Sample records for burn cycle requirements

  1. Burns, metabolism and nutritional requirements. (United States)

    Mendonça Machado, N; Gragnani, A; Masako Ferreira, L


    To review the nutritional evaluation in burned patient, considering the literature descriptions of nutritional evaluation and energy requirements of these patients. Thermal injury is the traumatic event with the highest metabolic response in critically ill patients. Various mathematical formulas have been developed to estimate nutritional requirements in burned patient. Indirect Calorimetry is the only method considered gold standard for measuring caloric expenditure. A survey of the literature and data was collected based on official data bases, LILACS, EMBASE and PubMed. The metabolic changes involved in hypermetabolism are designed to supply energy to support immune function, brain activity, wound healing, and preservation of body tissues. Body weight is considered the easiest indicator and perhaps the best to assess the nutritional status. The most common formulas utilized in these patients are the Curreri, Pennisi, Schofield, Ireton-Jones, Harris-Benedict and the ASPEN recommendations. For children is the Mayes and World Health Organization formula. The majority of mathematical formulas overestimate the nutritional needs. The regular use of Indirect Calorimetry supplies adequate nutritional support to the burn patient. The traditional nutritional evaluation considers anthropometry, biochemical markers and estimation of nutritional requirements. The weight provides a basis for decisions that are established in the clinical context. Classic parameters can be adapted to intensive care environment. The use of Indirect Calorimetry is crucial to ensure the safety of the nutritional support of burn patients and this should be widely encouraged.

  2. Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard


    A proposed hybrid (internal-combustion/ electric) automotive engine system would include as its internal-combustion subsystem, a modified Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating and with autoignition like that of a Diesel engine. The fuel would be ethanol and would be burned lean to ensure complete combustion. Although the proposed engine would have a relatively low power-to-weight ratio compared to most present engines, this would not be the problem encountered if this engine were used in a non-hybrid system since hybrid systems require significantly lower power and thus smaller engines than purely internal-combustion-engine-driven vehicles. The disadvantage would be offset by the advantages of high fuel efficiency, low emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants, and the fact that ethanol is a renewable fuel. The original Miller-cycle engine, named after its inventor, was patented in the 1940s and is the basis of engines used in some modern automobiles, but is not widely known. In somewhat oversimplified terms, the main difference between a Miller-cycle engine and a common (Otto-cycle) automobile engine is that the Miller-cycle engine has a longer expansion stroke while retaining the shorter compression stroke. This is accomplished by leaving the intake valve open for part of the compression stroke, whereas in the Otto cycle engine, the intake valve is kept closed during the entire compression stroke. This greater expansion ratio makes it possible to extract more energy from the combustion process without expending more energy for compression. The net result is greater efficiency. In the proposed engine, the regenerative preheating would be effected by running the intake air through a heat exchanger connected to the engine block. The regenerative preheating would offer two advantages: It would ensure reliable autoignition during operation at low ambient temperature and would help to cool the engine, thereby reducing the remainder of the

  3. Prescribed Burn Cycles 4-yr Rotation (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a map and a table showing the number of acres and locations of planned burns and wildfires on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge between...

  4. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN


    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  5. 46 CFR 45.181 - Load line exemption requirements for the Burns Harbor and Milwaukee routes. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load line exemption requirements for the Burns Harbor... line exemption requirements for the Burns Harbor and Milwaukee routes. Barges operating on the Burns... (Milwaukee and/or Burns Harbor); (4) Design type (covered/uncovered hopper, deck, etc.); (5)...

  6. Burns (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  7. Biomass Burning: The Cycling of Gases and Particulates from the Biosphere to the Atmosphere (United States)

    Levine, J. S.


    Biomass burning is both a process of geochemical cycling of gases and particulates from the biosphere to the atmosphere and a process of global change. In the preface to the book, One Earth, One Future: Our Changing Global Environment (National Academy of Sciences, 1990), Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences, writes: "Human activities are transforming the global environment, and these global changes have many faces: ozone depletion, tropical deforestation, acid deposition, and increased atmospheric concentrations of gases that trap heat and may warm the global climate."It is interesting to note that all four global change "faces" identified by Dr. Press have a common thread - they are all caused by biomass burning.Biomass burning or vegetation burning is the burning of living and dead vegetation and includes human-initiated burning and natural lightning-induced burning. The bulk of the world's biomass burning occurs in the tropics - in the tropical forests of South America and Southeast Asia and in the savannasof Africa and South America. The majority of the biomass burning, primarily in the tropics (perhaps as much as 90%), is believed to be human initiated for land clearing and land-use change. Natural fires triggered by atmospheric lightning only accounts for ˜10% of all fires (Andreae, 1991). As will be discussed, a significant amount of biomass burning occurs in the boreal forests of Russia, Canada, and Alaska.Biomass burning is a significant source of gases and particulates to the regional and global atmosphere (Crutzen et al., 1979; Seiler and Crutzen, 1980; Crutzen and Andreae, 1990; Levine et al., 1995). Its burning is truly a multidiscipline subject, encompassing the following areas: fire ecology, fire measurements, fire modeling, fire combustion, remote sensing, fire combustion gaseous and particulate emissions, the atmospheric transport of these emissions, and the chemical and climatic impacts of these emissions. Recently

  8. Burns (United States)

    To help prevent burns: Install smoke alarms in your home. Check and change batteries regularly. Teach children about fire safety and the danger of matches and fireworks. Keep children from climbing on top of a stove ...

  9. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous... (United States)


    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... testing or trial or operational burns of similar boilers or industrial furnaces burning similar...

  10. Biomass burning, land-cover change, and the hydrological cycle in Northern sub-Saharan Africa (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; Okonkwo, Churchill; Bolten, John; Policelli, Frederick S.; Habib, Shahid


    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25% of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (>75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7%/yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28%/yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18%/yr) coming from savanna. During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5°-10° latitude), where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm d-1. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback mechanism.

  11. Biomass Burning, Land-Cover Change, and the Hydrological Cycle in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; Okonkwo, Churchill; Bolten, John; Policelli, Frederick S.; Habib, Shahid


    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25%of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (greater than 75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7% /yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28% /yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18% /yr) coming from savanna.During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5 deg-10 deg latitude),where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm/d. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback

  12. Biomass Burning, Land-Cover Change, and the Hydrological Cycle in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; hide


    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25%of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (greater than 75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7% /yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28% /yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18% /yr) coming from savanna.During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5 deg-10 deg latitude),where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm/d. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback

  13. Feasibility of Burning Civilian Grade Pu in the Modular HTR with Th Fuel Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许云林; 经荥清


    The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTR) can be usedto burn plutonium fuel to reduce Pu stockpiles because of its inherent safety characteristics and ability to burn a variety of fuel mixtures. The equilibrium core is calculated and analyzed for Pu enriched fuel. Fuel spheres with 7 g heavy metal including the civilian grade Pu and thorium are loaded into the reactor. An enrichment of 11% is chosen to provide the desired equilibrium core reactivity. The fuel and moderator temperature coefficients are both negative. The maximum fuel element temperature during normal operation and during a loss of coolant accident is less than 1500 ℃. 92% of 239Pu will be burnt during nomal operation. Therefore, a thorium fuel cycle in the modular HTR is an effective method for burning civilian grade plutonium.

  14. Epidemiology of pediatric burns requiring hospitalization in China: a literature review of retrospective studies. (United States)

    Kai-Yang, Lv; Zhao-Fan, Xia; Luo-Man, Zhang; Yi-Tao, Jia; Tao, Tan; Wei, Wei; Bing, Ma; Jie, Xiong; Yu, Wang; Yu, Sun


    This review was an effort to systematically examine the nationwide data available on pediatric burns requiring hospitalization to reveal burn epidemiology and guide future education and prevention. The China Biomedical Disk Database, Chongqing VIP Database, and China Journal Full-Text Database were searched for articles reporting data on children and their burns from January 2000 through December 2005. Studies were included that systematically investigated the epidemiology of pediatric burns requiring hospitalization in China. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria, all of which were retrospective analyses. For each study included, 2 investigators independently abstracted the data related to the population description by using a standard form and included the percentage of patients with burn injury who were burn; anatomical sites of burn; severity of burn; and mortality and cause of death. These data were extracted, and a retrospective statistical description was performed with SPSS11.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Of the pediatric patients studied, the proportion of children with burn injury ranged from 22.50% to 54.66%, and the male/female ratio ranged from 1.25:1 to 4.42:1. The ratio of children aged 3 years was 0.19:1 to 4.18:1. The rural/urban ratio was 1.60:1 to 12.94:1. The ratio of those who were burned indoors versus outdoors was 1.62 to 17.00, and there were no effective hints on the distribution of seasons and anatomical sites of burn that could be found. The peak hours of pediatric burn were between 17:00 and 20:00. Most articles reported the sequence of reasons as hot liquid > flame > electricity > chemical, and scalding was, by far, the most predominant reason for burn. The majority of the studies reported the highest proportion involved in moderate burn, and the lowest proportion was for critical burn. The mortality rate ranged from 0.49% to 9.08%, and infection, shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome were the most common causes of

  15. Estimating Biomass Burning Emissions for Carbon Cycle Science and Resource Monitoring & Management (United States)

    French, N. H.; McKenzie, D.; Erickson, T. A.; McCarty, J. L.; Ottmar, R. D.; Kasischke, E. S.; Prichard, S. J.; Hoy, E.; Endsley, K.; Hamermesh, N. K.


