevention energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the hydrocarbon fuels and it has potential for external combustion. As one of the different solutions to these problems, rapid mixing of biodiesel-water-air technique is one of the most significant approaches to improve the combustion and reduce the emissions. The gas emission can be reduced by two methods. First is by improving an injector with fractal and the other is by using a biodiesel-water mixture as an alternative fuel. Mixing of water with fuel in the combustion process is a low cost and effective way. This research used biodiesel Crude Palm Oil (CPO as fuels in which blended with diesel. This study investigated the effects of water content and equivalence ratio on emissions with the rapid mixing injector. Fuels used are diesel, CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 and the exhausts gaseous tested are CO, CO2, HC and NOX. The gas emissions processes are tested by using the gas analyzer. In this research, water premix of percentage up to 15vol% and blending biodiesel ratio was varied from 5vom% - 15vol%. The result shows that increasing of water content will effected decrement of CO, CO2 and HC emissions but increasing the NOX emissions.

  13. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    stability, and process efficiency. Alternative fuel substitution in the calciner unit has reached close to 100% at many cement plants and to further increase the use of alternative fuels rotary kiln substitution must be enhanced. At present, limited systematic knowledge of the alternative fuel combustion...... properties and the influence on the flame formation is available. In this project a scientific approach to increase the fundamental understanding of alternative fuel conversion in the rotary kiln burner is employed through literature studies, experimental combustion characterisation studies, combustion...... modelling, data collection and observations at an industrial cement plant firing alternative fuels. Alternative fuels may differ from conventional fossil fuels in combustion behaviour through differences in physical and chemical properties and reaction kinetics. Often solid alternative fuels are available...

  14. Turbine Burners: Turbulent Combustion of Liquids Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-14

    stabilized combustion facility on liquid fuel adds another level of complex- ity because the fuel must first vaporize before it can mix into the air supply...vortex of the size of the cavity was entrained in a cavity of aspect ratio 1. This vortex was seen using multiple imaging techniques. (b) Schlieren

  15. Fuel oil quality task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V. [R.W. Beckett Corp., Elyria, OH (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  16. Fuel Evaporation in an Atmospheric Premixed Burner: Sensitivity Analysis and Spray Vaporization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Csemány

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of evaporation requires accurate thermophysical properties of the liquid. Such data are well-known for conventional fossil fuels. In contrast, e.g., thermal conductivity or dynamic viscosity of the fuel vapor are rarely available for modern liquid fuels. To overcome this problem, molecular models can be used. Currently, the measurement-based properties of n-heptane and diesel oil are compared with estimated values, using the state-of-the-art molecular models to derive the temperature-dependent material properties. Then their effect on droplet evaporation was evaluated. The critical parameters were liquid density, latent heat of vaporization, boiling temperature, and vapor thermal conductivity where the estimation affected the evaporation time notably. Besides a general sensitivity analysis, evaporation modeling in a practical burner ended up with similar results. By calculating droplet motion, the evaporation number, the evaporation-to-residence time ratio can be derived. An empirical cumulative distribution function is used for the spray of the analyzed burner to evaluate evaporation in the mixing tube. Evaporation number did not exceed 0.4, meaning a full evaporation prior to reaching the burner lip in all cases. As droplet inertia depends upon its size, the residence time has a minimum value due to the phenomenon of overshooting.

  17. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  18. Oil fired boiler/solar tank- and natural gas burner/solar tank-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Frederiksen, Karsten Vinkler

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new units consisting of a solar tank and either an oil fired boiler or a natural gas burner have been introduced on the Danish market. Three different marketed units - two based on a natural gas burner and one based on an oil fired boiler - have been tested in a heat...

  19. Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions. II. Mutagenic, tumorigenic, and potential teratogenic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A.G.; Busby, W.F. Jr.; Liber, H.L.; Thilly, W.G.

    1987-08-01

    Extracts of effluents from a modern residential oil burner have been evaluated in several toxicological assay systems. Bacterial mutagens were detected in extracts from both the particulate and vapor phase emissions. Effluents from continuous operation were an order of magnitude less mutagenic than those from cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) operations. No difference in the yield of bacterial mutagens per gram of fuel burned was found between cyclic operation under low and moderate sooting conditions. On the basis of elution behavior from alumina it appeared that the bacterial mutagens collected from high sooting effluents were more polar than those from low sooting effluent. An extract that was mutagenic in bacteria did not induce a significant increase in mutation frequency to human lymphoblasts. No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in a limited number of newborn mice after IP injection of effluent extract when compared to historical control data. Putative nonmutagenic teratogens were detected in effluent using an attachment inhibition assay. The level of these agents was reduced in effluents from continuous oil burner operation.

  20. Feasibility study of utilizing jatropha curcas oil as bio-diesel in an oil firing burner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiful, A. I. M.; Jaafar, M. N. Mohd; Sahar, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Jatropha oil derived from the Jatropha Curcas Linnaeus is one of the high potential plants to be use as bio-diesel. The purpose of this research is to carry out a feasibility study of using jatropha oil as bio-diesel on oil firing burner system. Like other bio-diesels, jatropha oil can also be used in any combustion engine and the performance and emissions such as NOx, SO2, CO and CO2 as well as unburned hydocarbon (UHC) from the engine will vary depending on the bio-diesel blends. The properties of Conventional Diesel Fuel (CDF) obtained will be used as baseline and the jatropha oil properties will be compared as well as other bio-diesels. From several researches, the properties of jatropha oil was found to be quite similar with other bio-diesel such as palm oil, neem, keranja and pongamia bio-diesel and complying with the ASTM standard for bio-diesel. Still, there are factors and issues concerning the use of jatropha oil such as technology, economy, legislation and resource. Plus, there several challenges to the growth of bio-diesel industry development since the world right now do not totally depend on the bio-diesel.

  1. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, A.; Bombach, R.; Hubschmid, W.; Kaeppeli, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    We report on measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air at atmospheric pressure in an industrial premixed gas turbine burner. The concentration of the vaporized fuel oil was measured with laser induced fluorescence. We reason that the fuel oil concentration can be considered with good accuracy as proportional to the fluorescence intensity. (author) 6 fig., 3 refs.

  2. Multifuel burners based on the porous burner technology for the application in fuel cell systems; Mehrstofffaehige Brenner auf Basis der Porenbrennertechnik fuer den Einsatz in Brennstoffzellensystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezinger, S.

    2006-07-01

    The present doctoral thesis describes the development of multifuel burners based on the porous burner technology for the application in hydrocarbon driven fuel cell systems. One objective of such burners is the heating of the fuel cell system to the operating temperature at the cold start. In stationary operation the burner has to postcombust the waste gases from the fuel cell and the gas processing system in order to reduce the pollutant emissions. As the produced heat is required for endothermal processes like the steam reforming the burner has a significant influence on the system's efficiency. The performed investigations are targeting on a gasoline driven PEMFC-System with steam reforming. In such systems the burner has to be capable to combust the system's fuel gasoline at the cold start, a low calorific fuel cell offgas (HU = 6,4 MJ/kg) in stationary operation and a hydrogen rich gas in the case of an emergency shut down. Pre-tests revealed that in state of the art porous burners the flame front of hydrogen/air combustion can only be stabilized at very high excess air ratios. In basic investigations concerning the stabilization of flame fronts in porous media the dominant influence parameters were determined. Based on this findings a new flame trap was developed which increases the operational range with hydrogen rich mixtures significantly. Furthermore the burning velocity at stationary combustion in porous media was investigated. The dependency of the porous burning velocity on the excess air ratio for different hydrocarbons and hydrogen as well as for mixtures of both was determined. The results of these basic investigations were applied for the design of a multifuel burner. In order to achieve an evaporation of the gasoline without the use of additional energy, an internal heat exchanger section for heating the combustion air was integrated into the burner. Additionally different experimental and numerical methods were applied for designing the

  3. A critical review of noise production models for turbulent, gas-fueled burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The combustion noise literature for the period between 1952 and early 1984 is critically reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed on past theoretical and semi-empirical attempts to predict or explain observed direct combustion noise characteristics of turbulent, gas-fueled burners; works involving liquid-fueled burners are reviewed only when ideas equally applicable to gas-fueled burners are pesented. The historical development of the most important contemporary direct combustion noise theories is traced, and the theories themselves are compared and criticized. While most theories explain combustion noise production by turbulent flames in terms of randomly distributed acoustic monopoles produced by turbulent mixing of products and reactants, none is able to predict the sound pressure in the acoustic farfield of a practical burner because of the lack of a proven model which relates the combustion noise source strenght at a given frequency to the design and operating parameters of the burner. Recommendations are given for establishing a benchmark-quality data base needed to support the development of such a model.

  4. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  5. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  6. Fuel rich and fuel lean catalytic combustion of the stabilized confined turbulent gaseous diffusion flames over noble metal disc burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal S. Zakhary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic combustion of stabilized confined turbulent gaseous diffusion flames using Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 disc burners situated in the combustion domain under both fuel-rich and fuel-lean conditions was experimentally studied. Commercial LPG fuel having an average composition of: 23% propane, 76% butane, and 1% pentane was used. The thermal structure of these catalytic flames developed over Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 burners were examined via measuring the mean temperature distribution in the radial direction at different axial locations along the flames. Under-fuel-rich condition the flames operated over Pt catalytic disc attained high temperature values in order to express the progress of combustion and were found to achieve higher activity as compared to the flames developed over Pd catalytic disc. These two types of catalytic flames demonstrated an increase in the reaction rate with the downstream axial distance and hence, an increase in the flame temperatures was associated with partial oxidation towards CO due to the lack of oxygen. However, under fuel-lean conditions the catalytic flame over Pd catalyst recorded comparatively higher temperatures within the flame core in the near region of the main reaction zone than over Pt disc burner. These two catalytic flames over Pt and Pd disc burners showed complete oxidation to CO2 since the catalytic surface is covered by more rich oxygen under the fuel-lean condition.

  7. Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.G. Wirawan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Availability of fossil fuels in the world decrease gradually due to excessive fuel exploitation. This situations push researcher to look for alternative fuels as a source of renewable energy, one of them is kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil. The aim this study was to know the behavior of laminar burning velocity, secondary Bunsen flame with open tip, cellular and triple flame. Premixed combustion of kapok seed oil was studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ varied from 0.30 until 1.07. The results showed that combustion of glycerol requires a large amount of air so that laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture (φ =0.36 in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole.  Perforated and secondary Bunsen flame both reached maximum SL similar with that of ethanol and higher than that of hexadecane. Slight increase of φ decreases drastically SL of perforated and secondary Bunsen flame. When the mixture was enriched, secondary Bunsen and perforated flame disappears, and then the flame becomes Bunsen flame with open tip and triple flame (φ = 0.62 to 1.07. Flame was getting stable until the mixture above the stoichiometry. Being isolated from ambient air, the SL of perforated flame, as well as secondary Bunsen flame, becomes equal with non-isolated flame. This shows the decreasing trend of laminar burning velocity while φ is increasing. When the mixture was enriched island (φ = 0.44 to 0.48 and petal (φ = 0.53 to 0.62 cellular flame take place. Flame becomes more unstable when the mixture was changed toward stoichiometry.

  8. Research, development, and testing of a prototype two-stage low-input rate oil burner for variable output heating system applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, R.F.; Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The use of a Two-Stage Fan Atomized Oil Burner (TSFAB) in space and water heating applications will have dramatic advantages in terms of it`s potential for a high Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) and/or Energy Factor (EF) rating for the equipment. While demonstrations of a single rate burner in an actual application have already yielded sufficient confidence that space and domestic heating loads can be met at a single low firing rate, this represents only a narrow solution to the diverse nature of building space heating and domestic water loads that the industry must address. The mechanical development, proposed control, and testing of the Two-Stage burner is discussed in terms of near term and long term goals.

  9. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171); David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  10. Experimental data regarding the characterization of the flame behavior near lean blowout in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi

    2016-03-01

    The data are related to the research article “Image processing for the characterization of flame stability in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner near lean blowout” in Aerospace Science and Technology [1].

  11. Control of flames by tangential jet actuators in oxy-fuel burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boushaki, Toufik [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS-Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Site Universitaire du Madrillet, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Universite de Toulouse-INPT-UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse, Cedex (France); Sautet, Jean-Charles [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS-Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Site Universitaire du Madrillet, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Labegorre, Bernard [Air Liquide, Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Les Loges-en-Josas, B.P. 126 78354 Jouy-en-Josas, Cedex (France)

    2009-11-15

    The active control of oxy-fuel flames from burners with separated jets is investigated. The control system consists of four small jet actuators, placed tangential to the exit of the main jets to generate a swirling flow. These actuators are able to modify the flow structure and to act on mixing between the reactants and consequently on the flame behavior. The burner (25 kW) is composed of separated jets, one jet of natural gas and one or two jets of pure oxygen. Experiments are conducted with three burner configurations, according to the number of jets, the jet exit velocities, and the separation distance between the jets. OH chemiluminescence measurements, particle image velocimetry, and measurements of NO{sub x} emissions are used to characterize the flow and the flame structure. Results show that the small jet actuators have a significant influence on the behavior of jets and the flame characteristics, particularly in the stabilization zone. It is shown that the control leads to a decrease in lift-off heights and to better stability of the flame. The use of jet actuators induces high jet spreading and an increase in turbulence intensity, which improves the mixing between the reactants and the surrounding fluid. Pollutant measurements show important results in terms of NO{sub x} reductions (up to 60%), in particular for low swirl intensity. The burner parameters, such as the number of jets and the spacing between the jets, also impact the flame behavior and NO{sub x} formation. (author)

  12. Gas fired boilers: Perspective for near future fuel composition and impact on burner design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Fabio; Stoppato, Anna; Benato, Alberto

    2017-11-01

    The advancements on gas boiler technology run in parallel with the growth of renewable energy production. The renewable production will impact on the fuel gas quality, since the gas grid will face an increasing injection of alternative fuels (biogas, biomethane, hydrogen). Biogas allows producing energy with a lower CO2 impact; hydrogen production by electrolysis can mitigate the issues related to the mismatch between energy production by renewable and energy request. These technologies will contribute to achieve the renewable production targets, but the impact on whole fuel gas production-to-consumption chain must be evaluated. In the first part of this study, the Authors present the future scenario of the grid gas composition and the implications on gas fed appliances. Given that the widely used premixed burners are currently designed mainly by trial and error, a broader fuel gas quality range means an additional hitch on this design process. A better understanding and structuring of this process is helpful for future appliance-oriented developments. The Authors present an experimental activity on a premixed condensing boiler setup. A test protocol highlighting the burners' flexibility in terms of mixture composition is adopted and the system fuel flexibility is characterized around multiple reference conditions.

  13. Gas fired boilers: Perspective for near future fuel composition and impact on burner design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiro Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancements on gas boiler technology run in parallel with the growth of renewable energy production. The renewable production will impact on the fuel gas quality, since the gas grid will face an increasing injection of alternative fuels (biogas, biomethane, hydrogen. Biogas allows producing energy with a lower CO2 impact; hydrogen production by electrolysis can mitigate the issues related to the mismatch between energy production by renewable and energy request. These technologies will contribute to achieve the renewable production targets, but the impact on whole fuel gas production-to-consumption chain must be evaluated. In the first part of this study, the Authors present the future scenario of the grid gas composition and the implications on gas fed appliances. Given that the widely used premixed burners are currently designed mainly by trial and error, a broader fuel gas quality range means an additional hitch on this design process. A better understanding and structuring of this process is helpful for future appliance-oriented developments. The Authors present an experimental activity on a premixed condensing boiler setup. A test protocol highlighting the burners' flexibility in terms of mixture composition is adopted and the system fuel flexibility is characterized around multiple reference conditions.

  14. Deposit formation by 20 % (V/V) FAME fuels in premix burner systems; Ablagerungsbildung durch 20% (V/V) FAME-Brennstoffe in Vormischbrennersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaschinski, Christian; Rheinberg, Oliver van [OWI Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Aachen (Germany); RWTH Aachen (Germany). An-Institut

    2012-09-15

    In the domestic heating market the development and use of fuels with an increasing share of biogenic or alternative fuels is propagated. Due to the fact, that modern fuel oil burner feature a complex carburation techniques and combustion, changes on the fuel properties and composition can lead to increased emissions or deposit formation therein. Furthermore, the different fuel properties may result in decreased storage stability, which has to be evaluated before introducing them into the market. The scope of the project was to investigate the performance of low-sulfur domestic heating oil (DHO) with up to 20 % v/v FAME on the storage stability and on the use in oil-fired heating systems. The project was split into two major parts. The first part covered a two-year storage of the fuels including sampling and analysis of the fuels every half year. The analysis was conducted according to DIN 51603-1 for the pure DHO and according to DIN SPEC 51603-6 for the blends. It has been shown, that low sulphur domestic heating oil with up to 20 % (V/V) of FAME after two years of storage fits the parameter of the corresponding standards. Furthermore, a new testing method, called 'DGMK-714' derived from the PetroOxy-test (EN 16091) has been defined. With this method for the determination of oxidation stability the fuels can be characterized being comparable to the standardized testing methods of modified Rancimat or PetroOxy. The higher sample volume of the method allows further analysis of the fuel sample after testing for characterization of the fuels. The second part of the project investigated the deposit formation tendencies of the fuels in an idealized testing apparatus and in three different kinds of oil burners. Using the idealized testing apparatus proved an increased tendency of deposit formation during evaporation for an increasing FAME content. However, this tendency could not be observed in the three commercial oil-fired heating systems. A precise fuel

  15. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  16. Influence of the technique for injection of flue gas and the configuration of the swirl burner throat on combustion of gaseous fuel and formation of nitrogen oxides in the flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoinishnikov, V. A.; Khokhlov, D. A.; Knyaz'kov, V. P.; Ershov, A. Yu.

    2017-05-01

    How the points at which the flue gas was injected into the swirl burner and the design of the burner outlet influence the formation and development of the flame in the submerged space, as well as the formation of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products, have been studied. The object under numerical investigation is the flame of the GMVI combined (oil/gas) burner swirl burner fitted with a convergent, biconical, cylindrical, or divergent throat at the burner outlet with individual supply of the air and injection of the gaseous fuel through tubing. The burners of two designs were investigated; they differ by the absence or presence of an inlet for individual injection of the flue gas. A technique for numerical simulation of the flame based on the CFD methods widely used in research of this kind underlies the study. Based on the summarized results of the numerical simulation of the processes that occur in jet flows, the specific features of the aerodynamic pattern of the flame have been established. It is shown that the flame can be conventionally divided into several sections over its length in all investigations. The lengths of each of the sections, as well as the form of the fields of axial velocity, temperatures, concentrations of the fuel, oxygen, and carbon and nitrogen oxides, are different and determined by the design features of the burner, the flow rates of the agent, and the compositions of the latter in the burner ducts as well as the configuration of the burner throat and the temperature of the environment. To what degree the burner throat configuration and the techniques for injection of the flue gas at different ambient temperatures influence the formation of nitrogen oxides has been established. It is shown that the supply of the recirculation of flue gas into the fuel injection zone enables a considerable reduction in the formation of nitrogen oxides in the flame combustion products. It has been established that the locations of the zones of

  17. Fuels and Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronshtein, L.A.; Kalinina, E.V.; Shekter, Y.N.; Shkol' nikov, V.M.

    1984-03-01

    This article describes procedures which can be used to calculate the quantity of information obtained in laboratory and test-stand evaluations of fuels and oils by various methods. The evaluation of the protective properties of oils by means of the methods of GOST 9.054-75 is compared to a system for the coordinated investigation of the protective properties (CIPP) of the oils. According to GOST 9.054-75, the protective properties of oils are determined by the percentage of corrosion-damaged surface on metal panels that have been coated with a film of the oil, after a certain test time under various conditions. In tests on oils by the CIPP system, each index is evaluated on a rating scale containing three classes: ''good,'' ''satisfactory,'' and ''poor.'' According to GOST 9.054-75, the protective properties of oils are evaluated by 5 methods: in a humidity cabinet, in a salt fog cabinet, in a sulfur dioxide cabinet, in sea water, and in a test for hydrobromic acid displacement. It is demonstrated that the tests by the CIPP system using the desirability scale give the highest level of informativity. The informativity of the methods, along with the repeatability and reproducibility of the results, can serve as quantitative characterization of the quality of the test methods. Includes 2 tables.

  18. Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. Of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Oxy-fuel combustion has been used previously in a wide range of industrial applications. Oxy- combustion is carried out by burning a hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen instead of air. Flames burning in this configuration achieve higher flame temperatures which present opportunities for significant efficiency improvements and direct capture of CO2 from the exhaust stream. In an effort to better understand and characterize the fundamental flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion this research presents the experimental measurements of flame stability of various oxyfuel flames. Effects of H2 concentration, fuel composition, exhaust gas recirculation ratio, firing inputs, and burner diameters on the flame stability of these fuels are discussed. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation i.e. CO2 and H2O (steam) acting as diluents on burner operability are also presented. The roles of firing input on flame stability are then analyzed. For this study it was observed that many oxy-flames did not stabilize without exhaust gas recirculation due to their higher burning velocities. In addition, the stability regime of all compositions was observed to decrease as the burner diameter increased. A flashback model is also presented, using the critical velocity gradient gF) values for CH4-O2-CO2 flames. The second part of the study focuses on the experimental measurements of the flow field characteristics of premixed CH4/21%O2/79%N2 and CH4/38%O2/72%CO2 mixtures at constant firing input of 7.5 kW, constant, equivalence ratio of 0.8, constant swirl number of 0.92 and constant Reynolds Numbers. These measurements were taken in a swirl stabilized combustor at atmospheric pressure. The flow field visualization using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique is implemented to make a better understanding of the turbulence characteristics of

  19. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  20. Testing and Modeling Fuel Regression Rate in a Miniature Hybrid Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fanton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic characterization of an extended group of innovative HTPB-based solid fuel formulations for hybrid rocket propulsion was performed in a lab-scale burner. An optical time-resolved technique was used to assess the quasisteady regression history of single perforation, cylindrical samples. The effects of metalized additives and radiant heat transfer on the regression rate of such formulations were assessed. Under the investigated operating conditions and based on phenomenological models from the literature, analyses of the collected experimental data show an appreciable influence of the radiant heat flux from burnt gases and soot for both unloaded and loaded fuel formulations. Pure HTPB regression rate data are satisfactorily reproduced, while the impressive initial regression rates of metalized formulations require further assessment.

  1. Bed burners for grate boilers; Baeddbraennare foer rosterpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendelius, Mikael; Schuster, Robert [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this work is to increase the knowledge of bed burners and their optimal positions in furnaces. The results from several computational fluid mechanics calculations are presented. An investigation concerning bed burners among plant owners is included as well. A bed burner is defined as a burner used for enhancing the combustion process on the bed i.e. it is used to dry incoming wet fuel. A load burner is used to quickly increase the boiler load and primarily not for creating better combustion conditions on the grate. Fluid mechanics calculations have been performed for five different cases, including the reference case. The following four bed burner arrangements have been examined: flat flame burner, six burners placed in the combustion chamber, two symmetric placed burners and two asymmetric placed burners. The same furnace model has been used through all the simulations. The incident radiation has been calculated in order to determine which one of the bed burners having the best possibility to improve the combustion process on the grate. The results showed that the flat flame burner and the six burners placed in the combustion chamber gave the most incident radiation on the first two grate zones. Bed burners placed further back in the furnace gave less good results. A comparison between the reference case (the case without burners) and the case with two burners showed that there was almost no difference in incident radiation between the two cases. The case with six burners placed in the combustion chamber gave most incident radiation, however this arrangement gave an irregular distribution of the radiation on the bed. Too high or irregular distributed radiation increases the risk for getting regions, on the grate, where the fuel is completely burnt. Primary air will pass through these regions. This phenomenon will lead to high temperatures that cause increased levels of emissions, in particular NO{sub x}. Reorganizing the burner positions and

  2. Use of freeze-casting in advanced burner reactor fuel design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, A. L.; Yablinsky, C. A.; Allen, T. R. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Burger, J.; Hunger, P. M.; Wegst, U. G. K. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 8000 Cummings Hall, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper will detail the modeling of a fast reactor with fuel pins created using a freeze-casting process. Freeze-casting is a method of creating an inert scaffold within a fuel pin. The scaffold is created using a directional solidification process and results in open porosity for emplacement of fuel, with pores ranging in size from 300 microns to 500 microns in diameter. These pores allow multiple fuel types and enrichments to be loaded into one fuel pin. Also, each pore could be filled with varying amounts of fuel to allow for the specific volume of fission gases created by that fuel type. Currently fast reactors, including advanced burner reactors (ABR's), are not economically feasible due to the high cost of operating the reactors and of reprocessing the fuel. However, if the fuel could be very precisely placed, such as within a freeze-cast scaffold, this could increase fuel performance and result in a valid design with a much lower cost per megawatt. In addition to competitive costs, freeze-cast fuel would also allow for selective breeding or burning of actinides within specific locations in fast reactors. For example, fast flux peak locations could be utilized on a minute scale to target specific actinides for transmutation. Freeze-cast fuel is extremely flexible and has great potential in a variety of applications. This paper performs initial modeling of freeze-cast fuel, with the generic fast reactor parameters for this model based on EBR-II. The core has an assumed power of 62.5 MWt. The neutronics code used was Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) transport code. Uniform pore sizes were used in increments of 100 microns. Two different freeze-cast scaffold materials were used: ceramic (MgO-ZrO{sub 2}) and steel (SS316L). Separate models were needed for each material because the freeze-cast ceramic and metal scaffolds have different structural characteristics and overall porosities. Basic criticality results were compiled for the various models

  3. Impact of fuel quality and burner capacity on the performance of wood pellet stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Bećirović Sanja B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pellet stoves may play an important role in Serbia in the future when fossil fuel fired conventional heating appliances are replaced by more efficient and environmentally friendly devices. Experimental investigation was conducted in order to examine the influence of wood pellet quality, as well as burner capacity (6, 8 and 10 kW, used in the same stove configuration, on the performance of pellet stove with declared nameplate capacity of 8 kW. The results obtained showed that in case of nominal load and combustion of pellets recommended by the stove manufacturer, stove efficiency of 80.03% was achieved. The use of lower quality pellet caused additional 1.13 kW reduction in heat output in case of nominal load and 0.63 kW in case of reduced load. This was attributed to less favourable properties and lower bulk and particle density of lower quality pellet. The use of different burner capacity has shown to have little effect on heat output and efficiency of the stove when pre-set values in the control system of the stove were not altered. It is concluded that replacement of the burner only is not sufficient to increase/decrease the declared capacity of the same stove configuration, meaning that additional measures are necessary. These measures include a new set up of the stove control system, which needs to be properly adjusted for each alteration in stove configuration. Without the adjustment mentioned, declared capacity of the stove cannot be altered, while its CO emission shall be considerably increased.

  4. Experimental and numerical investigation of flame characteristics during swirl burner operation under conventional and oxy-fuel conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-fuel coal combustion, together with carbon capture and storage or utilization, is a set of technologies allowing to burn coal without emitting globe warming CO2. As it is expected that oxy-fuel combustion may be used for a retrofit of existing boilers, development of a novel oxy-burners is very important step. It is expected that these burners will be able to sustain stable flame in oxy-fuel conditions, but also, for start-up and emergency reasons, in conventional, air conditions. The most cost effective way of achieving dual-mode boilers is to introduce dual-mode burners. Numerical simulations allow investigation of new designs and technologies at a relatively low cost, but for the results to be trustworthy they need to be validated. This paper proposes a workflow for design, modeling, and validation of dual-mode burners by combining experimental investigation and numerical simulations. Experiments are performed with semi-industrial scale burners in 0.5 MWt test facility for flame investigation. Novel CFD model based on ANSYS FLUENT solver, with special consideration of coal combustion process, especially regarding devolatilization, ignition, gaseous and surface reactions, NOx formation, and radiation was suggested. The main model feature is its ability to simulate pulverized coal combustion under different combusting atmospheres, and thus is suitable for both air and oxy-fuel combustion simulations. Using the proposed methodology two designs of pulverized coal burners have been investigated both experimentally and numerically giving consistent results. The improved burner design proved to be a more flexible device, achieving stable ignition and combustion during both combustion regimes: conventional in air and oxy-fuel in a mixture of O2 and CO2 (representing dry recycled flue gas with high CO2 content. The proposed framework is expected to be of use for further improvement of multi-mode pulverized fuel swirl burners but can be also used

  5. Large-eddy simulation of a fuel-lean premixed turbulent swirl-burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpin, Jeremy [IFP, B.P. 311, 92506 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); INSA - CORIA - CNRS, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Rouen (France); Naudin, Alexandre; Vervisch, Luc; Domingo, Pascale [INSA - CORIA - CNRS, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Rouen (France); Angelberger, Christian; Colin, Olivier [IFP, B.P. 311, 92506 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France)

    2008-10-15

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) of a fuel-lean premixed turbulent swirling flame is performed, in the configuration of a burner experimentally studied by Meier et al. [Combust. Flame 150 (1-2) (2007) 2-26]. Measurements of velocity field, temperature, and major species concentrations are compared against LES results. The unresolved sub-grid scale turbulent species and temperature fluctuations are accounted for using a presumed probability density function and flamelet tabulated detailed chemistry. Before the turbulent burner is simulated, various strategies to introduce tabulated detailed chemistry into a fully compressible Navier-Stokes solver are discussed and tested for laminar flames. The objective is to ensure a proper coupling between chemical tables and unsteady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in their fully compressible form, accounting for the inherent constraints of high-performance computing. Comparisons of LES results with experiments are discussed in terms of filtered quantities, leading to the introduction of an extra term to account for the difference in filter sizes used in experiment and LES. Velocity, temperature, and major species LES fields are then compared against measurements. Most of the turbulent flame features are reproduced, and observed discrepancies are analyzed to seek out possible improvements of the subgrid-scale modeling. (author)

  6. Multifuel burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybould, J.D.

    1982-04-28

    A design is proposed for turbulent burner (B) for simultaneous burning of powder, liquid and/or gaseous fuel (F). The liquid F is sprayed with the help of a rotation sprayer arranged on the axis of the burner device. The gas can be supplied through the opening made in the dish-shaped bottom encompassing the central part of the B. The powder F (aeromixture) enters the combustion zone through the channels with vortex blades arranged on the periphery of the bottom of the B. Through the annular channel arranged around the rotation sprayer, primary air is supplied, and through the channels arranged on the periphery of the B, secondary air. The percentage of solid F during operation of the B can be 75-90%.

  7. Cost and performance of available low NO{sub x} burners using oil, gas or wood powder; Marknadsstudie av laag-NO{sub x}-braennare foer olja, gas och traepulver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, Anders

    2002-04-01

    Emission of nitrous oxides or NO{sub x} which is formed during combustion, has during several years been in focus and countermeasures in order to reduce them have been carried out by the industry and energy companies. However, the current trend is towards even tougher demands on lower NO{sub x} and, therefore, the suppliers have even further developed the technique for low NO{sub x}-burners. The purpose with this report is to summarize and update the present technology situation of low NO{sub x}-burners, especially for those that are in use or can be used by the pulp and paper industry and among energy companies. Since the demand for even better low NO{sub x}-burners is estimated to increase in the future. This report shows that the suppliers of low NO{sub x}-burners, usually use one of the following techniques: Good atomizing of the fuel to obtain optimal fuel drop size; Flue gas recycling; Staged supply of air to the combustion; and Different methods for cooling the flame. This have resulted in lower NO{sub x}-emissions and typical values for different fuels are: Oil no. EO1 {approx} 60 mg NO{sub x}/MJ; Oil no. EO5 {approx} 130 mg NO{sub x}/MJ; Gas {approx} 40 mg NO{sub x}/MJ; Pulverized Wood = 40-100 mg NO{sub x}/MJ. The price situation is however complex and despite the fact that all suppliers received the same request, the prices varied from 0,4 MSEK up to and above 10 MSEK. From this the following conclusions can be drawn: An even better specification must be made; Sophisticated burners are expensive; Burners for higher heat rate are more expensive; The possibilities to use several different fuels make the burners more expensive. In conclusion, the report also shows that several suppliers are specialized towards different markets. Thus, at a normal purchase, the number of possible suppliers will be limited.

  8. Vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Callaghan, C.

    1982-05-01

    There are a wide range of vegetable oils which may be used in the diesel engine such as palm oil, soyabean oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. This paper reports on preliminary work with rapeseed oil as a possible alternative to diesel. The oil was degummed by hydration. Physical and chemical properties of the oil are compared to diesel fuel. Three types of fuel were tested in a tractor: (a) pure diesel oil; (b) a 50:50 mixture of diesel oil and rapeseed oil; and (c) pure rapeseed oil. Power-speed curves were constructed for each fuel type and observations on nozzle cooking and smoke emissions made.

  9. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  10. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  11. Burners. Reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion: 2. generation of GR LONOxFLAM burner; Les bruleurs. La reduction des oxydes d`azote dans la combustion: bruleur GR LONOxFLAM de 2. generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.C. [EGCI Pillard, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the research work carried out by the French Pillard company in collaboration with Gaz de France for the design of low NO{sub x} burners. The different type of low NO{sub x} burners are presented according to the type of fuel: gas, liquid fuels and fuel oils. The gas burner uses the fuel staging principle and the recirculation of smokes and leads to NO{sub x} emissions lower than 100 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The liquid fuel and fuel oil burners use the separate flames and the smoke self-recirculation methods (fuel-air mixture staging, reduction of flame temperature and of the residence time in flames). (J.S.)

  12. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  13. Actinide transmutation using inert matrix fuels versus recycle in a low conversion fast burner reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinert, M.R.; Schneider, E.A.; Recktenwald, G.; Cady, K.B. [The Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C2200, Austin, 78712 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    would require an infinite fuel residence time. In previous work we have shown that the amount of fluence required to achieve a unit of burnup in yttrium stabilized ZrO{sub 2} based IMF with 85 w/o zirconium oxide and 15 w/o minor actinides (MA) and plutonium increases dramatically beyond 750 MWd/kgIHM (75% burnup). In this paper we discuss the repository implications for recycle of actinides in LWR's using this type of IMF and compare this to actinide recycle in a low conversion fast burner reactor. We perform the analysis over a finite horizon of 100 years, in which reprocessing of spent LWR fuel begins in 2020. Reference [1] C. Lombardi and A. Mazzola, Exploiting the plutonium stockpiles in PWRs by using inert matrix fuel, Annals of Nuclear Energy. 23 (1996) 1117-1126. [2] U. Kasemeyer, J.M. Paratte, P. Grimm and R. Chawla, Comparison of pressurized water reactor core characteristics for 100% plutonium-containing loadings, Nuclear Technology. 122 (1998) 52-63. [3] G. Ledergerber, C. Degueldre, P. Heimgartner, M.A. Pouchon and U. Kasemeyer, Inert matrix fuel for the utilisation of plutonium, Progress in Nuclear Energy. 38 (2001) 301-308. [4] U. Kasemeyer, C. Hellwig, J. Lebenhaft and R. Chawla, Comparison of various partial light water reactor core loadings with inert matrix and mixed oxide fuel, Journal of Nuclear Materials. 319 (2003) 142-153. [5] E.A. Schneider, M.R. Deinert and K.B. Cady, Burnup simulations of an inert matrix fuel using a two region, multi-group reactor physics model, in Proceedings of the physics of advanced fuel cycles, PHYSOR 2006, Vancouver, BC, 2006. [6] E.A. Schneider, M.R. Deinert and K.B. Cady, Burnup simulations and spent fuel characteristics of ZRO{sub 2} based inert matrix fuels, Journal of Nuclear Materials. 361 (2007) 41-51. (authors)

  14. Opposed Jet Burner Approach for Characterizing Flameholding Potentials of Hydrocarbon Scramjet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Convery, Janet L.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2006-01-01

    Opposed Jet Burner (OJB) tools have been used extensively by the authors to measure Flame Strength (FS) extinction limits of laminar H2/N2 air and (recently) hydrocarbon (HC) air Counterflow Diffusion Flames (CFDFs) at one atm. This paper details normalization of FSs of N2- diluted H2 and HC systems to account for effects of fuel composition, temperature, pressure, jet diameter, inflow Reynolds number, and inflow velocity profile (plug, contoured nozzle; and parabolic, straight tube). Normalized results exemplify a sensitive accurate means of validating, globally, reduced chemical kinetic models at approx. 1 atm and the relatively low temperatures approximating the loss of non-premixed idealized flameholding, e.g., in scramjet combustors. Laminar FS is defined locally as maximum air input velocity, U(sub air), that sustains combustion of a counter-jet of g-fuel at extinction. It uniquely characterizes a fuel. And global axial strain rate at extinction (U(sub air) normalized by nozzle or tube diameter, D(sub n or (sub t)) can be compared directly with computed extinction limits, determined using either a 1-D Navier Stokes stream-function solution, using detailed transport and finite rate chemistry, or (better yet) a detailed 2-D Navier Stokes numerical simulation. The experimental results define an idealized flameholding reactivity scale that shows wide ranging (50 x) normalized FS s for various vaporized-liquid and gaseous HCs, including, in ascending order: JP-10, methane, JP-7, n-heptane, n-butane, propane, ethane, and ethylene. Results from H2 air produce a unique and exceptionally strong flame that agree within approx. 1% of a recent 2-D numerically simulated FS for a 3 mm tube-OJB. Thus we suggest that experimental FS s and/or FS ratios, for various neat and blended HCs w/ and w/o additives, offer accurate global tests of chemical kinetic models at the Ts and Ps of extinction. In conclusion, we argue the FS approach is more direct and fundamental, for

  15. Design and analysis of the federal aviation administration next generation fire test burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Robert Ian

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration makes use of threat-based fire test methods for the certification of aircraft cabin materials to enhance the level of safety in the event of an in-flight or post-crash fire on a transport airplane. The global nature of the aviation industry results in these test methods being performed at hundreds of laboratories around the world; in some cases testing identical materials at multiple labs but yielding different results. Maintenance of this standard for an elevated level of safety requires that the test methods be as well defined as possible, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of critical test method parameters. The tests have evolved from simple Bunsen burner material tests to larger, more complicated apparatuses, requiring greater understanding of the device for proper application. The FAA specifies a modified home heating oil burner to simulate the effects of large, intense fires for testing of aircraft seat cushions, cargo compartment liners, power plant components, and thermal acoustic insulation. Recently, the FAA has developed a Next Generation (NexGen) Fire Test burner to replace the original oil burner that has become commercially unavailable. The NexGen burner design is based on the original oil burner but with more precise control of the air and fuel flow rates with the addition of a sonic nozzle and a pressurized fuel system. Knowledge of the fundamental flow properties created by various burner configurations is desired to develop an updated and standardized burner configuration for use around the world for aircraft materials fire testing and airplane certification. To that end, the NexGen fire test burner was analyzed with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to resolve the non-reacting exit flow field and determine the influence of the configuration of burner components. The correlation between the measured flow fields and the standard burner performance metrics of flame temperature and

  16. Optimization of burners in oxygen-gas fired glass furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersbergen, M.J. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Sarmiento-Darkin, W.; Kobayashi, H.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency performance, production stability and emissions of oxygen-fired glass furnaces are influenced by the type of burner, burner nozzle sizes, burner positions, burner settings, oxygen-gas ratios and the fuel distribution among all the burners. These parameters have been optimized

  17. Performance evaluation of premixed burner fueled with biomass derived producer gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Punnarapong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG in ceramic firing process accounts for about 15–40% of production cost. Biomass derived producer gas may be used to replace LPG. In this work, a premixed burner originally designed for LPG was modified for producer gas. Its thermal performance in terms of axial and radial flame temperature distribution, thermal efficiency and emissions was investigated. The experiment was conducted at various gas production rates with equivalence ratios between 0.8 and 1.2. Flame temperatures of over 1200 °C can be achieved, with maximum value of 1260 °C. It was also shown that the burner can be operated at 30.5–39.4 kWth with thermal efficiency in the range of 84 – 91%. The maximum efficiency of this burner was obtained at producer gas flow rate of 24.3 Nm3/h and equivalence ratio of 0.84.

  18. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  19. The effects of hydrogen addition on Fenimore NO formation in low-pressure, fuel-rich-premixed, burner-stabilized CH4/O-2/N-2 flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepman, A. V.; van Essen, V. M.; Mokhov, A. V.; Levinsky, H. B.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of hydrogen addition on Fenimore NO formation in fuel-rich, low-pressure burner-stabilized CH4/O-2/N-2 flames. Towards this end, axial profiles of temperature and mole fractions of CH and NO are measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The experiments are performed

  20. The effects of hydrogen addition on NO formation in atmospheric-pressure, fuel-rich-premixed, burner-stabilized methane, ethane and propane flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepman, A. V.; Mokhov, A. V.; Levinsky, H. B.

    The effects of hydrogen addition on NO formation in fuel-rich, burner-stabilized methane, ethane and propane flames are reported. Profiles of temperature and NO mole fraction were obtained using spontaneous Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), respectively. Experiments were

  1. From Bunsen Burners to Fuel Cells: Invoking Energy Transducers to Exemplify "Paths" and Unify the Energy-Related Concepts of Thermochemistry and Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of chemical energy entirely into thermal energy by Bunsen burners and into thermal energy and electrical energy by fuel cells of varying efficiencies illustrates different paths by which a chemical reaction can occur. Using the efficiency of producing electrical energy as a path label allows all of the energy-related quantities to…

  2. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  3. Emulsions of crude glycerin from biodiesel processing with fuel oil for industrial heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Hannah E; Lucio, Anthony J; Fhaner, Cassie J; Pratama, Fredy S; Robbins, Lanny A; Karpovich, David S

    2013-02-13

    There is considerable interest in using crude glycerin from biodiesel production as a heating fuel. In this work crude glycerin was emulsified into fuel oil to address difficulties with ignition and sustained combustion. Emulsions were prepared with several grades of glycerin and two grades of fuel oil using direct and phase inversion emulsification. Our findings reveal unique surfactant requirements for emulsifying glycerin into oil; these depend on the levels of several contaminants, including water, ash, and components in MONG (matter organic non-glycerin). A higher hydrophile-lipophile balance was required for a stable emulsion of crude glycerin in fuel oil compared to water in fuel oil. The high concentration of salts from biodiesel catalysts generally hindered emulsion stability. Geometric close-packing of micelles was carefully balanced to mechanically stabilize emulsions while also enabling low viscosity for pumping and fuel injection. Phase inversion emulsification produced more stable emulsions than direct emulsification. Emulsions were tested successfully as fuel for a waste oil burner.

  4. Investigations of ash fouling with cattle wastes as reburn fuel in a small-scale boiler burner under transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyukjin; Annamalai, Kalyan; Sweeten, John M

    2008-04-01

    Fouling behavior under reburn conditions was investigated with cattle wastes (termed as feedlot biomass [FB]) and coal as reburn fuels under a transient condition and short-time operation. A small-scale (30 kW or 100,000 Btu/hr) boiler burner research facility was used for the reburn experiments. The fuels considered for these experiments were natural gas (NG) for the ashless case, pure coal, pure FB, and blends of coal and FB. Two parameters that were used to characterize the ash "fouling" were (1) the overall heat-transfer coefficient (OHTC) when burning NG and solid fuels as reburn fuels, and (2) the combustible loss through ash deposited on the surfaces of heat exchanger tubes and the bottom ash in the ash port. A new methodology is presented for determining ash-fouling behavior under transient conditions. Results on the OHTCs for solid reburn fuels are compared with the OHTCs for NG. It was found that the growth of the layer of ash depositions over longer periods typically lowers OHTC, and the increased concentration of ash in gas phase promotes radiation in high-temperature zones during initial periods while decreasing the heat transfer in low-temperature zones. The ash analyses indicated that the bottom ash in the ash port contained a smaller percentage of combustibles with a higher FB percentage in the fuels, indicating better performance compared with coal because small particles in FB burn faster and the FB has higher volatile matter on a dry ash-free basis promoting more burn out.

  5. Alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A. [Nebraska Univ., lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the use of vegetable oils and animal fats as diesel fuel. Physical and chemical properties and structure of the vegetable oils are discussed. Fuel preparation by transesterification, pyrolysis, dilution, and microemulsion and the effects of these processes on the properties of the fuel and, in turn, their effects on the engines have been reviewed. Each of the processes give improved fuel properties over those of unprocessed vegetable oil. The performance of engines using triglyceride based fuels and their emission characteristics are also presented. (author)

  6. Neutronics design study on a minor actinide burner for transmuting spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    1998-08-01

    A liquid metal reactor was designed for the primary purpose of burning the minor actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. The design was constrained to maintain acceptable safety performance as measured by the burnup reactivity swing, the doppler coefficient, and the sodium void worth. Sensitivity studies were performed for homogeneous and decoupled core designs, and a minor actinide burner design was determined to maximize actinide consumption and satisfy safety constraints. One of the principal innovations was the use of two core regions, with a fissile plutonium outer core and an inner core consisting only of minor actinides. The physics studies performed here indicate that a 1200 MWth core is able to transmute the annual minor actinide inventory of about 16 LWRs and still exhibit reasonable safety characteristics. (author). 34 refs., 22 tabs., 14 figs.

  7. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  8. Fuel oil and LPG; Fioul et GPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippon, A. [UFIP, Union Francaise des Industries Petroliere, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of new environmental regulations on the heavy fuel oil and refining French markets, are studied. Illustrated with numerous diagrams concerning oil price evolution, fuel price comparison, market shares, consumption data, etc., it is shown that a brutal elimination of high sulfur content oil fuels would cause an extremely negative impact for the refining industry and for the French economy. Sulfur content limits should be kept at their present levels and users should be free to select technical choices in order to keep within these limits, either through fume desulfurization either through fuel-natural gas mixed combustion

  9. Burner (Stinger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feel overly tired. These are symptoms of a concussion . The doctor will ask you questions about what ... a Burner? Injuries to the brachial plexus can happen when a person's head is pushed forcefully down ...

  10. Industrial Medium-Btu Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program. Technical support report: combustion system data. Part 2. Burner conversion survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study was limited to an analysis of the feasibility of burning the IFG in the existing burners and combustion chambers among a group of prospective IFG customers. The results of this study indicate that the great majority of burner and equipment manufacturers recommend that the IFG can be utilized with their equipment. This is especially true with the boilers which make up the largest part of the load among the potential users of the IFG. A small number of burners representing a small part of the total potential load will probably have to be replaced. This study did not address the changes that would be required with respect to the fuel distribution piping within each facility. At a minimum of the existing regulators, flow meters, and control valves designed for the natural gas flow rates would have to be replaced to accommodate the higher fuel flow rates requiring with the IFG. In many facilities, the fuel distribution piping would have to be replaced. No changes, however, are requied for the combustion air fans or flues and stacks.

  11. Disposal options for burner ash from spent graphite fuel. Final study report November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, A.P.

    1994-08-01

    Three major disposal alternatives are being considered for Fort St. Vrain Reactor (FSVR) and Peach Bottom Reactor (PBR) spent fuels: direct disposal of packaged, intact spent fuel elements; (2) removal of compacts to separate fuel into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW); and (3) physical/chemical processing to reduce waste volumes and produce stable waste forms. For the third alternative, combustion of fuel matrix graphite and fuel particle carbon coatings is a preferred technique for head-end processing as well as for volume reduction and chemical pretreatment prior to final fixation, packaging, and disposal of radioactive residuals (fissile and fertile materials together with fission and activation products) in a final repository. This report presents the results of a scoping study of alternate means for processing and/or disposal of fissile-bearing particles and ash remaining after combustion of FSVR and PBR spent graphite fuels. Candidate spent fuel ash (SFA) waste forms in decreasing order of estimated technical feasibility include glass-ceramics (GCs), polycrystalline ceramic assemblages (PCAs), and homogeneous amorphous glass. Candidate SFA waste form production processes in increasing order of estimated effort and cost for implementation are: low-density GCs via fuel grinding and simultaneous combustion and waste form production in a slagging cyclone combustor (SCC); glass or low-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by conventional melting of SFA and frit; PCAs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) of SFA/frit mixtures; and high-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by HIPing of Calcine/Frit/SFA mixtures.

  12. 77 FR 48177 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... COMMISSION Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) issued Draft Regulatory Guide, DG- 1282, ``Fuel Oil Systems for... ] requirements regarding fuel oil systems for safety-related emergency diesel generators and oil-fueled gas...

  13. Computer solutions for fuel oil marketers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berst, J.; Kall, J.

    1984-11-01

    Methods for upgrading computer systems for fuel oil marketers are discussed. A computer system that is free or nearly free of software is proposed. Five suggestions are given to help determine when a computer system is ready for replacement.

  14. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    This publication contains the 1992 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the fourth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1992 edition marks the ninth annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the products supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA).

  15. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  16. Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning' Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

    2011-12-29

    The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

  17. Fuel conversional aspects of palm oil and sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi-Rbas, A. [PK 216, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2003-05-15

    There are great differences between palm oil and palm kernel oil in physical and chemical characteristics. Palm oil contains mainly palmitic (16:0) and oleic (18:1) acids, the 2 common fatty acids and about 50% saturated, while palm kernel oil contains mainly lauric acid (12:0) and is more than 89% saturated. Palm is widely grown in Southeast Asia, and 90% of the palm oil produced is used for food, while the remaining 10% is used for nonfood consumption, such as production of oleo-chemicals. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. Compared to No. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oils are much more viscous, while methyl esters of vegetable oils are slightly more viscous. The methyl esters are more volatile than the vegetable oils. The soaps obtained from the vegetable oils can be pyrolyzed into hydrocarbon-rich products. The yield of conversion of the sunflower oil reached the maximum 78.3% at 660 K over ZnCl{sub 2} catalyst. (Author)

  18. Pollutant Formation during the Occurrence of Flame Instabilities under Very-Lean Combustion Conditions in a Liquid-Fuel Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in gas turbine combustor design are aimed at achieving low exhaust emissions, hence modern aircraft jet engines are designed with lean-burn combustion systems. In the present work, we report an experimental study on lean combustion in a liquid fuel burner, operated under a non-premixed (single point injection regime that mimics the combustion in a modern aircraft engine. The flame behavior was investigated in proximity of the blow-out limit by an intensified high rate Charge-Coupled Device (CCD camera equipped with different optical filters to selectively record single species chemiluminescence emissions (e.g., OH*, CH*. Analogous filters were also used in combination with photomultiplier (PMT tubes. Furthermore this work investigates well-mixed lean low NOx combustion where mixing is good and generation of solid carbon particulate emissions should be very low. An analysis of pollutants such as fine particles and gaseous emissions was also performed. Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured at the exhaust of the combustion chamber by two different particle size measuring instruments: a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS and an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI. NOx concentration measurements were performed by using a cross-flow modulation chemiluminescence detection system; CO concentration emissions were acquired with a Cross-flow modulation Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR absorption method. All the measurements were completed by diagnostics of the fundamental combustor parameters. The results herein presented show that at very-lean conditions the emissions of both particulate matter and CO was found to increase most likely due to the occurrence of flame instabilities while the NOx were observed to reduce.

  19. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pioch Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significantly from sample to sample. A methodology set up at Cirad allowed to investigate separately natural triacylglycerols alone and the effect of minor components. In addition to these laboratory experiments, engine test at bench and field trials performed in palm oil producing countries, show that this oil is among the best oils as fuel; palm kernel oil whose chemical and physical properties are very close to those of the best of the series investigated, namely copra oil, should display also very interesting properties as Diesel biofuel. Both oils do require external adaptation of the engine when using an indirect injection type engine but even heavier adaptations for a direct injection model. Thus for use as Diesel fuel palm and palm kernel oils are suitable for captive fleets or for engine gensets, to balance the adaptation cost by a scale-up effect either on the number of identical engines or on the nominal vegetable oil consumption per set. Direct use of palm et palm kernel oils fits very well with technical and economical conditions encountered in remote areas. It is also possible to mix palm oil to Diesel fuel either as simple blend or as micro-emulsion. Out of the direct use, palm oil methyl or ethyl ester, often referred to as biodiesel, displays properties similar to those of petroleum Diesel fuel. This technical solution which is suitable to feed all kinds of standard compression ignited engines requires a chemical plant for carrying out the

  20. Computer solutions for fuel oil marketers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berst, J.; Kinley, P.

    1985-03-01

    The use of computers in fuel oil marketing is discussed. A Maine company, Wright Express Corporation, is trying to increase interest in a new computer network that would cater to the needs of fuel oil and petroleum distribution centers. The company has launched a nationwide marketing campaign hoping to attract service stations and companies that operate large motor vehicle fleet operations such as heating oil dealers. Users would access the system in much the same way a bank's customers use electronic funds transfer systems.

  1. FUEL CELL POWERED WITH CANOLA OIL EMULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Piotr Włodarczyk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using canola oil as active substance to fuel cell powering. For this purpose a prototype fuel cell was built. Cell was powered with canola oil emulsion. As a detergent Syntanol DS-10 was used. The mesh electrode with Pt catalyst was used as a anode, and mesh electrode with Ni-Co catalyst was used as a cathode. The measurements conducted in the temperature range 293-333K. The maximum current density reached the level of 2 mA/cm2, and maximum power reached the level of 21 mW (at temp. 333K. So, the possibility of delivery of canola oil (in emulsion form directly to the anode was shown. The obtain power is low, but was shown that it is possible to build the fuel cell powered with canola oil.

  2. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 1, Cold flow burner development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, ``Cold Flow Burner Development``. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  3. Role of dispersion in fuel oil bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderhorst, J.R.; Gibson, C.I.; Moore, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    Three methods of oil-seawater contact were used to measure aqueous phase concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil and the resulting mortality of shrimp, PANDALUS DANAE. Oil--water entry methods included: (1) separate inflow below the water surface, (2) mixture inflow above the water surface, and (3) separate inflow above the water surface. The importance of standardizing the conditions under which oil and water are mixed prior to use in bioassay studies and the amount of dispersion that occurs during the exposure period was noted. Under the three sets of mixing conditions, identical volumes of oil and water resulted in significant differences in observed mortality and measured amounts of oil in the water column, as either total or soluble oil.

  4. 77 FR 39745 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-16426] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0159] Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency... comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1282, ``Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies.'' This... Commission's requirements regarding fuel oil systems for safety-related emergency diesel generators and oil...

  5. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  6. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical and structural properties of the fuel oil produced compared favorably with that of Aviation fuel JP-4 (a wide-cut US Air force fuel). Presently African countries are importing aviation fuels. The fuel oil produced from the pyrolysis of waste water sachets can therefore be used in place of JP–4, providing the aviation ...

  7. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical and structural properties of the fuel oil produced compared favorably with that of Aviation fuel JP-4 (a wide-cut US Air force fuel). Presently African countries are importing aviation fuels. The fuel oil produced from the pyrolysis of waste water sachets can therefore be used in place of JP–4, providing the aviation ...

  8. Gas flat flame burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revun, M.P.; Chernov, V.Ye.; Perelman, L.D.; Rudnitskiy, O.I.; Yerinov, A.Ye.; Zyryanov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    A burner is proposed in which it is possible to burn gas with low calorific value, Q/SUB n//SUP p/. The burner consists of a housing and screw-shaped insert installed on the central gassupply pipe. The latter ends at the outlet adapter equipped with nozzles of elliptical outlet section directed towards twisting of the air stream. The nozzles are bent at a right angle, and their axes are also arranged at the angle ..cap alpha.. in relation to the section plane of the adapter. ..cap alpha.. changes in limits of 0-45/sup 0/ depending on Q /SUB n/ /SUP p/ the lower the calorific value of the burned fuel, the higher the size of the angle ..cap alpha.. might be.

  9. 46 CFR 58.01-10 - Fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel oil. 58.01-10 Section 58.01-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-10 Fuel oil. (a) The following limits apply to the use of oil as fuel: (1) Except as otherwise permitted by this section, no fuel oil with a flashpoint of less than 60 °C...

  10. 78 FR 36278 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.137, ``Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies.'' Revision 2 of RG 1.137 endorses ANSI/ANS- 59.51-1997, ``Fuel Oil Systems for Safety-Related Emergency Diesel Generators...

  11. Assessment of the potential for conversion of TP-108 boilers to firing natural gas and fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.; Supranov, V. M.; Izyumov, M. A.; Vereshchetin, V. A.; Usman, Yu. M.; Natal'in, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    TP-108 boilers were initially designed to burn milled peat. In the 1980s, they were reconstructed for conversion to burning natural gas as well. However, operation of these boilers revealed problems due to low reheat temperature and great air inleakage in the furnace. The initial design of the boiler and its subsequent reconstruction are described in the paper. Measures are presented for further modernization of TP-108 boilers to eliminate the above-mentioned problems and enable natural gas or fuel oil only to be burned in them. Thermal design calculations made using a specially developed adapted model (AM) suggest that replacement of the existing burners with new oil/gas burners, installation of steam-to-steam heat exchangers (SSHE), and sealing of the boiler gas path to make it gas tight will allow the parameters typical of gas-and-oil fired boilers to be attained. It is demonstrated that SSHEs can yield the design secondary steam reheat temperature, although this solution is not typical for natural circulation boilers with steam reheat. The boiler equipped with SSHEs can operate on fuel oil or natural gas with flue gas recirculation or without it. Moreover, operation of the boiler with flue gas recirculation to the air duct in combination with staged combustion enables the required environmental indicators to be attained.

  12. Liquid transportation fuels from algal oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daichuan

    Liquid transportation fuels from renewable sources are becoming more prominent and important in modem society. Processing of hydrocarbon oils from algae has not been studied in detail in the past, so components which have been proposed for incorporation in algal oils via genetic engineering, such as cuparene, farnesene, phytol and squalene, have been subjected to processing via catalytic cracking in a pulse reactor at different temperatures. The cracking results showed that liquid products contained numerous high octane molecules which make it feasible for use in automobiles. Additionally, canola oil, chosen as an algal oil model compound, was studied as a feed for catalytic cracking in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure over different types of zeolites. The results showed that MFI catalysts gave the highest yield of gasoline range products and lowest coke formation. Gallium loaded MFI zeolites increased the total aromatics yield for the canola oil cracking relative to the acid form of the zeolite. Finally, algal oils were cracked on several selected zeolites, and the results showed the same trend as canola oil cracking. MFI gave the highest gasoline yield (43.8 wt%) and lowest coke (4.7 wt%). The total aromatics yield from algae oil cracking is improved 7.8 wt% when MFI is loaded with gallium.

  13. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    M. Z. H. Khan; M. Sultana; M. R. Al-Mamun; M. R. Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330?490?C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards AS...

  14. Problems of minority fuel-oil dealers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalt, Joseph P.; Lee, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Claims that minority fuel oil dealers are hampered by severe impediments in the competition for contracts for oil, loan funds from banks, and assistance from the Federal government are explored. Possible remedial actions are recommended. The study focused on the metropolitan areas of Boston, Providence, and New York City. Following the introductory section, the evolving role of minority oil retailers in the Northeast market is reviewed in the second section. The third section examines the specific problems confronting minority dealers, including obtaining start-up capital and finding sources of supply. The fourth section addresses the problems associated with serving the inner-city markets. The fifth section introduces specific recommendations to meet the problems outlined.

  15. Maximizing the stability of pyrolysis oil/diesel fuel emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several emulsions consisting of biomass pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in diesel fuel were produced and analyzed for stability over time. An ultrasonic probe was used to generate microscopic droplets of bio-oil suspended in diesel fuel, and this emulsion was stabilized using surfactant chemicals. The most...

  16. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner. Phase 1, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Duret, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The RSB was first developed for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery steamers which fire with a single 60 MMBtu/hr burner; the California Energy Commission and Chevron USA were involved in the burner development. The burner has also since found applications in refinery and chemical plant process heaters. All Phase I goals were successfully met: the RSB achieved sub-9 ppM NOx and sub-50 ppM CO emissions using high excess air, external flue gas recirculation (FGR), and fuel staging in the 3 MMBtu/hr laboratory watertube boiler. In a test in a 50,000 lb/hr oil field steamer with fuel staging, it consistently achieved sub-20 ppM NOx and as low as 10 ppM NOx. With high CO{sub 2} casing gas in this steamer, simulating external FGR, sub-20 ppM NOx and as low as 5 ppM NOx were achieved. Burner material cost was reduced by 25% on a per Btu basis by increasing the effective surface firing rate at the burner; further reductions will occur in Phase II. The market for 30 ppM and 9 ppM low NOx burners has been identified as package boilers in the 50,000 to 250,000 lb/hr size range (the 30 ppM is for retrofit, the 9 ppM for the new boiler market). Alzeta and Babcock & Wilcox have teamed to sell both boiler retrofits and new boilers; they have identified boiler designs which use the compact flame shape of the RSB and can increase steam capacity while maintaining the same boiler footprint. Alzeta, Chevron, and B & W have teamed to identify sites to demonstrate the RSB in Phases II and III. In Phase II, the RSB will be demonstrated in a 100,000 lb/hr industrial watertube boiler.

  17. 46 CFR 196.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 196.15-55 Section 196.15-55... Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board...

  18. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97.15-55... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received on...

  19. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  20. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    lead to job creation in rural areas of the country and help stimulate the agricultural economy. Moreover, production of soybean with enhanced oil quality for biodiesel may increase the attractiveness of this renewable, environmentally friendly fuel.

  1. Microbial Deterioration of Marine Diesel Fuel from Oil Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-09

    eesar mnd Identify by block rumlber) Microbial deterioration DFM Cladosporium resinae Oil shale Synthetic fuel *QNjd&Sp. ACoal Fungi Seawater Petroleum...well in the synthetic fuel as in fuel derived from petroleum. Growth of certain strains of the fungus, Cladosporium resinae , was initially... resina ., and a yeast (Candida sp.) but no inhibition was noted with another shale oil fuel from which the nitrogen constituents ware almost completely

  2. Vanadium in fuel oil - a new solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, N. [Siemens, Muelheim (Germany); Finckh, H. [Siemens, Erlangen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Hot corrosion of the hot-gas-path components due to vanadium contamination is one of the hazards associated with heavy residual oil combustion in heavy-duty gas turbines. This economically attractive oil combustion process has benefited from the recently developed vanadium inhibition technique, which is currently being tested at the Valladolid 220 MWe combined cycle plant in Mexico. The method uses atomization of a dilute aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO{sub 7},7H{sub 2}O) into very small droplets which are then injected onto the flame where intensive mixing takes place. The successful use of this new technique promises extended operating periods between cleanup operations, and cost reductions from the use of inexpensive materials, as well as the ability to operate advanced gas turbines on difficult fuels, not previously feasible. (UK)

  3. A GUIDE TO FUEL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITZKE,W.

    2004-08-01

    Heating oil, as its name implies, is intended for end use heating consumption as its primary application. But its identity in reference name and actual chemical properties may vary based on a number of factors. By name, heating oil is sometimes referred to as gas oil, diesel, No. 2 distillate (middle distillate), or light heating oil. Kerosene, also used as a burner fuel, is a No. 1 distillate. Due to the higher heat content and competitive price in most markets, No. 2 heating oil is primarily used in modern, pressure-atomized burners. Using No. 1 oil for heating has the advantages of better cold-flow properties, lower emissions, and better storage properties. Because it is not nearly as abundant in supply, it is often markedly more expensive than No. 2 heating oil. Given the advanced, low-firing rate burners in use today, the objective is for the fuel to be compatible and achieve combustion performance at the highest achievable efficiency of the heating systems--with minimal service requirements. Among the Oil heat industry's top priorities are improving reliability and reducing service costs associated with fuel performance. Poor fuel quality, fuel degradation, and contamination can cause burner shut-downs resulting in ''no-heat'' calls. Many of these unscheduled service calls are preventable with routine inspection of the fuel and the tank. This manual focuses on No. 2 heating oil--its performance, properties, sampling and testing. Its purpose is to provide the marketer, service manager and technician with the proper guidelines for inspecting the product, maintaining good fuel quality, and the best practices for proper storage. Up-to-date information is also provided on commercially available fuel additives, their appropriate use and limitations.

  4. La pulvérisation du fuel oïl lourd par des combustibles gazeux Using Gaseous Fuels to Spray Heavy Fuel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladurelli A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour faciliter l'inflammation du fuel lourd on procède à sa pulvérisation au droit du brûleur. Deux méthodes sont généralement employées à cet effet : - La pulvérisation mécanique qui consiste à faire passer le liquide sous forte pression au travers d'orifices calibrés de petit diamètre. - La pulvérisation pneumatique qui consiste à utiliser la détente d'un fluide auxiliaire préalablement comprimé. Les fluides couramment utilisés pour cela sont l'air comprimé et la vapeur d'eau ; toutefois tous les combustibles gazeux, notamment le gaz naturel et les gaz de raffinerie, peuvent également servir de fluide de pulvérisation quand ils sont disponibles sous pression. The igniting of heavy fuel oil is facilitated by spraying it at the burner. Two methods are used as a rule: - Pressure atomization, consisting in causing the liquid to pass at high pressure through calibrated small-diameter orifices. - Twin-fluid atomization, which consists in using the expansion of a previously compressed auxiliary fluid. The fluids commonly used for the purpose are compressed air and steam. However, any gaseous fuel, particularly natural gas and the refinery gases, can be used as the spraying fluid provided it is available under pressure.

  5. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF COAL FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Hill

    2004-02-01

    The project's overall objective is to development a commercially viable dynamic signature based sensing system that is used to infer the flow rate and fineness of pulverized coal. This eighteen month effort will focus on developments required to transfer the measurement system from the laboratory to a field ready prototype system. This objective will be achieved through the completion of the laboratory development of the sensor and data algorithm followed by full scale field tests of a portable measurement system. The sensing system utilizes accelerometers attached externally to coal feeder pipes. Raw data is collected from the impingement of the coal particles as well as the acoustic noise generated from the flow and is transformed into characteristic signatures through proper calibration that are meaningful to the operator. The laboratory testing will use a portable version of the sensing system to collect signature data from a variety of flow conditions including coal flow rates, flow orientations, and coal particle characteristics. This work will be conducted at the Coal Flow Measurement Laboratory that is sponsored by EPRI and operated by Airflow Sciences. The data will be used to enhance the algorithm and neural network required to perform real time analysis of the non-specific signature data. The system will be installed at two full scale power plants to collect data in a real time operating scenario. These short term duration tests will evaluate the ability of the algorithm to accurately infer coal flow rates and determine if the measurement system can be used effectively in an active control loop for combustion diagnostics and burner balancing. At the completion of this project, prototype versions of both a portable system and a permanent installation will be available for final packaging and commercialization by one of the team members. Both types of systems will be marketed for conducting combustion diagnostics and balancing of individual flows to

  6. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler

    2004-06-01

    The project's overall objective is to develop a commercially viable dynamic signature based sensing system that is used to infer the flow rate and fineness of pulverized coal. This eighteen month effort will focus on developments required to transfer the measurement system from the laboratory to a field ready prototype system. This objective will be achieved through the completion of the laboratory development of the sensor and data algorithm followed by full scale field tests of a portable measurement system. The sensing system utilizes accelerometers attached externally to coal feeder pipes. Raw data is collected from the impingement of the coal particles as well as the acoustic noise generated from the flow and is transformed into characteristic signatures through proper calibration that are meaningful to the operator. The laboratory testing will use a portable version of the sensing system to collect signature data from a variety of flow conditions including coal flow rates, flow orientations, and coal particle characteristics. This work will be conducted at the Coal Flow Measurement Laboratory that is sponsored by EPRI and operated by Airflow Sciences. The data will be used to enhance the algorithm and neural network required to perform real time analysis of the nonspecific signature data. The system will be installed at two full scale power plants to collect data in a real time operating scenario. These short term duration tests will evaluate the ability of the algorithm to accurately infer coal flow rates and determine if the measurement system can be used effectively in an active control loop for combustion diagnostics and burner balancing. At the completion of this project, prototype versions of both a portable system and a permanent installation will be available for final packaging and commercialization by one of the team members. Both types of systems will be marketed for conducting combustion diagnostics and balancing of individual flows to

  7. Determination of Calorific Ability of Fuel Briquettes on the Basis of Oil and Oil Slimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyaeva, O. A.; Poshelyuzhnaya, E. G.; Rakhmatulina, E. M.; Zakharov, V. A.; Fisenko, T. E.

    2018-01-01

    Utilization and neutralization of oil slimes is one of important environmental problems of the oil-extracting, oil-processing and petrochemical industry. The easiest and economic way of utilization of oil slimes is their use as a part of the bricketed boiler fuel. In this work the highest calorific ability of crude oil, the oil slimes and fuel briquettes made on their basis is defined. A research problem was carrying out the technical analysis of oil fuels on the content in them analytical moisture, the cindery rest and volatiles. It is established that in comparison with oil slimes crude oil possesses bigger highest calorific ability, has smaller humidity and an ash-content. The highest calorific abilities of the boiler briquettes made of samples of crude oil, oil slimes and peat made 14 – 26 MJ/kg.

  8. LES and experimental studies of cold and reacting flow in a swirled partially remixed burner with and without fuel modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengissen, A.X.; van Kampen, J.F.; Huls, R.A.; Stoffels, Genie G.M.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; Poinsot, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    In devices where air and fuel are injected separately, combustion processes are influenced by oscillations of the air flow rate but may also be sensitive to fluctuations of the fuel flow rate entering the chamber. This paper describes a joint experimental and numerical study of the mechanisms

  9. The moment of oil burner engineering. Efficient sanitation measures in a Franconian single family household; Die Stunde der Oel-Brennwerttechnik. Effiziente Sanierungsmassnahmen im fraenkischen Einfamilienhausbestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-07-01

    In the Markt Erlbach region west of the German town of Fuerth, a honey factory and some large horticultural enterprises recently modernized their 2 MW oil-fuelled heating plant and are not prepared to convert to natural gas as this would make the investment null and void. This means that the local gas utility is short of customers and threatens not to construct a new gas supply network. This is the hour of oil-fuelled condensing burners. (orig.) [German] Was hat Heizoel mit Honig zu tun? Direkt hoffentlich nichts. Indirekt dagegen behindert der zuckersuesse Brotaufstrich die Expansionsbemuehungen des Erdgases in der Region um Markt Erlbach westlich von Fuerth. Deshalb naemlich, weil die Honigfabrik des Bezirks - und dazu einige Grossgaertnereien - erst kuerzlich ihre 2-MW-Oelheizungsanlage modernisiert hat und nun nicht gewillt ist, durch einen Wechsel auf Erdgas diese Renovierung sozusagen als Fehlinvestition abzubuchen. Dem oertlichen Gasversorger fehlen dadurch bedeutende Abnehmer. Folge: Er zeigt keine Neigung, den Oel-versorgten Landstrich ueber ein noch zu installierendes Netz zu beliefern. Damit schlaegt hier die Stunde der Oel-Brennwerttechnik. (orig.)

  10. Light and Heavy Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fuel Consumption Evaluations Using Fuel Efficient Gear Oils (FEGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    UNCLASSIFIED LIGHT AND HEAVY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION EVALUATIONS USING FUEL EFFICIENT GEAR OILS (FEGO) FINAL...HEAVY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION EVALUATIONS USING FUEL EFFICIENT GEAR OILS (FEGO) FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 477 by Adam C... subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO

  11. Performance test reports and comparison of emission characteristics of prototype liquid multifuel burners developed for US military field cooking applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzke, W.; Celebi, Y.; McDonald, R.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this project is to provide data to the U.S. Army Natick RD&E Center on the performance of three prototype burners, which have the capability of firing with multiple types of fuels (diesel and JP-8), and the conventional gasoline-fired M-2 burner. The prototype burners are intended to replace the M-2 unit currently used in food cooking appliances in the Army. The burners supplied to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the purpose of testing under this project included one M-2 unit, one M-3 prototype unit designed by Natick, one Babington prototype unit designed by Babington Engineering, and one ITR prototype designed by International Thermal Research Ltd. It should be noted, however, that after the project began, Babington Engineering provided an upgraded prototype unit for testing which replaced the unit initially provided by the Natick Center. The M-3 unit replaced the Karcher unit listed in the contract. The test procedures which were described in a Test Method Report allowed for the measurement of the concentrations of specific compounds emitted from the burners. These compounds included oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), formaldehyde, and particulate emissions. The level of smoke produced was also measured by using a Bacharach Smoke Number system (ASTM Standard D2156). A separate Performance Test Report for each burner was prepared as part of this project, and is attached as part of this report. In those reports details of the measurement techniques, instrumentation, test operating conditions, and data for each burner were included. This paper provides a summary and a comparison of the results for all burners. A brief discussion of emissions from other similar small oil combustion systems is also part of this document to provide perspective on the type of contaminants and levels expected from these systems.

  12. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  13. The recuperation of the fuel oil of the Prestige; Recuperacion del fuel oil del Prestige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remon, M. A.

    2003-07-01

    It is not lacking to remember the catastrophe of the PRESTIGE, because it has been object of the constant attention of communication media form the month of November of the year 2002. when it was produced the sinking. The purpose of this article is to deal with an aspect very concrete of this sinister, the recuperation of the fuel-oil that still remains in the sunken boat. (Author)

  14. High-performance, fuel-economy oils applying a new base oil technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zander, J.

    1981-10-01

    The necessity for energy conservation has great influence on the further development of road vehicles. Thus improvement of fuel economy is a major issue in this field. Fuel economy oils, i. e. low viscosity oils, can contribute to fuel economy by reduction of internal friction in the engine. Such engine oils must have special features, which cannot be met by conventional engine oils. Methods for evaluation and classification of fuel economy oils are worked at in Europe (CEC) and USA (ASTM). By applying a new base oil technology which makes use of an improved hydrocracking process, Shell has developed two Fuel Economy Oils, one for passenger cars, the other for commercial vehicles which entirely meet forthcoming requirements. The special properties of the XHVI (extra high viscosity index) base oil, e.g. high viscosity index and low evaporation loss make possible the manufacture of low viscosity multigrade oils with absolute shear stability and excellent overall performance. Besides the necessary engine tests (ASTM API, CCMC, inhouse-tests etc.), the new oils were evaluated in field/fleet-tests, one of which was conducted with 280 cars over 6 months, comparing the new 10 W/30 Fuel Economy Oil API SF/CC with a conventional 15 W/50 multigrade oil resulting in an average improvement of fuel economy of 3.1%. The evaluation of the 15 W/30 Fuel Economy Oil API CD for commercial vehicles in comparison to a conventional 15 W/40 engine oil showed an improvement in fuel economy of 2.6%. The statistical significance in both cases was above 99%.

  15. Effects of engine oil viscosity and composition on fuel efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clevenger, J.E.; Carlson, D.C.; Kleiser, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    A 2.3l engine dynamometer test procedure that measures the effects of engine oils on fuel efficiency has been developed that a) generally agrees with the ASTM five-car test, b) has good test repeatability and c) is capable of detecting small differences among test oils with high statistical confidence. Factors in a lubricant affecting fuel efficiency such as SAE viscosity grade, VI improver, detergent-inhibitor (DI) package and friction modifier selection were investigated in the 2.3l engine dynamometer test. A general trend of improved fuel efficiency was found with reduction in single-grade and multigrade oil viscosity. VI improver selection was found to have a significant effect on the fuel efficiency of multigrade oils. In some cases the difference in fuel efficiency among multigrade oils containing different VI improvers was about the same as the gain in fuel efficiency from reducing SAE grade from an SAE 10w-40 to an SAE 5w-30. Results show that by careful selection of the VI improver and DI package it is possible to formulate multigrade oils that exceed the requirements of the current ASTM energy-conserving engine oil classification.

  16. Application of game theory in decision making strategy: Does gas fuel industry need to kill oil based fuel industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Abdul Luky Shofi'ul; Prabandari, Dyah Lusiana; Hakim, Muhammad Lintang Islami

    2017-03-01

    Even though conversion of oil based fuel (Bahan Bakar Minyak) into gas fuel (Bahan Bakar Gas) for transportation (both land and sea) is one of the priority programs of the government of Indonesia, rules that have been established merely basic rules of gas fuel usage license for transportation, without discussing position of gas fuel related to oil based fuel in detail. This paper focus on possible strategic behavior of the key players in the oil-gas fuel conversion game, who will be impacted by the position of gas fuel as complement or substitution of oil based fuel. These players include industry of oil based fuel, industry of gas fuel, and the government. Modeling is made based on two different conditions: government plays a passive role and government plays an active role in legislating additional rules that may benefit industry of gas fuel. Results obtained under a passive government is that industry of oil based fuel need to accommodate the presence of industry of gas fuel, and industry of gas fuel does not kill/ eliminate the oil based fuel, or gas fuel serves as a complement. While in an active government, the industry of oil based fuel need to increase its negotiation spending in the first phase so that the additional rule that benefitting industry of gas fuel would not be legislated, while industry of gas fuel chooses to indifferent; however, in the last stage, gas fuel turned to be competitive or choose its role to be substitution.

  17. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%, and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%, and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

  18. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Z H; Sultana, M; Al-Mamun, M R; Hasan, M R

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330-490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

  19. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, M.; Al-Mamun, M. R.; Hasan, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. PMID:27433168

  20. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Demler

    2006-04-01

    Accurate, cost-efficient monitoring instrumentation has long been considered essential to the operation of power plants. Nonetheless, for the monitoring of coal flow, such instrumentation has been sorely lacking and technically difficult to achieve. With more than half of the electrical power in the United States currently supplied by coal, energy generated by this resource is critical to the US economy. The demand for improvement in this area has only increased as a result of the following two situations: First, deregulation has produced a heightened demand for both reduced electrical cost and improved grid connectivity. Second, environmental concerns have simultaneously resulted in a need for both increased efficiency and reduced carbon and NOx emissions. A potential approach to addressing both these needs would be improvement in the area of combustion control. This would result in a better heat rate, reduced unburned carbon in ash, and reduced NOx emissions. However, before feedback control can be implemented, the ability to monitor coal flow to the burners in real-time must be established. While there are several ''commercially available'' products for real-time coal flow measurement, power plant personnel are highly skeptical about the accuracy and longevity of these systems in their current state of development. In fact, following several demonstration projects of in-situ coal flow measurement systems in full scale utility boilers, it became obvious that there were still many unknown influences on these instruments during field applications. Due to the operational environment of the power plant, it has been difficult if not impossible to sort out what parameters could be influencing the various probe technologies. Additionally, it has been recognized for some time that little is known regarding the performance of coal flow splitters, even where rifflers are employed. Often the coal flow distribution from these splitters remains mal

  1. Pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading to renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to upgrade woody biomass pyrolysis bio-oil into transportation fuels by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation : (HDO) using nanospring (NS) supported catalyst via the following research objectives: (1) develop nanospring-based : catalysts (nan...

  2. Cottonseed oil as a diesel-engine fuel. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staph, H.E.; Staudt, J.J.

    1982-07-31

    If diesel fuel becomes unavailable for any reason, can diesel powered farm equipment function on alternate fuels from energy crops that are available on the farm. This project sought to gain some insight into this question through the use of once-refined cottonseed oil as fuel in a typical unmodified agricultural diesel engine. The engine used for test was an International Harvester Model DT-436B 6 cylinder, inline, direct injection, turbocharged engine of approximately 175 brake horsepower at 2500 rpm. The engine was run on a stationary stand using blends of reference diesel fuel (DF-2), once-refined cottonseed oil (CSO), and transesterified cottonseed oil (ESCO). The latter is cottonseed oil which has been processed to give a methyl ester instead of a glyceride. The volume percent blends of fuels used in the tests ranged from 100% DF-2, to 20/80 DF-2/CSO, 50/50 DF-2/ESCO, 50/50 CSO/ESCO, and 100% ESCO. The test procedures and results are presented in this volume. The results suggest that ESCO would probably be a satisfactory substitute for diesel fuel, but more testing is required. None of the fuels tested is a cost effective alternative to diesel fuels. ESCO presently costs four to five times as much as commercial diesel fuel.

  3. System model development for a methanol reformed 5 kW high temperature PEM fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the system performance when reforming methanol in an oil heated reformer system for a 5 kW fuel cell system. A dynamic model of the system is created and evaluated. The system is divided into 4 separate components. These components are the fuel cell, reformer, burner...... and evaporator, which are connected by two separate oil circuits, one with a burner and reformer and one with a fuel cell and evaporator. Experiments were made on the reformer and measured oil and bed temperatures are presented in multiple working points. The system is examined at loads from 0 to 5000 W electric...

  4. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  5. Large scale fuel oil production experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-08-04

    The effect of the coal throughput and the composition of the pasting oil, in particular the effect of different middle oil contents in the pasting oil, was previously tested in small scale experiments of hydrogenation of coal. Possibilities of increasing the throughput through the converter when producing heavy oil together with middle oil is shown in this work. The proper industrial detail for the production of heavy oil had to be developed first on a semi-commercial plant. The Upper Silesian coal was used to study the production of gasoline, middle oil, and heavy oil at 700 atm in a 1.6 m/sup 3/ converter and to relate the results with the small scale experiments (10-liter converter). Paste heat exchange was carried out successfully. The following experiments, among others, were carried out: mixed coals were hydrogenated to 100% gasoline plus middle oil, to 65% gasoline and middle oil and 35% heavy oil, as well as 50% gasoline and middle oil plus 50% heavy oil, in part with the usual iron catalyst combination and in part with the sulfurated Bayer mass together with the iron sulfate and sulfigran. The Heinity coal had been hydrogenated with the usual iron catalyst to 65% gasoline and middle oil plus 35% heavy oil. The important results were summarized in a table. Details of the experiments and processes used were given in 3 graphs and 42 tables.

  6. Characterization of a Treated Palm Oil Fuel Ash | Hassan | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) has been known to possess a pozzolanic property. The abundance of POFA as an agricultural waste makes it a promising candidate to be used as a supplementary cementations material in palm oil producing countries. This paper presents structural analysis and surface morphology of a treated ...

  7. Fuel properties of bituminous coal and pyrolytic oil mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Hazlin; Sharuddin, Munawar Zaman; Daud, Ahmad Rafizan Mohamad; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A.

    2014-10-01

    Investigation on the thermal decomposition kinetics of coal-biooil slurry (CBS) fuel prepared at different ratios (100:0,70:30,60:40,0:100) was conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The materials consisted of Clermont bituminous coal (Australia) and bio-oil (also known as pyrolytic oil) from the source of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) that was thermally converted by means of pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition of CBS fuel was performed in an inert atmosphere (50mL/min nitrogen) under non-isothermal conditions from room temperature to 1000°C at heating rate of 10°C/min. The apparent activation energy (Ea.) and pre-exponential factor (A) were calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrhenius-type kinetic model which first-order decomposition reaction was assumed. All kinetic parameters were tabulated based on the TG data obtained from the experiment. It was found that, the CBS fuel has higher reactivity than Clermont coal fuel during pyrolysis process, as the addition of pyrolytic oil will reduce the Ea values of the fuel. The thermal profiles of the mixtures showed potential trends that followed the characteristics of an ideal slurry fuel where high degradation rate is desirable. Among the mixture, the optimum fuel was found at the ratio of 60:40 of pyrolytic oil/coal mixtures with highest degradation rate. These findings may contribute to the development of a slurry fuel to be used in the vast existing conventional power plants.

  8. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  9. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  10. An ignition and combustion supporting burner for pulverized solid fossil fuel comprising of a combustion chamber with main burners. Bruleur d'allumage et de soutien de combustion pour combustible solide fossile pulverise, et chambre de combustion comportant de tels bruleurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.; Malaubier, F.; Mevel, J-C.

    1989-01-25

    An ignition and combustion supporting burner for pulverized solid fuel, comprising: (a) a refractory-tap-hole shaped to allow the confinement of the initial portion of the flame, (b) a conduit for feeding pulverized solid fuel into a primary oxidegas, disposed coaxially to the refractory tap-hole, (c) a first annular conduit for feeding a first portion of secondary combustive gas, equipped at its end with means for creating a turbulent flow of the combustive gas, (d) a second annular conduit for feeding a second portion of secondary combustive gas, equipped at its end with means for creating a turbulent flow of the combustive gas, (e) a conduit for feeding tertiary combustive gas, this conduit partially or entirely surrounding the tap-hole and being supplied at a rate sufficient for ensuring, complementary to the flowrates of the primary and secondary combustive gas, the total combustion of the solid fuel, (f) an ignition element disposed in the refractory tap-hole or in the axial conduit for feeding pulverized fossil fuel, characterized in that the conduit for feeding pulverized solid fuels is provided with translation mean; allowing to adjust the length of the chamber for premixing the solid fuel with the first portion of secondary combustive gas comprised between the end of this conduit and the inlet of the tap-hole, and that a flame detection device is disposed near its tap-hole.

  11. Utilization of coal-water liquid fuel mixtures in heavy fuel oil burning boiler installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuletic, V. (Rudarski Institut, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Zavod za Termotehniku)

    1989-01-01

    Describes preliminary laboratory tests carried out to assess the feasibility of a project to be organized by the Mining Institute of Belgrade on construction of a pilot semi-industrial plant to investigate substitution of heavy fuel oil used in many thermal power plants with a coal/water or coal/water/oil mix. Tests were conducted using brown coal from the Kolubara surface mine made up in three formats: coal powder/water, coal powder/fuel oil and coal powder/water/fuel oil. Thermodynamic computations were made on each mix in order to predict their effectiveness when used to fuel TE-101 and TE-106 steam generating boilers that would normally consume 1 and 5 t fuel oil per hour respectively. Results are presented in tabular form. Concludes that the coal/oil and coal/oil/water mixes could be used as a substitute fuel with only minor modifications necessary to the boilers. Recommends proceeding with pilot plant construction. 4 refs.

  12. Fuels and Petroleum, Oil & Lubricants (POL) Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuels and Lubricants Technology Team operates and maintains the Fuels and POL Labs at TARDEC. Lab experts adhere to standardized American Society for Testing and...

  13. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON DIESEL ENGINE WORKING ON A MIXTURE OF DIESEL FUEL AND FUSEL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviatoslav KRYSHTOPA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the possibility of spirit fusel oil being used as an addition to agile fuels. Results of experimental research on diesel engines working on mixtures of diesel fuel and fusel oils are given. The fuel economy and ecological indexes of engines working on mixtures of diesel fuel and fusel oils were improved.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON DIESEL ENGINE WORKING ON A MIXTURE OF DIESEL FUEL AND FUSEL OILS

    OpenAIRE

    Sviatoslav KRYSHTOPA; Liudmyla KRYSHTOPA; Vasyl MELNYK; Bohdan DOLISHNII; Igor PRUNKO; Yaroslav DEMIANCHUK

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the possibility of spirit fusel oil being used as an addition to agile fuels. Results of experimental research on diesel engines working on mixtures of diesel fuel and fusel oils are given. The fuel economy and ecological indexes of engines working on mixtures of diesel fuel and fusel oils were improved.

  15. Self-propelled oil droplets consuming "fuel" surfactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyota, Taro; Maru, Naoto; Hanczyc, Martin M

    2009-01-01

    A micrometer-sized oil droplet of 4-octylaniline containing 5 mol % of an amphiphilic catalyst exhibited a self-propelled motion, producing tiny oil droplets, in an aqueous dispersion of an amphiphilic precursor of 4-octylaniline. The tiny droplets on the surface of the self-propelled droplet were...... conveyed to the posterior surface and released to the aqueous solution. Thus the persistent movement becomes possible in this chemical system, because the processing of chemical energy to mechanical movement proceeds by consuming exogenous fuel, not consuming the oil droplet itself. The mechanism...... of the unidirectional motion is hypothesized in terms of an asymmetric interfacial tension around the surface of the oil droplet....

  16. High-Tech with a question mark. Continuous miniature oil burners fail to meet expectations; High-Tech mit Fragezeichen. Stufenlose Kleinst-Oelbrenner halten nicht, was sie versprechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, L.

    1998-11-01

    At the 1998 Frankfurt ISH, a modulated continuous oil burner for the 6-12 kW range was first presented with great promises. HAUS TECH took a new look. [Deutsch] An der vergangenen ISH in Frankfurt wurde am Stand eines Brennerherstellers ein stufenloser Oelbrenner angepriesen, der zwischen 6 und 12 kW moduliert. Es wurde versucht Interessenten davon zu ueberzeugen, dass dies exakt der Brenner sei, auf den die Fachwelt schon immer gewartet habe. Hier sei dem besagten Brennerproduzenten nun quasi ein Quantensprung geglueckt. `HAUS TECH` hat sich diesbezueglich sachkundig gemacht. (orig./MSK)

  17. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  18. Do Oil Exports Fuel Defense Spending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Nigeria is rapidly becoming one of the world’s leading oil producers. Washington has great interest in the Nigerian government’s political...oil exploration. Pollution has destroyed fisheries and agricultural lands. Economic returns from oil have largely bypassed these residents...crime, and border disputes. Military-led coups have strained relations among the civil government, the public, and military members. The Nigerian

  19. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  20. Quality Improvement of an Acid Treated Fuel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Jumoke ETERIGHO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The work on the quality improvement of fuel oil using acid treatment was carried out. The improvement of the fuel oil was done using sulphuric acid to remove contaminants. Sulphuric acid at different concentrations were mixed with the oil and kept at 45°C for four hours in the agitator vessel to allow reaction to take place. Acidic sludge was then drained off from the agitator and the oil was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. Centrifugation operation was used to extract the sulphonate dispersed in the oil. The treated and untreated oils were characterized for various properties and the results showed that the viscosity, total sulphur of fuel oil decreased from 6.0 to before 5.0 cst after acid treatment and 2.57 to 1.2225% w/w respectively while the flash point increased from 248 to 264°F. The water and sediment content increased from trace before to 0.6 after treatment. In addition, the calorific value increased from initial value of 44,368 to 44,805 and 44,715 kJ/kg at 50% and 75% conc. H2SO4 while decreasing with 85% and 90% conc. H2SO4. However, both carbon residue and ash content decreases with an increase in acid concentration.