    Biomass burning emissions, including emissions from wildland fire, agricultural and rangeland burning, and peatland fires, impact the atmosphere dramatically. Current tools to quantify emission sources are developing quickly in a response to the need by the modeling community to assess fire's role in the carbon cycle and the land management community to understand fire effects and impacts on air quality. In a project funded by NASA, our team has developed methods to spatially quantify wildland fire emissions for the contiguous United States (CONUS) and Alaska (AK) at regional scales. We have also developed a prototype web-based information system, the Wildland Fire Emissions Information System (WFEIS) to make emissions modeling tools and estimates for the CONUS and AK available to the user community. With new funding through two NASA programs, our team from MTRI, USFS, and UMd will be further developing WFEIS to provide biomass burning emissions estimates for the carbon cycle science community and for land and air quality managers, to improve the way emissions estimates are calculated for a variety of disciplines. In this poster, we review WFEIS as it currently operates and the plans to extend the current system for use by the carbon cycle science community (through the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Program) and resource management community (through the NASA Applications Program). Features to be enhanced include an improved accounting of biomass present in canopy fuels that are available for burning in a forest fire, addition of annually changing vegetation biomass/fuels used in computing fire emissions, and quantification of the errors present in the estimation methods in order to provide uncertainty of emissions estimates across CONUS and AK. Additionally, WFEIS emissions estimates will be compared with results obtained with the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED), which operates at a global scale at a coarse spatial resolution, to help improve GFED estimates

  16. Improving the seasonal cycle and interannual variations of biomass burning aerosol sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Generoso


    Full Text Available This paper suggests a method for improving current inventories of aerosol emissions from biomass burning. The method is based on the hypothesis that, although the total estimates within large regions are correct, the exact spatial and temporal description can be improved. It makes use of open fire detection from the ATSR instrument that is available since 1996. The emissions inventories are re-distributed in space and time according to the occurrence of open fires. Although the method is based on the night-time hot-spot product of the ATSR, other satellite biomass burning proxies (AVHRR, TRMM, GLOBSCAR and GBA2000 show similar distributions. The impact of the method on the emission inventories is assessed using an aerosol transport model, the results of which are compared to sunphotometer and satellite data. The seasonal cycle of aerosol load in the atmosphere is significantly improved in several regions, in particular South America and Australia. Besides, the use of ATSR fire detection may be used to account for interannual events, as is demonstrated on the large Indonesian fires of 1997, a consequence of the 1997-1998 El Niño. Despite these improvements, there are still some large discrepancies between the simulated and observed aerosol optical thicknesses resulting from biomass burning emissions.

  17. Aerosol characterization over the North China Plain: Haze life cycle and biomass burning impacts in summer (United States)

    Sun, Yele; Jiang, Qi; Xu, Yisheng; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Xingang; Li, Weijun; Wang, Fei; Li, Jie; Wang, Pucai; Li, Zhanqing


    The North China Plain experiences frequent severe haze pollution during all seasons. Here we present the results from a summer campaign that was conducted at Xianghe, a suburban site located between the megacities of Beijing and Tianjin. Aerosol particle composition was measured in situ by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor along with a suite of collocated measurements during 1-30 June 2013. Our results showed that aerosol composition at the suburban site was overall similar to that observed in Beijing, which was mainly composed of organics (39%), nitrate (20%), and sulfate (18%). Positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol (OA) identified four OA factors with different sources and processes. While secondary organic aerosol dominated OA, on average accounting for 70%, biomass burning OA (BBOA) was also observed to have a considerable contribution (11%) for the entire study period. The contribution of BBOA was increased to 21% during the BB period in late June, indicating a large impact of agricultural burning on air pollution in summer. Biomass burning also exerted a significant impact on aerosol optical properties. It was estimated that ~60% enhancement of absorption at the ultraviolet spectral region was caused by the organic compounds from biomass burning. The formation mechanisms and sources of severe haze pollution episodes were investigated in a case study. The results highlighted two different mechanisms, i.e., regional transport and local sources, driving the haze life cycles differently in summer in the North China Plain. While secondary aerosol species dominated aerosol composition in the episode from regional transport, organics and black carbon comprised the major fraction in the locally formed haze episode.

  18. Transmutation, Burn-Up and Fuel Fabrication Trade-Offs in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor Thorium Fuel Cycles - 13502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, Benjamin A.; Parks, Geoffrey T. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Franceschini, Fausto [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)


    Multiple recycle of long-lived actinides has the potential to greatly reduce the required storage time for spent nuclear fuel or high level nuclear waste. This is generally thought to require fast reactors as most transuranic (TRU) isotopes have low fission probabilities in thermal reactors. Reduced-moderation LWRs are a potential alternative to fast reactors with reduced time to deployment as they are based on commercially mature LWR technology. Thorium (Th) fuel is neutronically advantageous for TRU multiple recycle in LWRs due to a large improvement in the void coefficient. If Th fuel is used in reduced-moderation LWRs, it appears neutronically feasible to achieve full actinide recycle while burning an external supply of TRU, with related potential improvements in waste management and fuel utilization. In this paper, the fuel cycle of TRU-bearing Th fuel is analysed for reduced-moderation PWRs and BWRs (RMPWRs and RBWRs). RMPWRs have the advantage of relatively rapid implementation and intrinsically low conversion ratios. However, it is challenging to simultaneously satisfy operational and fuel cycle constraints. An RBWR may potentially take longer to implement than an RMPWR due to more extensive changes from current BWR technology. However, the harder neutron spectrum can lead to favourable fuel cycle performance. A two-stage fuel cycle, where the first pass is Th-Pu MOX, is a technically reasonable implementation of either concept. The first stage of the fuel cycle can therefore be implemented at relatively low cost as a Pu disposal option, with a further policy option of full recycle in the medium term. (authors)

  19. Electrofishing power requirements in relation to duty cycle (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Dolan, C.R.


    Under controlled laboratory conditions we measured the electrical peak power required to immobilize (i.e., narcotize or tetanize) fish of various species and sizes with duty cycles (i.e., percentage of time a field is energized) ranging from 1.5% to 100%. Electrofishing effectiveness was closely associated with duty cycle. Duty cycles of 10-50% required the least peak power to immobilize fish; peak power requirements increased gradually above 50% duty cycle and sharply below 10%. Small duty cycles can increase field strength by making possible higher instantaneous peak voltages that allow the threshold power needed to immobilize fish to radiate farther away from the electrodes. Therefore, operating within the 10-50% range of duty cycles would allow a larger radius of immobilization action than operating with higher duty cycles. This 10-50% range of duty cycles also coincided with some of the highest margins of difference between the electrical power required to narcotize and that required to tetanize fish. This observation is worthy of note because proper use of duty cycle could help reduce the mortality associated with tetany documented by some authors. Although electrofishing with intermediate duty cycles can potentially increase effectiveness of electrofishing, our results suggest that immobilization response is not fully accounted for by duty cycle because of a potential interaction between pulse frequency and duration that requires further investigation.

  20. Capture reactions of astrophysical relevance in the CNO-cycles and in stellar helium burning

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, J W; Jäger, M; Kunz, R; Mayer, A; Morlock, R; Schreiter, R; Staudt, G; Mohr, P J; Butt, Y; Parker, P D; Kratz, K L; Pfeiffer, B


    In the DYNAMITRON laboratory of the University of Stuttgart capture reactions have been investigated which are important for the nucleosynthesis of the elements. Various stellar models describing nucleosynthesis require nuclear reaction rates at burning temperatures with sufficient accuracy. Applying techniques of high sensitivity to cross section measurements one is straining to extend these measurements as far as possible into the astrophysically relevant range at low energies. But despite all these efforts one often has to apply extrapolations or one has to investigate mirror nuclei in cases where the target nucleus is not available in sufficient amounts.

  1. Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West


    The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  2. Deriving required model structures to predict global wildfire burned area from multiple satellite and climate observations (United States)

    Forkel, Matthias; Dorigo, Wouter; Lasslop, Gitta; Teubner, Irene; Chuvieco, Emilio; Thonicke, Kirsten


    Vegetation fires have important effects on human infrastructures and ecosystems, and affect atmospheric composition and the climate system. Consequently, it is necessary to accurately represent fire dynamics in global vegetation models to realistically represent the role of fires in the Earth system. However, it is unclear which model structures are required in global vegetation/fire models to represent fire activity at regional to global scales. Here we aim to identify required structural components and necessary complexities of global vegetation/fire models to predict spatial-temporal dynamics of burned area. For this purpose, we developed the SOFIA (satellite observations for fire activity) modelling approach to predict burned area from several satellite and climate datasets. A large ensemble of SOFIA models was generated and each model was optimized against observed burned area data. Models that account for a suppression of fire activity at wet conditions result in the highest performances in predicting burned area. Models that include vegetation optical depth data from microwave satellite observations reach higher performances in predicting burned area than models that do not include this dataset. Vegetation optical depth is a proxy for vegetation biomass, density and water content and thus indicates a strong control of vegetation states and dynamics on fire activity. We further compared the best performing SOFIA models with the global process-oriented vegetation/fire model JSBACH-SPITFIRE, and with the GFED and Fire_CCI burned area datasets. SOFIA models outperform JSBACH-SPITFIRE in predicting regional variabilities of burned area. We further applied the best SOFIA model to identify controlling factors for burned area. The results indicate that fire activity is controlled by regionally diverse and complex interactions of human, vegetation and climate factors. Our results demonstrate that the use of multiple observational datasets on climate, hydrological

  3. World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy`s activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration`s annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment.