  1. Substitution of fuel oil in the Kosjeric cement factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuletic, V.

    1985-01-01

    Results are discussed of an investigation accomplished by the Department of Thermal Technology of the Mining Institute of Belgrade in order to substitute crude oil in the process of cement production at the Kosjeric cement factory by lignite powder from the Kolubara coal mine. Data related to available and necessary coal quality and main characteristics of fuel required in cement production are given. The substitution of fuel oil by lignite powder requires coal storage, blending, crushing and the improvement or reconstruction of cement kilns and improvement of electric filters for desulfurization of smoke. It was found that fuel oil consumption may be reduced by 85% by burning lignite powder with a calorific value of 8,216 kJ/kg and moisture content of 10%. A flowsheet of the coal preparation plant necessary for the realization of this project is given. 5 references.

  2. Effect of fuel oil source on the preparation of coal-oil dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grint, A.; Veal, C.J.

    1985-08-01

    British Petroleum has devised a preparative route to stable coal-oil dispersions (COD's) which involves the fine grinding of coal in oil. This paper investigates how COD preparation and properties are affected by oil composition. COD's were prepared using a range of fuel oils from different crude sources or refineries and containing straight run or cracked components. Wide variations in sedimentation stability-milling time profiles were measured and attempts have been made to correlate these data with fuel oil analytical parameters. The tendency of the asphaltenes in the oil to flocculate is thought to be an important parameter in determining stability for a given milling time. A preliminary explanation of the observed trends is proposed. 15 references.

  3. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  4. Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace ...

  5. Evaluating potential benefits of burning lower quality fuel oils using the oil burn optimization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babilonia, P.

    1995-09-01

    As a result of a 1987 New York State Public Service Commission Audit of Niagara Mohawk`s Fuel Supply operations, Niagara Mohawk (NMPC) became interested in analyzing the plant performance impacts of burning fuels of differing qualities at its various generating stations. Black & Veatch (B&V) had previously developed a computer model for EPRI that analyzed coal quality impacts (i.e., Coal Quality Impact Model). As a result of B&V`s work, NMPC contracted with B&V to first develop custom-designed software for its coal stations (Coal Burn Optimization Model (CBOM)). Subsequently, B&V was retained to develop a similar designed software for its oil stations, Oswego and Albany Steam Stations. The Oil Burn Optimization Model (OBOM) was, therefore, developed. OBOM was designed to be used to evaluate residual fuel oil supply options by predicting their fuel-related plant operating and maintenance costs. Fuel oil-related costs can also be compared to natural gas-related costs. Costs are estimated by predicting performance of various plant equipment. Predictions focus on combustion calculations, material flows, auxiliary power, boiler efficiency, precipitator and fan performance, fuel pumping and preheating requirements, and corrosion considerations. Total costs at the busbar attributed to fuel are calculated from these predictions. OBOM is a PC-based system operating under MS-DOS. The model produces hard copy results for quick comparison of fuels and their potential effects on plant operating and maintenance costs.

  6. United States Air Force Shale Oil to Fuels. Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    There is no attempt to recover propane , and the light end hydrocarbons are taken to the fuel gas system for feed to the hydrogen plant. Part of the...shale oil charged from the high pressure hydro- treater separator. The hydrotreated shale oil charge stock is combined with the recycle hydrogen rich gas...sulfide and ammonia are steam stripped from the water. The clean water is returned to the refinery and the gas is sent to the amine treater for

  7. Diesel Fuel from Used Frying Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New conversion technologies of used edible oils and waste animal fats into a biofuel appropriate for use in standard diesel engines have been developed, taking into consideration environmental requirements and improvement in the economics of current trans-esterification technologies. The variation in the properties of substrates made from used rape oil after treatment with mixed adsorbents (active carbon, magnesium silicate was studied in this work. The obtained results are compared with the quality requirements for the substrates used in Vogel & Noot GmbH technology for transesterification of oils and fats.

  8. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2

  9. Thermal Cracking of Jatropha Oil with Hydrogen to Produce Bio-Fuel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yu Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used thermal cracking with hydrogen (HTC to produce bio-fuel oil (BFO from jatropha oil (JO and to improve its quality. We conducted HTC with different hydrogen pressures (PH2; 0–2.07 MPa or 0–300 psig, retention times (tr; 40–780 min, and set temperatures (TC; 623–683 K. By applying HTC, the oil molecules can be hydrogenated and broken down into smaller molecules. The acid value (AV, iodine value, kinematic viscosity (KV, density, and heating value (HV of the BFO produced were measured and compared with the prevailing standards for oil to assess its suitability as a substitute for fossil fuels or biofuels. The results indicate that an increase in PH2 tends to increase the AV and KV while decreasing the HV of the BFO. The BFO yield (YBFO increases with PH2 and tr. The above properties decrease with increasing TC. Upon HTC at 0.69 MPa (100 psig H2 pressure, 60 min time, and 683 K temperature, the YBFO was found to be 86 wt%. The resulting BFO possesses simulated distillation characteristics superior to those of boat oil and heavy oil while being similar to those of diesel oil. The BFO contains 15.48% light naphtha, 35.73% heavy naphtha, 21.79% light gas oil, and 27% heavy gas oil and vacuum residue. These constituents can be further refined to produce gasoline, diesel, lubricants, and other fuel products.

  10. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial

  11. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, B. [Heat-Wise, Inc., Ridge, NY (United States); Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  12. Thermally decomposed ricebran oil as a diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, O. A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricebran oil; a non edible oil, was thermally decomposed using different loads of calcium oxide as catalyst. The fuel properties of the cracked product were evaluated as compared to those of diesel fuel. The considered properties included the calorific value, flash point, viscosity, pour point, distillation characteristics, cetane number in addition to some other fuel properties. The results had shown that the fuel properties of the decomposed oil were quite similar to those of standard diesel fuel. The calorific value was 80-90% that of diesel fuel and the viscosity was sligthy higher. The prepared fuel was advantageous over diesel fuel as the former was completely free from sulfur, which on fuel combustion produces corrosive gases of sulfur oxides.

    Aceite de germen de arroz, un aceite no comestible, fue descompuesto térmicamente usando diferentes cantidades de óxido cálcico como catalizador. Las propiedades combustibles del producto craqueado fueron evaluadas comparándolas con las del gasóleo. Las propiedades consideradas incluyeron el poder calorífico, punto de inflamación, viscosidad, temperatura de fluidez crítica, características de destilación, número de cetano y otras propiedades de los combustibles. Los resultados han mostrado que las propiedades combustibles del aceite descompuesto fueron bastantes similares a la de los gasóleos estándar. El poder calorífico fue del 80-90% de la del gasóleo y la viscosidad ligeramente mayor. El combustible preparado fue ventajoso sobre el gasóleo ya que el primero estaba completamente libre de sulfuro, el cual produce en la combustión del carburante gases corrosivos de óxido de azufre.

  13. Diesel-like fuel obtained by pyrolysis of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Daniela G.; Soares, Valerio C.D.; Ribeiro, Eric B.; Cardoso, Erika C.V.; Rassi, Flavia C.; Mundim, Kleber C.; Rubim, Joel C.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, CP 4478, 70919-970 Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Carvalho, Daniel A. [CEPAT-ANP, Brasilia-DF (Brazil)

    2004-06-01

    The pyrolysis reactions of soybean, palm tree, and castor oils were studied. The pyrolytic products were analyzed by CG-FID, CG-MS, and FTIR, showing the formation of olefins, paraffins, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The adequate choice of distillation temperature (DT) ranges made it possible to isolate fuels with physical-chemical properties comparable to those specified for petroleum based fuels. The catalytic upgrading of the soybean pyrolytic fuel over HZSM-5 zeolite at 400C was also studied and has shown a partial deoxygenation of the pyrolytic products.

  14. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D.; Janke, Christopher J.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Samuel A.; Keiser, James R.; Gaston, Katherine

    2016-08-18

    Bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with six elastomer types was evaluated against the elastomer performance in neat diesel fuel, which served as the baseline. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBRs), and one type each of fluorosilicone, silicone, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, and neoprene. Specimens of each material were exposed to the liquid and gaseous phases of the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60 degrees C, and properties in the wetted and dried states were measured. Exposure to bio-oil produced significant volume expansion in the fluorocarbons, NBRs, and fluorosilicone; however, excessive swelling (over 80%) was only observed for the two fluorocarbons and two NBR grades. The polyurethane specimens were completely degraded by the bio-oil. In contrast, both silicone and SBR exhibited lower swelling levels in bio-oil compared to neat diesel fuel. The implication is that, while polyurethane and fluorocarbon may not be acceptable seal materials for bio-oils, silicone may offer a lower cost alternative.

  15. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Infrastructure Plastics with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D. [Fuels,; Janke, Christopher J. [Fuels,; Connatser, Raynella M. [Fuels,; Lewis, Samuel A. [Fuels,; Keiser, James R. [Fuels,; Gaston, Katherine [National

    2017-12-22

    Bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with 18 plastic types was evaluated using neat diesel fuel as the baseline. The plastic materials included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), POM copolymer, high density polyethylene (HDPE), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG), polythiourea (PTU), four nylon grades, and four thermosetting resins. Specimens of each material were immersed in the test fuels for a period of 16 weeks to achieve full saturation. Except for PP and HDPE, the plastic materials underwent higher volume expansion in bio-oil than in the baseline diesel (which was negligible in most cases). This volume increase corresponds to the higher polarity of the bio-oil. PPS, PET, and PTFE were unaffected by bio-oil exposure, but modest swelling (between 2 and 5%) occurred for the two acetals (POM and POM copolymer), Nylon-12, PBT, PETG, and the four resin grades. More moderate swelling (8-15%) was noted for Nylon-6, Nylon-6/6, and Nylon-11, and excessive swell (>40%) occurred for PTU. The nonpolar nature of PP and HDPE matches that of diesel, leading to higher solubility (swell) in this fuel type. The relatively low volume expansion following exposure indicates that many of the existing infrastructure plastics (excluding PTU) should be suitable for use with bio-oil.

  16. 76 FR 44506 - Petition Requesting Non-See-Through Packaging for Torch Fuel and Lamp Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... clear plastic bottle. While torch fuel and lamp oil are already subject to child- resistant packaging... Commission initiate rulemaking to require special packaging for torch fuel and lamp oil to make it impossible... we initiate rulemaking to require torch fuel and lamp oil to be ] packaged in containers that are not...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF A TREATED PALM OIL FUEL ASH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents structural analysis and surface morphology of a treated Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) ... particles. This study implies that POFA is a good candidate for various applications by ceramic industries. Keywords: POFA, Morphology, SEM, XRD, XRF .... the particles were irregular in shape and having porous texture.

  18. Cottonseed oil as a diesel-engine fuel. Part 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staph, H.E.; Staudt, J.J.

    1982-07-31

    This appendix, Volume 2 of a 2 volume report, contains the original data and the methods used to reduce the data obtained in performance tests on diesel engines fueled by diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, and mixtures of these fuels. (LCL)

  19. Combustion Characterization of Individual Bio-oil Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2015-01-01

    Single droplet combustion characteristics has been investigated for bio-oil slurries, containing biomass residue, and compared to conventional fuels for pulverized burners, such as fuel oil (start up) and wood chips (solid biomass fuel). The investigated fuels ignition delays and pyrolysis behavi...... and thereby decreased flame stability. Most promising were oil or diesel (not palm oil) containing slurries (1 and 5) with heating values in the range of 15 MJ/kg.......Single droplet combustion characteristics has been investigated for bio-oil slurries, containing biomass residue, and compared to conventional fuels for pulverized burners, such as fuel oil (start up) and wood chips (solid biomass fuel). The investigated fuels ignition delays and pyrolysis behavior...... was tested in a single particle reactor at conditions relevant for suspension firing (A: 1200 °C, 5.5 % O2; B: 1200 °C, 2.9 % O2 and C: 990 °C, 5.5 % O2). The slurries were tested to optimize the bio-oil composition for use as an alternative power plant start-up fuel. Pyrolysis times for 5 mg bio-oil samples...

  20. Electrocatalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils to chemical and fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Ho

    The present project's aim is to liquefy biomass through fast pyrolysis and then upgrade the resulting "bio-oil" to renewable fuels and chemicals by intensifying its energy content using electricity. This choice reflects three points: (a) Liquid hydrocarbons are and will long be the most practical fuels and chemical feedstocks because of their energy density (both mass and volume basis), their stability and relative ease of handling, and the well-established infrastructure for their processing, distribution and use; (b) In the U.S., the total carbon content of annually harvestable, non-food biomass is significantly less than that in a year's petroleum usage, so retention of plant-captured carbon is a priority; and (c) Modern technologies for conversion of sunlight into usable energy forms---specifically, electrical power---are already an order of magnitude more efficient than plants are at storing solar energy in chemical form. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) generates flammable gases, char, and "bio-oil", a viscous, corrosive, and highly oxygenated liquid consisting of large amounts of acetic acid and water together with hundreds of other organic compounds. With essentially the same energy density as biomass and a tendency to polymerize, this material cannot practically be stored or transported long distances. It must be upgraded by dehydration, deoxygenation, and hydrogenation to make it both chemically and energetically compatible with modern vehicles and fuels. Thus, this project seeks to develop low cost, general, scalable, robust electrocatalytic methods for reduction of bio-oil into fuels and chemicals.

  1. Direct ignition of pulverized coal. A new burner for a 600 MWe boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.P.; Malaubier, F.; Mevel, J.C.

    Operation of pulverized coal boilers requires gas or oil burners for starting up which is expensive especially in France where electricity is produced by nuclear energy and for peak hours by coal burners. A 1 MW pilot plant was developed in 1983 and an industrial 10.7 MW burner for a 600 MW boiler was built in 1985 and tested in 1986. Results are reported.

  2. Direct oxidation of waste vegetable oil in solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. F.; Kumar, R.; Thakur, S. T.; Rudnick, L. R.; Schobert, H.; Lvov, S. N.

    Solid-oxide fuel cells with ceria, ceria-Cu, and ceria-Rh anode were demonstrated to generate stable electric power with waste vegetable oil through direct oxidation of the fuel. The only pre-treatment to the fuel was a filtration to remove particulates. The performance of the fuel cell was stable over 100 h for the waste vegetable oil without dilution. The generated power was up to 0.25 W cm -2 for ceria-Rh fuel cell. This compares favorably with previously studied hydrocarbon fuels including jet fuels and Pennsylvania crude oil.

  3. Oil Price Uncertainty, Transport Fuel Demand and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Yang, Sheng; Chang, Dongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Based on the panel data of 306 cities in China from 2002 to 2012, this paper investigates China’s road transport fuel (i.e., gasoline and diesel) demand system by using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and the Quadratic AIDS (QUAIDS) models. The results indicate that own-price elasticities for different vehicle categories range from −1.215 to −0.459 (by AIDS) and from −1.399 to −0.369 (by QUAIDS). Then, this study estimates the air pollution emissions (CO, NOx and PM2.5) and public health damages from the road transport sector under different oil price shocks. Compared to the base year 2012, results show that a fuel price rise of 30% can avoid 1,147,270 tonnes of pollution emissions; besides, premature deaths and economic losses decrease by 16,149 cases and 13,817.953 million RMB yuan respectively; while based on the non-linear health effect model, the premature deaths and total economic losses decrease by 15,534 and 13,291.4 million RMB yuan respectively. Our study combines the fuel demand and health evaluation models and is the first attempt to address how oil price changes influence public health through the fuel demand system in China. Given its serious air pollution emission and substantial health damages, this paper provides important insights for policy makers in terms of persistent increasing in fuel consumption and the associated health and economic losses. PMID:28257076

  4. Oil Price Uncertainty, Transport Fuel Demand and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Yang, Sheng; Chang, Dongfeng

    2017-03-01

    Based on the panel data of 306 cities in China from 2002 to 2012, this paper investigates China's road transport fuel (i.e., gasoline and diesel) demand system by using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and the Quadratic AIDS (QUAIDS) models. The results indicate that own-priceelasticitiesfordifferentvehiclecategoriesrangefrom-1.215to-0.459(byAIDS)andfrom -1.399 to-0.369 (by QUAIDS). Then, this study estimates the air pollution emissions (CO, NOx and PM2.5) and public health damages from the road transport sector under different oil price shocks. Compared to the base year 2012, results show that a fuel price rise of 30% can avoid 1,147,270 tonnes of pollution emissions; besides, premature deaths and economic losses decrease by 16,149 cases and 13,817.953 million RMB yuan respectively; while based on the non-linear health effect model, the premature deaths and total economic losses decrease by 15,534 and 13,291.4 million RMB yuan respectively. Our study combines the fuel demand and health evaluation models and is the first attempt to address how oil price changes influence public health through the fuel demand system in China. Given its serious air pollution emission and substantial health damages, this paper provides important insights for policy makers in terms of persistent increasing in fuel consumption and the associated health and economic losses.

  5. Thermal properties and burning efficiency of crude oils and refined fuel oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Alva, Wilson Ulises Rojas; Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony

    2017-01-01

    -90% were obtained for heat fluxes of 40-50 kW/m2 for the crude oils and 80% at 30 kW/m2 for IFO 180. The heat feedback in large scale fires, however, was estimated to be about 17 kW/m2, for which the burning efficiencies were indicate that the increased heat feedback to the fuel......The thermal properties and burning efficiencies of fresh and weathered crude oils and a refined fuel oil were studied in order to improve the available input data for field ignition systems for the in-situ burning of crude oil on water. The time to ignition, surface temperature upon ignition, heat...... release rate, burning rate and burning efficiency of two fresh crude oils (DUC, a light crude and Grane, a heavy crude), one fresh refined fuel oil (IFO 180) and weathered DUC (30-40 wt% evaporated and 40 wt% evaporated with 40 vol% water) were tested. Experiments were conducted in a newly designed water...

  6. Assessment of PWR plutonium burners for nuclear energy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, A J; Shapiro, N L

    1976-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the performance and safety characteristics of PWR plutonium burners, to identify modifications to current PWR designs to enhance plutonium utilization, to study the problems of deploying plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers, and to assess current industrial capability of the design and licensing of such reactors. A plutonium burner is defined to be a reactor which utilizes plutonium as the sole fissile addition to the natural or depleted uranium which comprises the greater part of the fuel mass. The results of the study and the design analyses performed during the development of C-E's System 80 plant indicate that the use of suitably designed plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers is technically feasible.

  7. Asphaltenes in Mexican fuel oils; Asfaltenos en combustoleos mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longoria Ramirez, Rigoberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this article the main aspects in which the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has worked to contribute to the solution of problems due to the presence of asphaltenes in national fuel oils, are emphasized. The increment of these compounds, that concentrate harmful elements, in the last ten years has reached 22% by weight of the fuel oil. It is demonstrated that the quantification of asphaltenes depends on the type of solvent employed. [Espanol] En este articulo se subrayan los principales aspectos en los que el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado para contribuir a la solucion de problemas debidos a la presencia de asfaltenos en combustoleos nacionales. El incremento de estos compuestos, que concentran elementos nocivos, en los ultimos diez anos ha llegado hasta un 22% del peso del combustoleo. Se demuestra que la cuantificacion de los asfaltenos depende del tipo de solvente utilizado.

  8. Effects of Burner Configurations on the Natural Oscillation Characteristics of Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. V. Manikantachari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, effects of burner configurations on the natural oscillations of methane laminar diffusion flames under atmospheric pressure and normal gravity conditions have been studied experimentally. Three regimes of laminar diffusion flames, namely, steady, intermittent flickering and continuous flickering have been investigated. Burner configurations such as straight pipe, contoured nozzle and that having an orifice plate at the exit have been considered. All burners have the same area of cross section at the exit and same burner lip thickness. Flame height data has been extracted from direct flame video using MATLAB. Shadowgraph videos have been captured to analyze the plume width characteristics. Results show that, the oscillation characteristics of the orifice burner is significantly different from the other two burners; orifice burner produces a shorter flame and wider thermal plume width in the steady flame regime and the onset of the oscillation/flickering regimes for the orifice burner occurs at a higher fuel flow rate. In the natural flickering regime, the dominating frequency of flame flickering remains within a small range, 12.5 Hz to 15 Hz, for all the burners and for all fuel flow rates. The time-averaged flame length-scale parameters, such as the maximum and the minimum flame heights, increase with respect to the fuel flow rate, however, the difference in the maximum and the minimum flame heights remains almost constant.

  9. Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil extraction plants. Handbook. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Herstellung von Rapsoelkraftstoff in dezentralen Oelgewinnungsanlagen. Handbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ) im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing oil prices, the dependence on petroleum imports and the desire to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions, are arguments to accelerate the production and utilization of biofuels. In 2007, 3.3 million tons of biodiesel and 772,000 tons of vegetable oil were used as fuel. The technically and economically successful production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills requires a quality assurance. Specifically, the brochure under consideration reports on the following: (1) Oilseed processing; (2) Centralized oil production in Germany; (3) Design of a decentralized oil mill; (4) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized systems; (5) Quality assurance for rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills; (6) Properties of rapeseed oil fuel; (7) Quality of rapeseed oil fuel from decentralized oil mills; (8) Economic aspects of decentralized oil extraction; (9) Legal framework conditions.

  10. Bacterial degradation of heavy fuel oil in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunkel, W. (Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Helgoland (Germany, F. R.)); Dahlmann, G. (Deutsche Hydrographisches Institut, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.). Labor Suelldorf)

    1987-01-01

    By means of the glass capillary - gas chromatography method, the degradation of heavy fuel oil/Bunker C in seawater, as well as in seawater supplemented with N and P salts, could be determined. The investigations were carried out with incubation at 4 deg C and 18 deg C for varying length of time. Simultaneously the number of oil degrading bacteria and ordinary saprophytes were also determined. The greatest degradation occurs at 18 deg C with added supplements. At this treatment the numbers of oil degrading bacteria increase 10 million-fold within one week. The glass capillary - gas chromatography method also allows for quantitatively determining the decrease of individual components during the incubation. As an example, the degradation of naphthalene, of naphthalene, 1-methyl and of naphthalene, 2-methyl are presented.

  11. Esters of Sunflower oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaher, F. [National Research Center, Fats and Oils Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    2003-10-15

    An alternative fuel to solar used in diesel engines was prepared from sunflower oil. Since the oil was too viscous to be used efficiently as fuel, it was chemically modified to reduce its viscosity. Chemical modification of the oil was made by catalyzed esterification with short chain alcohols being methyl and ethyl alcohols. The modified products were then evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to diesel fuel. The fuel properties considered were viscosity, pour point, calorific value, flash point, and cetane number in addition to some other properties. In addition, the performance of a diesel engine was tested when fueled with a 50% blend of diesel oil and the oil methyl ester, and when fueled with diesel oil. The tested parameters were the brake-specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency. The results of engine testing have proved that the engine performance was best using a 50% blend of diesel oil and the oil methyl ester. The brake-specific fuel consumption using this blend was 0.24 kg/BHp compared to 0.26 kg/BHp using diesel oil. The brake thermal efficiency using that oil blend was 37.6% compared to 31% with diesel oil. (Author)

  12. Influence of top land deposits, fuel sulphur and lubricating oil viscosity on oil consumption and bore polishing in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raddatz, J.; McGeehan, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    The subject of this paper is the description of factors which cause high oil consumption and cylinder bore polishing. The investigation focused on top land deposits, the influence of fuel sulphur and the oil viscosity in a series of direct injection diesel engines of U.S. and European origin. In these diesel engine tests it was demonstrated that particularly excessive top land deposits cause high oil consumption and cylinder bore polishing. But cylinder bore polishing can also be caused by chemical corrosion when high sulphur fuels and oils of low alcalinity are used at the same time. In addition to the top land deposits and fuel sulphur factors, multigrade oils showed significant oil control advantages. The correlation between deposits and oil sulfated ash as well as between oil dispersant type and bore polishing is demonstrated and analyses of polished cylinder liners and piston deposits are presented.

  13. A review of catalytic upgrading of bio-oil to engine fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2011-01-01

    As the oil reserves are depleting the need of an alternative fuel source is becoming increasingly apparent. One prospective method for producing fuels in the future is conversion of biomass into bio-oil and then upgrading the bio-oil over a catalyst, this method is the focus of this review articl...

  14. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 3 - Technical, Commercialization, and Application Issues Associated with Harvested Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-17

    series of steam- heated drum or stack-type cookers . Cooking serves to thermally rup- ture oil cells that have survived flaking; to reduce oil viscosity...temperature fuel cell systems. SOFCo-EFS has carried out an extensive investigation of distillate fuel processing ( Jet -A, JP-8, and diesel fuels with 7

  15. Conversion of atactic polypropylene waste to fuel oil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, J.

    1981-04-01

    A stable, convenient thermal pyrolysis process was demonstrated on a large scale pilot plant. The process successfully converted high viscosity copolymer atactic polypropylene to predominantly liquid fuels which could be burned in commercial burners. Energy yield of the process was very high - in excess of 93% including gas phase heating value. Design and operating data were obtained to permit design of a commercial size atactic conversion plant. Atactic polypropylene can be cracked at temperatures around 850/sup 0/F and residence time of 5 minutes. The viscosity of the cracked product increases with decrease in time/temperature. A majority of the pyrolysis was carried out at a pressure of 50 psig. Thermal cracking of atactic polypropylene is seen to result in sigificant coke formation (0.4% to 0.8% on a weight of feed basis) although the coke levels were of an order of magnitude lower than those obtained during catalytic cracking. The discrepancy between batch and continuous test data can be atrributed to lowered heat transfer and diffusion rates. Oxidative pyrolysis is not seen as a viable commercial alternative due to a significant amount of water formation. However, introduction of controlled quantities of oxygen at lower temperatures to affect change in feedstock viscosity could be considered. It is essential to have a complete characterization of the polymer composition and structure in order to obtain useful and duplicable data because the pyrolysis products and probably the pyrolysis kinetics are affected by introduction of abnormalities into the polymer structure during polymerization. The polymer products from continuous testing contained an olefinic content of 80% or higher. This suggests that the pyrolysis products be investigated for use as olefinic raw materials. Catalytic cracking does not seem to result in any advantage over the Thermal Cracking process in terms of reaction rates or temperature of operation.

  16. Experimental plan for the fuel-oil study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.; Brown, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    An up-to-date assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is being performed by the US Department of Energy WAP Division and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Five studies form the evaluation. Major goals of the Fuel-Oil Study are to estimate the fuel oil saved by the WAP in the Northeast during the 1990 and 1991 program years, identify and quantify non-energy impacts of the WAP, assess the cost effectiveness of the WAP within this submarket, and assess factors which may cause savings and cost effectiveness to vary. The study will only analyze single-family houses in the nine states in the Northeast census region and will be carried out over two heating seasons (1990 and 1991 WAP program years). A split-winter, pre- and post-weatherization experimental design with a control group will be used. Houses will be monitored over one winter. Energy conservation measures will be installed in the weatherized houses in January of each winter by the local WAP subgrantee. One hundred twenty five weatherized houses and 75 control houses will be monitored over the 1990--1991 winter; a different set of 200 houses will be monitored over the 1991--1992 winter. The houses will be evenly distributed among 25 subgrantees. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature data will be collected for all houses. Fuel-oil delivery data will be collected for each house monitored over the 1990--1991 winter for at least a year before weatherization. The delivery data will be analyzed to determine if the accuracy of the study can be improved by collecting fuel-oil delivery data on a larger sample of houses over the 1991--1992 winter. Detailed survey information will be obtained on all the houses. This information includes descriptive details of the house and its mechanical systems, details on household size and other demographics, and occupant answers to questions regarding comfort, safety, and operation of their space-heating system and house.

  17. Quality evaluation of rapeseed oils used as engine fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Světlík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples from six reference decentralised facilities and one industrial production unit of rapeseed oils were taken for the evaluation of the influence of production processes to the properties specified in the technical standard; in the laboratories, the properties limited by the standard for rapeseed oils were determined. In addition, long-term monitoring of changes in the oxidation stability in the storage test of rapeseed oils additived in the quantities of 200, 400 and 600 mg.kg−1 of the Baynox antioxidant was started. The results confirmed that the critical points in the rapeseed oil production process consist in the contamination with ash-forming elements, such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and overall impurities. Not only in the case of hot pressing, but also in two-step cold pressing of rapeseed it is necessary to reduce the content of ash-forming elements using additional processes, such as degumming, neutralisation and whitening. The safety step consisting of filtration down to maximum particle size of 1 μm must be always in place before the oil distribution. A positive effect of the Baynox antioxidant was clearly proved. As 200 mg.kg−1 of Baynox was added, the oxidation stability value increased from 8 to 9.05 hrs immediately after the pressing with a consequent decrease to 6 hrs after 270 days. With using of addition 400 ppm Baynox decreased oxidation stability under 6 hours not until after 390 days of storage. With addition 600 ppm Baynox the oxidation stability of rapeseed oil even after 510 days of storage makes 6.5 hours. The quality monitoring brought about necessary findings and knowledge for the optimisation of the rapeseed oil production and distribution as engine fuels. In addition, it serves as an initial supporting document for the creation of the necessary quality control system.

  18. Structure of diffusion flames from a vertical burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Dan Jimenez; Jack D. Cohen; Isaac C. Grenfell; Cyle Wold

    2010-01-01

    Non-steady and turbulent flames are commonly observed to produce flame contacts with adjacent fuels during fire spread in a wide range of fuel bed depths. A stationary gas-fired burner (flame wall) was developed to begin study of flame edge variability along an analagous vertical fuel source. This flame wall is surrogate for a combustion interface at the edge of a deep...

  19. Performance of hybrid ball bearings in oil and jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Stephen M.; Pfaffenberger, Eugene E.

    1992-07-01

    A 308-size hybrid ball bearing, with ceramic balls and steel rings, was tested using a diester oil and gas turbine fuel as lubricants at several speeds and loads. Heat generation data from this test work was then correlated with the heat generation model from a widely used computer code. The ability of this hybrid split inner ring bearing design to endure thrust reversals, which are expected in many turbine applications, was demonstrated. Finally, the bearing was successfully endurance tested in JP-10 fuel for 25 hours at 7560 N axial load and 36,000 rpm. This work has successfully demonstrated the technology necessary to use fuel-lubricated hybrid bearings in limited-life gas turbine engine applications such as missiles, drones, and other unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). In addition, it has provided guidance for use in designing such bearing systems. As a result, the benefits of removing the conventional oil lubricant system, i.e., design simplification and reduced maintenance, can be realized.

  20. Comparative study on direct burning of oil shale and coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Ahmad; Al Asfar, Jamil

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study of the direct burning processes of oil shale and coal in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was done in this study using ANSYS Fluent software to solve numerically the governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and mass diffusion using finite volume method. The model was built based on an existing experimental combustion burner unit. The model was validated by comparing the theoretical results of oil shale with proved experimental results from the combustion unit. It was found that the temperature contours of the combustion process showed that the adiabatic flame temperature was 1080 K for oil shale compared with 2260 K for coal, while the obtained experimental results of temperatures at various locations of burner during the direct burning of oil shale showed that the maximum temperature reached 962 K for oil shale. These results were used in economic and environmental analysis which show that oil shale may be used as alternative fuel for coal in cement industry in Jordan.

  1. Upgrading of waste oils into transportation fuels using hydrotreating technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of organic waste continues to increase, causing severe environmental pollution. Waste valorization is currently an emerging technology that can address this problem with an extra benefit of producing a range of valued products. In this contribution, we report the current developments in hydrotreating technologies for upgrading waste oil fractions into usable transportation fuels. Particular focus is given on the catalysts selection for a general hydroprocessing technique as well as the competitive role of those catalysts in hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes.

  2. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  3. An environmentally benign soybean derived fuel as a blending stock or replacement for home heating oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrush, G; Beal, E J; Spencer, G; Wynne, J H; Lloyd, C L; Hughes, J M; Walls, C L; Hardy, D R

    2001-05-01

    The use of bio-derived materials both as fuels and/or as blending stocks becomes more attractive as the price of middle distillate fuels, especially home heating oil, continues to rise. Historically, many biomass and agricultural derived materials have been suggested. One of the most difficult problems encountered with home heating oil is that of storage stability. High maintenance costs associated with home heating oil are, in large part, because of this stability problem. In the present research, Soygold, a soybean derived fuel, was added in concentrations of 10%-20% to both a stable middle distillate fuel and an unstable home heating oil. Fuel instability in this article will be further related to the organo-nitrogen compounds present. The soy-fuel mixtures proved stable, and the addition of the soy liquid enhanced both the combustion properties, and dramatically improved the stability of the unstable home heating oil.

  4. Use of hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends as alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, M.; Atmaca, M. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Department

    2008-09-30

    Interest in vegetable oil as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines has increased during the last few decades because reserves of petroleum fuel and its derivatives are diminishing rapidly, and because they have harmful effects on the environment. Numerous vegetable oil esters have been tried as alternatives to diesel fuel. Many researchers have reported that with the use of vegetable oil ester as a fuel in diesel engiens there is a decrease in harmful exhaust emissions and engine performance that is the equivalent of diesel fuel. Several studies have found that biodiesel emits far less of the most regulated pollutants than standard diesel fuel. Decreasing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by using biodiesel contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, diminishing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and smoke density improves air quality. Essential oils that have been tested in diesel engines are soybean, sunflower, corn, safflower, cottonseed, and rapeseed, which are categorized as edible oils; however, some edible oils, such as neat hazelnut kernel oil, have not been comprehensively tested as alternative fuel in diesel engines. In this study, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was evaluated as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. Firstly, the optimum transesteri.cation reaction conditions for hazelnut kernel oil, with respect to reaction temperature, volumetric ratio of reactants, and catalyst, were investigated. Secondly, an experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running on hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel. Results showed that hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel, according to engine performance and emissions.

  5. Inedible vegetable oils and their derivatives for alternative diesel fuels in CI engines: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Soo-Young [Chungbuk National University, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The use of inedible vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increased environmental problems including the great need for edible oil as food and the reduction of biodiesel production cost, etc. Of a lot of inedible vegetable oils which can be exploited for substitute fuel as diesel fuel, seven vegetable oils, i.e., jatropha, karanja, mahua, linseed, rubber seed, cottonseed and neem oils were selected for discussion in this review paper. The application of jatropha oil as a liquid fuel for CI engine can be classified with neat jatropha oil, engine modifications such as preheating, and dual fuelling, and fuel modifications such as jatropha oil blends with other fuels, mostly with diesel fuel, biodiesel, biodiesel blends and degumming. Therefore, jatropha oil is a leading candidate for the commercialization of non-edible vegetable oils. There exists a big difference in the fuel properties of seven inedible vegetable oils and its biodiesels considered in this review. It is clear from this review that biodiesel generally causes an increase in NOx emission and a decrease in HC, CO and PM emissions compared to diesel. It was reported that a diesel engine without any modification would run successfully on a blend of 20% vegetable oil and 80% diesel fuel without damage to engine parts. This trend can be applied to the biodiesel blends even though particular biodiesel shows 40% blend. In addition, the blends of biodiesel and diesel can replace the diesel fuel up to 10% by volume for running common rail direct injection system without any durability problems. (author)

  6. Minimizing fuel and environmental costs for a variable-load power plant (co-)firing fuel oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewboonsong, W.; Kuprianov, V.I.; Chovichien, N. [School of Manufacturing Systems and Mechanical Engineering, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Thammasat Rangsit Post Office, Pathum Thani 12121 (Thailand)

    2006-12-15

    This work was aimed at modeling of major gaseous emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}) from boiler units of a power plant firing (or co-firing) fuel oil and natural gas for variable operating conditions (load and load-related variables: excess air, flue gas recirculation, etc.). The emission rate of the pollutants for the co-firing was estimated for a particular boiler using these characteristics for the burning of each fuel in the boiler on its own and taking into account energy fractions (contributions) of fuel oil and natural gas to the boiler heat input. The gaseous emissions (in terms of emission concentrations, emission rates and specific emissions) from a 200-MW boiler unit firing low-S fuel oil and from a 310-MW boiler unit firing (or co-firing) medium-S fuel oil and natural gas were estimated and compared for 50-100% unit loads based on actual fuel properties and load-related operating variables of these units. Upper limit for the energy fraction of medium-S fuel oil was determined for the 310-MW boiler unit co-firing the two fuels with the aim to meet the national emission standard for SO{sub 2}. (author)

  7. Field test of waste oil combustion and empty drum cleaning at Alexandra Fiord, NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCourt, J.; Ross, S.; Buist, I.; Morisson, J. [Ross (S.L.) Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1996-09-01

    The disposal of waste petroleum products in remote Arctic locations was discussed. Thousands of oil drums have been stockpiled and abandoned in the Canadian Arctic over the past 50 years. These drums contain various waste fuels and lubricating oils such as antifreeze and assorted solvents. The waste fuels were tested for contaminants, and it was determined that disposal by flaring was acceptable. A remediation project was carried out to dispose of this waste petroleum. At one infrequently used RCMP site, 10 people safely and cleanly disposed of 40,000 litres of waste fuel in five days, using portable flare burners. The empty fuel drums, several car batteries and the empty metal and plastic 1 qt lube oil containers were removed from the site. Oily water and sorbent pads from the clean up operation that had not passed through the burner were also removed from the site and taken south for disposal. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Fuel oil-water emulsions to reduce unburned particle emissions from boilers; Emulsiones agua en combustoleo para reducir las emisiones de particulas inquemadas en calderas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego Marin, Antonio; Ocampo Barrera, Rene; Martinez Flores, Marco Antonio; Tamayo Flores, Gustavo Adolfo; Alarcon Quiroz, Ernesto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    To diminish the problems caused by fuels in boilers such as abnormal soiling of heat interchange surfaces, decrease of thermal and combustion efficiencies and increment of pollutants it is proposed the utilization of fuel oil water emulsions. This technology process is described, its development and application in other countries is shown and mention is made of the experiences in this regard at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), as well as the perspectives this technology has in Mexico. In conclusion, the fuel oil water emulsion is an alternative that can help burning efficiently the fuel oil and so to contribute to fulfill with the limits established by the environmental regulations on pollutant emissions. The development of this technology is economical and of simple application, compared with others, such as the installation of new burners, the utilization of a commercial technology for flue gas conditioning, etcetera [Espanol] Para disminuir los problemas ocacionados por el combustoleo en las calderas como: ensuciamientos anormales de las superficies de intercambio de calor, disminucion de eficiencias termicas y de combustion e incremento de las emisiones, se propone la utilizacion de la emulsion de agua en combustoleo. Se describe el proceso de esta tecnologia, se muestra su desarrollo y aplicacion en otros paises y se mencionan las experiencias a este respecto en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), asi como las perspectivas que tiene esta tecnologia en Mexico. En conclusion, la emulsion de agua en combustoleo es una alternativa que puede ayudar a quemar eficientemente al combustoleo y asi contribuir a cumplir con los limites de emisiones que establecen normas ambientales. El desarrollo de esta tecnologia es economica y de aplicacion sencilla, comparada con otras como: la instalacion de nuevos quemadores, la utilizacion de una tecnologia comercial para acondicionar los gases de combustion, etcetera

  9. Aerosol emissions of a ship diesel engine operated with diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibel, Thorsten; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Czech, Hendryk; Harndorf, Horst; Jakobi, Gert; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Karg, Erwin; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Michalke, Bernhard; Müller, Laarnie; Orasche, Jürgen; Passig, Johannes; Radischat, Christian; Rabe, Rom; Reda, Ahmed; Rüger, Christopher; Schwemer, Theo; Sippula, Olli; Stengel, Benjamin; Sklorz, Martin; Torvela, Tiina; Weggler, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a ship diesel research engine were elaborately analysed by a large assembly of measurement techniques. Applied methods comprised of offline and online approaches, yielding averaged chemical and physical data as well as time-resolved trends of combustion by-products. The engine was driven by two different fuels, a commonly used heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a standardised diesel fuel (DF). It was operated in a standardised cycle with a duration of 2 h. Chemical characterisation of organic species and elements revealed higher concentrations as well as a larger number of detected compounds for HFO operation for both gas phase and particulate matter. A noteworthy exception was the concentration of elemental carbon, which was higher in DF exhaust aerosol. This may prove crucial for the assessment and interpretation of biological response and impact via the exposure of human lung cell cultures, which was carried out in parallel to this study. Offline and online data hinted at the fact that most organic species in the aerosol are transferred from the fuel as unburned material. This is especially distinctive at low power operation of HFO, where low volatility structures are converted to the particulate phase. The results of this study give rise to the conclusion that a mere switching to sulphur-free fuel is not sufficient as remediation measure to reduce health and environmental effects of ship emissions.

  10. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  11. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

  13. Noncatalytic biodiesel fuel production from croton megalocarpus oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafuku, G.; Mbarawa, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Tan, K.T.; Lee, K.T. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2011-11-15

    Biodiesel is currently considered as the most promising substitute for diesel fuel because of its similar properties to diesel. This study presents the use of the supercritical methanol method in the production of biodiesel from Croton megalocarpus oil. The reaction parameters such as methanol-to-oil ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were varied to obtain the optimal reaction conditions by design of experiment, specifically, response surface methodology based on three-variable central composite design with {alpha}=2. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve methyl ester yields as high as 74.91 % with reaction conditions such as 50:1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 330 C reaction temperature and a reaction period of 20 min. However, Croton-based biodiesel did not sustain higher temperatures due to decomposition of polyunsaturated methyl linoleate, which is dominant in biodiesel. Lower yields were observed when higher temperatures were used during the optimization process. The supercritical methanol method showed competitive biodiesel yields when compared with catalytic methods. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. District heating biofuel burner efficiency and energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Okoro, Oluwashola Aderemi

    2015-01-01

    District heating is an optimal system of distributing heat to residential building in a centralized location through pipeline networks. The district heating of woodchip is cost effective, improve energy efficiency, reduce gas emissions and improve energy security. The thermal efficiency and energy balance in a boiler is obtained by combustion analysis of the wood (fuel). In this report, the district heating bio fuel burner in Skien Fjernvarme is considered. The capacity of the boiler is 6MW a...

  15. Development of advanced low NOx and wide range burner for pulverized coal combustion; Bifunsumiyo choteiNOx {center_dot} waidorenjibana no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Naoto; Kimoto, Masayoshi [Central Research Institure of Electric Power Inductry, Tokyo (Japan); Kiga, Takashi; Endo, Kiyohiko [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-15

    Coal is becoming more and more important as an energy source for thermal power generation. In pulverized coal fired boilers, it is necessary to develop econometrically friendly technology for reducing NOx emission and unburned carbon in fly ash, and stable combustion technology at low flexible operation. An advanced low NOx burner (CI-{alpha} burner) has been developed, this burner is capable of reducing the NOx formation to about 30% lower than conventional burners at the same unburned carbon important to add the ability which the pulverized coal can be concentrated in the burner before ignition. In this paper, two coal particle concentrating methods are investigated for the CI-{alpha} burner. Each method can concentrate the pulverized coal particles greater than 1.5 times in the primary air nozzle. The new burner which combines this concentrating equipment with the CI-{alpha} burner offers stable combustion at 20%, on the same level as oil burners. This advanced low NOx and wide range burner (CI-{alpha} {center_dot} WR burner) has same the NOx and unburned carbon generation characteristics at the standard load as the CI-{alpha} burner and can reduce the unburned carbon in fly ash lower than the CI-{alpha} burner at low loads. (author)

  16. THE THEORETICAL CRITERIA ON THE VAPORIZATION AND COMBUSTION RATES OF EMULSIONS WATER IN HEAVY FUEL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu MOROIANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The vaporization and combustion characteristics of a heavy oil-water emulsion droplet are investigated with graphological method. The combustion graphology of fuel oils is defined as a new technical and scientific field which deals with the graphic transposition of the processes of fuels combustion development in a simulator. Thus, it is easy to establish the ignition-combustion characteristics, including the laws that govern their changes depending on the combustion conditions and fuel specifications

  17. The effects of the hydrogen addition on the HCN profiles in fuel-rich-premixed, burner-stabilized C1-C3 alkane flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepman, A. V.; Mokhov, A. V.; Levinsky, H. B.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen addition on HCN formation and consumption in fuel-rich, burnerstabilized methane, ethane and propane flames are reported. The HCN mole fraction was measured using quartz-microprobe sampling followed by direct absorption spectroscopy. Experiments were performed at equivalence

  18. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel under the Renewable Fuel...