  4. [In-depth interviews and the Kano model to determine user requirements in a burns unit]. (United States)

    González-Revaldería, J; Holguín-Holgado, P; Lumbreras-Marín, E; Núñez-López, G

    To determine the healthcare requirements of patients in a Burns Unit, using qualitative techniques, such us in-depth personal interviews and Kano's methodology. Qualitative methodology using in-depth personal interviews (12 patients), Kano's conceptual model, and the SERVQHOS questionnaire (24 patients). All patients had been hospitalised in the last 12 months in the Burns Unit. Using Kano's methodology, service attributes were grouped by affinity diagrams, and classified as follows: must-be, attractive (unexpected, great satisfaction), and one-dimensional (linked to the degree of functionality of the service). The outcomes were compared with those obtained with SERVQHOS questionnaire. From the analysis of in-depth interviews, 11 requirements were obtained, referring to hotel aspects, information, need for closer staff relationship, and organisational aspects. The attributes classified as must-be were free television and automatic TV disconnection at midnight. Those classified as attractive were: individual room for more privacy, information about dressing change times in order to avoid anxiety, and additional staff for in-patients. The results were complementary to those obtained with the SERVQHOS questionnaire. In-depth personal interviews provide extra knowledge about patient requirements, complementing the information obtained with questionnaires. With this methodology, a more active patient participation is achieved and the companion's opinion is also taken into account. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Absorption cycle commercial refrigerator using wood burning cook stove; Geladeira de absorcao acionada por fogao a lenha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira; Martins, Gilberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia


    The current utilization of wood burning cook stoves in Brazil and the socio-economical profile of their users were surveyed. A traditional heavy-mass wood-burning cook stove was studied as a thermal equipment. Simple changes in the geometry of the combustion chamber were suggested to improve the cooking efficiency. A closed two-phase thermosyphon using water as working fluid was designed, built and connected between the combustion chamber of the cook stove and a depressurized absorption refrigeration system to determine the heat flux and the temperature level. A commercial refrigerator unit, using the absorption cycle, was coupled with the wood stove through the thermosyphon. The overall results of the coupling point to successful country-side applications. (author) 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Biomass burning and its relationship with water cycle dynamics of the Chari-Logone catchment of Lake Chad Basin (United States)

    Black, F. W.; Lee, J.; Ellison, L.; Gupta, M.; Bolten, J. D.; Gatebe, C. K.; Ichoku, C. M.


    The cause of shrinkage of Lake Chad has been of great interest for issues of global warming and climate change. The present study investigates the effect of biomass burning on the water cycle dynamics of Lake Chad Basin in the Northern Sub-Saharan Africa. Burning activities increase from November to April when monsoonal precipitation is at its lowest and decreases dramatically from May to October when precipitation peaks. To circumvent weather station scarcity in the region, a variety of satellite products were used as input into a water balance model. The datasets include TRMM 3B31 for precipitation, SRTM for elevation, and MODIS: MOD11C3 for temperature, MOD12Q1 for land cover, and MOD14A for fire count. Non-satellite based data sources include soil maps from the Harmonized World Soil Database and wind speed from NOAA NCDC stations. The Chari-Logone catchment of the Lake Chad Basin was selected since it supplies over 90% of the water input to the Lake. Fire count data from MOD14A were integrated with land cover albedo changes to determine monthly potential evapotranspiration (PET) using a Penman equation. The resolution of the model is 2 km x 2 km which allows for delineation of physical features such as lakes and other water bodies. Fire counts, also at a resolution of 2 km x 2 km, vary dramatically depending on the season. A separate land cover dataset was created to account for the effect of burning of different vegetative land types, which affects vegetative area, bare area, leaf area index, vegetation height, Manning coefficient, and aerodynamic resistance. Two water balance simulations, one considering burning and one without, were compared from the years 2005 to 2010. Results indicate biomass burning contribute to an increase in average monthly runoff and a decrease in groundwater recharge. Actual evapotranspiration shows variation depending on the month.

  7. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.


    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  8. NASA's Planned Return to the Moon: Global Access and Anytime Return Requirement Implications on the Lunar Orbit Insertion Burns (United States)

    Garn, Michelle; Qu, Min; Chrone, Jonathan; Su, Philip; Karlgaard, Chris


    Lunar orbit insertion LOI is a critical maneuver for any mission going to the Moon. Optimizing the geometry of this maneuver is crucial to the success of the architecture designed to return humans to the Moon. LOI burns necessary to meet current NASA Exploration Constellation architecture requirements for the lunar sortie missions are driven mainly by the requirement for global access and "anytime" return from the lunar surface. This paper begins by describing the Earth-Moon geometry which creates the worst case (delta)V for both the LOI and the translunar injection (TLI) maneuvers over the full metonic cycle. The trajectory which optimizes the overall (delta)V performance of the mission is identified, trade studies results covering the entire lunar globe are mapped onto the contour plots, and the effects of loitering in low lunar orbit as a means of reducing the insertion (delta)V are described. Finally, the lighting conditions on the lunar surface are combined with the LOI and TLI analyses to identify geometries with ideal lighting conditions at sites of interest which minimize the mission (delta)V.

  9. Understanding Computer Forensics Requirements in China Via The “Panda Burning Incense” Virus Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Chow


    Full Text Available In March 2012, Mainland China has amended its Criminal Procedure Law, which includes the introduction of a new type of evidence, i.e., digital evidence, to the court of law. To better understand the development of computer forensics and digital evidence in Mainland China, this paper discusses the Chinese legal system in relation to digital investigation and how the current legal requirements affect the existing legal and technical usage of digital evidence at legal proceedings. Through studying the famous “Panda Burning Incense (” virus case that happened in 2007, this paper aims to provide a better understanding of how to properly conduct computer forensics examination and present digital evidence at court of law in Mainland China.

  10. A burn center paradigm to fulfill deferred consent public disclosure and community consultation requirements for emergency care research. (United States)

    Blackford, Martha G; Falletta, Lynn; Andrews, David A; Reed, Michael D


    To fulfill Food and Drug Administration and Department of Health and Human Services emergency care research informed consent requirements, our burn center planned and executed a deferred consent strategy gaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval to proceed with the clinical study. These federal regulations dictate public disclosure and community consultation unique to acute care research. Our regional burn center developed and implemented a deferred consent public notification and community consultation paradigm appropriate for a burn study. Published accounts of deferred consent strategies focus on acute care resuscitation practices. We adapted those strategies to design and conduct a comprehensive public notification/community consultation plan to satisfy deferred consent requirements for burn center research. To implement a robust media campaign we engaged the hospital's public relations department, distributed media materials, recruited hospital staff for speaking engagements, enlisted community volunteers, and developed initiatives to inform "hard-to-reach" populations. The hospital's IRB determined we fulfilled our obligation to notify the defined community. Our communication strategy should provide a paradigm other burn centers may appropriate and adapt when planning and executing a deferred consent initiative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Attempt of lean burn of a 4 cycle gasoline engine by the aid of low pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection; Tonai kuki nenryo funsha ni yoru lean burn no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Kondo, M.; Sekiya, Y.; Murayama, T. [Hokkaido Automotive Engineering College, Hokkaido (Japan)


    Comparable performance and exhaust emission with conventional carburetor was obtained by a low Pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection system. And lean burn of idling and light load operation till A/F=70 was realized by installing a spark Plug and a reed type injection nozzle in a divided combustion chambaer of a 4 cycle gasoline engine. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Dexmedetomidine decreases the requirement of ketamine and propofol during burns debridement and dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhavathi Ravipati


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dexmedetomidine (Dex, a highly selective α2 -adrenoreceptor agonist, is used for sedation management in various clinical settings and shows anaesthetic-sparing effect. Our aim was to study the effects of Dex on requirements of propofol, ketamine, and intraoperative haemodynamic variations during burns debridement and dressing changes, and compare its effectiveness and safety with combination of ketamine and propofol. Methods: Sixty adult patients posted for elective debridement and dressing were included in the study. Thirty patients received Dex (intramuscular(IM 1 μg/kg, 1 h before shifting to the operation theatre while the other thirty did not. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and ketamine followed by adjusted infusion to achieve a Ramsay Sedation Scale score (RSS of six in all patients. Intraoperatively haemodynamic parameters were recorded at regular intervals of 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. The mean data between the groups were compared by unpaired t test and medians by Mann-Whitney U test. Within group analysis was performed by using repeated measures ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The dose requirement of ketamine and propofol in Dex group was significantly lower when compared to control group (100.5 ± 17.58 mg vs. 231.5 ± 60.39 mg (P < 0.0001 and 127.7 ± 15.47 mg vs. 254 ± 59.22 mg (P < 0.0001 respectively. Additionally, recovery time was lower in the Dex group as compared to the control group, 9.57 ± 1.50 min vs. 11.53 ± 2.56 min (P = 0.0006. Haemodynamic variations were also significantly lower in the Dex group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg IM reduced the requirement of propofol and ketamine, with more stable intraoperative haemodynamics.

  13. Burns, metabolism and nutritional requirements Quemaduras, el metabolismo y los requerimientos nutricionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mendonça Machado


    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the nutritional evaluation in burned patient, considering the literature descriptions of nutritional evaluation and energy requirements of these patients. Introduction: Thermal injury is the traumatic event with the highest metabolic response in critically ill patients. Various mathematical formulas have been developed to estimate nutritional requirements in burned patient. Indirect Calorimetry is the only method considered gold standard for measuring caloric expenditure. Methods: A survey of the literature and data was collected based on official data bases, LILACS, EMBASE and PubMed. Results: The metabolic changes involved in hypermetabolism are designed to supply energy to support immune function, brain activity, wound healing, and preservation of body tissues. Body weight is considered the easiest indicator and perhaps the best to assess the nutritional status. The most common formulas utilized in these patients are the Curreri, Pennisi, Schofield, Ireton-Jones, Harris-Benedict and the ASPEN recommendations. For children is the Mayes and World Health Organization formula. The majority of mathematical formulas overestimate the nutritional needs. The regular use of Indirect Calorimetry supplies adequate nutritional support to the burn patient. Discussion: The traditional nutritional evaluation considers anthropometry, biochemical markers and estimation of nutritional requirements. The weight provides a basis for decisions that are established in the clinical context. Classic parameters can be adapted to intensive care environment. Conclusions: The use of Indirect Calorimetry is crucial to ensure the safety of the nutritional support of burn patients and this should be widely encouraged.Objetivos: Revisar la evaluación nutricional del paciente quemado, considerando las descripciones bibliográficas de la evaluación nutricional y de los requerimientos energéticos de estos pacientes. Introducción: la lesión térmica es

  14. Uncertainty Requirement Analysis for the Orbit, Attitude, and Burn Performance of the 1st Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver (United States)

    Song, Young-Joo; Bae, Jonghee; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bang-Yeop


    In this study, the uncertainty requirements for orbit, attitude, and burn performance were estimated and analyzed for the execution of the 1st lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver of the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) mission. During the early design phase of the system, associate analysis is an essential design factor as the 1st LOI maneuver is the largest burn that utilizes the onboard propulsion system; the success of the lunar capture is directly affected by the performance achieved. For the analysis, the spacecraft is assumed to have already approached the periselene with a hyperbolic arrival trajectory around the moon. In addition, diverse arrival conditions and mission constraints were considered, such as varying periselene approach velocity, altitude, and orbital period of the capture orbit after execution of the 1st LOI maneuver. The current analysis assumed an impulsive LOI maneuver, and two-body equations of motion were adapted to simplify the problem for a preliminary analysis. Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the statistical analysis to analyze diverse uncertainties that might arise at the moment when the maneuver is executed. As a result, three major requirements were analyzed and estimated for the early design phase. First, the minimum requirements were estimated for the burn performance to be captured around the moon. Second, the requirements for orbit, attitude, and maneuver burn performances were simultaneously estimated and analyzed to maintain the 1st elliptical orbit achieved around the moon within the specified orbital period. Finally, the dispersion requirements on the B-plane aiming at target points to meet the target insertion goal were analyzed and can be utilized as reference target guidelines for a mid-course correction (MCC) maneuver during the transfer. More detailed system requirements for the KPLO mission, particularly for the spacecraft bus itself and for the flight dynamics subsystem at the ground control center

  15. Discovery of a Splicing Regulator Required for Cell Cycle Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvorova, Elena S.; Croken, Matthew; Kratzer, Stella; Ting, Li-Min; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Balu, Bharath; Markillie, Lye Meng; Weiss, Louis M.; Kim, Kami; White, Michael W.


    In the G1 phase of the cell division cycle, eukaryotic cells prepare many of the resources necessary for a new round of growth including renewal of the transcriptional and protein synthetic capacities and building the machinery for chromosome replication. The function of G1 has an early evolutionary origin and is preserved in single and multicellular organisms, although the regulatory mechanisms conducting G1 specific functions are only understood in a few model eukaryotes. Here we describe a new G1 mutant from an ancient family of apicomplexan protozoans. Toxoplasma gondii temperature-sensitive mutant 12-109C6 conditionally arrests in the G1 phase due to a single point mutation in a novel protein containing a single RNA-recognition-motif (TgRRM1). The resulting tyrosine to asparagine amino acid change in TgRRM1 causes severe temperature instability that generates an effective null phenotype for this protein when the mutant is shifted to the restrictive temperature. Orthologs of TgRRM1 are widely conserved in diverse eukaryote lineages, and the human counterpart (RBM42) can functionally replace the missing Toxoplasma factor. Transcriptome studies demonstrate that gene expression is downregulated in the mutant at the restrictive temperature due to a severe defect in splicing that affects both cell cycle and constitutively expressed mRNAs. The interaction of TgRRM1 with factors of the tri-SNP complex (U4/U6 & U5 snRNPs) indicate this factor may be required to assemble an active spliceosome. Thus, the TgRRM1 family of proteins is an unrecognized and evolutionarily conserved class of splicing regulators. This study demonstrates investigations into diverse unicellular eukaryotes, like the Apicomplexa, have the potential to yield new insights into important mechanisms conserved across modern eukaryotic kingdoms.

  16. Closed fuel cycle with increased fuel burn-up and economy applying of thorium resources (United States)

    Kulikov, G. G.; Apse, V. A.


    The possible role of existing thorium reserves in the Russian Federation on engaging thorium in being currently closed (U-Pu)-fuel cycle of nuclear power of the country is considered. The application efficiency of thermonuclear neutron sources with thorium blanket for the economical use of existing thorium reserves is demonstrated. The aim of the work is to find solutions of such major tasks as the reduction of both front-end and back-end of nuclear fuel cycle and an enhancing its protection against the uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials by means of the smallest changes in the fuel cycle. During implementation of the work we analyzed the results obtained earlier by the authors, brought new information on the number of thorium available in the Russian Federation and made further assessments. On the basis of proposal on the inclusion of hybrid reactors with Th-blanket into the future nuclear power for the production of light uranium fraction 232+233+234U, and 231Pa, we obtained the following results: 1. The fuel cycle will shift from fissile 235U to 233U which is more attractive for thermal power reactors. 2. The light uranium fraction is the most "protected" in the uranium component of fuel and mixed with regenerated uranium will in addition become a low enriched uranium fuel, that will weaken the problem of uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials. 3. 231Pa doping into the fuel stabilizes its multiplying properties that will allow us to implement long-term fuel residence time and eventually to increase the export potential of all nuclear power technologies. 4. The thorium reserves being near city Krasnoufimsk (Russia) are large enough for operation of large-scale nuclear power of the Russian Federation of 70 GWe capacity during more than a quarter century under assumption that thorium is loaded into blankets of hybrid TNS only. The general conclusion: the inclusion of a small number of hybrid reactors with Th-blanket into the future nuclear

  17. Characteristics of a different fuel cycle in a PBMR-400 for burning reactor grade plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, Eben [M-TECH Industrial (Pty) Ltd., PO Box 54620, Wierdapark 0149 (South Africa)], E-mail:; Teuchert, Eberhard [M-TECH Industrial (Pty) Ltd., PO Box 54620, Wierdapark 0149 (South Africa)


    An outstanding feature of the high temperature, gas-cooled, version of a Generation IV type reactor is its versatility in application. Apart from the capacity in high temperature gas-cooled reactors to generate electricity it could desalinate (multi-effect distillation [MED] by deploying excess heat or reverse osmosis by deploying excess electricity), produce hydrogen (by deploying excess electricity), whereas this article showcases the on-line fuelling characteristics of a pebble bed reactor concept for the incineration of reactor grade plutonium, whilst producing electricity. The VSOP-A system of codes is employed to demonstrate by calculation how the standard PBMR-400 commercial reactor design offers similar inherent safety characteristics with a Pu-Th/U advanced fuel cycle. This implies that no significant design changes are necessary to implement such a fuel cycle. Furthermore, the flexibility of the pebble fuel concept is deployed to house the fertile material in one type of pebble, whilst a second type will contain the fissile or driver material.

  18. Shindand Airbase: Use of Open-Air Burn Pit Violated Department of Defense Requirements (United States)


    discontinue the use of the burn pit as soon 7 A refractory liner is made from a cement -like...initial combustion ), asbestos, mercury, foam tent material, or any item containing any of the above items. The instruction allows for a small

  19. 5 KPIs that require revenue cycle managers' attention. (United States)

    Saharia, Devendra


    Revenue cycle leaders can gain the clearest insight into their organizations' revenue cycle performance by focusing in particular on five key performance indicators: Cash ratio. Medicare-billed accounts receivable (A/R) over 30 days as a percentage of total Medicare A/R. Third-party aging over 90 days. Bad debt expense. Customer experience.

  20. Chemical thermodynamics in steam power cycles: data requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonas, O.; White, H.J.


    The report represents the proceedings of a workshop on data needs for chemical thermodynamics in power cycles held at the National Bureau of Standards, February 8-9 1983. It contains a summary of the recommendations of working groups that met during the workshop as well as the texts or abstracts of most of the papers presented at the workshop.

  1. Supporting requirements model evolution throughout the system life-cycle


    Ernst, Neil; Mylopoulos, John; Yu, Yijun; Ngyuen, Tien T.


    Requirements models are essential not just during system implementation, but also to manage system changes post-implementation. Such models should be supported by a requirements model management framework that allows users to create, manage and evolve models of domains, requirements, code and other design-time artifacts along with traceability links between their elements. We propose a comprehensive framework which delineates the operations and elements necessary, and then describe a tool imp...