  19. Physicochemical characterizations of nano-palm oil fuel ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajak, Mohd Azrul Abdul, E-mail: azrulrajak88@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Preparatory Centre of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Majid, Zaiton Abdul, E-mail: zaiton@kimia.fs.utm.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Ismail, Mohammad [Department of Structure and Material, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) is known as a good supplementary cementing material due to its siliceous-rich content. The application of nanotechnology in the pozzolanic materials could invent new functions in the efficiency of physical and chemical properties of materials. Thus, the present study aims to generate nano-sized POFA and characterize the physicochemical properties of nano-palm oil fuel ash (nPOFA). The nPOFA was prepared by mechanically grinding micro POFA using a high intensity ball milling for 6 hours. The physicochemical properties of nPOFA were characterized via X-Ray Fluoresence (XRF), Scanning Emission microscopy- Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The particle size of nPOFA acquired from TEM analysis was in the range of 20 nm to 90 nm, while the average crystallite size calculated from XRD diffractogram was 61.5 nm. The resulting nPOFA has a BET surface area of 145.35 m{sup 2}/g, which is more than 85% increment in surface area compared to micro-sized POFA. The morphology and elemental studies showed the presence of spherical as well as irregularly shaped and fine nPOFA particles contains with high silicon content. The presence of α-quartz as the major phase of the nPOFA was identified through XRD analysis. The study concludes that nPOFA has the potential as a supplementary cementing material due to the high silica content, high surface area and the unique behaviors of nano-structured particles.

  20. Melon oil methyl ester: an environmentally friendly fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Fasogbon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demand for energy is growing across the globe due to the direct relationship between the well-being and prosperity of people and energy usage. However, meeting this growing energy demand in a safe and environmentally friendly manner is a key challenge. To this end, methyl esters (biodiesels have been and are being widely investigated as alternatives to fossil fuels in compression ignition engines. In this study, melon (Colocynthis Citrullus Lanatus oil was used to synthesize biodiesel (methyl ester using the transesterification method in the presence of a sodium hydroxide promoter. The emissions profile of the biodiesel was investigated by setting up a single-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled CI engine connected to a TD115-hydraulic dynamometer and an Eclipse Flue Gas Analyzer (FGA with model number EGA4 flue gas analyzer. The engine was run at engine speeds of 675, 1200 and 1900rpm for biodiesel/diesel blends at 21°C on a volume basis of 0/100(B0, 10/90(B10, 20/80(B20, 30/70(B30, 40/60(B40 and 50/50(B50. The test showed a downward trend in the emissions profile of the biodiesel, with remarkable reductions of about 55% in the dangerous-carbon monoxide exhaust gas pollutant and 33.3% in the unfriendly SOX from 100% diesel to B30-biodiesel concentration. Increasing the speed from 675 to 1200 and then to 1900 rpm also afforded further reductions in CO and SOX exhaust emissions. NOX however increased marginally by 2.1% from the same 100% diesel to the B30-biodiesel composition. Based on the remarkable reduction in CO and SOX and the marginal increase in NOX as the concentration of the biodiesel increased in the blends, the study concludes that melon oil methyl ester is an environmentally friendly fuel.

  1. Numerical investigation of a novel burner to combust anode exhaust gases of SOFC stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was a numerical investigation of the efficiency of the combustion process of a novel concept burner under different operating conditions. The design of the burner was a part of the development process of a complete SOFC based system and a challenging combination of technical requirements to be fulfilled. A Computational Fluid Dynamics model of a non-premixed burner was used to simulate combustion of exhaust gases from the anode region of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stacks. The species concentrations of the exhaust gases were compared with experimental data and a satisfactory agreement of the conversion of hydrocarbons was obtained. This validates the numerical methodology and also proves applicability of the developed approach that quantitatively characterized the interaction between the exhaust gases and burner geometry for proper combustion modelling. Thus, the proposed CFD approach can be safely used for further numerical optimisation of the burner design.

  2. Laboratory measurements in a turbulent, swirling flow. [measurement of soot inside a flame-tube burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoult, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of soot inside a flame-tube burner using a special water-flushed probe are discussed. The soot is measured at a series of points at each burner, and upon occasion gaseous constitutents NO, CO, hydrocarbons, etc., were also measured. Four geometries of flame-tube burners were studied, as well as a variety of different fuels. The role of upstream geometry on the downstream pollutant formation was studied. It was found that the amount of soot formed in particularly sensitive to how aerodynamically clean the configuration of the burner is upstream of the injector swirl vanes. The effect of pressure on soot formation was also studied. It was found that beyond a certain Reynolds number, the peak amount of soot formed in the burner is constant.

  3. Flashback Avoidance in Swirling Flow Burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigueras-Zúñiga Marco Osvaldo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lean premixed combustion using swirling flows is widely used in gas turbines and combustion. Although flashback is not generally a problem with natural gas combustion, there are some reports of flashback damage with existing gas turbines, whilst hydrogen enriched fuel blends cause concerns in this area. Thus, this paper describes a practical approach to study and avoid flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential swirl burner. The flashback phenomenon is studied experimentally via the derivation of flashback limits for a variety of different geometrical conditions. A high speed camera is used to visualize the process and distinguish new patterns of avoidance. The use of a central fuel injector is shown to give substantial benefits in terms of flashback resistance. Conclusions are drawn as to mitigation technologies.

  4. Transesterified milkweed (Asclepias) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Alan Holser; Rogers Harry-O' Kurua [United States Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL (United States). Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Utilization Research

    2006-10-15

    The methyl and ethyl esters of milkweed (Asclepias) seed oil were prepared and compared to soybean esters in laboratory tests to determine biodiesel fuel performance properties. The pour points of the methyl and ethyl milkweed esters measured -6{sup o}C and -10{sup o}C, respectively, which is consistent with the high levels of unsaturation characteristic of milkweed seed oil. The oxidative stabilities measured by OSI at 100{sup o}C were between 0.8 and 4.1 h for all samples tested. The kinematic viscosities determined at 40{sup o}C by ASTM D 445 averaged 4.9 mm{sup 2}/s for milkweed methyl esters and 4.2 mm{sup 2}/s for soybean methyl esters. Lubricity values determined by ASTM D 6079 at 60{sup o}C were comparable to the corresponding soybean esters with average ball wear scar values of 118 {mu}m for milkweed methyl esters and 200 {mu}m for milkweed ethyl esters.

  5. MD 1544 - the new diesel engine oil - a tribological contribution to fuel economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolten, P.

    1984-11-01

    The type of engine oil is a major factor in the economic efficiency of diesel engine operation. A detailed description of experiments aimed at a scientific study of this influence in various engine types for a newly-developed multigrade oil (all-season oil, viscosity category SAE-15 W/40), and a comparison with a single-grade oil, is given in this report. First, the main properties of the multigrade oil with regard to its technical application are listed, (viscosity-temperature rating), followed by a diagrammatic presentation of the experiment results obtained from the test stand and a commentary on them. The experiments were: Friction loss and fuel measurements, determining the oil consumption, and engine operating experiments under practical running conditions. The results showed the advantage of using the multigrade oil for reducing fuel consumption, lowering the loss mean pressure, increasing the output potential and decreasing oil consumption.

  6. Catalytic cracking of fatty oils and fatty acids. A novel route towards bio-jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heil, Volker; Kraft, Axel; Menne, Andreas; Unger, Christoph A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Components for bio-jet fuel production can be achieved by catalytic cracking of fatty oils and fatty acids over activated carbon catalyst. At reaction temperatures of about 450 C, mainly C15- and C16-n-Alkanes that can be isomerized for jet fuel-usage are produced. They can be used for bio-kerosene after isomerization. Introducing high-oleic feedstock like HO-sunflower-oil and slightly raising the reaction temperature leads to high amounts of n-alkanes in the jet-fuel boiling range. The process proves to be very robust concerning feedstock compositions and impurities. Therefore, catalytic cracking over activated carbon is an ideal pathway to transform not only bio-based oils, but also their wastes and fatty acid-containing by-products from plant oil processing into high-quality fuel components. Using alternative catalysts leads to an enhanced production of alkylated benzenes which are indispensable for aviation jet fuel. (orig.)

  7. Effect of subsidies to fossil fuel companies on United States crude oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Down, Adrian; Lazarus, Michael; Koplow, Doug

    2017-11-01

    Countries in the G20 have committed to phase out `inefficient' fossil fuel subsidies. However, there remains a limited understanding of how subsidy removal would affect fossil fuel investment returns and production, particularly for subsidies to producers. Here, we assess the impact of major federal and state subsidies on US crude oil producers. We find that, at recent oil prices of US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new, yet-to-be-developed oil investments into profitability, potentially increasing US oil production by 17 billion barrels over the next few decades. This oil, equivalent to 6 billion tonnes of CO2, could make up as much as 20% of US oil production through 2050 under a carbon budget aimed at limiting warming to 2 °C. Our findings show that removal of tax incentives and other fossil fuel support policies could both fulfil G20 commitments and yield climate benefits.

  8. A Study of Ignition Delay of Marine Fuel Oil Containing Liquidized Waste Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki, Hashimoto; Sen-ichi, Sasaki; Nobuhiro, Baba; Research Institute, Research Center; Research Institute, Research Center; Machinery Department

    2000-01-01

    Waste plastics are recycled in many ways. One of these consists of liquidizing such plastics and using the resulting material as a component in marine fuel oils. This paper reports on a study of the combustion characteristics, including ignition delay, maximum pressure, and time to Pmax., of marine fuels containing two liquidized waste plastics affect lighter ISO-F-DMA class fuel, but does not have any noticeable affect on the combustion characteristics of the heavier class fuel, ISO-F-RME25.

  9. Model for the calculation of pressure loss through heavy fuel oil transfer pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luis Laurencio-Alfonso,

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limitations of methodologies and empirical correlations in the evaluation of simultaneous effects produced by viscous and mix strength during the transfer of fluids through pipelines, this article presents the functional relationships that describe the pressure variations for the non-Newtonian fuel oil flowrate. The experimental study was conducted based on a characterization of the rheological behavior of fuel oil and modeling for a pseudoplastic behavior. The resulting model describes temperature changes, viscous friction effects and the effects of blending flow layers; which is therefore the basis of calculation for the selection, evaluation and rationalization of transport of heavy fuel oil by pipelines.

  10. Comparative studies on the performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with neem oil and pumpkin seed oil biodiesel with and without fuel preheater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Muneeswaran; Rathinam, Thansekhar Maruthu; Viswanathan, Karthickeyan

    2018-02-01

    In the present experimental analysis, two non-edible oils namely neem oil and pumpkin seed oil were considered. They are converted into respective biodiesels namely neem oil methyl ester (B1) and pumpkin seed oil methyl ester (B2) through transesterification process and their physical and chemical properties were examined using ASTM standards. Diesel was used as a baseline fuel in Kirloskar TV1 model direct injection four stroke diesel engine. A fuel preheater was designed and fabricated to operate at various temperatures (60, 70, and 80 °C). Diesel showed higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) than biodiesel samples. Lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was obtained with diesel than B1 sample. B1 exhibited lower BSFC than B2 sample without preheating process. High preheating temperature (80 °C) results in lower fuel consumption for B1 sample. The engine emission characteristics like carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke were found lower with B1 sample than diesel and B2 except oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. In preheating of fuel, B1 sample with high preheating temperature showed lower CO, HC, and smoke emission (except NOx) than B2 sample.

  11. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0# diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fe-Al Weld Overlay and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Waterwalls in Fossil Fired Plants with Low NOx Burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regina, J.R.

    2002-02-08

    Iron-aluminum-chromium coatings were investigated to determine the best candidates for coatings of boiler tubes in Low NOx fossil fueled power plants. Ten iron-aluminum-chromium weld claddings with aluminum concentrations up to 10wt% were tested in a variety of environments to evaluate their high temperature corrosion resistance. The weld overlay claddings also contained titanium additions to investigate any beneficial effects from these ternary and quaternary alloying additions. Several High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with higher aluminum concentrations were investigated as well. Gaseous corrosion testing revealed that at least 10wt%Al is required for protection in the range of environments examined. Chromium additions were beneficial in all of the environments, but additions of titanium were beneficial only in sulfur rich atmospheres. Similar results were observed when weld claddings were in contact with corrosive slag while simultaneously, exposed to the corrosive environments. An aluminum concentration of 10wt% was required to prevent large amounts of corrosion to take place. Again chromium additions were beneficial with the greatest corrosion protection occurring for welds containing both 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr. The exposed thermal spray coatings showed either significant cracking within the coating, considerable thickness loss, or corrosion products at the coating substrate interface. Therefore, the thermal spray coatings provided the substrate very little protection. Overall, it was concluded that of the coatings studied weld overlay coatings provide superior protection in these Low NOx environments; specifically, the ternary weld composition of 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr provided the best corrosion protection in all of the environments tested.

  13. Comparison of the use of sunflower, cotton and rape seed crude oils as fuels in a compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balafoutis, A.; Melas, D.; Natsis, A.; Papadakis, G.; Papagiannopoulou, A. (Agricultural University of Athens (Greece))

    2007-07-01

    An investigation of using crude oils of sunflower, cottonseed and rapeseed origin produced in Greece as CI engine fuel has been conducted. These oils chemical and physical properties indicate a good potential as alternative diesel engine fuels. Blending and preheating of vegetable oils with conventional diesel before using them as fuels, have been proved to be effective methods to reduce engine malfunctions associated with high oil viscosity. Engine performance and respective gas emission at different load conditions were measured over the whole engine speed range. Increasing the percentage of the oil in the blends with diesel has generally indicated an increase of engine power and torque with a corresponding increase in brake specific fuel consumption. As for emission measurements, it was shown that NO and CO{sub 2} emissions were enhanced by increasing oil percentage in the blend. Comparing these three vegetable oils it was seen that in terms of power and torque output, rape oil based fuels have produced higher values than sunflower and cotton oil. As for brake specific fuel consumption, sunflower oil blends were consumed in a higher rate than blends of the other two vegetable oils. Finally, comparison of emissions has shown that NO, level was higher with sunflower oil blends. These blends produced elevated NO emission especially with the 70% blend in comparison to the 70% cotton and rape oil blends. CO{sub 2} production was higher with cotton oil, but with a minor difference from the rest of the vegetable oil fuels. (orig.)

  14. Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

    2008-02-01

    Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin.

  15. Firing in fluid beds and burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.; Lans, R. van der; Storm Pedersen, L.; Philbert Nielsen, H.; Aslaug Hansen, L.; Lin, W.; Johnsson, J.E.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1998-02-01

    An investigation of the effect of co-firing straw and pulverized coal was performed. Based on experiments from pilot-scale and full-scale it was concluded that a higher fraction of straw in the fuel feedstock mixture results in lower NO and SO{sub 2} emissions. The lower NO emission was mainly due to the higher volatile content of the straw, which leads to lower stoichiometry in the gas phase and in subsequent suppression of NO{sub x} formation. This conclusion is consistent with experimental and modeling results for pure coal combustion. The effect of coal quality on NO emissions has been investigated with three coals of different characteristics in three furnaces: in the Funen power station, unit 7 (FVO7), the Midtkraft Studstrup power station, unit 4 (MKS4), and the Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd (MBEL) test-rig. The MBEL test-rig was able to reproduce qualitatively the emissions from the MKS4 plant, and quantitatively the emissions from the FVO7 plant. The better agreement between the MBEL test-rig and FVO7 is presumed to be related to the existence of a large primary zone with a relatively low stoichiometry, diminishing the influence of near burner air and fuel mixing rate on the NO emissions. An engineering model has been developed for the prediction of NO emissions and burnout from pulverized fuel combustion in swirl burners. A simplified model for reduction of N{sub 2}O in CFBC has been developed, and simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from a 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler. (EG) EFP-94. 108 refs.

  16. Ecothal burner development; Ecothal braennarutveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, Thomas [KANTHAL AB, Hallstahammar (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    A SER burner system with catalytic cleaning have been optimised for an outer tube OD 100-115 mm. The aim has been to develop a burner with an emission of nitrogen oxides below 50 ppm and an efficiency higher than 80%. An optimised burner system have been realised but will not be stable enough for commercialisation. In order to fullfill the requirements it have to be regulated with closed loop oxygen sensor system regulating the air/gas supply (Lambda-value). Practically it is possible to reach 200-300 ppm nitrogen oxide with an efficiency around 70-80%. Following work have to focus on how to improve the stability considering geometrical changes when in operation but also towards accomodation of production tolerances and fluctuations in gas supply systems.

  17. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  18. Evaluation of fuel economy differences on a 1978 Volvo for two different motor oils. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninga, T.J.; Lawrence, D.

    1980-11-01

    This report presents the results which were gathered to determine the fuel economy difference between a low viscosity multigrade, synthetic motor oil and a straight 30 weight motor oil. The test vehicle was a 1978 Volvo which was modified to give consistent vehicle emissions and fuel economy. The car was tested with each oil at ambient temperatures of 40 degrees F, 75 degrees F and 90 degrees F. The low viscosity synthetic showed no improvement on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) at 40 degrees F and 90 degrees F and a .74% increase in fuel economy for the 75 degrees F tests. The Highway Fuel Economy Tests (HFET) showed a 2.13% increase at 40 degrees F, 2.48% increase at 75 degrees F, and 2.71% at 90 degrees F for the low viscosity synthetic multigrade oil.

  19. 76 FR 49525 - Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... procedures and practices have essentially relied on fuels and oils grade or brand designations that were... experience with these projects. Therefore, the final AC does not contain guidance on these new and novel...

  20. Processing Of Neem And Jatropha Methyl Esters -Alternative Fuels From Vegetable Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, S.; Manavalan, S.; Gnanavel, C.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2017-03-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine. This paper deals with the manufacturing process of Biodiesel from jatropha and neem oil. Biodiesel was prepared from neem oil and jatropha oil, the transestrified having kinematic viscosity of 3 & 2.6 centistokes, methanol ratio is 6:1 & 5.1respectively. The secondary solution is preheated at 65 C & 60 C and reaction temperature is maintained at 60C & 55 C and reaction time is 60 minutes approximately with NaOH catalyst and low viscosity oil is allowed to settle 24 hours. The average yield of neem and jatropha methyl esters was about 85%. These methyl esters shows excellent alternative under optimum condition for fossil fuels.

  1. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  2. Numerical simulation of porous burners and hole plate surface burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Stevan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to the free flame burners the porous medium burners, especially those with flame stabilization within the porous material, are characterized by a reduction of the combustion zone temperatures and high combustion efficiency, so that emissions of pollutants are minimized. In the paper the finite-volume numerical tool for calculations of the non-isothermal laminar steady-state flow, with chemical reactions in laminar gas flow as well as within porous media is presented. For the porous regions the momentum and energy equations have appropriate corrections. In the momentum equations for the porous region an additional pressure drop has to be considered, which depends on the properties of the porous medium. For the heat transfer within the porous matrix description a heterogeneous model is considered. It treats the solid and gas phase separately, but the phases are coupled via a convective heat exchange term. For the modeling of the reaction of the methane laminar combustion the chemical reaction scheme with 164 reactions and 20 chemical species was used. The proposed numerical tool is applied for the analyses of the combustion and heat transfer processes which take place in porous and surface burners. The numerical experiments are accomplished for different powers of the porous and surface burners, as well as for different heat conductivity character is tics of the porous regions.

  3. Fuel oil combustion with low production of nitrogen oxides; Combustion de combustoleo con baja produccion de oxidos de nitrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalera Campoverde, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    This work presents the results of the theoretical-experimental study of the effects of the secondary air jet directed perpendicularly to the flame axis in the fuel oil combustion in a 500 Kw furnace. The main purpose of this study was to obtain low nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions without increasing the CO, which is observed in low NO{sub x} conventional burners. The experimental results showed a significative reduction of the NO{sub x} and of the CO, from 320 to 90 ppm and from 50 ppm to negligible values, respectively. A commercial computational code of fluid dynamics was employed for modeling the combustion in base line conditions, without secondary air and with the injection of secondary air. The experimental results were compared with calculated ones. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio teorico experimental de los efectos de los chorro de aire secundario dirigidos en forma perpendicular al eje de la flama en la combustion del combustoleo en un horno de 500 kW. El proposito principal del estudio fue obtener bajas emisiones de oxidos de nitrogeno (NO{sub x}) sin incrementar el CO, lo cual se observa en quemadores convencionales de bajo NO{sub x}. Los resultados experimentales demostraron una reduccion significativa del NO{sub x} y del CO: de 320 a 90 ppm y de 50 ppm a valores despreciables, respectivamente. Se empleo un codigo computacional comercial de dinamica de fluidos para modelar la combustion en condiciones de linea base, sin aire secundario, y con la inyeccion del aire secundario. Se comparan resultados experimentales con los calculados.

  4. Durability Properties of Palm Oil Fuel Ash Self Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ofuyatan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Self Compacting Concrete (SCC is a new innovation in technology that can flow readily into place under its own self weight and fill corner areas of reinforcement structures without the need to vibrate and without segregation of its constitute. The problem of durability of concrete structures due to inadequate compaction by skilled workers has become a source of concern globally. The shortage of skilled manpower, noise and vibration of equipment on construction sites has led to the development of self compacting concrete. This paper presents an experimental study on the durability properties of Self Compacting Concrete with partial placement of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA. Twelve POFA self-compacting concretes of various strength grades were designed at varying percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%. The concrete with no placement of ash served as control. Conplast SP432MS was used as superplasticiser in the mix. The experiments are carried out by adopting a water-powder ratio of 0.36. Workability of the fresh concrete is determined by using tests such as: slump flow, T50, V-funnel and L-Box tests. The durability of concrete is tested by acid resistance, sulphate attack and saturated water absorption at the age of 14, 28, 56 and 90 days.

  5. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  6. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles titania from alcohol burner calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supan Yodyingyong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles from integrating sol-gel with flame-based techniques were studied. The synthesized nanoparticles properties were compared after using methanol, ethanol, and propanol fuel sources. The synthesized TiO2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, thermal analysis (thermogravimetric analysis, TGA, and differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and surface area Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET method. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated by measuring the degradation of methylene blue. It was found that methanol and ethanol burners can be used as an alternative furnace that can yield TiO2 nanoparticles with physicochemical properties comparable to that of commercial TiO2 nanoparticles, while a propanol burner cannot be used as an alternative fuel.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  8. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  9. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  10. Aviation Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oils. Part 3. Laboratory Sample Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    OF temperature, degrees Fahrenheit FCC fluid catalytic cracker or cracking FOE fuel oil equivalent gm gram Hg mercury Hr hour IBP initial boiling...DILUENT PREPARATION - BLENDED GAS OIL/BITUMEN CRACKING RESULTS.........8 3. DILUENT PREPARATION HYDROTREATING SUMMARY..................10 4. LOOP 1...18 10. LOOP 2 HYDROTREATER RESULTS SUMMARY. .......... 19 11. DIOLEFIN SATURATION - HYDROTREATMENT OF THE LIGHT NAPHTHA ........... 23 12. JP-8

  11. Methanol-unleaded gasoline blends containing fusel oil fraction as spark ignition engine fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer, A.; Aksoy, H.A. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1997-07-01

    In the search for fuel alternatives for spark ignition engines, alcohol-gasoline blends draw considerable attention. For a successful application of gasoline-methanol mixtures as motor fuel, the realization of a stable homogeneous liquid phase is one of the major problems. In this work, phase separation problems of methanol-gasoline mixtures, which were prepared by adding 15% methanol to unleaded gasoline, were solved by using a fusel oil fraction as the new blending agent. The stable fuel alternatives thus prepared were then tested for fuel properties and performance in the engine, and fuel alternatives for the spark ignition engines were proposed.

  12. Effect of worldwide oil price fluctuations on biomass fuel use and child respiratory health: evidence from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Fried, Brian J

    2011-09-01

    We examined the effect of worldwide oil price fluctuations on household fuel use and child respiratory health in Guatemala. We regressed measures of household fuel use and child respiratory health on the average worldwide oil price and a rich set of covariates. We leveraged variation in oil prices over the 6-month period of the survey to identify associations between fuel prices, fuel choice, and child respiratory outcomes. A $1 (3.4% point) increase in worldwide fuel prices was associated with a 2.8% point decrease in liquid propane gasoline use (P oil prices and the fuel choice indicators was largest for households in the middle of the income distribution. Fluctuations in worldwide fuel prices affected household fuel use and, consequently, child health. Policies to help households tide over fuel price shocks or reduce pollution from biomass sources would confer positive health benefits. Such policies would be most effective if they targeted both poor and middle-income households.

  13. Burners. The decrease of nitrogen oxides in combustion process: the 2 nd generation GR LONOxFLAM burner; Les bruleurs, la reduction des oxydes d`azote dans la combustion: bruleur GR LONOxFLAM de 2. generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.C. [EGCI Pillard, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Pillard company has developed, in cooperation with GDF (the French national gas utility), the GR-LONOxFLAM burner concept for reducing NOx emission levels and solid combustion products. The concept consists, for gaseous fuels, in the combination of an internal recirculation and a gas staging process; for liquid fuels, a separated flame process and air staging are combined. These concepts allow for an important reduction in NOx and non-burned residues, even with standard-size burners

  14. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an

  15. Combustion Characteristics of Butane Porous Burner for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the utilization of a porous burner for thermoelectric power generation. The porous burner was tested with butane gas using two sets of configurations: single layer porcelain and a stacked-up double layer alumina and porcelain. Six PbSnTe thermoelectric (TE modules with a total area of 54 cm2 were attached to the wall of the burner. Fins were also added to the cold side of the TE modules. Fuel-air equivalence ratio was varied between the blowoff and flashback limit and the corresponding temperature, current-voltage, and emissions were recorded. The stacked-up double layer negatively affected the combustion efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.20 to 0.42, but single layer porcelain shows diminishing trend in the equivalence ratio of 0.60 to 0.90. The surface temperature of a stacked-up porous media is considerably higher than the single layer. Carbon monoxide emission is independent for both porous media configurations, but moderate reduction was recorded for single layer porcelain at lean fuel-air equivalence ratio. Nitrogen oxides is insensitive in the lean fuel-air equivalence ratio for both configurations, even though slight reduction was observed in the rich region for single layer porcelain. Power output was found to be highly dependent on the temperature gradient.

  16. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate design of vegetable oil fuels for agricultural equipment; Klimadesign von Pflanzenoelkraftstoffen fuer landwirtschaftliche Maschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehr, Michael [B.A.U.M. Consult GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). International and Energy Projects; Pickel, Peter [John Deere European Technology Innovation Center, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The use of biofuels in agricultural machinery is an option for complying with climate protection requirements that are presently discussed to be placed on manufacturers of mobile off-road machinery by the European Commission. A mathematical model has been developed that allows calculating greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) of biofuels for complex production paths in a straightforward, transparent manner and in pattern with the EU's Fuel Quality Directive (FQD). Therewith it has been shown that both rape seed and camelina sativa oil fuels can save more than 60 % GHGE. Key parameters have been identified and rules for a climate design of vegetable oil fuels have been formulated. (orig.)

  18. Preliminary Investigation for Engine Performance by Using Tire-Derived Pyrolysis Oil-Diesel Blended Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiqul, Islam M.; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Alam, Beg R.; Takai, Kazunori

    In the first phase of the present study, the pyrolysis oil derived from light automotive tire waste has been characterized including fuel properties, elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and distillation. The studies on the oil show that it can be used as liquid fuel with a gross calorific value (GCV) of 42.00 MJ/kg and empirical formula of CH1.27O0.025N0.006. In the second phase of the investigation, the performance of a diesel engine was studied blending the pyrolysis oil with diesel fuel in different ratios. The experimental results show that the bsfc of pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels slightly increases and hence the brake thermal efficiency decreases compared to those of neat diesel. The pyrolysis oil-diesel blends show lower carbon monoxide (CO) emission but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions than those of neat diesel. However, NOx emissions with pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels reduced when EGR was applied.

  19. Production and Testing of Coconut Oil Biodiesel Fuel and its Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J ALAMU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have successfully worked on generating energy from different alternative sources including solar and biological sources such as the conversion of trapped energy from sunlight to electricity and conversion of some renewable agricultural products to fuel. This work considers the use of coconut oil for the production of alternative renewable and environmental friendly biodiesel fuel as an alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Test quantities of coconut oil biodiesel were produced through transesterification reaction using 100g coconut oil, 20.0% ethanol (wt% coconut oil, 0.8% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 65°C reaction temperature and 120 min. reaction time. The experiment was carried out three times and average results evaluated. Low yield of the biodiesel (10.4% was obtained. The coconut oil biodiesel produced was subsequently blended with petroleum diesel and characterized as alternative diesel fuel through some ASTM standard fuel tests. The products were further evaluated by comparing specific gravity and viscosity of the biodiesel blend, the raw coconut oil and conventional petroleum diesel.

  20. Detection of unburned fuel as contaminant in engine oil by a gas microsensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Simonetta; Zuppa, Marzia; Presicce, Dominique S.; Epifani, Mauro; Francioso, Luca; Siciliano, Pietro; Distante, C.

    2007-05-01

    We developed a novel method to detect the presence of unburned diesel fuel in used diesel fuel engine oil. The method is based on the use of an array of different gas microsensors based on metal oxide thin films deposited by sol-gel technique on Si substrates. The sensor array, exposed to the volatile chemical species of different diesel fuel engine oil samples contaminated in different percentages by diesel fuel, resulted to be appreciable sensitive to them. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self-Organizing Map (SOM) applied to the sensor response data-set gave a first proof of the sensor array ability to discriminate among the different diesel fuel diluted lubricating oils. Moreover, in order to get information about the headspace composition of the diesel fuel-contaminated engine oils used for gas-sensing tests, we analyzed the engine oil samples by Static Headspace Solid Phase Micro Extraction/Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (SHS-SPME/ GC/MS).

  1. Comparison of heat transfer and soil impacts of air curtain burner burning and slash pile burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woongsoon Jang; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Han-Sup Han

    2017-01-01

    We measured soil heating and subsequent changes in soil properties between two forest residue disposal methods: slash pile burning (SPB) and air curtain burner (ACB). The ACB consumes fuels more efficiently and safely via blowing air into a burning container. Five burning trials with different fuel sizes were implemented in northern California, USA. Soil temperature...

  2. Upgrading biomass pyrolysis bio-oil to renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis is a process that can convert woody biomass to a crude bio-oil (pyrolysis oil). However, some of these compounds : contribute to bio-oil shelf life instability and difficulty in refining. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the bio-o...

  3. Residential fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuel, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report details progress made in improving the performance of No. 2 heating oil in residential applications. Previous research in this area is documented in papers published in the Brookhaven Oil Heat Technology Conference Proceedings in 1993, 1994 and 1996. By way of review we have investigated a number of variables in the search for improved fuel system performance. These include the effect of various additives designed to address stability, dispersion, biotics, corrosion and reaction with metals. We have also investigated delivery methods, filtration, piping arrangements and the influence of storage tank size and location. As a result of this work Santa Fuel Inc. in conjunction with Mobile Oil Corporation have identified an additive package which shows strong evidence of dramatically reducing the occurrence of fuel system failures in residential oil burners. In a broad market roll-out of the additized product we have experienced a 29% reduction in fuel related service calls when comparing the 5 months ending January 1997 to the same period ending January 1996.

  4. Waste Vegetable Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    gallon. Taxation of Alternative Fuels DESC includes the federal excise tax in its costs because the federal government is not exempt from taxation of...vehicle, or any internal combustion engine fuel tank (Helber, 2007). DESC pays the federal excise Tax to the government when it refines the fuel...Quarterly Federal Excise Tax Return. Just like petro-diesel refiners, the alternative fuel refiner is responsible to pay the tax. The IRS makes no

  5. Reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) production in a liquid fuel-oil diffusion flame by acoustic excitation; Reduction de la production des oxydes d`azote (NO{sub x}) dans une flamme de diffusion a fioul liquide par excitation acoustique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabroy, O.; Haile, E.; Veynante, D.; Lacas, F.; Candel, S. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1996-12-31

    The control of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions will become a major challenge in the forthcoming years, in the domain of automotive industry or industrial burners. Pulsed combustion offers an imaginative solution which does not affect the combustion efficiency. In this paper, the efficiency of this method is demonstrated using the burner of a 20 kW domestic boiler. The actuator is simply installed on the air intake. Two types of actuators have been tested successfully: a loudspeaker and a rotative valve. Both can produce 100 to 1000 Hz frequencies and can lead to a reduction of 20% of NO{sub x} emissions. The feasibility of the concept is also demonstrated on a 840 kW liquid fuel-oil burner. The mechanisms involved during an excitation are explained using the CH{sup *} radical imaging. Results show an important reorganization of the flow and of the flame structure. During each excitation cycle, an annular swirl occurs at the leading edge of the flame catching and develops during downflow convection. These results give precious information on this new concept of nitrogen oxides reduction using acoustic excitation. (J.S.) 18 refs.

  6. Relative bioavailability and toxicity of fuel oils leaking from World War II shipwrecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Daling, Per; Altin, Dag; Dolva, Hilde; Fosbæk, Bjørn; Bergstrøm, Rune

    2015-05-15

    The Norwegian Authorities have classified 30 WWII shipwrecks to have a considerable potential for pollution to the environment, based on the location and condition of the wreck and the types and amount of fuel. Oil thus far has been removed from eight of these shipwrecks. The water accommodated fractions of oils from two British wrecks and two German wrecks have been studied with special emphasis on chemistry and biological effects (algae growth (Skeletonema costatum) and copepod mortality (Calanus finmarchicus)). Chemical analyses were also performed on three additional German wreck oils. The results from these studies show that the coal based oils from German WWII shipwrecks have higher toxicity to marine organisms than the mineral oils from the British shipwrecks. The potential for higher impact on the marine environment of coal based oils has resulted in an altering of the priority list for oil recovery from WWII wrecks by the authorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polypropylene oil as fuel for solid oxide fuel cell with samarium doped-ceria (SDC)-carbonate as electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, R. J. E.; Rahmawati, F.; Prameswari, A. P.; Saktian, R.

    2017-03-01

    The research focusses on converting polypropylene oil as pyrolysis product of polypropylene plastic into an electricity. The converter was a direct liquid fuel-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with cerium oxide based material as electrolyte. The polypropylene vapor flowed into fuel cell, in the anode side and undergo oxidation reaction, meanwhile, the Oxygen in atmosphere reduced into oxygen ion at cathode. The fuel cell test was conducted at 400 - 600 °C. According to GC-MS analysis, the polypropylene oil consist of C8 to C27 hydrocarbon chain. The XRD analysis result shows that Na2CO3 did not change the crystal structure of SDC even increases the electrical conductivity. The maximum power density is 0.079 mW.cm-2 at 773 K. The open circuite voltage is 0.77 volt. Chemical stability test by analysing the single cell at before and after fuel cell test found that ionic migration occured during fuel cell operation. It is supported by the change of elemental composition in the point position of electrolyte and at the electrolyte-electrode interface

  8. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... comment on EPA's analyses of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel under...

  9. Removing heavy fuel oil from the submerged wreck of the Jacob Luckenbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffatt, C. [PCCI Inc./GPC, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Beaver, T. [Global Diving and Salvage Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Snyder, B. [PCCI Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The Jacob Luckenbach cargo carrier sank in July 1953 just west of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California after being struck by another vessel. It was carrying a cargo of military vehicles and railroad parts and was topped with heavy No.6 residual oil in deep and double bottom tanks. In 2002, the sunken ship was named as the source of mystery oil spills along the California coast. In response, the United States Coast Guard contracted Titan Maritime LLC and PCCI Inc. to conduct a vessel assessment and removal available oil. Diving services were provided by Seattle-based Global Diving and Salvage. The recovery operation proved difficult due to cold-water saturation diving at depths to 55 metres, strong currents, bad weather and poor subsea visibility. Pumping the heavy residual oil from the tanks also proved to be difficult because some tanks contained oil that was much more viscous than normal No.6 fuel oil, and the tanks had to be heated to more than 78 degrees C to allow for better fluid flow. Some of the abnormal differences in fuel oil rheologies were described along with the tools used to find and recover the oil and to minimize leaks in the wreck. The project, although more difficult than expected, was successful in removing all accessible oil and mitigating the potential for a catastrophic oil release. More than 460 metric tons of heavy fuel oil and emulsified water-in-oil product was removed from the wreck. One of the most important lessons learned was that cohesiveness and a united front are very much needed when a diverse group of salvage personnel are brought together. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  10. Utilization of waste cooking oil as an alternative fuel for Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ridvan; Ulusoy, Yahya

    2017-04-03

    This study is based on three essential considerations concerning biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil: diesel engine emissions of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil, its potential in Turkey, and policies of the Turkish government about environmentally friendly alternative fuels. Emission tests have been realized with 35.8 kW, four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel tractor engine. Test results are compared with Euro non-road emission standards for diesel fuel and five different blends of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The results of the experimental study show that the best blends are B10 and B20 as they show the lowest emission level. The other dimensions of the study include potential analysis of waste cooking oil as diesel fuels, referring to fuel price policies applied in the past, and proposed future policies about the same issues. It was also outlined some conclusions and recommendations in connection with recycling of waste oils as alternative fuels.

  11. Experimental investigation on fuel properties of biodiesel prepared from cottonseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payl, Ashish Naha; Mashud, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    In recent time's world's energy demands are satisfied by coal, natural gas as well as petroleum though the prices of these are escalating. If this continues, global recession is unavoidable and diminution of world reserve accelerates undoubtedly. Recently, Biodiesel is found to be more sustainable, non-toxic and energy efficient alternative which is also biodegradable. The use of biofuels in compression ignition engines is now a contemplation attention in place of petrochemicals. In view of this, cottonseed oil is quite a favorable candidate as an alternative fuel. The present study covers the various aspects of biodiesels fuel prepared from cottonseed oil. In this work Biodiesel was prepared from cottonseed oil through transesterification process with methanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters, kinematic viscosity, flash point, density, calorific value, boiling point etc. were evaluated and discussed in the light of Conventional Diesel Fuel. The properties of biodiesel produced from cotton seed oil are quite close to that of diesel except from flash point. And so the methyl esters of cottonseed oil can be used in existing diesel engines without any modifications.

  12. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  13. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine operated with fuel blends derived from a mixture of Pakistani waste tyre oil and waste soybean oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Hussain, Mazhar

    2017-10-18

    The waste tyre and waste cooking oils have a great potential to be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. The aim of this study was to convert light fractions of pyrolysis oil derived from Pakistani waste vehicle tyres and waste soybean oil methyl esters into valuable fuel and to reduce waste disposal-associated environmental problems. In this study, the waste tyre pyrolysis liquid (light fraction) was collected from commercial tyre pyrolysis plant and biodiesel was prepared from waste soybean oil. The fuel blends (FMWO10, FMWO20, FMWO30, FMWO40 and FMWO50) were prepared from a 30:70 mixture of waste tyre pyrolysis liquid and waste soybean oil methyl esters with different proportions of mineral diesel. The mixture was named as the fuel mixture of waste oils (FMWO). FT-IR analysis of the fuel mixture was carried out using ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine were carried out with various FMWO blends. It was observed that the engine fuel consumption was marginally increased and brake thermal efficiency was marginally decreased with FMWO fuel blends. FMWO10 has shown lowest NOx emissions among all the fuel blends tested. In addition, HC, CO and smoke emissions were noticeably decreased by 3.1-15.6%, 16.5-33.2%, and 1.8-4.5%, respectively, in comparison to diesel fuel, thereby qualifying the blends to be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

  14. Prospects of pyrolysis oil from plastic waste as fuel for diesel engines: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangesh, V. L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Ganesan, S.; PrabhudevRahul, D.; Reddy, T. Dinesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The purpose ofthis study is to review the existing literature about chemical recycling of plastic waste and its potential as fuel for diesel engines. This is a review covering on the field of converting waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuels for diesel engines. Disposal and recycling of waste plastics have become an incremental problem and environmental threat with increasing demand for plastics. One of the effective measures is by converting waste plastic into combustible hydrocarbon liquid as an alternative fuel for running diesel engines. Continued research efforts have been taken by researchers to convert waste plastic in to combustible pyrolysis oil as alternate fuel for diesel engines. An existing literature focuses on the study of chemical structure of the waste plastic pyrolysis compared with diesel oil. Converting waste plastics into fuel oil by different catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis process also reviewed in this paper. The methodology with subsequent hydro treating and hydrocracking of waste plastic pyrolysis oil can reduce unsaturated hydrocarbon bonds which would improve the combustion performance in diesel engines as an alternate fuel.

  15. Co-Firing of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil and Heavy Fuel Oil in a 300-kWth Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhn-Shyurng Hou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions of burning fast pyrolysis bio-oil/heavy fuel oil (HFO blends in a 300-kWth furnace are investigated. Lauan (shorea wood is used as biomass feedstock for making bio-oil via a fast pyrolysis process. The bio-oil has high viscosity, high water and oxygen content, as well as a low heating value. A furnace test is conducted for pure HFO and bio-oil/HFO blends with various mixing ratios. The results show that instability occurs during the test for cases with more than 5% bio-oil in the emulsion. Notably, it is verified that burning a bio-oil/HFO blend with a 2.5% bio-oil and a 97.5% HFO exhibits similar furnace performance and has lower NO and SO2 emission levels as compared to burning pure HFO. The reductions of NO and SO2 emissions are 2.6% and 7.9% for this blend, respectively.

  16. Military Fuels Refined from Paraho-II Shale Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Laboratories showed that growth of Cladosporium resinae was supported by the shale-derived JP-5 and DFM. 1t The performances of shale fuels in a turbine...27 11 Corrosion Tendencies of Shale Fuels ............................. 28 12 Growth Rating of Cladosporium Resinae in Tubes After Days of...screw cap test tubes and overlayed with 3 ml of the test fuel. Each tube was inoculated with one drop of a spore suspension of Cladosporium resinae , QM

  17. The comparison of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of sesame oil-diesel fuel mixture with diesel fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Bulut, Huesamettin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osmanbey Campus, Harran University, 63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. In this study, a blend of 50% sesame oil and 50% diesel fuel was used as an alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power and torque of the mixture of sesame oil-diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that blend of sesame oil and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and also it is an environmental friendly fuel in terms of emission parameters. (author)

  18. Development of combined low-emissions burner devices for low-power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu. V.; Khokhlov, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Low-power water boilers are widely used for autonomous heat supply in various industries. Firetube and water-tube boilers of domestic and foreign manufacturers are widely represented on the Russian market. However, even Russian boilers are supplied with licensed foreign burner devices, which reduce their competitiveness and complicate operating conditions. A task of developing efficient domestic low-emissions burner devices for low-power boilers is quite acute. A characteristic property of ignition and fuel combustion in such boilers is their flowing in constrained conditions due to small dimensions of combustion chambers and flame tubes. These processes differ significantly from those in open combustion chambers of high-duty power boilers, and they have not been sufficiently studied yet. The goals of this paper are studying the processes of ignition and combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels, heat and mass transfer and NO x emissions in constrained conditions, and the development of a modern combined low-emissions 2.2 MW burner device that provides efficient fuel combustion. A burner device computer model is developed and numerical studies of its operation on different types of fuel in a working load range from 40 to 100% of the nominal are carried out. The main features of ignition and combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels in constrained conditions of the flame tube at nominal and decreased loads are determined, which differ fundamentally from the similar processes in steam boiler furnaces. The influence of the burner devices design and operating conditions on the fuel underburning and NO x formation is determined. Based on the results of the design studies, a design of the new combined low-emissions burner device is proposed, which has several advantages over the prototype.

  19. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  20. In-ground operation of Geothermic Fuel Cells for unconventional oil and gas recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Neal; Anyenya, Gladys; Haun, Buddy; Daubenspeck, Mark; Bonadies, Joseph; Kerr, Rick; Fischer, Bernhard; Wright, Adam; Jones, Gerald; Li, Robert; Wall, Mark; Forbes, Alan; Savage, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents operating and performance characteristics of a nine-stack solid-oxide fuel cell combined-heat-and-power system. Integrated with a natural-gas fuel processor, air compressor, reactant-gas preheater, and diagnostics and control equipment, the system is designed for use in unconventional oil-and-gas processing. Termed a ;Geothermic Fuel Cell; (GFC), the heat liberated by the fuel cell during electricity generation is harnessed to process oil shale into high-quality crude oil and natural gas. The 1.5-kWe SOFC stacks are packaged within three-stack GFC modules. Three GFC modules are mechanically and electrically coupled to a reactant-gas preheater and installed within the earth. During operation, significant heat is conducted from the Geothermic Fuel Cell to the surrounding geology. The complete system was continuously operated on hydrogen and natural-gas fuels for ∼600 h. A quasi-steady operating point was established to favor heat generation (29.1 kWth) over electricity production (4.4 kWe). Thermodynamic analysis reveals a combined-heat-and-power efficiency of 55% at this condition. Heat flux to the geology averaged 3.2 kW m-1 across the 9-m length of the Geothermic Fuel Cell-preheater assembly. System performance is reviewed; some suggestions for improvement are proposed.