  2. Graphic aids for calculation of fluid resuscitation requirements in pediatric burns. (United States)

    Williams, David; Doerfler, Ronald


    The Parkland formula is currently the most widely used protocol to guide fluid resuscitation of acute burns and has been adapted for pediatric use. We describe 3 novel graphic devices (a nomogram, slide rule, and disc calculator) based on this formula, which have significant advantages over existing graphic and electronic devices. The robust low-cost graphic devices would be particularly suited to developing countries and difficult locations, but could be used as the primary means of calculation in any environment. If a computer or calculator is used as the primary means of calculation, the graphic devices provide a simple and rapid means of checking and preventing errors that may arise because of inadvertent mis-keying of data or incorrect application of the pediatric Parkland formula.

  3. Those who require ‘[…] the burning of incense in synagogues are the Rabbinic Jews’: Burning incense in synagogues in commemoration of the temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham O. Shemesh


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the burning of incense in synagogues subsequent to the destruction of the temple, in commemoration of the incense formerly used in the temple rites. We hear about the implementation of this custom in Samaritan and Rabbinic synagogues only several centuries after the destruction of the Samaritan and Jewish Temples. The Samaritans still burn incense in their synagogues at certain times, but among Rabbinic Jews the custom came to an end, probably in the Middle Ages. Burning incense in the synagogue was a point of controversy between the Karaites and the Rabbinic Jews. The Karaites argued that acts involving burning incense and lighting candles are only appropriate for the Temple and their status is like that of sacrifices or offerings that are limited to this complex. It may have been that the rabbinic custom discontinued as a result of the strict Karaite objections to this custom for concern of idolatry. In fact, burning incense in commemoration of the Temple indeed ceased, but this practice remained in evidence until the 19th century for purposes of conveying respect or on festive occasions.

  4. Molten Salt Fuel Cycle Requirements for ADTT Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Del Cul, G. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toth, L. M. [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The operation of an ADT system with the associated nuclear reactions has a profound effect upon the chemistry of the fuel - especially with regards to container compatibility and the chemical separations that may be required. The container can be protected by maintaining the redox chemistry within a relatively narrow, non-corrosive window. Neutron economy as well as other factors require a sophisticated regime of fission product separations. Neither of these control requirements has been demonstrated on the scale or degree of sophistication necessary to support an ADT device. We review the present situation with respect to fluoride salts, and focus on the critical issues in these areas which must be addressed. One requirement for advancement in this area - a supply of suitable materials - will soon be fulfilled by the remediation of ORNL's Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, and the removal of a total of 11,000 kg of enriched (Li-7 > 99.9%) coolant, flush, and fuel salts.

  5. Burn Pits (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Burn Pits Burn Pits Registry Studies Photo: U.S. Department ... the health of deployed Veterans. Health effects from burn pit smoke Toxins in burn pit smoke may ...

  6. Burn Institute (United States)

    ... Now Help keep local seniors safe from fire! Burn Survivor Support If you are reading this, chances ... year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute provides fire ...

  7. Economics of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G


    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  8. High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Park


    High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

  9. Preliminary Response of Herbaceous Plants to Biennial Burning Cycles Applied at Different Dates During the Growing Season (United States)

    Sandra Rideout; James K. Rickard; Dale D. Wade


    The increase in acreage treated with growing-season fire during the past decade indicates that there has been increased interest in burning to enhance southern pine forest health and diversity. Information on how bum dates within the growing season can be manipulated to vary the mix of species is of practical importance. The objective of this study was to determine the...

  10. Programmed cell cycle arrest is required for infection of corn plants by the fungus Ustilago maydis. (United States)

    Castanheira, Sónia; Mielnichuk, Natalia; Pérez-Martín, José


    Ustilago maydis is a plant pathogen that requires a specific structure called infective filament to penetrate the plant tissue. Although able to grow, this filament is cell cycle arrested on the plant surface. This cell cycle arrest is released once the filament penetrates the plant tissue. The reasons and mechanisms for this cell cycle arrest are unknown. Here, we have tried to address these questions. We reached three conclusions from our studies. First, the observed cell cycle arrest is the result of the cooperation of at least two distinct mechanisms: one involving the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) cascade; and the other relying on the transcriptional downregulation of Hsl1, a kinase that modulates the G2/M transition. Second, a sustained cell cycle arrest during the infective filament step is necessary for the virulence in U. maydis, as a strain unable to arrest the cell cycle was severely impaired in its ability to infect corn plants. Third, production of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, is incompatible with an active cell cycle. The inability to infect plants by strains defective in cell cycle arrest seems to be caused by their failure to induce the appressorium formation process. In summary, our findings uncover genetic circuits to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on the plant surface, thus allowing the penetration into plant tissue.

  11. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry


    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  12. Virtual Community Life Cycle: a Model to Develop Systems with Fluid Requirements


    El Morr, Christo; Maret, Pierre de; Rioux, Marcia; Dinca-Panaitescu, Mihaela; Subercaze, Julien


    This paper reports the results of an investigation into the life cycle model needed to develop information systems for group of people with fluid requirements. For this purpose, we developed a modified spiral model and applied to the analysis, design and implementation of a virtual community for a group of researchers and organizations that collaborated in a research project and had changing system requirements? The virtual knowledge community was dedicated to support mobilization and dissemi...

  13. The cell-cycle checkpoint kinase Chk1 is required for mammalian homologous recombination repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Hansen, Lasse Tengbjerg; Dziegielewski, Jaroslaw


    The essential checkpoint kinase Chk1 is required for cell-cycle delays after DNA damage or blocked DNA replication. However, it is unclear whether Chk1 is involved in the repair of damaged DNA. Here we establish that Chk1 is a key regulator of genome maintenance by the homologous recombination...

  14. What are the elements required to improve exposure estimates in life cycle assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele


    In this study we aim to identify and discuss priority elements required to improve exposure estimates in Life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA aims at guiding decision-support to minimize damages on resources, humans, and ecosystems which incur via providing society with products and services. Potential...... human toxicity and ecosystem toxicity of chemicals posed by different product life cycle stages are characterized in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase. Exposure and effect quantification as part of LCIA toxicity characterization faces numerous challenges related to inventory analysis (e.......g. number and quantity of chemicals emitted), substance-specific modelling (e.g. organics, inorganics, nano-materials) in various environments and time horizons, human and ecosystem exposure quantification (e.g. exposed organisms and exposure pathways), and toxicity end-points (e.g. carcinogenicity...

  15. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for cell cycle exit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Bandura

    Full Text Available The coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial for proper development. In particular, robust mechanisms exist to ensure that cells permanently exit the cell cycle upon terminal differentiation, and these include restraining the activities of both the E2F/DP transcription factor and Cyclin/Cdk kinases. However, the full complement of mechanisms necessary to restrain E2F/DP and Cyclin/Cdk activities in differentiating cells are not known. Here, we have performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster, designed to identify genes required for cell cycle exit. This screen utilized a PCNA-miniwhite(+ reporter that is highly E2F-responsive and results in a darker red eye color when crossed into genetic backgrounds that delay cell cycle exit. Mutation of Hsp83, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Hsp90, results in increased E2F-dependent transcription and ectopic cell proliferation in pupal tissues at a time when neighboring wild-type cells are postmitotic. Further, these Hsp83 mutant cells have increased Cyclin/Cdk activity and accumulate proteins normally targeted for proteolysis by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C, suggesting that APC/C function is inhibited. Indeed, reducing the gene dosage of an inhibitor of Cdh1/Fzr, an activating subunit of the APC/C that is required for timely cell cycle exit, can genetically suppress the Hsp83 cell cycle exit phenotype. Based on these data, we propose that Cdh1/Fzr is a client protein of Hsp83. Our results reveal that Hsp83 plays a heretofore unappreciated role in promoting APC/C function during cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibition could promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis.

  16. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for cell cycle exit in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Bandura, Jennifer L; Jiang, Huaqi; Nickerson, Derek W; Edgar, Bruce A


    The coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial for proper development. In particular, robust mechanisms exist to ensure that cells permanently exit the cell cycle upon terminal differentiation, and these include restraining the activities of both the E2F/DP transcription factor and Cyclin/Cdk kinases. However, the full complement of mechanisms necessary to restrain E2F/DP and Cyclin/Cdk activities in differentiating cells are not known. Here, we have performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster, designed to identify genes required for cell cycle exit. This screen utilized a PCNA-miniwhite(+) reporter that is highly E2F-responsive and results in a darker red eye color when crossed into genetic backgrounds that delay cell cycle exit. Mutation of Hsp83, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Hsp90, results in increased E2F-dependent transcription and ectopic cell proliferation in pupal tissues at a time when neighboring wild-type cells are postmitotic. Further, these Hsp83 mutant cells have increased Cyclin/Cdk activity and accumulate proteins normally targeted for proteolysis by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), suggesting that APC/C function is inhibited. Indeed, reducing the gene dosage of an inhibitor of Cdh1/Fzr, an activating subunit of the APC/C that is required for timely cell cycle exit, can genetically suppress the Hsp83 cell cycle exit phenotype. Based on these data, we propose that Cdh1/Fzr is a client protein of Hsp83. Our results reveal that Hsp83 plays a heretofore unappreciated role in promoting APC/C function during cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibition could promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis.

  17. Appressorium formation in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis requires a G2 cell cycle arrest. (United States)

    Castanheira, Sónia; Pérez-Martín, José


    Many of the most important plant diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that form specialized cell structures to breach the leaf surface as well as to proliferate inside the plant. To initiate pathogenic development, the fungus responds to a set of inductive cues. Some of them are of extracellular nature (environmental signals) while others respond to intracellular conditions (developmental signals). These signals have to be integrated into a single response that has as a major outcome changes in the morphogenesis of the fungus. The cell cycle regulation is pivotal during these cellular differentiations, and we hypothesized that cell cycle regulation would be likely to provide control points for infection development by fungal pathogens. Although efforts have been done in various fungal systems, there is still limited information available regarding the relationship of these processes with the induction of the virulence programs. Hence, the role of fungal cell cycle regulators -which are wide conserved elements- as true virulence factors, has yet to be defined. Here we discuss the recent finding that the formation of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis seems to be incompatible with an active cell cycle and, therefore genetic circuits evolved in this fungus to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on plant surface, before the appressorium-mediated penetration into the plant tissue.

  18. Hand chemical burns. (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby


    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan DEMIR


    Full Text Available TLarge-scale defense system projects are strategic for maintaining and increasing the national defense capability. Therefore, governments spend billions of dollars in the acquisition and development of large-scale defense systems. The scale of defense systems is always increasing and the costs to build them are skyrocketing. Today, defense systems are software intensive and they are either a system of systems or a part of it. Historically, the project performances observed in the development of these systems have been signifi cantly poor when compared to other types of projects. It is obvious that the currently used systems development life cycle models are insuffi cient to address today’s challenges of building these systems. Using a systems development life cycle model that is specifi cally designed for largescale defense system developments and is effective in dealing with today’s and near-future challenges will help to improve project performances. The fi rst step in the development a large-scale defense systems development life cycle model is the identifi cation of requirements for such a model. This paper contributes to the body of literature in the fi eld by providing a set of requirements for system development life cycle models for large-scale defense systems. Furthermore, a research agenda is proposed.

  20. Computational Methodology for the Prediction of Functional Requirement Variations Across the Product Life-Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Mandil, Guillaume; Rivière, Alain


    The great majority of engineered products are subject to thermo-mechanical loads which vary with the product environment during the various phases of its life-cycle (machining, assembly, intended service use...). Those load variations may result in different values of the parts nominal dimensions, which in turn generate corresponding variation of the effective clearance (functional requirement) in the assembly. Usually, and according to the contractual drawings, the parts are measured after the machining stage, whereas the interesting measurement values are the ones taken in service for they allow the prediction of clearance value under operating conditions. Unfortunately, measurement in operating conditions may not be practical to obtain. Hence, the main purpose of this research is to create, through computations and simulations, links between the values of the loads, dimensions and functional requirements during the successive phases of the life cycle of some given product. [...

  1. Scald Burns (United States)

    Safety Tips & Info Scald Burns Thousands of scald burns occur annually, and ALL are preventable! The two high-risk populations are children under the age ... the single most important factor in preventing scald burns. Increased awareness is the key to scald prevention! ...

  2. Coherent Hole-burning, Mollow Absorption Effect, and Four-wave Mixing in Cycling Transition Fe=0(←→)Fg=1 Subject to a Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古英; 孙庆青; 龚旗煌


    @@ We investigate the quantum coherence effects of a cycling transition Fe=0(←→)Fg=1, which is saturated and probed by the circular polarized fields, and is subject to a linearly polarized field and a magnetic field.Saturation field is applied in the case of the maximum coherence between the drive Rabi frequency and magnetic field, corresponding to the electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) with negative dispersion found by Gu et al.In a small saturation Rabi frequency, the holes are burned in two Autler-Towns peaks outside two symmetric electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows due to the two-photon resonance.When the saturation Rabi frequency is comparable with the drive Rabi frequency, the holes caused by the coherent population oscillation appear in the EIA spectrum.Continuing to increase the saturation Rabi frequency, we observe several emission peaks due to the Mollow absorption effects.Simultaneously, four-wave mixing (FWM) effects in this process are discussed.In the picture of dressed states, we explain the multi-peaks of quantum efficiency of FWM in terms of the multi-photon resonance conditions.We also find a good agreement between the absorption peaks and the FMW peaks.Finally, whenever EIA, EIT, or Mollow absorption happens, the dispersion at the pump-probe detuning center is kept to be negative with increasing the saturation Rabi frequency.It means that this point is suitable to perform the superluminal light propagation experiments.

  3. DNA adenine methylation is required to replicate both Vibrio cholerae chromosomes once per cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Demarre


    Full Text Available DNA adenine methylation is widely used to control many DNA transactions, including replication. In Escherichia coli, methylation serves to silence newly synthesized (hemimethylated sister origins. SeqA, a protein that binds to hemimethylated DNA, mediates the silencing, and this is necessary to restrict replication to once per cell cycle. The methylation, however, is not essential for replication initiation per se but appeared so when the origins (oriI and oriII of the two Vibrio cholerae chromosomes were used to drive plasmid replication in E. coli. Here we show that, as in the case of E. coli, methylation is not essential for oriI when it drives chromosomal replication and is needed for once-per-cell-cycle replication in a SeqA-dependent fashion. We found that oriII also needs SeqA for once-per-cell-cycle replication and, additionally, full methylation for efficient initiator binding. The requirement for initiator binding might suffice to make methylation an essential function in V. cholerae. The structure of oriII suggests that it originated from a plasmid, but unlike plasmids, oriII makes use of methylation for once-per-cell-cycle replication, the norm for chromosomal but not plasmid replication.

  4. Glutamine is required for snakehead fish vesiculovirus propagation via replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (United States)

    Sun, Lindan; Yi, Lizhu; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Shuangshuang; Chen, Wenjie; Lan, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Lijuan; Tu, Jiagang; Lin, Li


    Snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV), a member of the family Rhabdoviridae, has caused mass mortality in snakehead fish culture in China. Previous transcriptomic sequencing of SHVV-infected and non-infected striped snakehead fish cells (SSN-1) showed that glutaminase (GLS), the critical enzyme of glutamine metabolism, was upregulated upon SHVV infection. It therefore drew our attention to investigating the role of glutamine in SHVV propagation. Glutamine deprivation significantly reduced the expression of the mRNAs and proteins of SHVV, and the production of virus particles, indicating that glutamine was required for SHVV propagation. Glutamine can be converted to glutamate by GLS, and then be converted to α-ketoglutarate, to join in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Addition of the TCA cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate, oxaloacetic acid or pyruvate significantly restored SHVV propagation, indicating that the requirement of glutamine for SHVV propagation was due to its replenishment of the TCA cycle. Inhibiting the activity of GLS in SSN-1 cells by an inhibitor, bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide, decreased SHVV propagation, while overexpression of GLS increased SHVV propagation. Taken together, our data have revealed the relationship between glutamine metabolism and SHVV propagation.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  6. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  7. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.


    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  8. Tokamak D T fusion neutron source requirements for closing the nuclear fuel cycle (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.


    This paper summarizes a series of conceptual design studies conducted with the purpose of determining if tokamak fusion neutron sources based on ITER physics and technology could meet the neutron source requirements for sub-critical fast-spectrum nuclear reactors that would help to close the nuclear fuel cycle by transmuting the transuranics in spent nuclear fuel. The studies were constrained to nuclear reactor and materials technologies under consideration in the US nuclear programme. Fuel cycle studies indicate that fusion neutron sources in the range ~200-500 MW would meet the needs of transmutation reactors, depending on other constraints such as materials damage to the nuclear fuel. A tokamak with R = 3.75 m, a = 1.1 m, B = 5.7-5.9 T, q95 = 3.00-4.0, I = 8.3-10 MA, βN = 2.0-2.85, HIPB98 = 1.0-1.06, γcd = 0.6 A Wm-2 would meet these requirements.

  9. Correct safety requirements during the life cycle of heating plants; Korrekta saekerhetskrav under vaermeanlaeggningars livscykel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegehall, Jan; Hedberg, Johan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)


    The safety of old steam boilers or hot water generators is in principle based on electromechanical components which are generally easy to understand. The use of safety-PLC is a new and flexible way to design a safe system. A programmable system offers more degrees of freedom and consequently new problems may arise. As a result, new standards which use the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) concept for the level of safety have been elaborated. The goal is to define a way of working to handle requirements on safety in control systems of heat and power plants. SIL-requirements are relatively new within the domain and there is a need for guidance to be able to follow the requirements. The target of this report is the people who work with safety questions during new construction, reconstruction, or modification of furnace plants. In the work, the Pressure Equipment Directive, 97/23/EC, as well as standards which use the SIL concept have been studied. Additionally, standards for water-tube boilers have been studied. The focus has been on the safety systems (safety functions) which are used in water-tube boilers for heat and power plants; other systems, which are parts of these boilers, have not been considered. Guidance has been given for the aforementioned standards as well as safety requirements specification and risk analysis. An old hot water generator and a relatively new steam boiler have been used as case studies. The design principles and safety functions of the furnaces have been described. During the risk analysis important hazards were identified. A method for performing a risk analysis has been described and the appropriate content of a safety requirements specification has been defined. If a heat or power plant is constructed, modified, or reconstructed, a safety life cycle shall be followed. The purpose of the safety life cycle is to plan, describe, document, perform, check, test, and validate that everything is correctly done. The components of the safety