  1. A quantitative study of acoustic growth rates in a characterized Rijke burner with particle combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Brian Russell

    2000-12-01

    The acoustic growth rate, frequency, and limiting amplitude of a characterized Rijke burner were quantitatively measured during the combustion of aluminum and zirconium carbide particles, which are common solid propellant additives. Extremely narrow size distributions of aluminum particles with mean diameters of 9.2, 19.0, 35.6, and 68.7 μm were tested at mass loadings up to 3% for frequencies of 800 and 1200 Hz. Large aluminum particles were ignited in the C3H8/O2 flame of a welding nozzle, mounted flush with the burner's flat, C3H8/O 2/N2 flame. Testing provided no conclusive evidence of distributed particle combustion affecting the acoustic driving in the Rijke burner. In solid propellant rockets, the distributed combustion of aluminum particles far from the propellant surface may contribute to pressure oscillations caused by acoustic combustion instability. The Rijke burner was developed as an experimental platform to investigate the phenomenon. Research into the transient acoustic response of Rijke burners is almost nonexistent; consequently, the current burner's acoustic response was quantified as a function of gas flow rate, gas composition, geometry, and burner orientation for two frequencies. Acoustic growth rate trends were explained in terms of the pulsing flame's heat release and the flame's position relative to the optimal acoustic driving point. Variations in gas flow rate, flame temperature, geometry, and exhaust temperature profile could affect a 300 s-1 change in acoustic growth rate for the conditions tested. Frequency remained approximately constant, except for acoustic mode shifts which occurred due to geometry alterations or changing gas temperatures in the burner's hot section. The Rijke burner's acoustic response was not significantly altered by the installation of the welding nozzle with its gas mixture operated near stoichiometric or fuel rich. The radial and axial temperature profiles of the gas temperatures in the burner's hot section

  2. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that use sulfur-sensitive emission-control technology, the diesel test fuel is the ultra low-sulfur... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test... for operability. The diesel fuel may contain nonmetallic additives as follows: Cetane improver, metal...

  3. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

  4. Flashback Analysis in Tangential Swirl Burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera-Medina A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Premixed lean combustion is widely used in Combustion Processes due to the benefits of good flame stability and blowoff limits coupled with low NOx emissions. However, the use of novel fuels and complex flows have increased the concern about flashback, especially for the use of syngas and highly hydrogen enriched blends. Thus, this paper describes a combined practical and numerical approach to study the phenomenon in order to reduce the effect of flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential swirl burner. Natural gas is used to establish the baseline results and effects of different parameters changes. The flashback phenomenon is studied with the use of high speed photography. The use of a central fuel injector demonstrates substantial benefits in terms of flashback resistance, eliminating coherent structures that may appear in the flow channels. The critical boundary velocity gradient is used for characterization, both via the original Lewis and von Elbe formula and via analysis using CFD and investigation of boundary layer conditions in the flame front.

  5. Combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel engine operated with mahua oil and liquefied petroleum gas

    OpenAIRE

    Nadar Kapilan N.; Reddy Rana Pratap

    2008-01-01

    For the present work, a single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. To study the feasibility of using methyl ester of mahua oil as pilot fuel, it was used as pilot fuel and liquefied petroleum gas was used as primary fuel. In dual fuel mode, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure are the few variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine. Hence, in the present work, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure were varied. Fr...

  6. Comparison of the use of sunflower, cotton and rape seed crude oils as fuels in a compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balafoutiso, A.; Melaso, D.; Natsis, A.; Papadakis, G. (Agricultural University of Athens, Athens (Greece)); Papagiannopouloe, A. (Institute of Agricultural Machinery and Constructions, Athens (Greece))

    2007-07-01

    An investigation of using crude oils of sunflower, cottonseed and rapeseed origin produced in Greece as CI engine fuel has been conducted. These oils chemical and physical properties indicate a good potential as alternative diesel engine fuels. Blending and preheating of vegetable oils with conventional diesel before using them as fuels, have been proved to be effective methods to reduce engine malfunctions associated with high oil viscosity. Engine performance and respective gas emission at different load conditions were measured over the whole engine speed range. Increasing the percentage of the oil in the blends with diesel has generally indicated an increase of engine power and torque with a corresponding increase in brake specific fuel consumption. As for emission measurements, it was shown that NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions were enhanced by increasing oil percentage in the blend. Comparing these three vegetable oils it was seen that in terms of power and torque output, rape oil based fuels have produced higher values than sunflower and cotton oil. As for brake specific fuel consumption, sunflower oil blends were consumed in a higher rate than blends of the other two vegetable oils. Finally, comparison of emissions has shown that NO{sub 2} level was higher with sunflower oil blends. These blends produced elevated NO emission especially with the 70% blend in comparison to the 70% cotton and rape oil blends. CO{sub 2} production was higher with cotton oil, but with a minor difference from the rest of the vegetable oil fuels. (orig.)

  7. Production of gaseous fuel from jatropha oil by cerium oxide based catalytic fuel reactor and its utilisation on diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylswamy Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt is made to produce a hydrocarbon fuel from jatropha vegetable oil for Diesel engine applications. The “catalytic cracking” a process recently introduced by the researchers is chosen as an alternative method to trans-esterification process to match the fuel properties to diesel. Jatropha vegetable oil was cracked into a gas using the cerium oxide catalyst in a fixed bed catalytic reactor. The produced gas is introduced at constant rate into the inlet manifold of the Diesel engine. The experimental work was carried out in single cylinder water cooled direct injection Diesel engine coupled with eddy current dynamometer. The combustion parameters are measured by AVL combustion analyser. From the experimental results, the increase in brake thermal efficiency of the engine for full load was observed to be 10% (relative compared with diesel. Notably, emissions such as HC, CO, and smoke are reduced by 18%, 61%, and 18%, respectively, when compared with diesel.

  8. Bio-derived Fuel Blend Dilution of Marine Engine Oil and Imapct on Friction and Wear Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Fenske, George R.; Corlett, John; Murphy, Chris; Przesmitzki, Steve

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the amount of petroleum-derived fuel used in vehicles and vessels powered by internal combustion engines, the addition of bio-derived fuel extenders is a common practice. Ethanol is perhaps the most common bio-derived fuel used for blending, and butanol is being evaluated as a promising alternative. The present study determined the fuel dilution rate of three lubricating oils (E0, E10, and i-B16) in a marine engine operating in on-water conditions with a start-and-stop cycle protocol. The level of fuel dilution increased with the number of cycles for all three fuels. The most dilution was observed with i-B16 fuel, and the least with E10 fuel. In all cases, fuel dilution substantially reduced the oil viscosity. The impacts of fuel dilution and the consequent viscosity reduction on the lubricating capability of the engine oil in terms of friction, wear, and scuffing prevention were evaluated by four different tests protocols. Although the fuel dilution of the engine oil had minimal effect on friction, because the test conditions were under the boundary lubrication regime, significant effects were observed on wear in many cases. Fuel dilution also was observed to reduce the load-carrying capacity of the engine oils in terms of scuffing load reduction.

  9. The effect of engine and transmission oil viscometrics on vehicle fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, J. Gary; Bannister, Chris D.; Brace, Chris J.; Akehurst, S.; Pegg, Ian; Avery, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    An extensive programme of work has been undertaken to assess the potential benefits of modulating the properties of both the engine and the transmission lubricating oils to achieve lower fuel consumption. The performance of the engine lubricants was evaluated on a production diesel engine on a transient test bed. The main engine lubricating-oil viscometric properties investigated were the cold cranking shear, the kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees C, and the high-temperature high-shear value....

  10. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  11. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  12. Refining of Military Jet Fuels from Shale Oil. Volume I. Part II. Preparation of Laboratory-Scale Fuel Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Sediment and Water BTU British Thermal Unit Degrees Celsius ’ C Carbon or Reteroatom Concentration Cl Methane .. C2 Ethane C3 Propane C3 Propylene...streams. The unsaturated gas plant receives gas from Section 200 and produces fuel gas, a propane /propylene stream, a mixed butane stream and a light...above, comprised the majority of the Task I effort. Pro- cessing studies were provided for the crude shale hydro- treater , FCC, cycle oil hydrotreater

  13. Process for desulphurisation of liquid commercial fuels for applications in fuel cell systems by partial evaporation followed by hydrogenating desulphurisation; Verfahren zur Entschwefelung von fluessigen handelsueblichen Brennstoffen fuer die Anwendung in Brennstoffzellensystemen durch partielle Verdampfung und anschliessende hydrierende Entschwefelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Markus

    2010-07-01

    Desulphurisation of commercial liquid fuels by partial evaporation followed by hydrogenating desulphurisation is a promising process for decentral fuel cell systems. This is a newly developed process in which only the fraction to be used in the fuel cell is evaporated and is then desulphurized in the gaseous phase using recycled hydrogen from combustion gas production. The residue of the partial evaporation can be recirculated either directly into a reformer burner of an allothermal steam reforming process, into a heating burner, into an engine, or into a storage tank depending on the intended application. The publication also takes a short look at other desulphurisation processes and attempts a comparison. The results of hydrogenating desulphurisation of partially evaporated kerosene and heating oil using a CoMo catalyst illustrate the feasibility of the process. Most of the sulphur compounds are converted, and the end product has sufficient purity for application in a fuel cell process, i.e. less than ppm. (orig./MM)

  14. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  15. Evaluation of hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin as alternative fuel in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumus, M. [Automotive Division, Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, Ziverbey, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    In the present study, hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin was evaluated as alternative fuel in a diesel engine. Potential hazelnut production throughout the world and the status of Turkey were examined. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was transesterified with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester (HOME) and a comprehensive experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running with HOME and its blends with diesel fuel. Experimental parameters included the percentage of HOME in the blend, engine load, injection timing, compression ratio, and injector. The cost analysis of HOME production comparing to the price of conventional diesel fuel was performed for last decade was performed. Results showed that HOME and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel and small modifications such as increasing injection timing, compression ratio and injector opening pressure provide significant improvement in performance and emissions. It is also expected that the price of HOME will be lower than the price of conventional diesel fuel in the near future. (author)

  16. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2006-02-14

    The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

  17. Performance and emission evaluation of a CI engine fueled with preheated raw rapeseed oil (RRO)-diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazar, Hanbey [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    Many studies are still being carried out to find out surplus information about how vegetable based oils can efficiently be used in compression ignition engines. Raw rapeseed oil (RRO) was used as blended with diesel fuel (DF) by 50% oil-50% diesel fuel in volume (O50) also as blended with diesel fuel by 20% oil-80% diesel fuel in volume (O20). The test fuels were used in a single cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection compression ignition engine. The effects of fuel preheating to 100 C on the engine performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with rapeseed oil diesel blends were clarified. Results showed that preheating of RRO was lowered RRO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow Heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. It can be achieved by heating RRO to 100 C. It can also be concluded that preheating of the fuel have some positive effects on engine performance and emissions when operating with vegetable oil. (author)

  18. Transesterification of vegetable oils with ethanol and characterization of the key fuel properties of ethyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastopoulos, G.; Zannikou, Y.; Stournas, S. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Fuels Technology and Lubricants, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Athens 15780 (Greece); Kalligeros, S. [Hellenic Organization for Standardization, Technical Committee 66, 67 Prevezis Street, Athens, 10444 (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil) with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 - 1.5%), the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 - 12:1), and the reaction temperature (35 - 90 {sup o}C) were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt), and 80 {sup o}C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage. (author)

  19. Transesterification of Vegetable Oils with Ethanol and Characterization of the Key Fuel Properties of Ethyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamoulis Stournas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 – 1.5%, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 – 12:1, and the reaction temperature (35 – 90 °C were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt, and 80 °C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage.

  20. Fuel oil and dispersant toxicity to the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Frances J; King, Catherine K; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Harrison, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    The risk of a major marine fuel spill in Antarctic waters is increasing, yet there are currently no standard or suitable response methods under extreme Antarctic conditions. Fuel dispersants may present a possible solution; however, little data exist on the toxicity of dispersants or fuels to Antarctic species, thereby preventing informed management decisions. Larval development toxicity tests using 3 life history stages of the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri) were completed to assess the toxicity of physically dispersed, chemically dispersed, and dispersant-only water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of an intermediate fuel oil (IFO 180, BP) and the chemical dispersant Slickgone NS (Dasic International). Despite much lower total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations, physically dispersed fuels contained higher proportions of low-to-intermediate weight carbon compounds and were generally at least an order of magnitude more toxic than chemically dispersed fuels. Based on concentrations that caused 50% abnormality (EC50) values, the embryonic unhatched blastula life stage was the least affected by fuels and dispersants, whereas the larval 4-armed pluteus stage was the most sensitive. The present study is the first to investigate the possible implications of the use of fuel dispersants for fuel spill response in Antarctica. The results indicate that the use of a fuel dispersant did not increase the hydrocarbon toxicity of IFO 180 to the early life stages of Antarctic sea urchins, relative to physical dispersal. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1563-1571. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  2. Joint DoD/DoE Shale Oil Project. Volume 3. Testing of Refined Shale Oil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    16-14 TABLE 16-6. RESPONSE OF SELENASTRUM CAPRICORNUTUM AND MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA TO WATER-SOLUBLE FRACTIONS OF COAL...oxidation process in uresence of an oxidation inhibitor. d. Evaluation of the compatibility of oil shale JP-5 with polymeric elastomers, :~o?; sulfide sealants...thrive by the reduction of sulfate to sulfides , which accelerates corrosion in storage tanks and fuel handling systems and S generates particulate

  3. Biocatalytic production of biodiesel from cottonseed oil: Standardization of process parameters and comparison of fuel characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Soham; Karemore, Ankush; Das, Sancharini; Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Deysarkar, Asoke [PfP Technology LLC., 14227 Fern, Houston, TX 77079 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The enzymatic production of biodiesel by transesterification of cottonseed oil was studied using low cost crude pancreatic lipase as catalyst in a batch system. The effects of the critical process parameters including water percentage, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration, buffer pH and reaction temperature were determined. Maximum conversion of 75-80% was achieved after 4 h at 37 C, pH 7.0 and with 1:15 M ratio of oil to methanol, 0.5% (wt of oil) enzyme and water concentration of 5% (wt of oil). Various organic solvents were tested among which a partially polar solvent (t-butanol) was found to be suitable for the reaction. The major fuel characteristics like specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, flash point and calorific value of the 20:80 blends (B20) of the fatty acid methyl esters with petroleum diesel conformed very closely to those of American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) standards. (author)

  4. Furnaces with multiple ?ameless combustion burners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danon, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis three different combustion systems, equipped with either a single or multiple ?ameless combustion burner(s), are discussed. All these setups were investigated both experimentally and numerically, i.e., using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Flameless combustion is a

  5. Preliminary investigation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a diesel engine operating on vegetable oil-based alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.; Howard, A.G.

    1983-09-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exhaust emissions from a diesel engine operating on unmodified (sunflower, rapeseed, soyabean) and modified (ethyl-ester sunflower) vegetable oil were compared with emissions resulting from the combustion of diesel gas oil. Three engine load/speed conditions were assessed for each fuel and emission levels for 20 PAH compounds are presented for each test. PAH emission profiles arising from the combustion of unmodified oils were similar, with the total PAH exhaust concentrations generally being lower than the levels obtained using diesel fuel. Increasing engine load was found to increase greatly the production of carcinogenic PAH species in the exhaust from combusted unmodified vegetable oils. The formation of alkyl-substituted PAH, common in diesel exhaust emissions, was very limited using these fuels. Results obtained from operation of the engine on the ethyl-ester of sunflower oil indicated PAH emissions in between those obtained using diesel oil and the unmodified vegetable oils. 18 references.

  6. A preliminary investigation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a diesel engine operating on vegetable oil-based alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.; Howard, A.G.

    1983-09-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exhaust emissions from a diesel engine operating on unmodified (sunflower, rapeseed, soyabean) and modified (ethyl-ester sunflower) vegetable oil were compared with emissions resulting from the combustion of diesel gas oil. Three engine load/speed conditions were assessed for each fuel and emission levels for 20 PAH compounds are presented for each test. PAH emission profiles arising from the combustion of unmodified oils were similar, with the total PAH exhaust concentrations generally being lower than the levels obtained using diesel fuel. Increasing engine load was found to increase greatly the production of carcinogenic PAH species in the exhaust from combusted unmodified vegetable oils. The formation of alkyl-substituted PAH, common in diesel exhaust emissions, was very limited using these fuels. Results obtained from operation of the engine on the ethyl-ester of sunflower oil indicated PAH emissions in between those obtained using diesel oil and the unmodified vegetable oils

  7. Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils contained in waste activated bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Ana V. Lara; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka Univ., Dept. of Applied Biological Chemistry, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2003-02-28

    Waste bleaching earths from crude vegetable oil refining process contain approximately 40% of its weight as oil. Low valued oils are potential substrates for biodiesel fuel production. Vegetable oils from waste bleaching earth samples were organic-solvent extracted and identified as soybean, palm and rapeseed oil. Methanolysis was efficiently catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of high water content, and by a single addition of methanol. R. oryzae lipase was not inactivated by methanol in concentrations lower than 4 milli-equivalents and 75% water content. Optimum conditions for methanolysis of extracted oils were 75% water content (by weight of substrate), an oil/methanol molar ratio of I:4, and 67 IU/g of substrate with agitation at 175 rpm for 96 h at 35 deg C. The highest conversion yield reached 55% (w/w) with palm oil after 96 h of reaction. Adverse viscosity conditions might have influenced methanolysis of extracted soybean and rapeseed oil in spite of high water or methanol concentrations. (Author)

  8. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF AN EMULSIFIED HEAVY FUEL OIL IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of measuring emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion flue gases of a No. 6 fuel oil, both with and without an emulsifying agent, in a 2.5 million Btu/hr (732 kW) firetube boiler with the purpose of determining the impacts of the e...

  9. Liquid fuels production using rape oil. Wytwarzanie paliw plynnych z oleju rzepakowego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotowski, W.; Petrach, A. (Wyzsza Szkola Inzynierska, Opole (Poland)); Luecke, B. (Centrum Katalizy Heterogennej, Berlin (Germany)); Tietze, B. (Wyzsza Szkola Techniczna, Szweinfurt (Germany))

    1994-03-01

    The process equipment for the continuous reestrification of rape oil to glicerine and then to diesel fuel is described. The testing installation using the fluidized bed cathalitic cracking of raw material is presented. Process parameters and their impact on the quality and quantity of the final product are considered. (author). 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    This study carried out an investigation on the proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues such as palm kernel shell, PKS, palm fibre, PF and empty fruit bunch, EFB using the ASTM standards. The results obtained were compared. The percentage moisture content of the pellets, PKS, PF and EFB ...

  11. 76 FR 64042 - Petition Requesting Non-See-Through Packaging for Torch Fuel and Lamp Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ....14(7)). The PPPA does not authorize the Commission to prescribe specific packaging designs for... accustomed to drinking it regularly, packaging petroleum distillates in clear plastic bottles causes needless... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1700 Petition Requesting Non-See-Through Packaging for Torch Fuel and Lamp Oil AGENCY...

  12. Microbial Deterioration of Hydrocarbon Fuels from Oil Shale, Coal, and Petroleum. I. Exploratory Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-20

    Cladosporium resinae , a yeast (Candida) and a bacterium (Pseudomonas) which normally grow well in association with petroleum JP-5 were used as test organisms...microorganisms that could thrive in the presence of synthetic fuels. This endeavor produced a strain of C. resinae that grew as well with oil shale JP-5

  13. Commercial Approval Plan for Synthetic Jet Fuel from Hydrotreated Fats and Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-18

    driven by their experience, some of it very negative, with the other more well known organic oil derived fuel, BioDiesel . BioDiesel is methyl ester of...coconut, soy, canola ) and yellow grease derived HRJ SPKs. With the number of entities currently pursuing this goal, no single group should have to

  14. 75 FR 38487 - Order Finding That the Fuel Oil-180 Singapore Swap Contract Traded on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... includes inland hauling charges, customs clearance, origin documentation charges, demurrage (if any), and origin port handling charges--in this case Singapore). After crude oil is extracted from the ground and... in; in the days of steam they were coal bunkers but now they are bunker-fuel tanks. The Australian...

  15. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodrick, J.R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort`s electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils {number_sign}2 and {number_sign}6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  16. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodrick, J.R. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils [number sign]2 and [number sign]6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of HC Emissions Released by Oil Film for Gasoline and Alcohol Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. İhsan KARAMANGİL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil film on cylinder liner has been suggested as a major source of engine-out hydrocarbon emissions. So in the present study, the rate of absorption/desorption of the fuel in the oil film has been investigated numerically in a spark ignition engine by using gasoline, ethanol and methanol fuels. To aim this purpose, a thermodynamic cycle model has been developed and then a mathematical modeling for the rate of absorption/desorption of the fuel in the oil film has been developed and adapted for this thermodynamic cycle model.It was seen that the absorption/desorption mechanism of ethanol and methanol into the oil film were lower than gasoline. It was determined that the most dominant parameter of this difference was Henry’s constant, which was related to solubility. As interaction time of oil filmfuel vapor was longer at low engine speeds, the quantities of HC absorbed/desorbed increased. The quantities of HC absorbed/desorbed increased with increasing inlet pressure and compression ratio

  18. Production of hydrocarbon fuels from pyrolysis of soybean oils using a basic catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junming; Jiang, Jianchun; Sun, Yunjuan; Chen, Jie

    2010-12-01

    Triglycerides obtained from animals and plants have attracted great attention from researchers for developing an environmental friendly and high-quality fuel, free of nitrogen and sulfur. In the present work, the production of biofuel by catalytic cracking of soybean oil over a basic catalyst in a continuous pyrolysis reactor at atmospheric pressure has been studied. Experiments were designed to study the effect of different types of catalysts on the yield and acid value of the diesel and gasoline fractions from the pyrolytic oil. It was found that basic catalyst gave a product with relatively low acid number. These pyrolytic oils were also further reacted with alcohol in order to decrease their acid value. After esterification, the physico-chemical properties of these biofuels were characterized, and compared with Chinese specifications for conventional diesel fuels. The results showed that esterification of pyrolytic oil from triglycerides represents an alternative technique for producing biofuels from soybean oils with characteristics similar to those of petroleum fuels. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Properties of concrete containing ground palm oil fuel ash as fine aggregate replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffuan, W. A.; Muthusamy, K.; Salleh, N. A. Mohd; Nordin, N.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental degradation resulting from increasing sand mining activities and disposal of palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a solid waste generated from palm oil mill needs to be resolved. Thus, the present research investigates the effect of ground palm oil fuel ash as partial fine aggregate replacement on workability, compressive and flexural strength of concrete. Five mixtures of concrete containing POFA as partial sand replacement designed with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of POFA by the weight of sand were used in this experimental work. The cube and beam specimens were casted and water cured up to 28 days before subjected to compressive strength and flexural strength testing respectively. Finding shows that concrete workability reduces as the amount of POFA added become larger. It is worth to note that 10% of POFA is the best amount to be used as partial fine aggregate replacement to produce concrete with enhanced strength.

  20. Modern power station practice mechanical boilers, fuel-, and ash-handling plant

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2014-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf

  1. Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-15

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly

  2. Fuel spray combustion of waste cooking oil and palm oil biodiesel: Direct photography and detailed chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole

    2013-10-14

    This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle. Also a detailed chemical kinetics for the biodiesel fuels was carried out using ac chemical kinetics solver adopting a 0-D reactor model to obtain the chemical ignition delay of the combusting fuels. Equivalence ratios obtained from the experimental ignition delay were used for the detailed chemical kinetics analyses. The Politecnico di Milano\\'s thermochemical and reaction kinetic data were adopted to simulate the ignition processes of the biodiesels using the five fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) major components in the biodiesel fuels. From the high-speed video observations, it was observed that at increasing injection pressure, experimental ignition delay increased as a result of improvement in fuel and air mixing effects. Also the palm oil biodiesel has a shorter ignition delay compared to waste cooked oil biodiesel. This phenomenon could be attributed to the higher cetane number of palm biodiesel. The fuel spray ignition properties depend on both the physical ignition delay and chemical ignition delay. From the detailed chemical kinetic results it was observed that at the low temperature, high ambient pressure conditions reactivity increased as equivalent ratio

  3. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-oil to Fuel for Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard

    identied as a prospective HDO catalyst, the stability and resistance toward bio-oil impurities was investigated in a high pressure gas and liquid continuous ow setup with bio-oil model compounds and compared to the more traditional hydrotreating catalysts Mo2C/ZrO2 and Ni-MoS2/ZrO2. The investigated bio......-oil impurities included water (up to 30 wt% in bio-oil), chlorine, potassium and sulfur. Of the tested catalysts, Ni/ZrO2 displayed the highest activity, requiring only 250 C for performing HDO of aromatic compounds, followed by Ni-MoS2/ZrO2 (requiring 280 C), and then Mo2C/ZrO2, which required temperatures >320...... and potassium) compared to the un-poisoned cases. Chlorine was inhibiting both catalysts but the activity could be regained when removing it from the feed. Sulfur was found as the overall worst poison for Ni/ZrO2, as this transformed the nickel to a NiSx phase leading to fast and complete loss of activity...

  4. Drop-in Jet and Diesel Fuels from Renewable Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Hydrothermolysis (CH) Process • CH Product Chemistry • Naphtha Data • Recent Algal Oil Tests • Byproduct Potential • Pilot System • Engineering Challenges...Optional Hydrolysis Primary CH Hydrothermolysis Jet – 25-50% Cycloparaffins LPG-Olefins C5-C9 acids C1-C4 acidsGlycerin Naphtha – 25-40% Water Diesel

  5. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Mesocarp Fibre (MF) were used for the production of fuel briquettes in this study in order to supplement the energy mix of the nation. PKS was pulverized and then sieved into different grain particles of 350 µm, 250 µm and 150 µm, before mixing with MF in the ratios: 90:10, 80:20 ...

  6. Burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and ... and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and ...

  7. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.; Tapola, E.; Haekkinen, R.; Kuoppala, E.; Koskela, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of microbial fuel cells for electricity generation from oil-contaminated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Kazuhiro; Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Akiteru; Yoda, Minoru; Ishiguro, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2016-11-01

    Large quantities of oils and fats are discharged into wastewater from food industries. We evaluated the possibility of using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for the generation of electricity from food-industry wastewater containing vegetable oils. Single-chamber MFCs were supplied with artificial wastewater containing soybean oil, and oil removal and electric output were examined under several different conditions. We found that MFC performance could be improved by supplementing wastewater with an emulsifier, inoculating MFCs with oil-contaminated soil, and coating the graphite-felt anodes with carbon nanotubes, resulting in a power output of more than 2 W m(-2) (based on the projected area of the anode). Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments detected abundant amount of Burkholderiales bacteria (known to include oil degraders) in the oil-contaminated soil and anode biofilm, whereas those affiliated with the genus Geobacter were only detected in the anode biofilm. These results suggest that MFCs can be used for energy recovery from food industry wastewater containing vegetable oils. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect the design solutions adopted for a pilot vortex burner with central admission of medium have on setting up the conditions for stable combustion of air-fuel mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoinishnikov, V. A.; Khokhlov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    The effect the design and operating parameters of a pilot vortex burner have on the swirl jet formation and on the jet characteristics is studied. The flow characteristics were studied by mathematically modeling the flow using the ANSYS CFX software package. The performed investigations made it possible to determine the extent to which the swirl parameter n, the ratios of channel diameters m and flow rates of medium in the channels in case of using a two-channel swirl burner design, and the constriction ratio K cnst influence the flow aerodynamic pattern, including the back flow zone and its characteristics. The region of m and n values at which the aerodynamic conditions necessary for maintaining stable combustion are set up is determined. Matters concerned with performance efficiency of the axial swirling apparatus are considered. A correlation for determining the flow swirling loss factor is presented. It is shown that pressure loss in an annular channel with a swirling device depends not only on the blade setting angle, but also on the ratio of annular channel diameters.

  10. Bioelement status with oral administration of fish oil methyl ester and diesel fuel in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Laçine; Tütüncü, Hakan; Alper, Yasemin; Büyükben, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    This paper is a study on the effects on the amounts of trace elements in case of possible repeat accidental or environmental exposure with fish oil biodiesel. For this purpose, 35 male Wistar albino rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into five groups. The first group was determined as the control group. The rats in this group were gavaged orally with 250 mg/kg sunflower oil. The rats in the second and third groups were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg (D1) and 500 mg/kg (D2) diesel fuel mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil, respectively. The rats in the fourth group were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F1) and the rats in the fifth group were administered by oral gavage of 500 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F2), both mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil. At the end of the study, bioelement concentrations in the serum and the kidney, lung, and liver tissues were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. It was observed that serum Ca, Mg, and Sr concentrations were significantly (pbioelements concentrations were lower in diesel and biodiesel groups than in control group. Due to consumption for biochemical reaction of these elements, bioelements concentration could be low in diesel and biodiesel groups. Some trace elements concentrations in the kidney and liver were very high in the diesel groups. High concentration of these elements in the diesel groups might cause toxic effects. Fish oil biodiesel could be chosen as an alternative fuel instead of diesel fuel.

  11. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILD COMBUSTION BURNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the design and development of the Moderate and Intense Low oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion burner using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. The CFD commercial package was used to simulate preliminary designs for the burner before the final design was sent to the workshop for fabrication. The burner is required to be a non-premixed and open burner. To capture and use the exhaust gas, the burner was enclosed within a large circular shaped wall with an opening at the top. An external EGR pipe was used to transport the exhaust gas which was mixed with the fresh oxidant. To control the EGR and exhaust flow, butterfly valves were installed at the top opening as a damper to close the exhaust gas flow at a certain ratio for EGR and exhaust out to the atmosphere. High temperature fused silica glass windows were installed to view and capture images of the flame and analyze the flame propagation. The burner simulation shows that MILD combustion was achieved for the oxygen mole fraction of 3-13%. The final design of the burner was fabricated and ready for the experimental validation.

  12. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Mesocarp Fibre (MF) were used for the production of fuel briquettes in this study in order to supplement the energy mix of the nation. PKS was pulverized and then sieved into different grain particles of 350 μm, 250 μm and 150 μm, before mixing with MF in the ratios: 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 ...

  13. A review of methods for the demetallization of residual fuel oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mohammad Farhat; Abbas, Saeed [H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical, Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2006-07-15

    Crude oils typically contain trace amounts of metals with vanadium and nickel being the most common. Usually they are in an oil-soluble form and in conventional refining processes they become concentrated in the residual fuel oil fractions. The deleterious effects of metals in petroleum have been known for some time. The metals not only contaminate the products, the metal chelates also cause poisoning and fouling of catalyst and corrode equipments. The metals also tend to form particulate emissions in the sub-micron range. This review presents discussion of methods for the removal of metals from the heavy oils and residuum fractions. These methods include physical, chemical and catalytic treatment processes. (author)

  14. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils in a small scale circulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Le Tu; Okitsu, Kenji; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel production from canola oil with methanol was performed in the presence of a base-catalyst by a circulation process at room temperature. In this process, the transesterification was accelerated by ultrasonic irradiation of low frequency (20 kHz) with an input capacity of 1 kW. The influences of various parameters on the transesterification reaction, including the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of methanol to oil and the reaction time, were investigated. The objective of this work was to produce biodiesel satisfying the biodiesel-fuel standards of low energy consumption and material savings. The optimal conditions were: methanol/oil molar ratio of 5:1 and 0.7 wt.% catalyst in oil. Under these conditions, the conversion of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters was greater than 99% within the reaction time of 50 min. Crude biodiesel was purified by washing with tap water and drying at 70 degrees C under reduced pressure.

  16. Scale-up of Advanced Low NO{sub x} and High Turndown Pulverized Coal Burner; Teifuka taioyo tei NO{sub x} bana no sukeruappu kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimoto, Masayoshi.; Tsuji, Hirofumi.; Makino, Hisao. [Central research institute of electric power industry, Tokyo (Japan). Chemical energy engineering department; Kiga, Takashi. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Crop., Tokyo (Japan). Combustion engineering department, Power plant division

    1999-06-20

    The specific low NOx burner, which is enabled to reduce both NOx and unburned carbon extremely and to perform the stable combustion at 20% load as like an oil burner, has been developed with a small size burner whose coal feed rate is 0.12 t/h in the previous study. To apply this burner to utility boilers, the influence of burner capacity on the combustion characteristics was investigated by comparison between the small burner (0.12 t/h) and a large burner (1.5 t/h) in this paper. The concept of this burner is follows. Coal particle is concentrated at outside of primary air nozzle by centrifugal force, and the coal concentration is controlled by a ring. At the exit of nozzle, the swirl of primary air is inhibited by straightener to reduce NOx efficiently. The swirl at the burner exit decreased with the increase of the straightener coefficient, which is a ratio of the gross area of the straightener to the cross section area of the primary pipe. When the straightener coefficient became greater than 1.2, the swirl was inhibited completely as sane as 0.12 t/h burner. When the pulverized coal concentration control ring was placed close to the exit of nozzle, the local concentration of pulverized coal rose 1.7 times as high as the mean concentration in primary air. With this arrangement, the comproved to 20% as like an oil burner. The unburned carbon in the fly ash was reduced very efficiently with a little increase of the NOx emission at lower load by controlling the coal concentration higher. (author)

  17. Scale-up of Advanced Low NO[sub x] and High Turndown Pulverized Coal Burner. Teifuka taioyo tei NO[sub x] bana no sukeruappu kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimoto, Masayoshi.; Tsuji, Hirofumi.; Makino, Hisao. (Central research institute of electric power industry, Tokyo (Japan). Chemical energy engineering department); Kiga, Takashi. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Crop., Tokyo (Japan). Combustion engineering department, Power plant division)

    1999-06-20

    The specific low NOx burner, which is enabled to reduce both NOx and unburned carbon extremely and to perform the stable combustion at 20% load as like an oil burner, has been developed with a small size burner whose coal feed rate is 0.12 t/h in the previous study. To apply this burner to utility boilers, the influence of burner capacity on the combustion characteristics was investigated by comparison between the small burner (0.12 t/h) and a large burner (1.5 t/h) in this paper. The concept of this burner is follows. Coal particle is concentrated at outside of primary air nozzle by centrifugal force, and the coal concentration is controlled by a ring. At the exit of nozzle, the swirl of primary air is inhibited by straightener to reduce NOx efficiently. The swirl at the burner exit decreased with the increase of the straightener coefficient, which is a ratio of the gross area of the straightener to the cross section area of the primary pipe. When the straightener coefficient became greater than 1.2, the swirl was inhibited completely as sane as 0.12 t/h burner. When the pulverized coal concentration control ring was placed close to the exit of nozzle, the local concentration of pulverized coal rose 1.7 times as high as the mean concentration in primary air. With this arrangement, the comproved to 20% as like an oil burner. The unburned carbon in the fly ash was reduced very efficiently with a little increase of the NOx emission at lower load by controlling the coal concentration higher. (author)

  18. Fuel vegetable oils under some economic considerations; Oleos vegetais combustiveis sob algumas consideracoes economicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem]. E-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of bio diesel in the Brazilian energy matrix has been mainly motivated by the governmental actions, which foresees social and economical development to the country in a program that allows the use of different oil seed crops as raw materials for bio fuel production. Cost estimates considering the average price received by the farmer and the oil content of each vegetable shows that the minimum cost of bio fuel was about 1.1(castor bean); 1.8(peanut); 2.0(soy beans); 3.3(corn) higher than the average cost of fossil diesel from 1975 to 2004. Among the evaluated raw materials, only the palm oil had inferior cost compared to the petroleum diesel (0.6%). The oleaginous plants that have a higher oil content and smaller agricultural production cost to produce bio fuels are economically most feasible and they should be prioritized in the Government Program so that it may become economically sustainable along the years, as well as generate adequate profit to the farmers of each culture. (author)

  19. Technoeconomic analysis of jet fuel production from hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and reforming of camelina oil

    KAUST Repository

    Natelson, Robert H.

    2015-04-01

    The commercial production of jet fuel from camelina oil via hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and reforming was simulated. The refinery was modeled as being close to the farms for reduced camelina transport cost. A refinery with annual nameplate capacity of 76,000 cubic meters hydrocarbons was modeled. Assuming average camelina production conditions and oil extraction modeling from the literature, the cost of oil was 0.31$kg-1. To accommodate one harvest per year, a refinery with 1 year oil storage capacity was designed, with the total refinery costing 283 million dollars in 2014 USD. Assuming co-products are sold at predicted values, the jet fuel break-even selling price was 0.80$kg-1. The model presents baseline technoeconomic data that can be used for more comprehensive financial and risk modeling of camelina jet fuel production. Decarboxylation was compared to the commercially proven hydrotreating process. The model illustrated the importance of refinery location relative to farms and hydrogen production site.

  20. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  1. Cogeneration with fuel oil at the Nancy district hall; Cogeneration au fuel a l`hotel du Departement de Nancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contelly, P. [CGC Lorraine Sud, 54 (France); Jacquemin, G. [Conseil General de Meurthe et Moselle, 54 (France)

    1996-07-01

    In the framework of the renovation and construction of a block of buildings for the new district hall in Nancy (France), a cogeneration system operating with fuel oil has been studied for space heating and power generation. The cogeneration system is composed of a diesel engine generating plant (1275 kWe) with a combined production of hot water. Electric power is combined to the national grid for optimizing the peak day rate system. Technical characteristics of the generating plant, electric and control equipment, remote control and maintenance systems are presented together with an environmental and economic analysis of the project. Installation and functional diagrams are provided

  2. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  3. Jet Fuel Looks to Shale Oil: 1980 Technology Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Potential Yields from Phases I and II BASlS: 100,0W 11po IN SITU SHALE OIL Yield Estimate, Net Volume Percent Products Phase I Phase It Propane 0.6 2.8...proprietary catalysts for use in the various catalytic processing units. Main hydro- treater catalyst aging tests were performed. A six-month run...104 45.0 104 45.0 104 45.0 DIST. HYDROTREATER, MBPSD 25 31.5 28 34.4 25 31.5 HCL TREATER , MBPSD 74 2.4 61 2.3 74 2.4 HYDROCRACKER 9 ATM. DISNT., MBPSD

  4. Beach morphodynamics forcements in oiled shorelines: Coupled physical and chemical processes during and after fuel burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, A.M.; Nuez de la Fuente, M.; Rey, D.; Rubio, B.; Vilas, F. [Universidad de Vigo, Vigo (Spain). Dpto. de Geociencias Marinas y O.T., Marine and Environmental Geology Group

    2006-10-15

    In November 2002, the sinking of the Prestige oil tanker off the Galician coast (N.W. Spain) caused the largest ecological catastrophe in the history of Spain, affecting the coast called the 'Costa da Morte' (Galicia, N.W. Spain). This work is focused on the study of the oil contamination of the intertidal area of two beaches located on this stretch of coast. The study of twenty cores extracted from both beaches has identified fuel embedded in the sedimentary column up to a depth of 2.38 m (this being the maximum depth of extraction). This, along with the presence of oil below the groundwater indicates the existence of a new factor which determines the burial of oil: the morphodynamic behaviour of the beach. Furthermore, this morphodynamic variation conditions the physical appearance of the buried oil. Four different types have been identified: tar-balls (cm), particles (mm), oil coatings on sediment grains and on emulsion, with distribution patterns conditioned by the degree of wave exposure. The analysis of the information obtained have permitted the development of a conceptual model of the burial and oil evolution in the sedimentary column in relation to wave exposure, and thus to the morphodynamic variability of the beach. (author)

  5. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to green fuel oil over sodium based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T S; Zabeti, M; Lefferts, L; Brem, G; Seshan, K

    2013-08-01

    Upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors over 20 wt.% Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was studied in a lab-scale fix-bed reactor at 500°C. Characterization of the catalyst using SEM and XRD has shown that sodium carbonate is well-dispersed on the support γ-Al2O3. TGA and (23)Na MAS NMR suggested the formation of new hydrated sodium phase, which is likely responsible for the high activity of the catalyst. Catalytic oil has much lower oxygen content (12.3 wt.%) compared to non-catalytic oil (42.1 wt.%). This comes together with a tremendous increase in the energy density (37 compared to 19 MJ kg(-1)). Decarboxylation of carboxylic acids was favoured on the catalyst, resulting to an oil almost neutral (TAN=3.8mg KOH/g oil and pH=6.5). However, the mentioned decarboxylation resulted in the formation of carbonyls, which correlates to low stability of the oil. Catalytic pyrolysis results in a bio-oil which resembles a fossil fuel oil in its properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on Combustion Performance of Diesel Engine Fueled by Synthesized Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid F. Maki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The waste cooking oil or used cooking oil is the best source of biodiesel synthesizing because it enters into the so-called W2E field whereas not only get rid of the used cooking oils but produce energy from waste fuel. In this study, biodiesel was synthesized from the used cooking oil and specifications are tested. From 1 liter of used cooking oil, 940 ml is gained. The remaining of liter is glycerin and water. Blend of 20% of biodiesel with 80% of net diesel by volume is formed. Blends of 100% diesel and 100% biodiesel are prepared too. The diesel engine combustion performance is studied. Brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, mean effective pressure, and engine outlet temperature. Cylinder pressure variation with crank angle is analyzed. At last not least, the concentrations of hydro carbon and nitrogen pollutants are measured. The results showed significant enhancement in engine power and pollutant gases emitted. There is positive compatible with other critical researches.

  7. Treatment of Oil Wastewater and Electricity Generation by Integrating Constructed Wetland with Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional oil sewage treatment methods can achieve satisfactory removal efficiency, but energy consumption problems during the process of oil sewage treatment are worth attention. The integration of a constructed wetland reactor and a microbial fuel cell reactor (CW-MFC to treat oil-contaminated wastewater, compared with a microbial fuel cell reactor (MFC alone and a constructed wetland reactor (CW alone, was explored in this research. Performances of the three reactors including chemical oxygen demand (COD, oil removal, and output voltage generation were continuously monitored. The COD removals of three reactors were between 73% and 75%, and oil removals were over 95.7%. Compared with MFC, the CW-MFC with a MnO2 modified cathode produced higher power density and output voltage. Maximum power densities of CW-MFC and MFC were 3868 mW/m3 (102 mW/m2 and 3044 mW/m3 (80 mW/m2, respectively. The plants in CW-MFC play a positive role for reactor cathode potential. Both plants and cathode modification can improve reactor performance of electricity generation.

  8. Treatment of Oil Wastewater and Electricity Generation by Integrating Constructed Wetland with Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiao; Wu, Zhenxing; Liu, Lifen; Zhang, Fengxiang; Liang, Shengna

    2016-11-01

    Conventional oil sewage treatment methods can achieve satisfactory removal efficiency, but energy consumption problems during the process of oil sewage treatment are worth attention. The integration of a constructed wetland reactor and a microbial fuel cell reactor (CW-MFC) to treat oil-contaminated wastewater, compared with a microbial fuel cell reactor (MFC) alone and a constructed wetland reactor (CW) alone, was explored in this research. Performances of the three reactors including chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil removal, and output voltage generation were continuously monitored. The COD removals of three reactors were between 73% and 75%, and oil removals were over 95.7%. Compared with MFC, the CW-MFC with a MnO₂ modified cathode produced higher power density and output voltage. Maximum power densities of CW-MFC and MFC were 3868 mW/m³ (102 mW/m²) and 3044 mW/m³ (80 mW/m²), respectively. The plants in CW-MFC play a positive role for reactor cathode potential. Both plants and cathode modification can improve reactor performance of electricity generation.