  10. Correct safety requirements during the life cycle of heating plants; Korrekta saekerhetskrav under vaermeanlaeggningars livscykel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegehall, Jan; Hedberg, Johan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)


    The safety of old steam boilers or hot water generators is in principle based on electromechanical components which are generally easy to understand. The use of safety-PLC is a new and flexible way to design a safe system. A programmable system offers more degrees of freedom and consequently new problems may arise. As a result, new standards which use the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) concept for the level of safety have been elaborated. The goal is to define a way of working to handle requirements on safety in control systems of heat and power plants. SIL-requirements are relatively new within the domain and there is a need for guidance to be able to follow the requirements. The target of this report is the people who work with safety questions during new construction, reconstruction, or modification of furnace plants. In the work, the Pressure Equipment Directive, 97/23/EC, as well as standards which use the SIL concept have been studied. Additionally, standards for water-tube boilers have been studied. The focus has been on the safety systems (safety functions) which are used in water-tube boilers for heat and power plants; other systems, which are parts of these boilers, have not been considered. Guidance has been given for the aforementioned standards as well as safety requirements specification and risk analysis. An old hot water generator and a relatively new steam boiler have been used as case studies. The design principles and safety functions of the furnaces have been described. During the risk analysis important hazards were identified. A method for performing a risk analysis has been described and the appropriate content of a safety requirements specification has been defined. If a heat or power plant is constructed, modified, or reconstructed, a safety life cycle shall be followed. The purpose of the safety life cycle is to plan, describe, document, perform, check, test, and validate that everything is correctly done. The components of the safety

  11. Burn epidemiology and cost of medication in paediatric burn patients. (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha; Sağlam, Zeynep


    Burns are common injuries that cause problems to societies throughout the world. In order to reduce the cost of burn treatment in children, it is extremely important to determine the burn epidemiology and the cost of medicines used in burn treatment. The present study used a retrospective design, with data collected from medical records of 140 paediatric patients admitted to a burn centre between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009. Medical records were examined to determine burn epidemiology, medication administered, dosage, and duration of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was completed for all variables; chi-square was used to examine the relationship between certain variables. It was found that 62.7% of paediatric burns occur in the kitchen, with 70.7% involving boiling water; 55.7% of cases resulted in third-degree burns, 19.3% required grafting, and mean duration of hospital stay was 27.5 ± 1.2 days. Medication costs varied between $1.38 US dollars (USD) and $14,159.09, total drug cost was $46,148.03 and average cost per patient was $329.63. In this study, the medication cost for burn patients was found to be relatively high, with antibiotics comprising the vast majority of medication expenditure. Most paediatric burns are preventable, so it is vital to educate families about potential household hazards that can be addressed to reduce the risk of a burn. Programmes are also recommended to reduce costs and the inappropriate prescribing of medication.

  12. Borrelia burgdorferi requires glycerol for maximum fitness during the tick phase of the enzootic cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Pappas


    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, is a vector-borne pathogen that cycles between a mammalian host and tick vector. This complex life cycle requires that the spirochete modulate its gene expression program to facilitate growth and maintenance in these diverse milieus. B. burgdorferi contains an operon that is predicted to encode proteins that would mediate the uptake and conversion of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Previous studies indicated that expression of the operon is elevated at 23°C and is repressed in the presence of the alternative sigma factor RpoS, suggesting that glycerol utilization may play an important role during the tick phase. This possibility was further explored in the current study by expression analysis and mutagenesis of glpD, a gene predicted to encode glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Transcript levels for glpD were significantly lower in mouse joints relative to their levels in ticks. Expression of GlpD protein was repressed in an RpoS-dependent manner during growth of spirochetes within dialysis membrane chambers implanted in rat peritoneal cavities. In medium supplemented with glycerol as the principal carbohydrate, wild-type B. burgdorferi grew to a significantly higher cell density than glpD mutant spirochetes during growth in vitro at 25°C. glpD mutant spirochetes were fully infectious in mice by either needle or tick inoculation. In contrast, glpD mutants grew to significantly lower densities than wild-type B. burgdorferi in nymphal ticks and displayed a replication defect in feeding nymphs. The findings suggest that B. burgdorferi undergoes a switch in carbohydrate utilization during the mammal to tick transition. Further, the results demonstrate that the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbohydrate source for glycolysis during the tick phase of the infectious cycle is critical for maximal B. burgdorferi fitness.

  13. Combined cycles, impacts of technological requirements; Ciclos combinados, impactos de requerimientos tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Santalo, Jose Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)


    The fundamental growth of the Mexican electrical sector for the next ten years is planned on base of the installation of 20 thousand Mw plants of combined cycle. This article presents an analysis of the impact of these power stations finding out that the power stations of combined cycle are at the moment cheaper - from 600 to 700 dollars by installed kW- than the alternative coal options or fuel oil, that are in the range of 900 to 1200 dollars per kW, in addition to which the time required for their construction is shorter. [Spanish] El crecimiento fundamental del sector electrico mexicano para los proximos diez anos esta planeado con base en la instalacion de 20 mil Mw de plantas de ciclo combinado. Este articulo presenta un analisis del impacto de dichas centrales encontrando que las centrales de ciclo combinado actualmente resultan mas baratas - de 600 a 700 dolares por kW instalado - que las opciones alternativas de carbon o combustoleo que estan en el rango de 900 a 1200 dolares por kW, ademas de que los tiempos requeridos para su construccion son menores.

  14. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury. (United States)

    Peters, W


    A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed.

  15. Adult circadian behavior in Drosophila requires developmental expression of cycle, but not period. (United States)

    Goda, Tadahiro; Mirowska, Karolina; Currie, Jake; Kim, Min-Ho; Rao, Neethi Varadaraja; Bonilla, Gloribel; Wijnen, Herman


    Circadian clocks have evolved as internal time keeping mechanisms that allow anticipation of daily environmental changes and organization of a daily program of physiological and behavioral rhythms. To better examine the mechanisms underlying circadian clocks in animals and to ask whether clock gene expression and function during development affected subsequent daily time keeping in the adult, we used the genetic tools available in Drosophila to conditionally manipulate the function of the CYCLE component of the positive regulator CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC) or its negative feedback inhibitor PERIOD (PER). Differential manipulation of clock function during development and in adulthood indicated that there is no developmental requirement for either a running clock mechanism or expression of per. However, conditional suppression of CLK/CYC activity either via per over-expression or cyc depletion during metamorphosis resulted in persistent arrhythmic behavior in the adult. Two distinct mechanisms were identified that may contribute to this developmental function of CLK/CYC and both involve the ventral lateral clock neurons (LN(v)s) that are crucial to circadian control of locomotor behavior: (1) selective depletion of cyc expression in the LN(v)s resulted in abnormal peptidergic small-LN(v) dorsal projections, and (2) PER expression rhythms in the adult LN(v)s appeared to be affected by developmental inhibition of CLK/CYC activity. Given the conservation of clock genes and circuits among animals, this study provides a rationale for investigating a possible similar developmental role of the homologous mammalian CLOCK/BMAL1 complex.

  16. Accidental burns during surgery. (United States)

    Demir, Erhan; O'Dey, Dan Mon; Pallua, Norbert


    The purpose of this report is to increase awareness of intraoperative burns during standard procedures, to discuss their possible causes and warning signs and to provide recommendations for prevention and procedures to follow after their occurrence. A total of 19 patients associated with intraoperative burn accidents were treated surgically and analyzed after a mean follow-up of 5 +/- 3.5 months. Review included retrospective patient chart analysis, clinical examination, and technical device and equipment testing. A total of 15 patients recently underwent cardiac surgery, and 4 pediatric patients recovered after standard surgical procedures. A total of 15 patients had superficial and 4 presented with deep dermal or full-thickness burns. The average injured TBSA was 2.1 +/- 1% (range, 0.5-4%). Delay between primary surgery and consultation of plastic surgeons was 4.5 +/- 3.4 days. A total of 44% required surgery, including débridment, skin grafting or musculocutaneous gluteus maximus flaps, and the remaining patients were treated conservatively. Successful durable soft-tissue coverage of the burn region was achieved in 18 patients, and 1 patient died after a course of pneumonia. Technical analysis demonstrated one malfunctioning electrosurgical device, one incorrect positioned neutral electrode, three incidents occurred after moisture under the negative electrode, eight burns occurred during surgery while fluid or blood created alternate current pathways, five accidents were chemical burns after skin preparation with Betadine solution, and in one case, the cause was not clear. The surgical team should pay more attention to the probability of burns during surgery. Early patient examination and immediate involvement of plastic and burn surgeons may prevent further complications or ease handling after the occurrence.

  17. Smartphone applications in burns. (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P


    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Toward On-Site Closed Nuclear Cycles Not Requiring Deep Burial of Waste (United States)

    Fowler, T. Kenneth; Ahn, Joonhong


    We discuss a non-chemical means for onsite reprocessing of spent fuel from hybrid reactors such as LIFE and also deep burn fission reactors. Using a plasma-based Archimedes Filter of standard design, actinides could be removed in a few passes through the Filter to qualify as TRU waste that could be disposed of in a site like WIPP. An improved Filter is discussed that could reduce waste to 1 cubic meter per year, suitable for shallow burial.