  9. Biodiesel of distilled hydrogenated fat and biodiesel of distilled residual oil: fuel consumption in agricultural tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Felipe Thomaz da; Lopes, Afonso; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Dabdoub, Miguel Joaquim [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Great part of the world-wide oil production is used in fry process; however, after using, such product becomes an undesirable residue, and the usual methods of discarding of these residues, generally contaminate the environment, mainly the rivers. In function of this, using oil and residual fat for manufacturing biodiesel, besides preventing ambient contamination, turning up an undesirable residue in to fuel. The present work had as objective to evaluate the fuel consumption of a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA tractor functioning with methylic biodiesel from distilled hydrogenated fat and methylic biodiesel from distilled residual oil, in seven blends into diesel. The work was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, at UNESP - Jaboticabal, in an entirely randomized block statistical design, factorial array of 2 x 7, with three repetitions. The factors combinations were two types of methylic distilled biodiesel (residual oil and hydrogenated fat) and seven blends (B{sub 0}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 1}5, B{sub 2}5, B{sub 5}0, B{sub 7}5 and B{sub 1}00). The results had evidenced that additioning 15% of biodiesel into diesel, the specific consumption was similar, and biodiesel of residual oil provided less consumption than biodiesel from hydrogenated fat. (author)

  10. Lethal and behavioral impacts of diesel and fuel oil on the Antarctic amphipod Paramoera walkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Harrison, Peter L

    2017-09-01

    Toxicity testing with Antarctic species is required for risk assessment of fuel spills in Antarctic coastal waters. The lethal and sublethal (movement behavior) sensitivities of adults and juveniles of the Antarctic amphipod Paramoera walkeri to the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of 3 fuels were estimated in extended-duration tests at -1 °C to 21 d. Response of P. walkeri for lethal hydrocarbon concentrations was slow, with 50% lethal concentrations (LC50s) first able to be estimated at 7 d for adults exposed to Special Antarctic Blend diesel (SAB), which had the highest hydrocarbon concentrations of the 3 fuel WAFs. Juveniles showed greater response to marine gas oil (MGO) and intermediate residual fuel oil (IFO 180) at longer exposure durations and were most sensitive at 21 d to IFO 180 (LC50 = 12 μg/L). Adults were initially more sensitive than juveniles; at 21 d, however, juveniles were more than twice as sensitive as adults to SAB (LC50 = 153 μg/L and 377 μg/L, respectively). Significant effects on movement behavior were evident at earlier time points and lower concentrations than was mortality in all 3 fuel WAFs, and juveniles were highly sensitive to sublethal effects of MGO. These first estimates of Antarctic amphipod sensitivity to diesel and fuel oils in seawater contribute to the development of ecologically relevant risk assessments for management of hydrocarbon contamination in the region. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2444-2455. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. A note on the combustion of blends of diesel and soya, sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils in a light boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose Alonso, J.; Lopez, E. [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez Sastre, J.A.; Romero-Avila, C. [Dpto. Quimica Organica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper deals with the study of the vegetable oils (VO) used as fuel for heating. The properties of sunflower, rape and soya oils are studied and these are compared with the properties of C-diesel fuel (used for heating domestic purposes in Spain). The mixtures of VO and diesel are studied and characterized and, finally, the results of a series of combustion trials of the mixtures in a conventional heating installation with a mechanical pulverization burner are presented. The results show that viscosity of VO limits the use of blends up to 40% of them, and the oxygen present in their structures contributes to an efficiency gain. (author)

  12. Project development laboratories energy fuels and oils based on NRU “MPEI”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, I. A.; Burakov, A. Y.; Nikitina, I. S.; Khomenkov, A. M.; Paramonova, A. O.; Khtoo Naing, Aung

    2017-11-01

    In the process of improving the efficiency of power plants a hot topic is the use of high-quality fuels and lubricants. In the process of transportation, preparation for use, storage and maintenance of the properties of fuels and lubricants may deteriorate, which entails a reduction in the efficiency of power plants. One of the ways to prevent the deterioration of the properties is a timely analysis of the relevant laboratories. In this day, the existence of laboratories of energy fuels and energy laboratory oil at thermal power stations is satisfactory character. However, the training of qualified personnel to work in these laboratories is a serious problem, as the lack of opportunities in these laboratories a complete list of required tests. The solution to this problem is to explore the possibility of application of methods of analysis of the properties of fuels and lubricants in the stage of training and re-training of qualified personnel. In this regard, on the basis of MPEI developed laboratory projects of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, power and energy oils and lubricants. Projects allow for a complete list of tests required for the timely control of properties and prevent the deterioration of these properties. Assess the financial component of the implementation of the developed projects based on the use of modern equipment used for tests. Projects allow for a complete list of tests required for the timely control of properties and prevent the deterioration of these properties.

  13. Emissions in the exhaust of fishing boats after adding viscous agents into fuel oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lien-Te; Shih, Shun-I; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Yang, Tsun-Lirng; Wu, Tser-Son; Hung, Chung-Hsien

    2009-12-20

    In order to avoid the illegal use of fishing boat fuel A (FBFA) by traveling diesel vehicles (TDVs) in Taiwan, alternatives that are easily distinguished from premium diesel fuel (PDF) were prepared to evaluate their suitability. Two new ingredients, pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) and residue of desulfurization unit (RDS), were added into FBFA and formed PFO0.5 and RDS0.5, respectively. Along with FBFA, these three fuels were analyzed for their chemical and physical properties. Furthermore, they were used by three fishing boats with different sizes, output powers, and weights. The engine performances and pollutant emissions were examined and monitored. Experimental results show that there are significant differences in appearance between PDF and the two new blended fuels (PFO0.5 and RDS0.5), and thus misuse or illegal use of FBFA could be substantially reduced. The fuel consumption, which is negatively related to the heating value of fuels, is in order of FBFAPDF, RDS0.5 is superior to PFO0.5, and is thus recommended as a better alternative to FBFA, particularly because it can help lower more emissions of CO, NO(x), PM and BaP(eq).

  14. Some effects of fuel oil on plants. [Lycopericum esculentum; Prunus persica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, G.D.; Leadbeater, M.R.

    1935-01-01

    Commercial fuel oil has a harmful effect on plants when brought into contact with their roots, through the soil. The effect becomes fatal when the quantity is raised above the critical point for a species. The effect may or may not be due to penetration. If the oil has penetrated the tissues, it is most commonly found in the primary xylem; to a lesser extent it enters the secondary xylem, and the intercellular spaces of the pith and cortex. Contact does not seem to be a primary cause of death.

  15. Hydroprocessing of rubber seed oil to renewable fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tan Viet; Phung, Minh Tri

    2017-09-01

    Hydroprocessing of rubber seed oil (RSO) with various types of alumina-silica support catalyst was conducted at 400°C and a hydrogen partial pressure of 3.0 MPa in 3 hours. The effects of the alumina-silica and metal doping on alumina-silica on the conversion, and distribution of oil fraction products (initial boiling point (IBP) to 80°C, from 80-200°C, from 200-360°C and higher than 360°C boiling point) were investigated. Compared to the results obtained when using Mo@Al2O3-SiO2, hydroprocessing of RSO resulted in a higher conversion and much higher yield of the light fraction (BP <230°C). Both alumina-silica catalysts led to an improved conversion as well as a higher light fraction yield. Results show that hydroprocessing of RSO with metal doping on alumina-silica support was more efficient than that only Al2O3-SiO2.

  16. New Procedure to Develop Lumped Kinetic Models for Heavy Fuel Oil Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yunqing

    2016-09-20

    A new procedure to develop accurate lumped kinetic models for complex fuels is proposed, and applied to the experimental data of the heavy fuel oil measured by thermogravimetry. The new procedure is based on the pseudocomponents representing different reaction stages, which are determined by a systematic optimization process to ensure that the separation of different reaction stages with highest accuracy. The procedure is implemented and the model prediction was compared against that from a conventional method, yielding a significantly improved agreement with the experimental data. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  17. The Effect on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Adding Cotton Oil Methyl Ester to Diesel Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Ali; Ciniviz, Murat; Örs, İlker; Oğuz, Hidayet

    2016-01-01

    In the study, engine performance and exhaust emissions of diesel fuel and cotton oil methyl ester (COME) blends at proportions of 2%, %5 and 10% (v/v) have been investigated. The engine was fuelled with COME–diesel blends and pure diesel when running the engine at six different engine speed (1000,1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000 rpm) and at full load. Test results are presented engine torque and specific fuel consumption (SCF) as engine performance, and Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbon (HC), smo...

  18. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  19. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was

  20. Biodiesel from Mandarin Seed Oil: A Surprising Source of Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Azad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin (Citrus reticulata is one of the most popular fruits in tropical and sub-tropical countries around the world. It contains about 22–34 seeds per fruit. This study investigated the potential of non-edible mandarin seed oil as an alternative fuel in Australia. The seeds were prepared after drying in the oven for 20 h to attain an optimum moisture content of around 13.22%. The crude oil was extracted from the crushed seed using 98% n-hexane solution. The biodiesel conversion reaction (transesterification was designed according to the acid value (mg KOH/g of the crude oil. The study also critically examined the effect of various reaction parameters (such as effect of methanol: oil molar ratio, % of catalyst concentration, etc. on the biodiesel conversion yield. After successful conversion of the bio-oil into biodiesel, the physio-chemical fuel properties of the virgin biodiesel were measured according to relevant ASTM standards and compared with ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD and standard biodiesel ASTM D6751. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were analysed by gas chromatography (GC using the EN 14103 standard. The behaviour of the biodiesel (variation of density and kinematic viscosity at various temperatures (10–40 °C was obtained and compared with that of diesel fuel. Finally, mass and energy balances were conducted for both the oil extraction and biodiesel conversion processes to analyse the total process losses of the system. The study found 49.23 wt % oil yield from mandarin seed and 96.82% conversion efficiency for converting oil to biodiesel using the designated transesterification reaction. The GC test identified eleven FAMEs. The biodiesel mainly contains palmitic acid (C16:0 26.80 vol %, stearic acid (C18:0 4.93 vol %, oleic acid (C18:1 21.43 vol % (including cis. and trans., linoleic acid (C18:2 4.07 vol %, and less than one percent each of other fatty acids. It is an important source of energy because it has a higher

  1. Simulation of total dust emission from palm oil mills in Malaysia using biomass fuel composition and dust collector efficiency models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kun, Yau Chwan; Abdullah, Ahmad Makmom Haji

    2013-01-01

    Palm oil mills are generally self-sufficient in terms of energy. However, burning of biomass fuel in a boiler has generated serious air pollution problem due to inappropriate boiler operation and inefficient dust collection system...

  2. Review of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste in the production of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Shahidan, Shahiron; Shamsuddin, Shamrul-mar

    2017-11-01

    High demand for cement in the concrete production has been increased which become the problems in the industry. Thus, this problem will increase the production cost of construction material and the demand for affordable houses. Moreover, the production of Portland cement leads to the release of a significant amount of CO2 and other gases leading to the effect on global warming. The need for a sustainable and green construction building material is required in the construction industry. Hence, this paper presents utilization of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste as partial cement replacement in the production of concrete. Using both of this waste in the concrete production would benefit in many ways. It is able to save cost and energy other than protecting the environment. In short, 20% usage of palm oil fuel ash and 30% replacement of ceramic waste as cement replacement show the acceptable and satisfactory strength of concrete.

  3. Application of FTIR Spectrometry Using Multivariate Analysis For Prediction Fuel in Engine Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Sejkorová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the potentiality of partial least squares (PLS regression associated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectrometry for detecting penetration of diesel fuel into the mineral engine oil SAE 15W‑40 in the concentration range from 0 % to 9.5 % (w/w. As a best practice has proven FTIR‑PLS model, which uses the data file in the spectral range 835 – 688 cm−1.The quality of the model was evaluated using the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC and cross validation (RMSECV. A correlation coefficient R = 0.999 and values of RMSEC, RMSECV were obtained 0.11 % and 0.38 % respectively. After the calibration of the FTIR spectrometer, the contamination engine oil with diesel fuel could be obtained in 1 – 2 min per sample.

  4. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Fuel-Oil Heated Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental). Total average costs were $1819 per house ($1192 for

  5. Fuel-oil cogeneration plant for textile Industry. Central de cogeneracion a fueloleo para industria textil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Larrauri, M.; Diez Hernandez, J.; Villasante Diaz, A. (IDOM, Ingenieria y Consultoria, S.A. (Spain))

    1993-10-01

    Aznar S.A. is a textile factory especially sensitive to electricity distribution failures. They produce the subsequent shut down at the manufacturing process and several hours of maintenance tasks. A cogeneration plant has been installed to provide electricity and thermal energy to the process. Since the location is far from Natural Gas pipelines the system includes fuel-oil as energy source. Annual electricity production will be 23.300 MWh and 6.400 MWh of them will be exported into the grid. Fuel-oil consumption at the heat exchanger is reduced by 47%, but the whole factory consumption increases a 247% due to the high consumption of the engine. This increase is compensated by revenues from selling electricity and electricity savings. These facts, together with maintenance cost saving leads to a pay back time of 3.3. years. (Author)

  6. Numerical investigation on burning stability of the coal-dust methane-air mixture in a recuperative burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainov, A. Yu; Moiseeva, K. M.; Moiseev, D. M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to numerical investigation on combustion singularities of the bi-dispersed coal-dust methane-air mixture in a slot recuperative burner. The aim of the research is to determine the stable combustion conditions of the methane-air mixture depending on the fuel flow rate at the inlet of the burner and on the parameters of the mixture (the particle size and the mass concentration of the coal particles, the percentage composition of inert particles and the methane volume content). The problem was solved by finite difference method. The regimes of stable combustion for the coal-dust methane-air mixture depending on the fuel content and the fuel flow rate at the inlet of the burner the have been defined.

  7. Preparation of DNA biosensor application from fuel oil waste by functionalization and characterization of MWCNT

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mishaal Mohammed; Ismail K. Al-Khateeb; Adawiya J. Haider; Ruslinda A. Rahim; U. Hashim

    2017-01-01

    The potential of using a multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) synthesized from a fuel oil waste of power plants has discovered for the first time for DNA biosensors application. The MWCNT surface morphologies were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thickness of the MWCNT was found 203nm and confirmed by FESEM. The electrochemical DNA biosensor was successfully developed using a MWCNT modified on SiO2 thin films. The capacitanc...

  8. Experimental and analytical investigation on the emission and combustion characteristics of CI engine fueled with tamanu oil methyl esters

    OpenAIRE

    Perumal Navaneetha Krishnan; Durairaj Vasudevan

    2016-01-01

    The emission and combustion characteristics of a four stroke multi fuel single cylinder variable compression ratio engine fueled with tamanu oil methyl ester and its blends 10%, 20%, 40%, and 60% with diesel (on volume basis) are examined and compared with standard diesel. Biodiesel produced from tamanu oil by trans-esterification process has been used in this study. The experiment has been conducted at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm with 50% load and ...

  9. Full-scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell{trademark} burner retrofit. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; Kitto, J.B.; Kleisley, R.J. [and others

    1994-07-01

    The objective of the Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark}Burner (LNCB{trademark}) demonstration is to evaluate the applicability of this technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full-scale, cell burner-equipped boilers. More precisely, the program objectives are to: (1) Achieve at least a 50% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. (2) Reduce NO{sub x} with no degradation to boiler performance or life of the unit. (3) Demonstrate a technically and economically feasible retrofit technology. Cell burner equipped boilers comprise 13% of the Pre-New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) coal-fired generating capacity. This relates to 34 operating units generating 23,639 MWe, 29 of which are opposed wall fired with two rows of two-nozzle cell burners on each wall. The host site was one of these 29. Dayton Power & Light offered use of J.M. Stuart Station`s Unit No. 4 as the host site. It was equipped with 24, two-nozzle cell burners arranged in an opposed wall configuration. To reduce NO{sub x} emissions, the LNCB{trademark} has been designed to delay the mixing of the fuel and combustion air. The delayed mixing, or staged combustion, reduces the high temperatures normally generated in the flame of a standard cell burner. A key design criterion for the burner was accomplishing delayed fuel-air mixing with no pressure part modifications to facilitate a {open_quotes}plug-in{close_quotes} design. The plug-in design reduces material costs and outage time required to complete the retrofit, compared to installing conventional, internally staged low-NO{sub x} burners.

  10. Flash pyrolysis of sunflower oil cake for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoez, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2001-06-01

    Flash pyrolysis experiments of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) press oil cake were performed in a tubular transport reactor at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the yields of products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges 450-700C, D{sub p}<0.224, 0.224-0.425, 0.425-0.850 mm and 25-600 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}, respectively. The maximum oil yield of ca. 45% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550C, with the sweep gas flow rate of 300 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and particle size of 0.425-0.850 mm. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the pyrolysis oil were determined, and then the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, IR, column chromatography and GC). The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower oil cake can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock.

  11. Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and/or ASTM No. 2 fuel oil is recovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Richard F.; Ryan, Daniel F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the relative concentration of hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) components and as a result reduces the gas yield during liquefaction and decreases hydrogen consumption during said liquefaction. The hydrogenation severity can be controlled to increase the yield of naphthenic components and hence the yield of jet fuel and in a preferred embodiment jet fuel yield is maximized while at the same time maintaining solvent balance.

  12. Annual fuel usage charts for oil-fired boilers. [Building space heating and hot water supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlad, A. L.; Yeh, Y. J.; Salzano, F. J.; Hoppe, R. J.; Batey, J.

    1978-07-01

    On the basis of laboratory-determined boiler efficiency data, one may calculate the annual fuel usage (AFU) for any oil-fired boiler, serving a structure of a given design heat load, for any specified hourly weather pattern. Further, where data are available regarding the energy recapture rates of the strucutre due to direct gain solar energy (windows), lighting, cooking, electrical appliances, metabolic processes, etc., the annual fuel usage savings due to such (re) capture are straightforwardly determinable. Employing the Brookhaven National Laboratory annual fuel usage formulation, along with efficiency data determined in the BNL Boiler Laboratory, computer-drawn annual fuel usage charts can be generated for any selected boiler for a wide range of operating conditions. For two selected boilers operating in any one of the hour-by-hour weather patterns which characterize each of six cities over a wide range of firing rates, domestic hot water consumption rates, design heat loads, and energy (re) capture rates, annual fuel usages are determined and graphically presented. Figures 1 to 98, inclusive, relate to installations for which energy recapture rates are taken to be zero. Figures 97 to 130, inclusive, apply to a range of cases for which energy recapture rates are nonzero and determinable. In all cases, simple, direct and reliable annual fuel usage values can be determined by use of charts and methods such as those illustrated.

  13. Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, Kati; Vesala, Hannu; Koponen, Päivi; Korhonen, Satu

    2015-04-07

    To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340 °C NOx reduction was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.

  14. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the emission factors of low-pour-fuel-oil and diesel in steam boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohijeagbon, I.O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the emissions effects resulting from the use of low pour fuel oil (LPFO and diesel fuels in industrial steam boilers operation. The method of ultimate analysis of the products of combustion and emissions of pollutant analysis were used to estimate the annual rate of emissions of boilers. The results shows that the levels of uncontrolled boiler emissions on the environment can lead to increased greenhouse effects, global warming, and pollution and toxilogical impacts on human health. Only carbon monoxide emission was found to vary with the levels of oxygen generation in the products of combustion, while other substances were generally in relation to constituents and rates of consumption of fuel.

  16. Combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel engine operated with mahua oil and liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadar Kapilan N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the present work, a single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. To study the feasibility of using methyl ester of mahua oil as pilot fuel, it was used as pilot fuel and liquefied petroleum gas was used as primary fuel. In dual fuel mode, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure are the few variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine. Hence, in the present work, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure were varied. From the test results, it was observed that the pilot fuel quantity of 5 mg per cycle and injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. Also the exhaust emissions such as smoke, unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide are lower than other pressures and pilot fuel quantities. The higher injection pressure and proper pilot fuel quantity might have resulted in better atomization, penetration of methyl ester of mahua oil and better combustion of fuel.

  17. Exposure calculation code module for reactor core analysis: BURNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1979-02-01

    The code module BURNER for nuclear reactor exposure calculations is presented. The computer requirements are shown, as are the reference data and interface data file requirements, and the programmed equations and procedure of calculation are described. The operating history of a reactor is followed over the period between solutions of the space, energy neutronics problem. The end-of-period nuclide concentrations are determined given the necessary information. A steady state, continuous fueling model is treated in addition to the usual fixed fuel model. The control options provide flexibility to select among an unusually wide variety of programmed procedures. The code also provides user option to make a number of auxiliary calculations and print such information as the local gamma source, cumulative exposure, and a fine scale power density distribution in a selected zone. The code is used locally in a system for computation which contains the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other modules.

  18. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on...

  19. 77 FR 4300 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... the two types of biofuel shows that ] biodiesel and renewable diesel produced from palm oil have... Energy.\\13\\ It has been used to model land cover changes across the world in many different ecosystems... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

  20. Experimental plan for the fuel-oil study. Weatherization Assistance Program: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.; Brown, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    An up-to-date assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is being performed by the US Department of Energy WAP Division and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Five studies form the evaluation. Major goals of the Fuel-Oil Study are to estimate the fuel oil saved by the WAP in the Northeast during the 1990 and 1991 program years, identify and quantify non-energy impacts of the WAP, assess the cost effectiveness of the WAP within this submarket, and assess factors which may cause savings and cost effectiveness to vary. The study will only analyze single-family houses in the nine states in the Northeast census region and will be carried out over two heating seasons (1990 and 1991 WAP program years). A split-winter, pre- and post-weatherization experimental design with a control group will be used. Houses will be monitored over one winter. Energy conservation measures will be installed in the weatherized houses in January of each winter by the local WAP subgrantee. One hundred twenty five weatherized houses and 75 control houses will be monitored over the 1990--1991 winter; a different set of 200 houses will be monitored over the 1991--1992 winter. The houses will be evenly distributed among 25 subgrantees. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature data will be collected for all houses. Fuel-oil delivery data will be collected for each house monitored over the 1990--1991 winter for at least a year before weatherization. The delivery data will be analyzed to determine if the accuracy of the study can be improved by collecting fuel-oil delivery data on a larger sample of houses over the 1991--1992 winter. Detailed survey information will be obtained on all the houses. This information includes descriptive details of the house and its mechanical systems, details on household size and other demographics, and occupant answers to questions regarding comfort, safety, and operation of their space-heating system and house.

  1. Hydroprocessing of heavy oils for the production of fuel-cell quality fuels. Final technical report, September 30, 1977-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvi, G.A.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.; Lee, A.L.; Vasil, D.R.; Oberle, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on a program to establish whether heavy oils such as No. 4 or No. 6 fuel oil can be hydrogasified or hydrotreated to produce a steam-reforming feed suitable for use in an integrated fuel cell power generation facility. Hydrogasification data show that methane is the major gas product, along with a certain amount of coke formation. The liquid product was similar to the feed oil indicating that the oil did not fully enter the reaction. The hydrotreating apparatus was fully tested and proved to be operational. A trial run on No. 4 fuel oil using a Ni/MoO/sub 3/ hydrodesulfurization finishing catalyst showed very good sulfur removal to the gas phase, along with substantial reduction of specific gravity in the liquid product over the feed oil. Whereas the coke formation during hydrogasification is a clear disadvantage, further testing is required of the hydrotreating catalysts to determine quantitatively how efficient the sulfur removal can be and how amenable steam reforming the hydrotreated oil will be.

  2. Numerical simulation of the influence of stationary louver and coal particle size on distribution of pulverized coal to the feed ducts of a power plant burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key requirements related to successful utilization of plasma technology as an oil-free backup system for coal ignition and combustion stabilization in power plant boilers is provision of properly regulated pulverized coal distribution to the feed ducts leading the fuel mixture to a burner. Proper regulation of coal distribution is deemed essential for achieving an adequate pulverized coal concentration in the zone where thermal plasma is being introduced. The said can be efficiently achieved by installation of stationary louver in the coal-air mixing duct ahead of the feed ducts of a burner. The paper addresses numerical simulation of a two-phase flow of air-pulverized coal mixture in the mixing ducts, analyzing the effects of particle size distribution on pulverized coal distribution to the burner feed ducts. Numerical simulation was performed using the FLUENT 6.3 commercial code and related poly-dispersed flow module, based on the PSI-CELL approach. Numerical experiments have been performed assuming a mono-dispersed solid phase with particle diameter ranging from 45 mm to 1200 mm. Distance between the louver blades and the resulting effect on the flow profile was analyzed as well. Results obtained indicate that the size of coal particles considerably influence the overall solid phase distribution. While fine particles, with diameters at the lower end of the above specified range, almost fully follow the streamlines of the continuous phase, coarser particles, which hit the louver blades, deflect towards the thermal plasma zone. In this manner, a desired phase concentration in the considered zone can be reached. For the said reason, installation of stationary louver have been deemed a very efficient way to induce phase separation, primarily due to more pronounced impact of the installed louver on discrete phase flow then the impact on the flow of the continuous phase.

  3. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  4. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D.K. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  5. Experimental investigations of a four-stroke single cylinder direct injection diesel engine operated on dual fuel mode with producer gas as inducted fuel and Honge oil and its methyl ester (HOME) as injected fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E Society' s College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum, Karnataka (India)

    2008-09-15

    In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. Vegetable oils present a very promising alternative to diesel oil since they are renewable and have similar properties. Vegetable oils offer almost the same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency when used in diesel engine [Srivastava A, Prasad R. Triglycerides-based diesel fuels. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2000;4:111-33.; Vellguth G. Performance of vegetable oils and their monoesters as fuels for diesel engines. SAE 831358, 1983.; Demirbas A. Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods. Int J Prog Energy Combust Sci 2005;31:466-87.; Jajoo BN, Keoti RS. Evaluation of vegetable oils as supplementary fuels for diesel engines. In: Proceedings of the XV national conference on IC engines and combustion, Anna University Chennai, 1997.; Altin R, Cetinkaya S, Yucesu HS. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines. Int J Energy Convers Manage 2000;42:529-38, 248.; Gajendra Babu MK, Chandan Kumar Das LM. Experimental investigations on a Karanja oil methyl ester fuelled DI diesel engine. SAE 2006-01-0238, 2006.; Agarwal D, Kumar Agarwal A. Performance and emission characteristics of a Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Int J Appl Therm Eng 2007;27:2314-23. ]. Research in this direction with edible oils have yielded encouraging results, but their use as fuel for diesel engine has limited applications due to higher domestic requirement [Scholl Kyle W, Sorenson Spencer C. Combustion Analysis of soyabean oil methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. SAE 930934, 1993.; Nwafor OMI. Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in

  6. Coriander seed oil methyl esters as biodiesel fuel: Unique fatty acid composition and excellent oxidative stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Bryan R.; Vaughn, Steven F. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt%) acid. Most of the remaining fatty acid profile consisted of common 18 carbon constituents such as linoleic (9Z,12Z-octadeca-dienoic; 13.0 wt%), oleic (9Z-octadecenoic; 7.6 wt%) and stearic (octadecanoic; 3.1 wt%) acids. A standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst was used to provide C. sativum oil methyl esters (CSME). Acid-catalyzed pretreatment was necessary beforehand to reduce the acid value of the oil from 2.66 to 0.47 mg g{sup -1}. The derived cetane number, kinematic viscosity, and oxidative stability (Rancimat method) of CSME was 53.3, 4.21 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1} (40 C), and 14.6 h (110 C). The cold filter plugging and pour points were -15 C and -19 C, respectively. Other properties such as acid value, free and total glycerol content, iodine value, as well as sulfur and phosphorous contents were acceptable according to the biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Also reported are lubricity, heat of combustion, and Gardner color, along with a comparison of CSME to soybean oil methyl esters (SME). CSME exhibited higher oxidative stability, superior low temperature properties, and lower iodine value than SME. In summary, CSME has excellent fuel properties as a result of its unique fatty acid composition. (author)

  7. Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandgren, Annamaria; Ekdahl, Emma; Sernhed, Kerstin; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assemble and disseminate knowledge about bio-oils and other bio fuels which are used for heat- and power generation or liquid bio fuels/oils that may become interesting in the future. One aim of this study was to give an updated picture of the Swedish market for bio-oils and to provide an overview of practical experience on the usage of bio-oils in the Swedish heat and power industry. In order to show a green profile, bio-oils can be used in the heat and power generation. However, not all bio-oils can be viewed as climate friendly. Some production of bio-oils may actually - if a lifecycle perspective is considered - lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, and there are also ethical issues that need to be considered. The data collection was carried out in three different fields. The objective of the first part was to create an overview of the Swedish market for liquid bio fuels/oils for heat and power production. The second part of the study aimed to clarify the issues surrounding environmental and ethical issues associated with the use of different bio-oils. A selection of oil crops for a closer study was made based on production volume (soybean, palm oil and rapeseed) and expected future potential (jatropha). This part of the study was based on a literature review. In the third part of the study technical and practical experiences from using bio-oils in heat and power production were studied. The interviews made with purchasing managers in the second part gave valuable information on which utilities would be the most interesting to interview for the study of technical and practical experiences, where interviews were carried out with persons familiar with the daily operation of the plant. The use of liquid bio fuels was about 4.3 % of total fuel use in Swedish district heating production in 2007 (1.2 % pine oil and 3.0 % other bio-oil). In other words, it is mainly bio-oils that have been used and not other types of liquid

  8. COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer Sivy; Alan Sayre; John Boyle

    2003-07-01

    Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), the Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NOx control. The system was comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. The technology's emission target is achieving 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu for full-scale boilers. Development of the low-NOx burner technology has been a focus in B&W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner (see Figure 1.1) is B&W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by diverting air away from the core of the flame, which reduces local stoichiometry during coal devolatilization and, thereby, reduces initial NO{sub x} formation. Figure 1.2 shows the historical NO{sub x} emission levels from different B&W burners. Figure 1.2 shows that based on three large-scale commercial installations of the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with OFA ports, using Western subbituminous coal, the NO{sub x} emissions ranged from 0.16 to 0.18 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. It appears that with continuing research and development the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) emission level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu is within the reach of combustion modification techniques for boilers using western U.S. subbituminous coals. Although NO{sub x} emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing OTR emission level with subbituminous coals, the utility boiler owners that use bituminous coals can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them.

  9. Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil using radiation-grafted fibrous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Yuji; Saiki, Seiichi; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Seko, Noriaki

    2018-02-01

    Waste cooking oil, which can be used as a raw material for biodiesel fuel (BDF), contains two kinds of oil components: triglycerides (TGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs). Therefore, both alkaline-type and acid-type catalysts are needed to produce BDF from waste cooking oil. In this study, an alkaline-type grafted fibrous catalyst bearing OH- ions was synthesized by radiation-induced emulsion grafting of 4-chloromethylstyrene onto a polyethylene-coated polypropylene (PE/PP) nonwoven fabric, amination with trimethylamine, and further treatment with NaOH. Furthermore, an acid-type catalyst bearing H+ ions was synthesized by radiation-induced emulsion grafting of ethyl p-styrenesulfonate onto a PE/PP nonwoven fabric, saponification with NaOH, and protonation with HNO3. The OH- and H+ densities of the grafted fibrous catalysts were controlled by the grafting yield. The maximum OH- and H+ densities of the catalysts were 3.6 mmol-OH-/g-catalyst and 3.4 mmol-H+/g-catalyst, respectively. The performances of the catalysts were evaluated in the batchwise transesterification of TGs and ethanol, and the batchwise esterification of FFAs and ethanol. In both cases, TGs and FFAs were gradually converted into BDF. The mixed oil and four actual waste cooking oils, which contained both TGs and FFAs, were completely converted into BDF by sequential catalytic reactions with the acid-type grafted fibrous catalyst and then the alkaline-type grafted fibrous catalyst.

  10. Fast preparation of the seawater accommodated fraction of heavy fuel oil by sonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elordui-Zapatarietxe, Saioa; Albaigés, Joan; Rosell-Melé, Antoni

    2008-12-01

    The seawater accommodated fraction (SWAF) of oil is widely used for the assessment of its toxicity. However, its preparation in the laboratory is time consuming, and results from different authors are difficult to compare as preparation methods vary. Here we describe a simple and fast set up, using sonication, to produce reproducible SWAF in the laboratory. The system was tested on heavy fuel oil placed on seawater at different salinity and temperature conditions. Maximum dissolution of the oil was achieved after 24h, independently of both seawater salinity and temperature. Our findings are discussed in relation to the fate of the oil from the deep spill of the Prestige tanker. Changes in temperature in the open ocean are bound to have larger impact in the concentration of the SWAF than the corresponding values of sea water salinity. We anticipate that in this type of incident the highest SWAF, as the oil reaches the sea surface, should be expected in the warmest and less saline waters of the water column.

  11. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  12. Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Koua, Kamenan Blaise; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Sako, Aboubakar; Fofana, Alhassane [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Atmosphere et de Mecanique des Fluides, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast)

    2010-12-15

    High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim of this paper. The comparison between the HHVs predicted by the method and those obtained experimentally gives an average bias error of -0.84% and an average absolute error of 1.71%. These values show the utility, the validity and the applicability of the method to vegetable oils and their derivatives. (author)

  13. Using pre-heated sunflower oil as fuel in a diesel cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalibera, H.C.; Neto, P.H.W.; Martini, J. [State Univ. of Ponta Grossa (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which 100 per cent sunflower oil was used in a tractor to compare its performance with petroleum diesel. Work trials were carried out for 50 hours on a single cylinder direct injection micro-tractor. In the first trial (E-1), the temperature of the vegetable oil was the same as the air temperature of the engine, while in the second trial (E-2), the oil was heated to a temperature of about 90 degrees C. Only petrodiesel was used in the third (E-3) trial. The head gasket burned in the first test after 50 hours of operation. An increase in compression was noted during trials E-1 and E-2. The carbonized mass in the nozzle of the E-2 trial was 81.5 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The carbonized mass in the intake system of the E-2 trial was 51.7 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The exhaust system of the E-2 trial was 33.4 per cent lower than that of the E-1 trial. For the combustion chamber, the carbonization of the E-1 trial was nearly the same as in the E-2 trial. The hourly fuel consumption of the E-1 trial was 2.3 per cent higher than petrodiesel, while E-2 trial was 0.7 per cent higher than petrodiesel. In the first 2 tests, the lubricating oil was contaminated by vegetable oil fuel. In general, results from the first trial were better than results from the second trial.

  14. Industrial thermal oxidation with an innovative burner management system; Industrielle thermische Nachverbrennung mit innovativem Brenner-Managementsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnoss, T. [Siemens Building Technologies HVAC Product GmbH, Rastatt (Germany); Pilz, R. [Control and Heating-Systems, Felsberg-Gensungen (Switzerland); Saenger, P. [Siemens Building Technologies HVAC Product GmbH, Frankfurt am Main(Germany)

    2006-06-15

    In view of rising energy costs and the emission limits stipulated by the latest 'TA-Luft' (Technical Directive: Prevention of Air Pollution) and 'BImSchV' (Federal Immission Control Ordinance in force in Germany), industrial thermal oxidation plants must be either completely replaced or a new burner system must be installed to ensure compliance with the latest environmental standards that demand restriction of pollutant emissions. Replacement of the original burner control system by a state-of-the-art burner management system improves not only the combustion process and the flue gas quality but also saves energy and thus costs through the use of a thermal incinerator. One of the key features of a thermal oxidation plant is a new technology used for controlling and monitoring the burner. The following article examines the innovative LMV5.. burner management system which offers a host of functions, such as burner control, electronic fuel / air ratio control, valve proving and load control - components which, previously, had to be separately assembled and electrically interconnected. (orig.)

  15. Biodiesel production from crude palm oil and evaluation of butanol extraction and fuel properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabbe, E.; Nolasco-Hipolito, C.; Kobayashi, Genta; Sonomoto, Kenji; Ishizaki, Ayaaki [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Laboratory of Microbial Technology

    2001-09-01

    Three principal variables, molar ratio of methanol to oil, amount of catalyst, and reaction temperature, affecting the yield of acid-catalyzed production of methyl ester (biodiesel) from crude palm oil were investigated. The biodiesel was then used as an extractant in batch and continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation, and its fuel properties and that of the biodiesel-ABE product mix extracted from the batch culture analyzed. The optimized variables, 40:1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 5% H{sub 2}S0{sub 4} (vol/wt) reacted at 95{sup o}C for 9 h, gave a maximum ester yield of 97%. Biodiesel preferentially extracted butanol, and enhanced its production in the batch culture from 10 to 12 g 1{sup -1}. The fuel properties of biodiesel and the biodiesel-ABE mix were comparable to that of No.2 diesel, but their cetane numbers and the boiling points of the 90% fractions were higher. Therefore, they could serve as efficient No. 2 diesel substitutes. The biodiesel-ABE mixture had the highest cetane number. (author)

  16. Study of the competitive viability of minority fuel oil marketers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-30

    Previous studies on the competitive viability of the fuel oil heating market had addressed some of the unique problems facing minority fuel oil marketers (MFMs) within the total market sector (TMS). This study focused on identifying and developing quantitative information on MFMs in the TMS. The specific objective was to determine whether the business problems experienced by MFMs were directly related to their minority status or were characterstic of any firm in the TMS operating under comparable conditions. As an overall conclusion, thorough investigation of the MFMs considered to constitute the universe of minoriy firms within the TMS did not reveal any evidence of overt discrimination affecting the competitive viability of MFMs. Upon analysis, the problems reported by MFMs could not be reasonably ascribed to discrimination on the basis of their minority business status. The study, however, did point up problems unique to MFMs as the result of typical operational and financial characteristics. For example, MFMs, compared to the TMS norm, have not been in the market as long and are smaller in terms of total assets, number of employees, number of trucks, number of accounts and annual volume of oil delivered. Their primary customers are low-income families in urban areas. Financial indicators suggest that the average MFM does not have long-term financial stability. The basis for this overall conclusion, derived by analyses of information from MFMs, as well as many independent sources, is summarized in three parts: (1) MFM industry profile; (2) financial analyses; and (3) problem analyses.

  17. Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids. Application of standard fuel oil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Koponen, P.; Levander, J.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The main purpose of the study was to test the applicability of standard fuel oil methods developed for petroleum-based fuels to pyrolysis liquids. In addition, research on sampling, homogeneity, stability, miscibility and corrosivity was carried out. The standard methods have been tested for several different pyrolysis liquids. Recommendations on sampling, sample size and small modifications of standard methods are presented. In general, most of the methods can be used as such but the accuracy of the analysis can be improved by minor modifications. Fuel oil analyses not suitable for pyrolysis liquids have been identified. Homogeneity of the liquids is the most critical factor in accurate analysis. The presence of air bubbles may disturb in several analyses. Sample preheating and prefiltration should be avoided when possible. The former may cause changes in the composition and structure of the pyrolysis liquid. The latter may remove part of organic material with particles. The size of the sample should be determined on the basis of the homogeneity and the water content of the liquid. The basic analyses of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) include water, pH, solids, ash, Conradson carbon residue, heating value, CHN, density, viscosity, pourpoint, flash point, and stability. Additional analyses are carried out when needed. (orig.) 53 refs.

  18. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  19. Thermal performances and CO emissions of gas-fired cooker-top burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.B.; Wong, T.T.; Leung, C.W. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Department of Mechanical Engineering; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-12-15

    Domestic cooker-top burners operate at low pressure and low Reynolds numbers. They do not usually have a flue, and are fired with impinging premixed natural-gas/air flames. There are two major considerations in using such burners, namely, poor energy utilization and indoor-air pollution. Because of the large number of cooker-top burners being used, even a slight improvement in thermal performance resulting from a better design will lead to significant reductions of domestic and commercial energy consumptions. In view of the need to raise the thermal performance and to reduce indoor-air pollution, advanced statistical experimental designs have been applied in the present study to evaluate the individual and combined effects of the major cooker-top design parameters. The experimental study was carried out using a 4-factor and 3-level Box-Behnken design-method, utilizing a premixed gas-fired impinging-flame. A cooker-top burner, with circular nozzles with an inner diameter of 3mm, was used in this experiment. Design parameters of the burner under consideration include Reynolds number, equivalence ratio, nozzle-to-plate distance, and jet-to-jet spacing. Based on an analysis of the experimental data, variations of the thermal efficiency and the carbon monoxide (CO) emission with each of the above mentioned parameters have been reported. Multiple regression models of the thermal efficiency and the CO emissions were obtained in terms of all the major design parameters. Some of the 2-factor interactions on the thermal efficiency and the CO emissions were significant. The findings are important for the designer of a fuel-efficient and environmentally-friendly cooker-top burner. (author)

  20. Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2003-06-19

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

  1. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner. ...

  2. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner. ...

  3. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  4. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  5. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and bioconcentration-retention studies with No. 2 fuel oil and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melzian, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Adult male blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) were exposed in a flow-through system to five concentrations, nominally 0.0 (control), 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 ppm of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of No. 2 fuel oil. The 96-hour LC/sub 5//sup 0/ was 14.1 ppm. All crabs in the 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 ppm tanks exhibited abnormal behavior prior to death including periodic beating of the maxillipedal flagella, hyperactivity, ataxia, and equilibrium loss. The ability of adult male and female blue crabs to bioconcentrate and retain No. 2 fuel oil compounds was examined after crabs were exposed for two weeks or 30-35 days in flow-through systems to three sublethal No. 2 fuel oil WAF concentrations, nominally 0.00 (control), 0.01, or 1.0 ppm. Gill, hepatopancreas, and muscle tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Trace amounts of fuel oil hydrocarbons were detected in gill and hepatopancreas at 0.01 ppm exposures. All tissues bioconcentrated fuel oil compounds during 1.0 ppm WAF exposure periods, and with the exception of the gills, little depuration or metabolism of the bioconcentrated compounds occurred during a period of 30 days in clean, running seawater.

  6. Accumulation and retention of No. 2 fuel-oil compounds in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus' rathbun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melzian, B.D.; Lake, J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine if Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) can bioaccumulate and retain complex mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons, adult crabs were exposed for 14 days or 30-35 days in continuous flow-through seawater systems to three sublethal concentrations, nominally 0.00 (control), 0.01, or 1.0 ppm (mg/liter), of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of Number (No.) 2 fuel oil. Crabs exposed for 14 days were subsequently exposed to clean running seawater for a 30 day depuration period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and muscle tissue samples were collected from control, WAF exposed, and depurated crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography and/or gas chomatography-mass spectrometry. No. 2 fuel-oil compounds were not detected in any of the tissues of the control crabs. Trace amounts of fuel-oil compounds were detected in gill and hepatopancreas tissues collected from crabs exposed to the 0.01 ppm WAF and no fuel-oil compounds were detected in muscle tissues. All tissues of crabs exposed to the 1.0 ppm WAF accumulated No. 2 fuel-oil compounds and considerable amounts remained in hepatopancreas and gill tissues following depuration for 30 days in clean seawater.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and metakaolin based geopolymer for possible application in nanocoating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ihsan Ullah; Bhat, A. H.; Masset, Patrick J.; Khan, Farman Ullah; Rehman, Wajid Ur

    2016-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize highly amorphous geopolymer from palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and metakaolin, to be used as nanocoating. Geopolymers are man-made aluminosilicate materials that are amorphous analogues of zeolites. The geopolymers were made by condensing a mixture of raw materials metakaolin and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) with alkaline activator at a fixed ratio at room temperature. The kaolin type clay was calcined at 700 °C for 4hrs to transform it into amorphous metakaolin which is more reactive precursor for geopolymer formation. The characteristics of metakaolin and geopolymers (metakaolin and palm oil fuel ash based geopolymers) were analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). FTIR revealed the presence of Al-O and Si-O stretching vibrations of amorphous alumino-silicate structure for metakaolin, palm oil fuel ash and geopolymers. SEM-EDX images showed the presence of reaction product complementary to NASH (N = Na2O, A = Al2O3, S = SiO2, H = H2O) solid. The resulting geopolymers that were synthesized with NaOH/Na2SiO3 solution cured at 60 °C for 3 days. The results demonstrated the suitability of metakaolin and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) for synthesis of geopolymer at room temperatures.

  8. Production and Characterisation of Microfine Sized Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA Originated from Bau, Lundu Palm Oil Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an effective and economical way for laboratory scale production of micro fine sized palm oil fuel ash (POFA using an electric powder grinder. The raw POFA obtained from the palm oil mill is initially grinded by using Los Angeles abrasion machine, and then sieved using 150 μm sieve before it is burned in a furnace at 500°C. The burned POFA is then grinded using electric powder grinder to obtain the targeted micro fine sized. The physical, morphological and chemical properties of the micro fine sized POFA produced are analysed in the form of cement paste using Particle Size Analyzer (PSA, nitrogen sorption by using BET method, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. The results show that 96% micro fine sized POFA is produced when using the optimum grinding process. The microstructural analyses of cement paste with 20% micro fine sized POFA replacement give the optimum results that contribute to higher compressive strength. The overall results of this research show that the optimum grinding process by using electric powder grinder is relevant and can be used as pioneering work in the concrete production industry.

  9. Modification of Grout Properties in Prepacked Aggregate Concrete Incorporating Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hodjati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prepacked aggregate concrete (PAC is a type of concrete that is placed in two stages where the coarse aggregates are first placed inside the formworks and then the grout is pumped from underneath through a manual pump. Grout properties including density, grout consistency, bleeding, and compressive strength are of great importance in PAC. Such properties could be improved by application of pozzolanic materials like palm oil fuel ash. This paper is aimed at finding the most optimum percentage of POFA replacement by weight of cement. It was concluded that 30% POFA replacement yielded the most optimum results.

  10. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE WITHVEGETABLE OIL: AN ALTERNATIVE BIO-FUEL SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Azad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study offers comprehensive details on the use of bio-fuel as a viable and alternative source of energy. The bio-fuel was prepared from vegetable oil, i.e., mustard oil and tested in a diesel engine in both pure form and as a diesel blend. The mustard oil blend proportions were 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and named as bio-diesel blends B20, B30, B40 and B50. A fuel-testing laboratory determined the properties of the pure mustard oil fuel and its blends, i.e., density, viscosity, dynamic viscosity, carbon residue, flash point, fire point and calorific value. An assessment of engine performance, i.e., brake horsepower (bhp, brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc, brake thermal efficiency (bte and brake mean effective pressure (bmep etc., was carried out for pure diesel, pure mustard and the blends, both in laboratory conditions and under British Standard (BS conditions. Finally, an analysis and comparison was made of the effects of the various fuels on the different engine properties.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of highway transportation fuels from shale and coal oils: project identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Second annual report, March 20, 1980-March 19, 1981. [Broadcut fuel mixtures of petroleum, shale, and coal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Project work is reported for the formulation and testing of diesel and broadcut fuels containing components from petroleum, shale oil, and coal liquids. Formulation of most of the fuels was based on refinery modeling studies in the first year of the project. Product blends were prepared with a variety of compositions for use in this project and to distribute to other, similar research programs. Engine testing was conducted in a single-cylinder CLR engine over a range of loads and speeds. Relative performance and emissions were determined in comparison with typical petroleum diesel fuel. With the eight diesel fuels tested, it was found that well refined shale oil products show only minor differences in engine performance and emissions which are related to differences in boiling range. A less refined coal distillate can be used at low concentrations with normal engine performance and increased emissions of particulates and hydrocarbons. Higher concentrations of coal distillate degrade both performance and emissions. Broadcut fuels were tested in the same engine with variable results. All fuels showed increased fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions. The increase was greater with higher naphtha content or lower cetane number of the blends. Particulates and nitrogen oxides were high for blends with high 90% distillation temperatures. Operation may have been improved by modifying fuel injection. Cetane and distillation specifications may be advisable for future blends. Additional multi-cylinder and durability testing is planned using diesel fuels and broadcut fuels. Nine gasolines are scheduled for testing in the next phase of the project.

  12. Preparation and power consumption of surfactant-fuel oil-water emulsions using axial, radial, and mixed flow impellers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L.G.; Zamora, E.R. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico). Coordinacion de Ambiental, Intituto de Ingenieria

    2002-12-01

    Surfactant-oil-water emulsions could have applications in enhanced oil recovery and the bio-desulfurization process applied to crude oil and some fractions. A simple way to prepare oil in water (O/W) emulsions is using a tank and an agitation device. The aim of this work is to propose a technology to prepare surfactant-fuel oil-water emulsions by means of a system involving a tank equipped with baffles, and an agitation device. The employed fuel oil was a high-viscosity fraction, which makes it difficult to handle. Axial, radial, and mixed flow impellers were assessed in the preparation of O/W emulsions, with and without the presence of baffles. Sixteen commercial surfactants were evaluated on the O/W emulsion formation. The effect of the storage temperature on the emulsions stability was assessed. The presence of salt on the surfactant-fuel oil-water emulsion was also investigated. Power vs. Reynolds numbers, extremely important data for the scaling up of the process, were calculated in basis of the power drawn when preparing the emulsions. Total consumption of energy applied to the system, as well as pumping capacity were measured and related to the quality of the O/W emulsions obtained. 21 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Effects of switching to lower sulfur marine fuel oil on air quality in the San Francisco Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ling; Fairley, David; Kleeman, Michael J; Harley, Robert A

    2013-09-17

    Ocean-going vessels burning high-sulfur heavy fuel oil are an important source of air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Beginning in July 2009, an emission control area was put into effect at ports and along the California coastline, requiring use of lower sulfur fuels in place of heavy fuel oil in main engines of ships. To assess impacts of the fuel changes on air quality at the Port of Oakland and in the surrounding San Francisco Bay area, we analyzed speciated fine particle concentration data from four urban sites and two more remote sites. Measured changes in concentrations of vanadium, a specific marker for heavy fuel oil combustion, are related to overall changes in aerosol emissions from ships. We found a substantial reduction in vanadium concentrations after the fuel change and a 28-72% decrease in SO2 concentrations, with the SO2 decrease varying depending on proximity to shipping lanes. We estimate that the changes in ship fuel reduced ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations at urban sites in the Bay area by about 3.1 ± 0.6% or 0.28 ± 0.05 μg/m(3). The largest contributing factor to lower PM mass concentrations was reductions in particulate sulfate. Absolute sulfate reductions were fairly consistent across sites, whereas trace metal reductions were largest at a monitoring site in West Oakland near the port.

  14. Effects of antioxidant additives on exhaust emissions reduction in compression ignition engine fueled with methyl ester of annona oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, biodiesel is a cleaner burning alternative fuel to the Neat diesel fuel. However, several studies are pointed out that increase in NOx emission for biodiesel when compared with the Neat diesel fuel. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effect of antioxidant (p-phenylenediamine on engine emissions of a Diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of annona oil. The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (0.010 to 0.040% (w/w with methyl ester of annona oil. Result shows that antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+P200 is effective in control of NOx and HC emission of methyl ester of annona oil fuelled engine without doing any engine modification.

  15. Bioaccumulation and subacute toxicity of mechanically and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil in sea urchin (Glyptocidaris crenulari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailin Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have a disastrous ecological impact on ecosystems but few data are available for the effects of dispersed oil on benthic marine organisms. In order to provide information for assessment, we analysed the hydrocarbon compositions of the mechanically dispersed water accommodated fraction (MDWAF and the chemically dispersed water accommodated fraction (CDWAF of No. 120 fuel oil, their bioaccumulation, and DNA damage related to oil exposure, using the sea urchin as a sentinel organism. The results show that the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the tissues of sea urchin exposed to the CDWAF is higher than that of those exposed to the MDWAF. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay results also indicated higher DNA damage from exposure to the CDWAF of oil. Thus, dispersants should be applied with caution in oil spill accidents.

  16. Pressure Melting and Ice Skating / Bunsen Burner

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Pressure Melting and Ice Skating / Bunsen Burner - Revisited. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 71-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0071-0078. Resonance ...

  17. On Bunsen Burners, Bacteria and the Bible

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. On Bunsen Burners, Bacteria and the Bible. Milind Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 84-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/02/0084-0089 ...

  18. Burner Characteristics for Activated Carbon Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zakaria Supaat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization process has become an important stage in developing activated carbon. However, existing burner are not efficient in time production which take 24 hours to15 days for charcoal production. Therefore, new design of burner/kilns is quite needed in order to produce larger number of charcoal in short time production, to improve charcoal quality regarding to the smooth surface area and pore volume. This research proposed new design burner which divided into two types which are vertical and horizontal types. Vertical is not completed by auto-rotating system while horizontal type is complete by auto-rotating and fume handling system. It developed using several equipment such as welding, oxy-cutting, drilling grinding and cutting machine. From the result of carbonization process shows that coconut shell charcoal need shorter time of 30 minutes as compared to palm shell charcoal of 2 h to completely carbonized. This result claim that the new design better than existing kiln that need longer time up to 24 h. The result of the palm and coconut shell charcoal believe will produce better properties of activated carbon in large surface area and higher total volume of pores. Therefore, this burner is high recommended for producing palm and coconut shell charcoal as well as other bio-based material.

  19. Improvement of cyclic operation on pulverized coal fired boilers by applying wide range burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Kiga, Takashi; Koyata, Kazuo

    1999-07-01

    There are recently urgent requirements to operate pulverized coal fired power plants as well as oil fired units cyclically or at low loads. In order to cope with this, wide range burners (WRB) were jointly developed to obtain a high turndown operation by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). In accordance with the results of various fundamental researches, including combustion tests with a tunnel furnace of 12 MW[thermal], it was confirmed the stability of the flame and the combustion characteristics at low loads as well as that of ordinary burners. The WRB have been applied to the new actual boilers that are Saijo Power Station NO. 2 unit of Sikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Nanao-Ota Power Station NO. 2 unit of Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc. and Miike Power Station NO. 1 unit of Miike Thermal Power Co., Ltd.. The results of the trial operation have shown that the minimum burner load was below half of that of conventional burners, and accordingly the pulverized coal firing minimum load could be reduced. This paper explains about the cyclic operation of their boilers and the improvement effect by applying WRBs.

  20. Electromagnetic imaging of a fuel oil spill at Sandia/CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartel, L.C.

    1997-04-01

    The multifrequency, multisource integral wave migration method commonly used in the analysis of seismic data is extended to electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical electric source (VES). The integral wave-migration method is a numerical reconstruction procedure utilizing Green`s theorem where the fields are migrated (extrapolated) from the measuring aperture into the interior of the earth. To form the image, the approach used here is to Fourier transform the constructed image from frequency domain to time domain and set time equal to zero. The image is formed when the in-phase part (real part) is a maximum or the out-of-phase (imaginary part) is a minimum; ie., the EM wave is phase coherent at its origination. In the application here, the secondary magnetic fields are treated as scattered fields. To determine the conductivity, the measured data migrated to a pixel location are equated to calculated data migrated to the same pixel. The conductivity is determined from solving a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind by solving a system of linear algebraic equations. The multifrequency, multisource integral wave-migration method is applied to calculated model data and to actual field data acquired to map a diesel fuel oil spill. For the application discussed here, a two dimensional resistivity slice is calculated from the solution to the Fredholm integral equation. The resistivity image of the fuel oil agrees with the known location.

  1. Short term endurance results on a single cylinder diesel engine fueled with upgraded bio oil biodiesel emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R.; Murugan, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper deliberates the endurance test outcomes obtained from a single cylinder, diesel engine fueled with an upgraded bio oil biodiesel emulsion. In this investigation a bio oil obtained by pyrolysis of woody biomass was upgraded with acid treatment. The resulted bio oil was emulsified with addition of biodiesel and suitable surfactant which is termed as ATJOE15. The main objective of the endurance test was to evaluate the wear characteristics of the engine components and lubrication oil properties, when the engine is fueled with the ATJOE15 emulsion. The photographic views taken before and after the end of 100 hrs endurance test, and visual inspection of the engine components, wear and carbon deposit results, are discussed in this paper.

  2. The guava tree as bioindicator during the process of fuel replacement of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simone F; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2013-05-01

    This study was performed to verify whether the exchange of the fuel used in the boilers of a crude oil refinery located in Cubatão (SE Brazil) would result in alterations on gas exchange, growth and leaf injuries in saplings of Psidium guajava 'Paluma'. The purpose of the refinery was to reduce the SO2 emission, but using natural gas as fuel could increase the concentrations of O3 precursors in the atmosphere. Thus a biomonitoring was performed with a native species sensitive to O3. The plants were exposed in five areas (CM1, CM5, CEPEMA, Centro, and RP) at different distances to the refinery, both before and after the fuel exchange. We performed six exposures under environmental conditions, with length of ca. 90 days each. With the utilization of natural gas, the saplings presented reductions in carbon assimilation rate under saturating light conditions (Asat, μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1)) and the stomatal conductance (gs, molH2Om(-2)s(-1)), and increase in height, number of leaves, and dry mass of leaves and shoots. There were also reductions in root dry mass and in the root/shoot ratio. The saplings also presented O3-induced leaf injuries. The responses of P. guajava 'Paluma' were altered after the fuel exchange as a result of a new combination of pollutants in the atmosphere. The fuel exchange has not resulted in environmental benefit to the surrounding forest; it has only altered the contamination profile of the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of oil/water and octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous solutions from four fossil fuels. [MS thesis; in oil-water and octanol-water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.L.

    1984-07-01

    Liquid fossil fuels, both petroleum and synthetically derived oils, are exceedingly complex mixtures of thousands of components. The effect of many of these energy-related components on the environment is largely unknown. Octanol/water distribution coefficients relate both to toxicity and to the bioaccumulation potential of chemical components. Use of these partition data in conjunction with component concentrations in the oils in environmental models provides important information on the fate of fossil fuel components when released to the environment. Octanol/water distribution data are not available for many energy-related organic compounds, and those data that are available have been determined for individual components in simple, one-component octanol/water equilibrium mixtures. In this study, methods for determining many octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous extracts of oil products were developed. Sample aqueous mixtures were made by equilibrating liquid fossil fuels with distilled water. This approach has the advantage of detecting interactions between components of interest and other sample components. Compound types studied included phenols, nitrogen bases, hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocyclic compounds, and carboxylic acids. Octanol/water distribution coefficients that were determined in this study ranged from 9.12 for aniline to 67,600 for 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene. Within a compound type, distribution coefficients increased logarithmically with increasing alkyl substitution and molecular weight. Additionally, oil/water distribution data were determined for oil components. These data are useful in predicting maximum environmental concentrations in water columns. 96 references, 26 figures, and 40 tables.

  4. The army put trust in wood fuel to warm-up its troops; L'armee fait confiance au bois-energie pour chauffer ses troupes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-02-01

    The military camp of Valdahon (Doubs, France) is sited in a rude climate area. It comprises a hundred of buildings permanently occupied by about 1200 people. The old heavy-oil boiler plant has been replaced by two wood fueled boilers of 2.8 MW each. Two domestic fuel boilers with low-NO{sub x} burners of 4.1 MW each ensure the complement in case of acute coldness. The hydraulic network and its 60 supplied substations have been renovated too. The wood-fueled boilers ensure more than 80% of the needs. Both the wood-fueled and domestic fuel boilers have been over-dimensioned for safety reasons and for a possible complete substitution of one fuel by the other. Each wood-fueled boiler is equipped with a de-dusting system (multi-cyclone filter and bag filter). A centralized technical management system optimizes the regulation of the installation. (J.S.)

  5. Responses of conventional and molecular biomarkers in turbot Scophthalmus maximus exposed to heavy fuel oil no. 6 and styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pamela; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Orbea, Amaia; Theron, Michael; Le Floch, Stéphane; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2012-07-15

    Several accidental spills in European coastal areas have resulted in the release of different toxic compounds into the marine environment, such as heavy fuel oil type no. 6 in the "Erika" and "Prestige" oil spills and the highly toxic styrene after the loss of the "Ievoli Sun". There is a clear need to develop tools that might allow assessing the biological impact of these accidental spills on aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the short-term effects and recovery after exposure of juvenile fish (Scophthalmus maximus) to heavy fuel oil no. 6 and styrene by using a battery of molecular, cell and tissue level biomarkers. Turbots were exposed to styrene for 7 days and to the diluted soluble fraction of the oil (10%) for 14 days, and then allowed to recover in clean seawater for the same time periods. cyp1a1 transcript was overexpressed in turbots after 3 and 14 days of exposure to heavy fuel oil, whereas ahr transcription was not modulated after heavy fuel oil and styrene exposure. pparα transcription level was significantly up-regulated after 3 days of treatment with styrene. Liver activity of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) was significantly induced after 14 days of oil exposure, but it was not affected by styrene. Hepatocyte lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) was significantly reduced after exposure to both treatments, indicating that the tested compounds significantly impaired fish health. Both AOX and LMS values returned to control levels after the recovery period. No differences in gamete development were observed between fuel- or styrene- exposed fish and control fish, and vitellogenin plasma levels were low, suggesting no xenoestrogenic effects of fuel oil or styrene. While styrene did not cause any increase in the prevalence of liver histopathological alterations, prevalence of extensive cell vacuolization increased after exposure to heavy fuel oil for 14 days. In conclusion, the suite of selected biomarkers proved to be

  6. EXPERIMENTAL COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A HSDI DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN AGUDELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB, No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively. To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant power output without carrying out any modification of the engine or its fuel injection system. As the POB content in the blend increased, there was a slight reduction in the fuel/air equivalence ratio from 0.39 (B0 to 0.37 (B100, an advance of injection timing and of start of combustion. Additionally, brake thermal efficiency, combustion duration, maximum mean temperature, temperature at exhaust valve opening and exhaust gas efficiency decreased; while the peak pressure, exergy destruction rate and specific fuel consumption increased. With diesel fuel and the blends B20 and B50 the same combustion stages were noticed. However, as a consequence of the differences pointed out, the thermal history of the process was affected. The diffusion combustion stage became larger with POB content. For B100 no premixed stage was observed.

  7. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    OpenAIRE

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan; Govindan Nagarajan

    2010-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied t...

  8. Fuel and engine characterization study of catalytically cracked waste transformer oil

    KAUST Repository

    Prasanna Raj Yadav, S.

    2015-05-01

    This research work targets on the effective utilization of WTO (waste transformer oil) in a diesel engine and thereby, reducing the environmental problems caused by its disposal into open land. The novelty of the work lies in adoption of catalytic cracking process to chemically treat WTO, wherein waste fly ash has been considered as a catalyst for the first time. Interestingly, both the oil and catalyst used are waste products, enabling reduction in total fuel cost and providing additional benefit of effective waste management. With the considerable token that use of activated fly ash as catalyst requires lower reaction temperature, catalytic cracking was performed only in the range of 350-400°C. As a result of this fuel treatment process, the thermal and physical properties of CCWTO (catalytically cracked waste transformer oil), as determined by ASTM standard methods, were found to be agreeable for its use in a diesel engine. Further, FTIR analysis of CCWTO discerned the presence of essential hydrocarbons such as carbon and hydrogen. From the experimental investigation of CCWTO - diesel blends in a diesel engine, performance and combustion characteristics were shown to be improved, with a notable increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) and PHRR (peak heat release rate) for CCWTO 50 by 7.4% and 13.2%, respectively, than that of diesel at full load condition. In the same note, emissions such as smoke, HC (hydrocarbon) and CO (carbon monoxide) were noted to be reduced at the expense of increased NOx (nitrogen oxides) emission. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lipids of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 with biodiesel potential: Oil yield, fatty acid profile, fuel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, Mahesh; Ghosh, Debashish

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the single cell oil (SCO), fatty acid profile, and biodiesel fuel properties of the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 grown on the pentose fraction of acid pre-treated sugarcane bagasse as a carbon source. The yeast biomass from nitrogen limiting culture conditions (15.3 g L -1 ) was able to give the SCO yield of 0.17 g g -1 of xylose consumed. Acid digestion, cryo-pulverization, direct in situ transesterification, and microwave assisted techniques were evaluated in comparison to the Soxhlet extraction for the total intracellular yeast lipid recovery. The significant differences were observed among the SCO yield of different methods and the in situ transesterification stood out most for effective yeast lipid recovery generating 97.23 mg lipid as FAME per gram dry biomass. The method was fast and consumed lesser solvent with greater FAME yield while accessing most cellular fatty acids present. The yeast lipids showed the major presence of monounsaturated fatty esters (35-55%; 18:1, 16:1) suitable for better ignition quality, oxidative stability, and cold-flow properties of the biodiesel. Analyzed fuel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number) of the yeast oil were in good agreement with international biodiesel standards. The sugarcane bagasse-derived xylose and the consolidated comparative assessment of lab scale SCO recovery methods highlight the necessity for careful substrate choice and validation of analytical method in yeast oil research. The use of less toxic co-solvents together with solvent recovery and recycling would help improve process economics for sustainable production of biodiesel from the hemicellulosic fraction of cheap renewable sources. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Heavy fuel oil pyrolysis and combustion: kinetics and evolved gases investigated by TGA-FTIR

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2017-08-24

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) obtained from crude oil distillation is a widely used fuel in marine engines and power generation technologies. In the present study, the pyrolysis and combustion of a Saudi Arabian HFO in nitrogen and in air, respectively, were investigated using non-isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. TG and DTG (differential thermo-gravimetry) were used for the kinetic analysis and to study the mass loss characteristics due to the thermal degradation of HFO at temperatures up to 1000°C and at various heating rates of 5, 10 and 20°C/min, in air and N2 atmospheres. FTIR analysis was then performed to study the composition of the evolved gases. The TG/DTG curves during HFO combustion show the presence of three distinct stages: the low temperature oxidation (LTO); fuel decomposition (FD); and high temperature oxidation (HTO) stages. The TG/DTG curves obtained during HFO pyrolysis show the presence of two devolatilization stages similar to that seen in the LTO stage of HFO combustion. Apart from this, the TG/DTG curves obtained during HFO combustion and pyrolysis differ significantly. Kinetic analysis was also performed using the distributed activation energy model, and the kinetic parameter (E) was determined for the different stages of HFO combustion and pyrolysis processes, yielding a good agreement with the measured TG profiles. FTIR analysis showed the signal of CO2 as approximately 50 times more compared to the other pollutant gases under combustion conditions. Under pyrolytic conditions, the signal intensity of alkane functional groups was the highest followed by alkenes. The TGA-FTIR results provide new insights into the overall HFO combustion processes, which can be used to improve combustor designs and control emissions.

  11. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels.

  12. BEHAVIOUR OF ZEOLITE 4A IN THE EXTRACTION PROCESS OF THE DIESEL LIKE FUEL OBTAINED FROM WASTE ENGINE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. KANNAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to recycle and reuse the WEO as an alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI engine. For this purpose the WEO was cracked in the catalytic fuel reformer by using the catalyst zeolite 4A. The output of the catalytic fuel reformer is in the gaseous form which is condensed using water cooled condenser. The oil obtained after condensing the reformulated gas is named as WEOZ. To know the suitability of using the WEOZ as alternate fuel for IC engines, the different properties of WEOZ were determined. The different properties include specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, flash and fire point, gross calorific value, pour point, density. The properties of WEOZ were compared to that of diesel fuel. All the fuel properties are closer to that of the neat diesel fuel. The FTIR analysis was also be conducted for diesel and WEOZ. The result of FTIR analysis was compared to that of diesel fuel. The FTIR result revealed that the major transmittance spectrums peak for diesel and WEOZ were alkanes and the presence of the hydrocarbon was clearly seen in the WEOZ. Based on this investigation, it was suggested that WEOZ has a potential to be used as alternate fuel for diesel engine. Hence an environmentally unfriendly WEO can be recycled into a useful resource and serves as an alternative source of fuel for diesel engine.

  13. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G.T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  14. Catalytic burners in larger boiler appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Persson, Mikael (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This project focuses on the scale up of a Catator's catalytic burner technology to enable retrofit installation in existing boilers and the design of new innovative combinations of catalytic burners and boilers. Different design approaches are discussed and evaluated in the report and suggestions are made concerning scale-up. Preliminary test data, extracted from a large boiler installation are discussed together with an accurate analysis of technical possibilities following an optimization of the boiler design to benefit from the advantages of catalytic combustion. The experimental work was conducted in close collaboration with ICI Caldaie (ICI), located in Verona, Italy. ICI is a leading European boiler manufacturer in the effect segment ranging from about 20 kWt to several MWt. The study shows that it is possibly to scale up the burner technology and to maintain low emissions. The boilers used in the study were designed around conventional combustion and were consequently not optimized for implementation of catalytic burners. From previous experiences it stands clear that the furnace volume can be dramatically decreased when applying catalytic combustion. In flame combustion, this volume is normally dimensioned to avoid flame impingement on cold surfaces and to facilitate completion of the gas-phase reactions. The emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by decreasing the residence time in the furnace. Even with the over-dimensioned furnace used in this study, we easily reached emission values close to 35 mg/kWh. The emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were negligible (less than 5 ppmv). It is possible to decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides further by designing the furnace/boiler around the catalytic burner, as suggested in the report. Simultaneously, the size of the boiler installation can be reduced greatly, which also will result in material savings, i.e. the production cost can be reduced. It is suggested to optimize the

  15. Optimization of the recycle used oil and its fuel quality characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyitayo A. AFOLABI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of recycling of used engine oil with clay sample has been studied using Response Surface Methodology. Acid concentration, activation temperature and time were the independent variables considered in optimizing the recycling of used oil and six responses evaluated. The surface characterization of the clay samples was performed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectra and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET analyses. The relationship between independent variables and response was described by a second order polynomial equation. Statistical testing of the model was performed with F-test to obtain the correlation between the experimental data and predicted results for all responses. The adequacy of the model equations were evaluated by the Adjusted and Predicted R2 coefficients observed to be close to each other for all the six responses. Data obtained from recycling used oil using clay sample showed the optimum condition as; activation temperature of 106.80oC, acid concentration of 3M and activation time of 180 minutes. A yield of 66.28% was obtained at optimum condition and characterized fuel qualities found close to fresh oil used as standard in this work. The surface area and adsorption capacity of raw clay and activated clay samples was observed to have increase from 19.8m2/g to 437.83m2/g and 1.41 mg/g to 8.64 mg/g respectively. This difference adequately described the improvement of the adsorption phenomena of the activated clay over raw clay samples.

  16. Assessment of energy return on energy investment (EROEI of oil bearing crops for renewable fuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Restuccia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As reported in literature the production of biodiesel should lead to a lower energy consumption than those obtainable with its use. So, to justify its consumption, a sustainable and “low input” production should be carried out. In order to assess the sustainability of Linum usitatissimum, Camelina sativa and Brassica carinata cultivation for biodiesel production in terms of energy used compared to that obtained, the index EROEI (Energy Return On Energy Invested has been used. At this aim, an experimental field was realised in the south-eastern Sicilian land. During the autumn-winter crop cycle, no irrigation was carried out and some suitable agricultural practices have been carried out taking into account the peculiarity of each type of used seeds. The total energy consumed for the cultivation of oil bearing crops from sowing to the production of biodiesel represents the Input of the process. In particular, this concerned the energy embodied in machinery and tools utilized, in seed, chemical fertilizer and herbicide but also the energy embodied in diesel fuels and lubricant oils. In addition, the energy consumption relating to machines and reagents required for the processes of extraction and transesterification of the vegetable oil into biodiesel have been calculated for each crops. The energy obtainable from biodiesel production, taking into account the energy used for seed pressing and for vegetable oil transesterification into biodiesel, represents the Output of the process. The ratio Output/Input gets the EROEI index which in the case of Camelina sativa and Linum usatissimum is greater than one. These results show that the cultivation of these crops for biofuels production is convenient in terms of energy return on energy investment. The EROEI index for Brassica carinata is lower than one. This could means that some factors, concerning mechanisation and climatic

  17. Diagnostic ratios for the rapid evaluation of natural attenuation of heavy fuel oil pollution along shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinas, Noemi; Rodríguez-Valdés, Eduardo; Márquez, Gonzalo; Gallego, José Luis R

    2017-10-01

    Marine oil spills are typically followed by complex clean-up and monitoring operations of the shorelines affected. In this regard, determination of the changes in the chemical composition of the spilled product is crucial for evaluation purposes. The "GC-MS fingerprint" approach requires the identification of several key parameters in order to differentiate between weathering processes. In this context, we performed a 900-day study (eight sampling campaigns) of natural attenuation on a rocky shore affected by a heavy fuel oil spill. The residues coating the rocks were studied by extraction, separation and evaluation of SARA fractions, followed by GC-MS analysis for saturates and aromatics. The results identified a group of diagnostic ratios with irregular capabilities to differentiate between volatilization, photodegradation, and biodegradation (using n-alkanes, isoprenoids and PAHs), while a second group of primarily stable ratios (using dibenzothiphenes, tricyclics and hopanes) was also obtained. Notably, this is the first time that some of these ratios have been used for marine spill monitoring purposes. The ratios were applied not only to evaluate weathering at the study site, but also to obtain a comparison with the degradation of floating oil slicks-a demonstration that weathering of the latter was quicker than that of oil on the shore rocks. Additionally, Pyrolysis-GC-MS analysis of the asphaltene fraction of residues coating the rocks revealed moderate changes in the composition of this initially recalcitrant fraction. These changes were consistent with those found in the proportion of resins and asphaltene fractions over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural gas- and fuel oil reforming for hydrogen production by fuel cell modular cogeneration plants; Erdgas- und Heizoelreformierung zur Wasserstofferzeugung fuer Brennstoffzellen-Blockheizkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    Natural gas is an ideal energy source for fuel cell cogeneration plants in the residential sector, because it can be reformed mostly efficient. In case of no house connection to natural gas, using liquefied gases or fuel oils is possible. (GL) [German] Erdgas ist der ideale Energietraeger fuer Brennstoffzellen-Blockheizkraftwerke (BZ-BHKW) in der Hausenergieversorgung, da es sehr einfach reformiert werden kann und am wirtschaftlichtsten ist. Falls kein Erdgasanschluss existiert, kann man auch auf die im Heizungsbereich verwendeten Brennstoffe Fluessiggas oder Heizoel zurueckgreifen.

  19. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M; Sujan, S.M.A; Jamal, M.S

    2013-01-01

    Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation s...

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of Heavy Fuel Oil Spray and Combustion under Low-Speed Marine Engine-Like Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On account of their high power, thermal efficiency, good reliability, safety, and durability, low-speed two-stroke marine diesel engines are used as the main drive devices for large fuel and cargo ships. Most marine engines use heavy fuel oil (HFO as the primary fuel, however, the physical and chemical characteristics of HFO are not clear because of its complex thermophysical properties. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of fuel properties on the spray and combustion characteristics under two-stroke marine engine-like conditions via a sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis of fuel properties for non-reacting and reacting simulations are conducted by comparing two fuels having different physical properties, such as fuel density, dynamic viscosity, critical temperature, and surface tension. The performances of the fuels are comprehensively studied under different ambient pressures, ambient temperatures, fuel temperatures, and swirl flow conditions. From the results of non-reacting simulations of HFO and diesel fuel properties in a constant volume combustion chamber, it can be found that the increase of the ambient pressure promotes fuel evaporation, resulting in a reduction in the steady liquid penetration of both diesel and HFO; however, the difference in the vapor penetrations of HFO and diesel reduces. Increasing the swirl flow significantly influences the atomization of both HFO and diesel, especially the liquid distribution of diesel. It is also found that the ambient temperature and fuel temperature have the negative effects on Sauter mean diameter (SMD distribution. For low-speed marine engines, the combustion performance of HFO is not sensitive to activation energy in a certain range of activation energy. At higher engine speed, the difference in the effects of different activation energies on the in-cylinder pressure increases. The swirl flow in the cylinder can significantly promote fuel evaporation and

  1. Experimental investigation and performance evaluation of DI diesel engine fueled by waste oil-diesel mixture in emulsion with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the natural reserves of petroleum products has put a tremendous onus on the automotive industry. Increasing pollution levels and the depletion of the petroleum reserves have lead to the search for alternate fuel sources for internal combustion engines. Usage of vegetable oils poses some challenges like poor spray penetration, valve sticking and clogging of injector nozzles. Most of these problems may be solved by partial substitution of diesel with vegetable oil. In this work, the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled by waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion with different water contents are evaluated. The use of waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion lowers the peak temperature, which reduces the formation of NOx. Moreover the phenomenon of micro explosion that results during the combustion of an emulsified fuel finely atomizes the fuel droplets and thus enhances combustion. Experiments show that CO concentration is reduced as the water content is increased and it is seen that 20% water content gives optimum results. Also, there is a significant reduction in NOx emissions.

  2. Catalytic cracking of non-edible sunflower oil over ZSM-5 for hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Qiao, Qiquan; Dubey, Ashish; Anderson, Gary

    2015-03-25

    Non-edible sunflower oils that were extracted from sunflower residual wastes were catalytically cracked over a ZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at three different reaction temperatures: 450°C, 500°C and 550°C. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM. Characterizations of the upgraded sunflower oils, hydrocarbon fuels, distillation residues and non-condensable gases were carried out. The effect of the reaction temperature on the yield and quality of liquid products was discussed. The results showed that the reaction temperature affected the hydrocarbon fuel yield but had a minor influence on its properties. The highest conversion efficiency from sunflower oils to hydrocarbon fuels was 30.1%, which was obtained at 550°C. The reaction temperature affected the component content of the non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gases generated at 550°C contained the highest content of light hydrocarbons (C1-C5), CO, CO2 and H2. Compared to raw sunflower oils, the properties of hydrocarbon fuels including the dynamic viscosity, pH, moisture content, density, oxygen content and heating value were improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influences of Fuel Additive, Crude Palm and Waste Cooking Oil on Emission Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Basharie, Mariam

    2017-08-01

    Major research has been conducted on the use of input products, such as rapeseed, canola, soybean, sunflower oil, waste cooking oil (WCO), crude palm oil (CPO) and crude jatropha oil as alternative fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, biodegradable and oxygenated, where it can be easily adopted by current existing conventional diesel engine without any major modification of the engine. To meet the future performance and emission regulations, is urged to improve the performance and exhaust emissions from biodiesel fuels. Hence, further investigation have been carried out on the emission characteristics of small diesel engine that fuelled by variant blending ratio of WCO and CPO with booster additive. For each of the biodiesel blends ratio from 5 to 15 percent volume which are WCO5, WCO10 and WCO15 for WCO biodiesel and CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 for CPO biodiesel. The exhaust emissions were measured at engine speeds varied at 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm with different booster additive volume DRA (biodiesel without additive), DRB (0.2 ml) and DRC (0.4 ml). Emissions characteristics that had been measured were Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), and smoke opacity. The results showed that increased of blending ratio with booster additive volume significantly decreased the CO emission, while increased in NOx and CO2 due to changes of fuel characteristics in biodiesel fuel blends.

  4. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  5. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  6. Enhanced diesel fuel fraction from waste high-density polyethylene and heavy gas oil pyrolysis using factorial design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppert, Ney; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina

    2015-02-01

    Factorial Design Methodology (FDM) was developed to enhance diesel fuel fraction (C9-C23) from waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and Heavy Gas Oil (HGO) through co-pyrolysis. FDM was used for optimization of the following reaction parameters: temperature, catalyst and HDPE amounts. The HGO amount was constant (2.00 g) in all experiments. The model optimum conditions were determined to be temperature of 550 °C, HDPE = 0.20 g and no FCC catalyst. Under such conditions, 94% of pyrolytic oil was recovered, of which diesel fuel fraction was 93% (87% diesel fuel fraction yield), no residue was produced and 6% of noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction was obtained. Seeking to reduce the cost due to high process temperatures, the impact of using higher catalyst content (25%) with a lower temperature (500 °C) was investigated. Under these conditions, 88% of pyrolytic oil was recovered (diesel fuel fraction yield was also 87%) as well as 12% of the noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction. No waste was produced in these conditions, being an environmentally friendly approach for recycling the waste plastic. This paper demonstrated the usefulness of using FDM to predict and to optimize diesel fuel fraction yield with a great reduction in the number of experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Channel effect of the modified powdery mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Ping; Liu, Lian-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Guang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yin-Jun

    2010-10-01

    The modified powdery mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (MPANFO) is a new breed of industrial explosives developed years ago in China. As one of the important properties of an industrial explosive, the channel effect of MPANFO was reported in this paper. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the channel effect of MPANFO. The blasthole diameter range was estimated to avoid the channel effect of MPANFO. Three empirical formulae for predicting the detonation length of MPANFO were provided in terms of the channel effect. Experiments and theoretical analysis indicate that the channel effect of MPANFO is very serious. The reason why the channel effect of MPANFO is worse than that of other industrial explosives is explained at a theoretical level. In addition, some properties of MPANFO, such as sympathetic distance, detonation velocity and brisance, are determined.

  8. Premixed burner experiments: Geometry, mixing, and flame structure issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.; Gupta, M. [Univ of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This research program is exploring techniques for improved fuel-air mixing, with the aim of achieving combustor operations up to stoichiometric conditions with minimal NO x and maximum efficiency. The experimental studies involve the use of a double-concentric natural gas burner that is operable in either premixed or non-premixed modes, and the system allows systematic variation of equivalence ratio, swirl strength shear length region and flow momentum in each annulus. Flame structures formed with various combinations of swirl strengths, flow throughput and equivalence ratios in premixed mode show the significant impact of swirl flow distribution on flame structure emanating from the mixedness. This impact on flame structure is expected to have a pronounced effect on the heat release rate and the emission of NO{sub x}. Thus, swirler design and configuration remains a key factor in the quest for completely optimized combustion. Parallel numerical studies of the flow and combustion phenomena were carried out, using the RSM and thek-{epsilon} turbulence models. These results have not only indicated the strengths and limitations of CFD in performance and pollutants emission predictions, but have provided guidelines on the size and strength of the recirculation produced and the spatio-temporal structure of the combustion flowfield. The first stage of parametric studies on geometry and operational parameters at Morgan State University have culminated in the completion of a one-dimensional flow code that is integrated with a solid, virtual model of the existing premixed burner. This coupling will provide the unique opportunity to study the impact of geometry on the flowfield and vice-versa, with particular emphasis on concurrent design optimization.

  9. [Factors of work environment and employment of workers in production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotarev, P A; Kharlashova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Factors of the industrial environment and labor activity of workers of manufacture propellants and solvents at the oil refining enterprise. Working conditions of workers at all installations of manufacture No 1 JSC "Naftan" of Novopolotsk of Byelorussia (production of fuels and solvents). Hygienic evaluation of working conditions of persons working in the production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery. Sanitary description of the production with hygienic analysis of project design and technological documentation, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of conventional methods in the work environment and working process of employees in the workplace for the main modes of operation of the equipment. The working environment of refineries is influenced by a number of simultaneously acting factors, which have different material nature and characteristics of the action on the human body, the workers in production of fuels and solvents at the refinery, are exposed to a variety of hazardous and dangerous factors of production, a chemical factor is prevalent, of course.

  10. Microbial Deterioration of Hydrocarbon Fuels from Oil Shale, Coal and Petroleum. III. Inhibition of Fungi by Fuels from Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-16

    Petroleum Fungi Microbial deterioration JP.5 Yeast Microbial contamination Synthetic fuel Cladosporium resinae Inhibition 0. ABSTRACT (Contine an reverse aid...Marked inhibition of two principal fuel contaminants, Cladosporium resinae and a yeast (Candida sp.), also occurred with coal-derived fuel produced...from Phillips Petroleum Co. All fuels were stored at 40 C after receipt by the Naval Research Laboratory. Microorganisms The fungus, Cladosporium resinae

  11. Electricity generation and wastewater treatment of oil refinery in microbial fuel cells using Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Dip; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Tseng, Min-Jen; Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Young-Fo; Yang, Tsui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2014-09-22

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059), a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm) chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm² in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm² in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10⁻²% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation.

  12. Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55 ± 0.025 V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41 ± 0.01 V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electricity Generation and Wastewater Treatment of Oil Refinery in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Pseudomonas putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dip Majumder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059, a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm chemical oxygen demand (COD could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm2 in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm2 in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10−2% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation.

  14. Electricity Generation and Wastewater Treatment of Oil Refinery in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Pseudomonas putida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Dip; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Tseng, Min-Jen; Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Young-Fo; Yang, Tsui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059), a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm) chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm2 in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm2 in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10−2% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation. PMID:25247576

  15. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels - a comparison between large- and smallscale production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven [Swedish Univ. of Agriculture Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Production of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester (RME) and ethanol fuel for heavy diesel engines can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The main purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale rapeseed oil, RME and ethanol fuel production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three fuels and the three plant sizes. Four different methods to allocate the environmental burden between different products were compared: physical allocation according to the lower heat value in the products [MJ/kg], economic allocation according to the product prices [SEK/kg], no allocation and allocation with a system expansion so that rapemeal and distiller's waste could replace soymeal mixed with soyoil and glycerine could replace glycerine produced from fossil raw material. The functional unit, to which the total environmental load was related, was 1.0 MJ of energy delivered on the engine shaft to the final consumer. Production of raw materials, cultivation, transport, fuel production and use of the fuels produced were included in the systems studied. It was shown in the study that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible in most cases for all three fuels, except for the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) during ethanol fuel production. The longer transport distances to a certain degree outweighed the higher oil extraction efficiency, the higher energy efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, followed by soil emissions and tractive power, made major

  16. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  17. Perbandingan Unjuk Kerja Kompor Methanol dengan Variasi Diameter Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subroto Subroto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sampai saat ini sebagian masyarakat masih anyak menggunakan minyak tanah sebagai bahan bakar untuk keperluan rumah tangga maupun industri, walaupun harga minyak tanah naik cukup tinggi karena subsidi dari pemerintah dicabut. Untuk mengurangi ketergantungan minyak tanah perlu penggunaan bahan bakar alternatif yaitu methanol. Methanol mempunyai kelebihan mudah didapatkan di lapangan dan dengan harga yang lebih murah dari minyak tanah. Kompor methanol sudah dikenal masyarakat akan tetapi penggunaannya masih sangat terbatas karena unjuk kerjanya masih kurang baik dibandingkan kompor minyak tanah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui unjuk kerja kompor methanol melalui pengaruh variasi diameter burner.               Penelitian dimulai dengan rancang bangun burner terbuat dari bahan kuningan dengan tiga macam model dengan variasi diameter burner dan tinggi burner maupun jumlah lubang tetap. Pengujian unjuk kerja berdasarkan karakteristik pembakaran dilakukan melalui water boiling test. Parameter yang diukur meliputi temperatur api pembakaran, temperatur air, konsumsi bahan bakar, dan waktu pendidihan.               Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variasi diameter burner berpengaruh terhadap karakteristik pembakaran yang dihasilkan. Temperatur pembakaran yang tinggi dicapai oleh burner dengan diameter 12,8mm dan 10mm, konsumsi bahan bakar yang kecil burner diameter 12,8mm dan waktu pendidihan yang pendek dicapai burner 12,8mm. Jadi kompor methanol dengan unjuk kerja terbaik adalah kompor methanol dengan diameter burner 12,8mm.

  18. Development of a lean premixed burner for hydrogen utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.O. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The long-term mandate of the hydrogen program is to develop the technologies needed to establish a hydrogen economy. Although a hydrogen fueled automobile has been established as a demonstration project, there are at least three other end use sectors that are recognized by the H{sub 2} program and that are addressed by this project. These end uses are: (1) power generation from stationary turbines, (2) generation of process heat or steam, and (3) commercial and residential direct use applications. Eliminating carbon from the fuel will remove carbon containing species from the emissions, however, NO{sub x} resulting from thermal NO production cannot be ignored. Thermal NO production is minimized by reducing the peak combustion temperature and the residence time at the peak temperature. NO can be reduced to extremely low levels (a few ppm) by operating sufficiently lean to reduce the peak combustion temperatures below 1700 to 1800 K. The objectives for this project are to: (1) develop an environmentally benign and safe burner operating on hydrogen in a lean premixed mode, (2) provide a facility in which fundamental investigations can be performed to support other programs.

  19. Performance and emission evaluation of a compression ignition engine using a biodiesel (apricot seed kernel oil methyl ester) and its blends with diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumus, M. [Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, 34722, Istanbul (Turkey); Kasifoglu, S. [Occupational High School, Duezce University, 81010, Duezce (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    In this study, apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seed kernel oil was transesterified with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain apricot seed kernel oil methyl ester. Neat apricot seed kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel were tested in a compression ignition diesel engine to evaluate performance and emissions. Apricot seed kernel oil methyl ester and its blends can be successfully used in diesel engines without any modification. Lower concentration of apricot seed kernel oil methyl ester in blends gives a better improvement in the engine performance and exhaust emissions. Therefore lower percent of apricot seed kernel oil methyl ester can be used as additive. (author)

  20. Demonstration and testing of coal/oil mixture as a fuel for a slot furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerklie, J.W.; Penty, R.A.

    1979-07-01

    An evaluation was made of the effects of heating with a coal/oil mixture (COM) on forgings and furnace construction materials. The forgings produced with COM in a slot forge furnace were subjected to an extensive series of metallurgical tests to determine what effect, if any, use of COM as a fuel had upon the parts forged. Fifty wt % bituminous coal crushed to 80% minus 325 mesh was mixed with 50 wt % number 6 fuel oil. Emulsifiers were added to keep the coal in suspension. It was demonstrated that the 50 wt % coal/oil mixture can be successfully used to produce steel forgings. Burning COM presented no problems in respect to the ease of heating the steel or in respect to the metallurgy of the forgings. The main findings of the investigation were that: COM can be used to forge steel successfully; use of COM requires that ceramic materials of furnace construction be selected with care; and the modifications required to burn COM are minor. There were no significant differences between steel forgings produced with number 2 fuel oil and steel forgings produced with COM.

  1. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  2. Burners for Supersonic Ramjets - Some Observations on Instability in a Two-Inch Ramjet Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-01-01

    a burner comprising a simple 0.75" oxyhydrogen pilot cone (Igniter 1-2, Figure 3) is much more prone to insta- bility than one comprising the same...occurred largely with a "poor igniter." Most of the work described above was done with a simple 0.75 inch oxyhydrogen cone. 2. It was accompanied

  3. Electricity generation from palm oil tree empty fruit bunch (EFB) using dual chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, N. F.; Mahmood, N. A. B. N.; Ibrahim, K. A.; Muhammad, S. A. F. S.; Amalina, N. S.

    2017-06-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been discovered and utilized in laboratory scale for electricity production based on microbial degradation of organic compound. However, various source of fuel has been tested and recently complex biomass such as lignocellulose biomass has been focused on. In the present research, oil palm tree empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been tested for power production using dual chamber MFC and power generation analysis has been conducted to address the performance of MFC. In addition, two microorganisms (electric harvesting microbe and cellulose degrading microbe) were used in the MFC operation. The analysis include voltage produced, calculated current and power. The first section in your paper

  4. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  5. Improving Vegetable Oil Fueled CI Engine Characteristics Through Diethyl Ether Blending

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2016-12-01

    In this research, the flow and ignition properties of vegetable oil (VO) are improved by blending it with diethyl ether (DEE). DEE, synthesized from ethanol, has lower viscosity than diesel and VO. When DEE is blended with VO, the resultant DEEVO mixtures have favorable properties for compression ignition (CI) engine operation. As such, DEEVO20 (20% DEE + 80% VO) and DEEVO40 (40% DEE + 60% VO) were initially considered in the current study. The viscosity of VO is 32.4*10−6 m2/s; the viscosity is reduced with the increase of DEE in VO. In this study, our blends were limited to a maximum of 40% DEE in VO. The viscosity of DEEVO40 is 2.1*10−6 m2/s, which is comparable to that of diesel (2.3*10−6 m2/s). The lower boiling point and flash point of DEE improves the fuel spray and evaporation for DEEVO mixtures. In addition to the improvement in physical properties, the ignition quality of DEEVO mixtures is also improved, as DEE is a high cetane fuel (DCN = 139). The ignition characteristics of DEEVO mixtures were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT). There is an evident reduction in ignition delay time (IDT) for DEEVO mixtures compared to VO. The IDT of VO (4.5 ms), DEEVO20 (3.2 ms) and DEEVO40 (2.7 ms) was measured in IQT. Accordingly, the derived cetane number (DCN) of DEEVO mixtures increased with the increase in proportion of DEE. The reported mixtures were also tested in a single cylinder CI engine. The start of combustion (SOC) was advanced for DEEVO20 and DEEVO40 compared to diesel, which is attributed to the high DCN of DEEVO mixtures. On the other hand, the peak heat release rate decreased for DEEVO mixtures compared to diesel. Gaseous emissions such as nitrogen oxide (NOX), total hydrocarbon (THC) and smoke were reduced for DEEVO mixtures compared to diesel. The physical and ignition properties of VO are improved by the addition of DEE, and thus, the need for the trans-esterification process is averted. Furthermore, this blending strategy is simpler

  6. Some parameters and conditions defining the efficiency of burners ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A number of new wordings and statements regarding the targeted problem of destruction of long-lived wastes (transmutation) is considered. Some new criteria concerning the efficiency of a particular burner type are proposed. It is shown that the destruction efficiency of a specific burner is greatly influenced by the ...

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CELLO PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER SYSTEM/SONOTECH INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech), of Atlanta, GA, the developer of the Cello® pulse combustion burner, claims that its burner system can be beneficial to a variety of combustion processes. The system incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large amplitude sonic pulsation...

  8. Petroleum and Oil Fuel Lines running from Apra Harbor through the Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport to the Tanguisson Power Plant.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a line feature dataset showing the track of petroleum and oil fuel lines that transport hazardous fluids from Apra Harbor through the Antonio B. Won Pat...

  9. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils; L'industrie du raffinage et le devenir des fiouls lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S

    2004-01-15

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  10. Biological effects of the water-soluble fractions of a No. 2 fuel oil on the benthic foraminifer, Ammonia beccarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agus, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    Ammonia beccarii (Linne) var. tepida (Cushman) was acutely and chronically exposed to water-soluble fractions (WSF) of a No. 2 fuel oil. The biological criteria used to assess toxicity were pseudopodial activity by pseudopod extrusion and test growth by chamber addition. For the acute studies, adult and juvenile stages were exposed for 96 hours in static nonrenewal tests and then transferred to clean seawater for 48 hours. Observations were made daily for pseudopodial activity. The number of organisms ceasing pseudopod extrusion significantly increased with increasing WSF concentration and length of exposure time. However, > 60% loss of activity was never observed in either adult or juvenile populations tested. Recovery values were high (> 89% activity). Juvenile stages were found to be more sensitive than adults. It is concluded that Ammonia beccarii is resistant to the effects of water-soluble fractions of No. 2 fuel oil. Hypotheses elucidating this resistance are presented, and possible effects on natural populations are discussed.

  11. Desulfurization of fuel oils using an advanced oxidation method; Desulfuracion de combustibles usando un metodo de oxidacion avanzada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Velazquez, Roberto; Rodas Grapain, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, the oxidative desulfurization of fuel oils assisted by ultrasound was analyzed. It was studied the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration, the fuel oil to aqueous solution volumetric ratio, and type of catalyst. The Fenton-like catalysts studied were ferric chloride and copper sulfate. [Spanish] En esta investigacion se analiza la desulfuracion oxidativa de combustoleo asistida con ultrasonido. Tambien se estudia el efecto de la concentracion de peroxido de hidrogeno (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), la relacion volumetrica combustoleo/solucion acuosa y el tipo de catalizador. Los catalizadores tipo Fenton que se estudiaron fueron el cloruro ferrico (FeCl{sub 3}) y el sulfato de cobre (CuSO{sub 4}).

  12. Testing of a low NOx wire-mesh duct burner for micro-cogeneration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, O.B.; Gauthier, J.E.D. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Hughes, P.M.; Brandon, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2007-07-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration involves the generation of electricity in addition to the productive use of waste heat from the combustion process using the same primary fuel. An alternative to combined electrical power and heat generation is a micro-cogeneration unit which uses a micro-turbine as a prime mover. This type of unit is expected to result in a shift from large and centralized plants to smaller, more economical on-site generation plants. This paper presented a new low nitrogen oxide (NOx) wire-mesh duct burner (WMDB) for the development of a more efficient micro-cogeneration unit. In order to increase its thermal output, the low NOx WMDB was designed, built and integrated for evaluation with the Ingersol-Rand 70 kw micro-cogeneration unit. The wire-mesh burner had a conical shape and was manufactured by ACOTECH. The paper also discussed the advantages of micro-CHP units which are more attractive to building owners, retail establishments, commercial and light industrial facilities. Advantages include quality of the power supply; more economical, cleaner power; and the addition of new capacity without new transmission lines. It was concluded that low levels of emission were achieved with the development of a low NOx wire-mesh duct burner for a micro-cogeneration plant. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  13. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2000-04-01

    Coal continues to be one of the principal energy sources for electric power generation in the United States. One of the biggest environmental challenges involved with coal utilization is the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) formed during coal combustion. The most economical method of NO{sub x} abatement in coal combustion is through burner modification. Air-staging techniques have been widely used in the development of low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal burners, promoting the conversion of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} by delaying the mixing in the fuel-rich zone near the burner inlet. Previous studies have looked at the mechanisms of NO{sub x} evolution at relatively low temperatures where primary pyrolysis is dominant, but data published for secondary pyrolysis in the pulverized coal furnace are scarce. In this project, the nitrogen evolution behavior during secondary coal pyrolysis will be explored. The end result will be a complete model of nitrogen evolution and NO{sub x} precursor formation due to primary and secondary pyrolysis.

  14. Evaluation of alkyl esters from Camelina sativa oil as biodiesel and as blend components in ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Bryan R; Vaughn, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    Methyl and ethyl esters were prepared from camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] oil by homogenous base-catalyzed transesterification for evaluation as biodiesel fuels. Camelina oil contained high percentages of linolenic (32.6 wt.%), linoleic (19.6 wt.%), and oleic (18.6 wt.%) acids. Consequently, camelina oil methyl and ethyl esters (CSME and CSEE) exhibited poor oxidative stabilities and high iodine values versus methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, and soybean oils (CME, PME, and SME). Other fuel properties of CSME and CSEE were similar to CME, PME, and SME, such as low temperature operability, acid value, cetane number, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, sulfur and phosphorous contents, as well as surface tension. As blend components in ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel, CSME and CSEE were essentially indistinguishable from SME and soybean oil ethyl ester blends with regard to low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, and surface tension.

  15. Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of Diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.; Hountalas, D.T.; Giakoumis, E.G. [Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Thermal Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2006-11-15

    An extended experimental study is conducted to evaluate and compare the use of various Diesel fuel supplements at blend ratios of 10/90 and 20/80, in a standard, fully instrumented, four stroke, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' Diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. More specifically, a high variety of vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins are tested as supplements, i.e. cottonseed oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and their corresponding methyl esters, as well as rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester, corn oil and olive kernel oil. The series of tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at a speed of 2000rpm and at a medium and high load. In each test, volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO) and total unburned hydrocarbons (HC) are measured. From the first measurement, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency are computed. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat Diesel fuel, are determined and compared. This comparison is extended between the use of the vegetable oil blends and the bio-diesel blends. Theoretical aspects of Diesel engine combustion, combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of these Diesel fuel supplements against the normal Diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior. (author)

  16. Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

    2008-06-01

    Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

  17. Coal Particle Flow Patterns for O2 Enriched, Low NOx Burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Sinclair Curtis

    2005-08-01

    This project involved a systematic investigation examining the effect of near-flame burner aerodynamics on standoff distance and stability of turbulent diffusion flames and the resultant NO{sub x} emissions from actual pulverized coal diffusion flames. Specifically, the scope of the project was to understand how changes in near-flame aerodynamics and transport air oxygen partial pressure can influence flame attachment and coal ignition, two properties essential to proper operation of low NO{sub x} burners. Results from this investigation utilized a new 2M tall, 0.5m in diameter combustor designed to evaluate near-flame combustion aerodynamics in terms of transport air oxygen partial pressure (Po{sub 2}), coal fines content, primary fuel and secondary air velocities, and furnace wall temperature furnish insight into fundamental processes that occur during combustion of pulverized coal in practical systems. Complementary cold flow studies were conducted in a geometrically similar chamber to analyze the detailed motion of the gas and particles using laser Doppler velocimetry. This final technical report summarizes the key findings from our investigation into coal particle flow patterns in burners. Specifically, we focused on the effects of oxygen enrichment, the effect of fines, and the effect of the nozzle velocity ratio on the resulting flow patterns. In the cold flow studies, detailed measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) were made to determine the details of the flow. In the hot flow studies, observations of flame stability and measurements of NO{sub x} were made to determine the effects of the flow patterns on burner operation.

  18. CFD simulation of a burner for syngas characterization and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Desideri, Umberto [University of Perugia (Italy). Dept. of Industrial Engineering], Emails: fanto@unipg.it, umberto.desideri@unipg.it; D' Amico, Michele [University of Perugia (Italy). Dept. of Energetic Engineering], E-mail: damico@crbnet.it

    2009-07-01

    Biomass and waste are distributed and renewable energy sources that may contribute effectively to sustainability if used on a small and micro scale. This requires the transformation through efficient technologies (gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion) into a suitable gaseous fuel to use in small internal combustion engines and gas turbines. The characterization of biomass derived syngas during combustion is therefore a key issue to improve the performance of small scale integrated plants because synthesis gas show significant differences with respect to Natural Gas (mixture of gases, low calorific value, hydrogen content, tar and particulate content) that may turn into ignition problems, combustion instabilities, difficulties in emission control and fouling. To this aim a burner for syngas combustion and LHV measurement through mass and energy balance was realized and connected to the rotary-kiln laboratory scale pyrolyzer at the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Perugia. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the burner was carried out considering the combustion of propane to investigate temperature and pressure distribution, heat transmission and distribution of the combustion products and by products. The simulation was carried out using the CFD program Star-CD. Before the simulation a geometrical model of the burner was built and the volume of model was subdivided in cells. A sensibility analysis of cells was carried out to estimate the approximation degree of the model. Experimental data about combustion emission were carried out with the propane combustion in the burner, the comparison between numerical results and experimental data was studied to validate the simulation for future works involved with the combustion of treated or raw (syngas with tar) syngas obtained from pyrolysis process. (author)

  19. The use of blunted Maya crude as alternating fuel to fuel oil; Uso de crudo Maya despuntado como combustiononble alterno al combustoleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas Bravo, Victor M.; Diego Marin, Antonio; Porcayo C; Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The Mexican fuel oil is characterized by its high viscosity and elevated contents of sulfur and vanadium. This particularity determines a problematic characteristic in the steam generators that use this fuel. Our country produces three types of crude petroleum: Olmeca, Istmo and Maya. The difference between these crudes remains in its density and the sulfur content. The Olmeca crude and the Istmo are classified as super-light and light, respectively; whereas the Maya crude is classified as a heavy crude, with a density of 1.0 to 0.92 g/cm and a minimum sulfur content of 3.3 %. For this reason the processing of the Maya crude is seen as an alternative. A table with the physicochemical analysis and properties of a fuel oil and the blunted Maya crude is given, and another one with the quantitative chemical analysis of some metals in fuel oil and in the blunted Maya crude. The stability tests of the fuel are studied giving a comparison of the effect of the aging time on the viscosity of a fuel oil and of the blunted Maya crude at 60 Celsius degrees. As well as a graph of thermograms obtained of a blunted Maya crude sample and of a typical fuel oil. Finally the corrosion tests are described that allow to know in real time the degradation process by corrosion of the materials. [Spanish] El combustoleo mexicano se caracteriza por su alta viscosidad y elevados contenidos de azufre y vanadio. Esta particularidad determina una problematica caracteristica en los generadores de vapor que utilizan este combustible. Nuestro pais produce tres tipos de petroleo crudo: Olmeca, Istmo y Maya. La diferencia entre estos crudos estriba en su densidad y el contenido de azufre. El crudo Olmeca y el Istmo estan clasificados como superligero y ligero, respectivamente; mientras que el crudo Maya esta clasificado como un crudo pesado, con una densidad de 1.0 a 0.92 g/cm y un contenido minimo de azufre de 3.3 %.Con el proposito se busca la alternativa de procesar el crudo Maya. Se da una tabla

  20. Preparation of DNA biosensor application from fuel oil waste by functionalization and characterization of MWCNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mishaal Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using a multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT synthesized from a fuel oil waste of power plants has discovered for the first time for DNA biosensors application. The MWCNT surface morphologies were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The thickness of the MWCNT was found 203nm and confirmed by FESEM. The electrochemical DNA biosensor was successfully developed using a MWCNT modified on SiO2 thin films. The capacitance measurements were performed to detect the sensitivity of DNA detection. The change in capacitance before and after immobilization of the DNA was measured in the frequency range of 1Hz to 1MHz. The results indicate that bare device exhibited the lowest capacitance value, which was 32.7μF. The capacitance value of the DNA immobilization increase to 52μF. The permittivity and conductivity also were examined to study the effect of the DNA immobilization toward the MWCNT modified surface. This present demonstrated that the MWCNT modified SiO2 a thin film was successfully fabricated for DNA biosensor detection. Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Sensors, Thin films, Electrochemical DNA

  1. Artificial neural network modeling of jatropha oil fueled diesel engine for emission predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Thirunavukkarasu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with artificial neural network modeling of diesel engine fueled with jatropha oil to predict the unburned hydrocarbons, smoke, and NOx emissions. The experimental data from the literature have been used as the data base for the proposed neural network model development. For training the networks, the injection timing, injector opening pressure, plunger diameter, and engine load are used as the input layer. The outputs are hydrocarbons, smoke, and NOx emissions. The feed forward back propagation learning algorithms with two hidden layers are used in the networks. For each output a different network is developed with required topology. The artificial neural network models for hydrocarbons, smoke, and NOx emissions gave R2 values of 0.9976, 0.9976, and 0.9984 and mean percent errors of smaller than 2.7603, 4.9524, and 3.1136, respectively, for training data sets, while the R2 values of 0.9904, 0.9904, and 0.9942, and mean percent errors of smaller than 6.5557, 6.1072, and 4.4682, respectively, for testing data sets. The best linear fit of regression to the artificial neural network models of hydrocarbons, smoke, and NOx emissions gave the correlation coefficient values of 0.98, 0.995, and 0.997, respectively.

  2. Sensitivity to fuel diesel oil and cell wall structure of some Scenedesmus (Chlorococcales strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Tukaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of three Scenedesmus strains exposed to aqueous fuel-oil extract (AFOE is strongly strain-dependent S. quadricauda is the most resistant, S. armatus moderately tolerant whereas the most sensitive appears to be S. microspina. The sensitivity of tested species increases parallel with decreasing of cell size and cell number in coenobium. The values of the cell surface/cell volumes ratios only partly explain the above relationships. Electron microscope investigations reveal that the sensitivity may depend on cell wall structure of the strains. Cell wall of all here investigated strains is built of two layers: the inner so-called cellulosic layer and the outer one showing a three-laminar structure (TLS. The latter contains an acetolysis-resistant biopolymer (ARB. These two layers are similar in thickness in the three strains tested, but the surface of Scenedesmus is covered with various epistructures that are characteristic of strains. Some of them as the tightly fitting warty layer of S. armatus and especially the loosely fitting reticulate layer of S. quadricauda may contribute to lower permeability of cell wall. The structure of the rosettes also appears to be correlated with the sensitivity of strains. Presence of invaginations of plasmalemma in areas under rosettes indicates their role in transport processes inside/outside the cells.

  3. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia); Biomass Conversion Research Center (BCRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  4. Predicting the Significant Characteristics of Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Golizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA is used as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete. Using different percentages of POFA leads to a non-linear variation among the characteristics of concrete. This study aims at developing an empirical model to predict the compressive strength of concrete using POFA as a cement replacement material and other properties of the concrete such as the slump and modulus of elasticity using an artificial neural network. Mixtures of concrete were selected with water-to-binder ratios of 0.50, 0.55 and 0.60, and 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of the cement content was POFA. The 28-day compressive strength was tested, and the experimental results show that 0%–20% of POFA inclusion in the concrete mixtures has the most positive effects on the compressive strength. Then, a three-layer feed forward-back propagation ANN model with three inputs and three outputs was developed. Finally, the best architecture for the model was trained, tested and validated.

  5. EXPERIENCES ON VINASSE DISPOSAL: Part III: COMBUSTION OF VINASSE-# 6 FUEL OIL EMULSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORTEZ L.A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse, a residual substance left after sugarcane alcohol distillation, represents a major environmental problem for the ethanol industry. No one has found a convenient and economical disposal solution for this black-reddish (Vinasse presents a light brown color and a low total solids content, from 2-4%, when it is obtained from straight sugarcane juice and a black-reddish color and total solids ranging from 5-10% when it is obtained from sugarcane molasses, which is the case of the vinasse used in this study., viscous, high B.O.D. and acid material which is produced in quantities up to 15 times larger than those of the alcohol itself. This research investigated and developed the basic technology of on-site disposal of vinasse by combustion. Besides the clean ecological benefit, this method promotes energy savings and extra benefits when rich potassium vinasse ash is commercialized. Basic research was conducted using the facilities in the Combustion Laboratory (Mechanical Engineering Dept. at the Louisiana State University Campus in Baton Rouge. This research on vinasse combustion consisted of determining heating values, composition, and flame characteristics through combustion tests. Initially only vinasse was used in different solid concentrations and later emulsions were prepared using vinasse and # 6 fuel oil

  6. Confirmatory Survey of the Fuel Oil Tank Area - Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Eureka, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, WADE C

    2012-04-09

    During the period of February 14 to 15, 2012, ORISE performed radiological confirmatory survey activities for the former Fuel Oil Tank Area (FOTA) and additional radiological surveys of portions of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant site in Eureka, California. The radiological survey results demonstrate that residual surface soil contamination was not present significantly above background levels within the FOTA. Therefore, it is ORISE’s opinion that the radiological conditions for the FOTA surveyed by ORISE are commensurate with the site release criteria for final status surveys as specified in PG&E’s Characterization Survey Planning Worksheet. In addition, the confirmatory results indicated that the ORISE FOTA survey unit Cs-137 mean concentrations results compared favorably with the PG&E FOTA Cs-137 mean concentration results, as determined by ORISE from the PG&E characterization data. The interlaboratory comparison analyses of the three soil samples analyzed by PG&E’s onsite laboratory and the ORISE laboratory indicated good agreement for the sample results and provided confidence in the PG&E analytical procedures and final status survey soil sample data reporting.

  7. Acid resistance of palm oil fuel ash and metakaolin ternary blend cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilu Usman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of blend of Palm Oil fuel ash (POFA and Metakaolin (MK on the resistance of cement mortar to sulphuric acid (H2SO4 attack. Tests were conducted on POFA and MK ternary blended cement mortar immersed in a 3% H2SO4 solution for up 180 d. Binaries of POFA/cement and MK/cement as well as plain ordinary Portland cement (OPC mortar was also tested for comparison. The parameters measured include residual compressive strength and residual mass. Additionally, the microstructures of the specimens were analysed using the X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformed infrared techniques. The residual compressive strengths of the mortar specimens for plain OPC, binary blend of POFA and cement, binary blend of MK and cement, and ternary blend of POFA, MK and cement after 180 d of immersion in the acid solution were 25, 30, 33, and 32%, respectively. Moreover, the corresponding residual masses of the specimens were 39, 52, 58, and 54%. Accordingly, the ternary blended mortar performed better in resisting H2SO4 attack than the plain OPC and binary blend of POFA/cement mortars.

  8. Performance and emissions characterization of diesel engine running with re-formulated palm oil methyl ester-diesel blended fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husnawan, M. [Syiah Kuala Univ., Darussalam, Banda Aceh (Indonesia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Saidur, R.; Kalam, M.A. [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The use of additives in diesel fuel or lubricants is a common practice to reduce engine wear, improve the cetane number and reduce exhaust emissions. Additives can be used extensively to improve the characteristics of fuel that affects engine performance and efficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of re-formulated palm oil methyl ester (POME) blended with additive on engine performance as well as emissions as the engine speed and load change. More specifically, the paper presented an evaluation of diesel engine emissions such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, tetrahydrocannabinol and smoke while the engine was running with re-formulated POME blended fuel. In order to get better atomization during the blending process, the fuel was re-formulated by an additional additive and blending agent. The study showed that by re-formulating the POME-diesel blended fuel, poisonous gases were reduced from diesel engine combustion. In addition, the use of blended additive by proper composition was capable of increasing the stability of the fuels as well as producing better combustion. 10 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  9. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using a Double-Slit Curved Wall-Jet Burner

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Mohamed

    2016-05-04

    A novel double-slit curved wall-jet (DS-CWJ) burner was proposed and utilized for flame synthesis. This burner was comprised of double curved wall-jet nozzles with coaxial slits; the inner slit was for the delivery of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) precursor while the outer one was to supply premixed fuel/air mixture of ethylene (C2H4) or propane (C3H8). This configuration enabled rapid mixing between the precursor and reactants along the curved surface and inside the recirculation zone of the burner. Particle growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and their phases was investigated with varying equivalence ratio and Reynolds number. Flow field and flame structure were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques, respectively. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) for surface area analysis. The flow field consisted of a wall-jet region leading to a recirculation zone, an interaction jet region, followed by a merged-jet region. The DS-CWJ burner revealed appreciable mixing characteristics between the precursor and combustion gases near the nozzle regions, with a slight increase in the axial velocity due to the precursor injection. The precursor supply had a negligible effect on the flame structure. The burner produced a reasonably uniform size (13–18 nm) nanoparticles with a high BET surface area (>100 m2/g). The phase of TiO2 nanoparticles was mainly dependent on the equivalence ratio and fuel type, which impact flame height, heat release rate, and high temperature residence time of the precursor vapor. For ethylene flames, the anatase content increased with the equivalence ratio, whereas it decreased in the case of propane flames. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited high crystallinity and the anatase phase was dominant at high equivalence

  10. Notice and Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final Renewable Fuel Standard Program from Canola Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule finalizes the determination that canola oil biodiesel meets the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction threshold of 50 required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA).

  11. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Waste Plastic Oil / Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punitharani K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available NOx emission is one of the major sources for health issues, acid rain and global warming. Diesel engine vehicles are the major sources for NOx emissions. Hence there is a need to reduce the emissions from the engines by identifying suitable techniques or by means of alternate fuels. The present investigation deals with the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on 4S, single cylinder, DI diesel engine using plastic oil/Diesel blends P10 (10% plastic oil & 90% diesel in volume, P20 and P30 at various EGR rates. Plastic oil blends were able to operate in diesel engines without any modifications and the results showed that P20 blend had the least NOx emission quantity.

  12. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  13. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  14. Bio-aviation fuel production from hydroprocessing castor oil promoted by the nickel-based bifunctional catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyang; Zhu, Qingqing; Guan, Qingxin; He, Liangnian; Li, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Bio-aviation fuel was firstly synthesized by hydroprocessing castor oil in a continuous-flow fixed-bed microreactor with the main objective to obtain the high yield of aviation fuel and determine the elemental compositions of the product phases as well as the reaction mechanism. Highest aviation range alkane yields (91.6 wt%) were achieved with high isomer/n-alkane ratio (i/n) 4.4-7.2 over Ni supported on acidic zeolites. In addition, different fuel range alkanes can be obtained by adjusting the degree of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrocracking. And the observations are rationalized by a set of reaction pathways for the various product phases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flame tolerant secondary fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Wu, Chunyang; Zuo, Baifang; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2015-02-24

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of primary nozzles configured to diffuse or premix fuel into an air flow through the combustor; and a secondary nozzle configured to premix fuel with the air flow. Each premixing nozzle includes a center body, at least one vane, a burner tube provided around the center body, at least two cooling passages, a fuel cooling passage to cool surfaces of the center body and the at least one vane, and an air cooling passage to cool a wall of the burner tube. The cooling passages prevent the walls of the center body, the vane(s), and the burner tube from overheating during flame holding events.

  16. Minimizing fuel and environmental costs for a variable-load power plant (co-)firing fuel oil and natural gas Part 2. Optimization of load dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuprianov, V.I.; Kaewboonsong, W. [School of Manufacturing Systems and Mechanical Engineering, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Thammasat Rangsit Post Office, Pathum Thani 12121 (Thailand); Douglas, P.L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada)

    2008-01-15

    A linear programming-based approach was applied to optimize the power (or load) distribution among 200-MW and 310-MW units of a 1330-MW power plant (co-)firing fuel oil and natural gas. The objective function for the optimization was the total costs, including ''internal'' (or fuel) and ''external'' (or environmental) costs, for the power plant meeting the current load demand. Both fuel and environmental costs (the latter being associated with NO{sub x}, SO{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions) of the units were predicted for different fuel options. The total costs for an individual boiler unit were shown to be quasi-linear with the unit load. Optimal load dispatch over the units was determined using a typical daily load curve of the power plant, for distinct climatic seasons in Thailand. The time-domain savings of the total costs resulted from switching the units from actual to the optimized loads were quantified for this power plant. (author)

  17. Organic-rich nanoparticles (diameter: 10-30 nm) in diesel exhaust: Fuel and oil contribution based on chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Saitoh, Katsumi; Fujitani, Yuji; Hasegawa, Shuichi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shinji

    2011-11-01

    The size distribution of particle number concentrations and comprehensive chemical composition (elemental and organic carbon, elements, ions, and organic compounds) by particle size (diameter: 0.010-10 μm) were measured under no-load and transient conditions in the exhaust from an 8-L diesel engine with no exhaust after-treatment system and from a 3-L diesel vehicle equipped with an oxidation catalyst. High concentrations of nuclei-mode particles were emitted from the 8-L engine under no-load condition (8L-NoLoad), even when low-sulfur (8 ppm) fuel was used, but no nuclei-mode particles were emitted from the 3-L vehicle. Organic carbon accounted for a major part (79-80%) of the measured components of the nanoparticles (diameter: 10-32 nm) under 8L-NoLoad, but elemental carbon accounted for only 8-15%; elements and ions including sulfate accounted for only small percentages. The mass chromatogram ( m/ z 85) patterns obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the nanoparticles were similar to those for lubricating oil, and the peak profiles for hopanes were equivalent to those in oil. The 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane concentrations per particle mass were higher in smaller particles. The elements concentrated in oil were also concentrated in the nanoparticles. These results suggest that not sulfate and fuel but organics derived from oil were the primary components of the nanoparticles under 8L-NoLoad. From the 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane concentrations, the oil contribution to the sum of measured components in the nanoparticles under 8L-NoLoad was estimated at 79-92%. Comparable oil contributions were estimated from Ca and Zn concentrations.

  18. Preliminary safety evaluation of the advanced burner test reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, F. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-15

    Results of a preliminary safety evaluation of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) pre-conceptual design are reported. The ABTR safety design approach is described. Traditional defense-in-depth design features are supplemented with passive safety performance characteristics that include natural circulation emergency decay heat removal and reactor power reduction by inherent reactivity feedbacks in accidents. ABTR safety performance in design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident sequences is estimated based on analyses. Modeling assumptions and input data for safety analyses are presented. Analysis results for simulation of simultaneous loss of coolant pumping power and normal heat rejection are presented and discussed, both for the case with reactor scram and the case without reactor scram. The analysis results indicate that the ABTR pre-conceptual design is capable of undergoing bounding design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents without fuel cladding failures. The first line of defense for protection of the public against release of radioactivity in accidents remains intact with significant margin. A comparison and evaluation of general safety design criteria for the ABTR conceptual design phase are presented in an appendix. A second appendix presents SASSYS-1 computer code capabilities and modeling enhancements implemented for ABTR analyses.

  19. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, T. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  20. Premixing hydrogen burners for surface refinement of glass; Vormischende Wasserstoffbrenner zur Oberflaechenbearbeitung von Glas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerisch, Matthias [Linde AG, Linde Gas Deutschland, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    As a result, inter alia, of unceasing globalisation, European glass producers in practically all sectors - flat glass, container glass, crystal glass and special glasses - are faced with ever tougher competition from Asia. In the 2012 to 2015 period and beyond, the principal focuses in the manufacture of glass products will again be on reducing overall production costs and increasing process efficiency wherever possible, on greater productivity and on enhanced product (surface) quality. To meet these challenges in the field of surface refinement and flame polishing of glass products as efficiently as possible, Linde AG/Linde Gases Division has developed premixing Hydropox {sup registered} burner technology for hydrogen/oxygen fuels. (orig.)

  1. Combustion of low calorific value gases in porous burners; Verbrennung von niederkalorischen Gasen in Porenbrennern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezinger, S.; Talukdar, P.; Issendorff, F. von; Trimis, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Stroemungsmechanik Friedrich-Alexander-Univ., Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    By the use of low calorific value gases significant energy amounts can be saved, emissions can be reduced and system efficients can be increased. These mixtures are generated in different fields like waste sites and fuel cell systems with reformation of hydrocarbons. Conventional combustion techniques are not suited for the combustion of this kind of gases. Due to its high internal heat recuperation the porous burner technology has great potential for the combustion of low calorific value gases. In this work the influence of the combustion zone properties, the surface load and the educt temperature were determined by numerical simulations and experiments. (orig.)

  2. Interim design status and operational report for remote handling fixtures: primary and secondary burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgoyne, R.M.

    1976-12-01

    The HTGR reprocessing flowsheet consists of two basic process elements: (1) spent fuel crushing and burning and (2) solvent extraction. Fundamental to these elements is the design and development of specialized process equipment and support facilities. A major consideration of this design and development program is equipment maintenance: specifically, the design and demonstration of selected remote maintenance capabilities and the integration of these into process equipment design. This report documents the current status of the development of remote handling and maintenance fixtures for the primary and secondary burners.

  3. Numerical Study of NOx and Flame Shape of a DLE Burner

    OpenAIRE

    Hamedi, Naser

    2012-01-01

    For natural gas combustion, there is a large amount of experience in the gas turbine industry. However, much of the design work is based on costly combustion tests due to insufficient accuracy of existing prediction tools for data such as emissions and effects due to fuel composition. In the present work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is used to study partially premixed combustion in the 3rd generation DLE (Dry Low Emission) burner that is used in SGT-700 and SGT-800 gas turbine...

  4. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziervogel, Kai; D'Souza, Nigel; Sweet, Julia; Yan, Beizhan; Passow, Uta

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil) or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow). Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and β-glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components, indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40) into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps.

  5. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eZiervogel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow. Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and -glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40 into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP. TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps.

  6. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental and analytical investigation on the emission and combustion characteristics of CI engine fueled with tamanu oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Navaneetha Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission and combustion characteristics of a four stroke multi fuel single cylinder variable compression ratio engine fueled with tamanu oil methyl ester and its blends 10%, 20%, 40%, and 60% with diesel (on volume basis are examined and compared with standard diesel. Biodiesel produced from tamanu oil by trans-esterification process has been used in this study. The experiment has been conducted at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm with 50% load and at compression ratios of 16:1, 17:1, 18:1, 19:1, and 20:1. With different blend and for selected compression ratio the exhaust gas emissions such as CO, HC, NOx, CO2, and the combustion characteristics are measured. The variation of the emission parameters for different compression ratios and for different blends is given, and optimum compression ratio which gives best performance has been identified. The results indicate higher rate of pressure rise and minimum heat release rate at higher compression ratio for tamanu oil methyl ester when compared with standard diesel. The blend B40 for tamanu oil methyl ester is found to give minimum emission at 50% load. The blend when used as fuel results in reduction of polluting gases like HC, CO, and increase in NOx emissions. The previously mentioned emission parameters have been validated with the aid of artificial neural network. A separate model is developed for emission characteristics in which compression ratio, blend percentage and load percentage were used as the input parameter whereas CO, CO2, HC, and NOx were used as the output parameter. This study shows that there is a good correlation between the artificial neural network predicted values and the experimental data for different emission parameters.

  8. Characteristics of Waste Plastics Pyrolytic Oil and Its Applications as Alternative Fuel on Four Cylinder Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Nugroho Pratama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastics recycling using pyrolysis method is not only able to decrease a number of environment pollutant but also able to produce economical and high quality hydrocarbon products. Two experiments were conducted to completely study Waste Plastic Pyrolytic Oil (WPPO characteristics and its applications.  First experiment investigated oil characteristics derived from pyrolysis process in two stages batch reactors: pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactor, at maximum temperature 500oC and 450oC respectively. Waste Polyethylene (PE, Polypropylene (PP, Polystyrene (PS, Polyethylene Terepthalate (PET and others were used as raw material. Nitrogen flow rate at 0.8 l/minutes was used to increase oil weight percentage. Indonesian natural zeolite was used as catalyst. Then, second experiment was carried out on Diesel Engine Test Bed (DETB used blending of WPPO and Biodiesel fuel with a volume ratio of 1:9. This experiment was specifically conducted to study how much potency of blending of WPPO and biodiesel in diesel engine. The result of first experiment showed that the highest weight percentage of WPPO derived from mixture of PE waste (50%wt, PP waste (40%wt and PS waste (10%wt is 45.13%wt. The more weight percentage of PE in feedstock effected on the less weight percentage of WPPO, the more percentage of C12-C20 content in WPPO and the higher calorific value of WPPO. Characteristics of WPPO such as, Specific Gravity, Flash point, Pour Point, Kinematic Viscosity, Calorific value and percentage of C12-C20 showed interesting result that WPPO could be developed as alternative fuel on diesel fuel blending due to the proximity of their characteristics. Performance of diesel engine using blending of WPPO and biodiesel on second experiment gave good result so the WPPO will have great potency to be valuable alternative liquid fuel in future, especially on stationary diesel engine and transportation engine application.

  9. TG/DTG, FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry, and NMR Spectroscopy Study of Heavy Fuel Oil

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2015-11-12

    There is an increasing interest in the comprehensive study of heavy fuel oil (HFO) due to its growing use in furnaces, boilers, marines, and recently in gas turbines. In this work, the thermal combustion characteristics and chemical composition of HFO were investigated using a range of techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted to study the nonisothermal HFO combustion behavior. Chemical characterization of HFO was accomplished using various standard methods in addition to direct infusion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (APCI-FTICR MS), high resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, and two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) spectroscopy. By analyzing thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) results, three different reaction regions were identified in the combustion of HFO with air, specifically, low temperature oxidation region (LTO), fuel deposition (FD), and high temperature oxidation (HTO) region. At the high end of the LTO region, a mass transfer resistance (skin effect) was evident. Kinetic analysis in LTO and HTO regions was conducted using two different kinetic models to calculate the apparent activation energy. In both models, HTO activation energies are higher than those for LTO. The FT-ICR MS technique resolved thousands of aromatic and sulfur containing compounds in the HFO sample and provided compositional details for individual molecules of three major class species. The major classes of compounds included species with one sulfur atom (S1), with two sulfur atoms (S2), and purely hydrocarbons (HC). The DBE (double bond equivalent) abundance plots established for S1 and HC provided additional information on their distributions in the HFO sample. The 1H NMR and 13C NMR results revealed that nearly 59% of the 1H nuclei were distributed as paraffinic CH2 and 5% were in aromatic groups. Nearly 21% of 13C nuclei were

  10. Electron beam technology for multipollutant emissions control from heavy fuel oil-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Ostapczuk, Anna; Licki, Janusz

    2010-08-01

    The electron beam treatment technology for purification of exhaust gases from the burning of heavy fuel oil (HFO) mazout with sulfur content approximately 3 wt % was tested at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology laboratory plant. The parametric study was conducted to determine the sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, absorbed irradiation dose, and ammonia stoichiometry process parameters. In the test performed under optimal conditions with an irradiation dose of 12.4 kGy, simultaneous removal efficiencies of approximately 98% for SO2, and 80% for NO(x) were recorded. The simultaneous decrease of PAH and one-ringed aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, and xylenes [BTX]) concentrations was observed in the irradiated flue gas. Overall removal efficiencies of approximately 42% for PAHs and 86% for BTXs were achieved with an irradiation dose 5.3 kGy. The decomposition ratio of these compounds increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The decrease of PAH and BTX concentrations was followed by the increase of oxygen-containing aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. The PAH and BTX decomposition process was initialized through the reaction with hydroxyl radicals that formed in the electron beam irradiated flue gas. Their decomposition process is based on similar principles as the primary reaction concerning SO2 and NO(x) removal; that is, free radicals attack organic compound chains or rings, causing volatile organic compound decomposition. Thus, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology ensures simultaneous removal of acid (SO2 and NO(x)) and organic (PAH and BTX) pollutants from flue gas emitted from burning of HFO. This technology is a multipollutant emission control technology that can be applied for treatment of flue gas emitted from coal-, lignite-, and HFO-fired boilers. Other thermal processes such

  11. Chemicals derived from pyrolysis bio-oils as antioxidants in fuels and lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins and hardwood were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oils to produce lignin-derived bio-oils of which phenols were the major component. These bio-oils were extracted with alkali to yield a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. When tested...

  12. Model of predicting proportion of diesel fuel and engine oil in diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscosity of diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil at varying proportions of the mixture is presented. Regression, variation of intercept and the power parameters methods are used for developing polynomial and power law functions for predicting proportion of either diesel or engine oil in diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil ...

  13. Investigation of the Combustion Stability of Methane-Air Mixture in Recuperative Burners of Different Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainov Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerical investigations of 5.5% methane-air combustion stability in heat recuperative burners (counter flow burner, U-shape burner and Swiss-roll burner are presented in this paper. The investigation is carried out with the use of commercial CFD package Ansys-Fluent. The boundaries of combustion stability of 5.5% methane-air mixture depending on the gas flow rate at the inlet of the burners are determined.

  14. Highly efficient conversion of plant oil to bio-aviation fuel and valuable chemicals by combination of enzymatic transesterification, olefin cross-metathesis, and hydrotreating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Chen, Mojin; Fang, Yunming; Tan, Tianwei

    2018-01-01

    The production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources is increasingly important due to the environmental concern and depletion of fossil fuel. Despite the fast technical development in the production of aviation fuels, there are still several shortcomings such as a high cost of raw materials, a low yield of aviation fuels, and poor process techno-economic consideration. In recent years, olefin metathesis has become a powerful and versatile tool for generating new carbon-carbon bonds. The cross-metathesis reaction, one kind of metathesis reaction, has a high potential to efficiently convert plant oil into valuable chemicals, such as α-olefin and bio-aviation fuel by combining with a hydrotreatment process. In this research, an efficient, four-step conversion of plant oil into bio-aviation fuel and valuable chemicals was developed by the combination of enzymatic transesterification, olefin cross-metathesis, and hydrotreating. Firstly, plant oil including oil with poor properties was esterified to fatty acid methyl esters by an enzyme-catalyzed process. Secondly, the fatty acid methyl esters were partially hydrotreated catalytically to transform poly-unsaturated fatty acid such as linoleic acid into oleic acid. The olefin cross-metathesis then transformed the oleic acid methyl ester (OAME) into 1-decene and 1-decenoic acid methyl ester (DAME). The catalysts used in this process were prepared/selected in function of the catalytic reaction and the reaction conditions were optimized. The carbon efficiency analysis of the new process illustrated that it was more economically feasible than the traditional hydrotreatment process. A highly efficient conversion process of plant oil into bio-aviation fuel and valuable chemicals by the combination of enzymatic transesterification, olefin cross-metathesis, and hydrotreatment with prepared and selected catalysts was designed. The reaction conditions were optimized. Plant oil was transformed into bio-aviation fuel and a

  15. Long-term experiences in the use of rapeseed oil fuel in tractors of the emissions levels I and II; Langzeiterfahrungen zum Einsatz von Rapsoelkraftstoff in Traktoren der Abgasstufe I und II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2013-06-01

    The operational behavior as well as the emission behavior should be clarified in long-term use by means of tractors which are powered by rapeseed oil fuel. This is based on the following measures: review of the quality of rapeseed oil fuel used; testing of the quality of the engine oil on a random basis; documentation of failures, maintenance and repair work; measurement of performance and fuel economy; measurement of exhaust emissions; diagnosis of engines.

  16. Reduction of NO{sub x} from a pellet burner - a parametric study; Reduktion av NOx fraan en pelletsbraennare - en parameterstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskilsson, David; Roennbaeck, Marie; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    2000-05-01

    NO{sub x} emissions from small-scale combustion of pellets derive mainly from the fuel nitrogen. A conversion from combustion of oil to pellets will probably lead to increasing NO{sub x}-emissions. Today, pellets are produced mainly from sawdust and wood shavings which consist of pure wood with a low nitrogen content. The expected increase in pellet utilisation will probably lead to that other raw materials with higher nitrogen content will be used. This means that NOx-emissions from small-scale BAKE combustion of pellets can increase dramatically if not 'low-NO{sub x} burners' are developed. This report can be used as a support in the development of new design and automatic control strategies for pellet burners. NH{sub 3} and HCN dominate the nitrogen compounds in the volatiles leaving the pellet during the devolatilisation. The fuel properties, the residence time and the devolatilisation conditions affect the ratio between these two compounds. The transformation of NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} takes place through a short and relatively uncomplicated reaction path while the reduction of HCN has a much more complex reaction path with a slower chemical kinetics which leads to longer reaction times. The optimal stoichiometry depends on the residence time, mixing and the composition of the devolatilisation gas in the primary zone. The objective with this study has been to, with a modified pellet burner, minimise NOx in practical experiments with a small literature study as background. In the experiments reported in this project, the performance of a modified pellet burner and the emissions have been studied while the ratio between primary- and secondary air and the addition of primary air have been varied. During the experiments, the air flow, the different emissions, the boiler effect and the temperature in the burner have been measured continuously. A few parameters have been identified as crucial for the NO{sub x}-emissions: Addition of primary air: The primary

  17. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX

  18. Thermography of flame during diesel fuel combustion with steam gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriev, I. S.; Arsentyev, S. S.; Agafontsev, M. V.; Kopyev, E. P.; Loboda, E. L.; Shadrin, E. Yu; Sharypov, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper represents a study concerning the combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuel in a perspective burner device with the controlled forced supply of overheated steam into the combustion zone, using diesel fuel. The thermal imaging measurements are conducted for the outer flame of the burner device in the wide range of regime parameters (flow rate and temperature of steam). A thermal imaging camera (FLIR, JADE J530SB) is used in the experiments. The effective emissivity coefficient of flame is obtained versus the flow rate of steam supplied. The steam parameters are found to influence on the temperature in the outer flame of the burner device.

  19. Evaluating the efficacy of a minor actinide burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Nelson, J.V.; Omberg, R.P.; Wootan, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    The efficacy of a minor actinide burner can be evaluated by comparing safety and economic parameters to the support ratio. Minor actinide mass produced per unit time in this number of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) can be burned during the same time period in one burner system. The larger the support ratio for a given set of safety and economic parameters, the better. To illustrate this concept, the support ratio for selected Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) burner core designs was compared with corresponding coolant void worths, a fundamental safety concern following the Chernobyl accident. Results can be used to evaluate the cost in reduced burning of minor actinides caused by LMR sodium void reduction efforts or to compare with other minor actinide burner systems.

  20. Fuel distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.