  19. Fitness of Escherichia coli during urinary tract infection requires gluconeogenesis and the TCA cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Alteri


    Full Text Available Microbial pathogenesis studies traditionally encompass dissection of virulence properties such as the bacterium's ability to elaborate toxins, adhere to and invade host cells, cause tissue damage, or otherwise disrupt normal host immune and cellular functions. In contrast, bacterial metabolism during infection has only been recently appreciated to contribute to persistence as much as their virulence properties. In this study, we used comparative proteomics to investigate the expression of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC cytoplasmic proteins during growth in the urinary tract environment and systematic disruption of central metabolic pathways to better understand bacterial metabolism during infection. Using two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and tandem mass spectrometry, it was found that UPEC differentially expresses 84 cytoplasmic proteins between growth in LB medium and growth in human urine (P<0.005. Proteins induced during growth in urine included those involved in the import of short peptides and enzymes required for the transport and catabolism of sialic acid, gluconate, and the pentose sugars xylose and arabinose. Proteins required for the biosynthesis of arginine and serine along with the enzyme agmatinase that is used to produce the polyamine putrescine were also up-regulated in urine. To complement these data, we constructed mutants in these genes and created mutants defective in each central metabolic pathway and tested the relative fitness of these UPEC mutants in vivo in an infection model. Import of peptides, gluconeogenesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle are required for E. coli fitness during urinary tract infection while glycolysis, both the non-oxidative and oxidative branches of the pentose phosphate pathway, and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were dispensable in vivo. These findings suggest that peptides and amino acids are the primary carbon source for E. coli during infection of

  20. Assessment of burn depth and burn wound healing potential. (United States)

    Monstrey, Stan; Hoeksema, Henk; Verbelen, Jos; Pirayesh, Ali; Blondeel, Phillip


    The depth of a burn wound and/or its healing potential are the most important determinants of the therapeutic management and of the residual morbidity or scarring. Traditionally, burn surgeons divide burns into superficial which heal by rapid re-epithelialization with minimal scarring and deep burns requiring surgical therapy. Clinical assessment remains the most frequent technique to measure the depth of a burn wound although this has been shown to be accurate in only 60-75% of the cases, even when carried out by an experienced burn surgeon. In this article we review all current modalities useful to provide an objective assessment of the burn wound depth, from simple clinical evaluation to biopsy and histology and to various perfusion measurement techniques such as thermography, vital dyes, video angiography, video microscopy, and laser Doppler techniques. The different needs according to the different diagnostic situations are considered. It is concluded that for the initial emergency assessment, the use of telemetry and simple burn photographs are the best option, that for research purposes a wide range of different techniques can be used but that, most importantly, for the actual treatment decisions, laser Doppler imaging is the only technique that has been shown to accurately predict wound outcome with a large weight of evidence. Moreover this technique has been approved for burn depth assessment by regulatory bodies including the FDA.

  1. Clinical study of burn patients requiring admission: A single center experience at North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donkupar Khongwar


    Full Text Available Background: Although burns are a major problem in health care, a lot of the variation in risk factors exists from region to region which if uncovered correctly could help take effective prevention measures. Aims and Objectives: To assess the 3-year (January 2012 to January 2015 epidemiology of burn injuries admitted to our hospital (primary objective and to find areas of improvement in burn care (secondary objective. Materials and Methods: After obtaining ethical approval data were obtained from the medical record section regarding age, sex, residence, occupation, marital status, socioeconomic status, dates of admission and discharge, circumstances regarding the place, intent, cause, and source of heat. Clinical assessment was done using Wallace's “Rule of Nine” in adult and “Lund and Browder” chart in the pediatric age groups. The interrelationships between clinical and epidemiological variables with burn injury were studied. Results: An increasing trend in the admission rates of burn victims noted in last 3 years males (55.47% outnumbered females (44.52%. The most common age group affected is older children, adolescents, and young adults (between 11 and 30 years. Flame (38.3% and scald (25.3% burns contributed to most of the injuries. Females (52.30% are the major victim of flame burns. Electrical and chemical burns affected only the males suggesting work-related injuries. Trunk (30.8% is the most severely affected site in all cases. Depression (6.8% and power line workers (4.7% seem to be important risk factors in our study. Inability to complete treatment (26.7% was a major concern in our study. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for proper burn care that could be provided at the primary health-care level. The majority of burns were accidental in nature in school going children, young adults, and females. Flame and scald burns were the most common cause. Preventive measures directed toward burn safety and first aid measures

  2. Burns (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > Burns A A A What's ... outlets, etc.) overexposure to the sun Types of Burns Burns are often categorized as first-, second-, or ...

  3. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation. (United States)

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David


    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hijacking of host calreticulin is required for the white spot syndrome virus replication cycle. (United States)

    Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Guo, Enen; Tharntada, Sirinit; Lo, Chu-Fang; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene


    We have previously shown that multifunctional calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is involved in ER-associated protein processing, responds to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by increasing mRNA and protein expression and by forming a complex with gC1qR and thereby delaying apoptosis. Here, we show that CRT can directly interact with WSSV structural proteins, including VP15 and VP28, during an early stage of virus infection. The binding of VP28 with CRT does not promote WSSV entry, and CRT-VP15 interaction was detected in the viral genome in virally infected host cells and thus may have an effect on WSSV replication. Moreover, CRT was detected in the viral envelope of purified WSSV virions. CRT was also found to be of high importance for proper oligomerization of the viral structural proteins VP26 and VP28, and when CRT glycosylation was blocked with tunicamycin, a significant decrease in both viral replication and assembly was detected. Together, these findings suggest that CRT confers several advantages to WSSV, from the initial steps of WSSV infection to the assembly of virions. Therefore, CRT is required as a "vital factor" and is hijacked by WSSV for its replication cycle. Importance: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and the cause of a serious disease in a wide range of crustaceans that often leads to high mortality rates. We have previously shown that the protein calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cell, is important in the host response to the virus. In this report, we show that the virus uses this host protein to enter the cell and to make the host produce new viral structural proteins. Through its interaction with two viral proteins, the virus "hijacks" host calreticulin and uses it for its own needs. These findings provide new insight into the interaction between a large DNA virus and the host protein CRT and may help in understanding

  5. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea. (United States)

    Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro


    An 18-year-old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected.She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  6. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Karimi


    Full Text Available An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs .At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  7. Burning vasculitis. (United States)

    Chadha, Priyanka; Hobday, Dorian; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; D'Cruz, David


    We present the case of a 69-year-old man who was found collapsed close to a heat source and admitted to hospital for severe sepsis. He was also found to have widespread blistering and ulceration of his right leg; however, a history was unobtainable due to reduced consciousness levels. The leg lesions had the initial appearance of mixed depth burns and a management plan was made to transfer the patient to a burns unit for debridement. It was subsequently noted that the patient had a previous diagnosis of seropositive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. A biopsy of the leg lesion was performed and a diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis confirmed. Treatment with systemic steroids, intravenous antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe hypogammaglobulinaemia was started, and the patient was not transferred for surgical debridement. Rheumatoid vasculitis is a rare and extremely serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis that can manifest in a number of ways, occasionally mimicking other conditions. This case is essential to raise awareness of rare, severe rheumatoid vasculitis and of the potential for its misdiagnosis as a mixed depth burn.

  8. ELONGATA3 is required for shoot meristem cell cycle progression in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. (United States)

    Skylar, Anna; Matsuwaka, Sean; Wu, Xuelin


    A key feature of the development of a higher plant is the continuous formation of new organs from the meristems. Originally patterned during embryogenesis, the meristems must activate cell division de novo at the time of germination, in order to initiate post-embryonic development. In a mutagenesis screen aimed at finding new players in early seedling cell division control, we identified ELONGATA3 (ELO3) as a key regulator of meristem cell cycle activation in Arabidopsis. Our results show that plants carrying a hypomorphic allele of ELO3 fail to activate cell division in the meristems following germination, which leads to seedling growth arrest and lethality. Further analyses suggest that this is due to a failure in DNA replication, followed by cell cycle arrest, in the meristematic tissue. Interestingly, the meristem cell cycle arrest in elo3 mutants, but not the later leaf developmental defects that have been linked to the loss of ELO3 activities, can be relieved by the addition of metabolic sugars in the growth medium. This finding points to a new role by which carbohydrate availability promotes meristem growth. Furthermore, growth arrested elo3 mutants suffer a partial loss of shoot meristem identity, which provides further evidence that cell cycle activities can influence the control of tissue identity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro alterations do not reflect a requirement for host cell cycle progression during Plasmodium liver stage infection. (United States)

    Hanson, Kirsten K; March, Sandra; Ng, Shengyong; Bhatia, Sangeeta N; Mota, Maria M


    Prior to invading nonreplicative erythrocytes, Plasmodium parasites undergo their first obligate step in the mammalian host inside hepatocytes, where each sporozoite replicates to generate thousands of merozoites. While normally quiescent, hepatocytes retain proliferative capacity and can readily reenter the cell cycle in response to diverse stimuli. Many intracellular pathogens, including protozoan parasites, manipulate the cell cycle progression of their host cells for their own benefit, but it is not known whether the hepatocyte cell cycle plays a role during Plasmodium liver stage infection. Here, we show that Plasmodium parasites can be observed in mitotic hepatoma cells throughout liver stage development, where they initially reduce the likelihood of mitosis and ultimately lead to significant acquisition of a binucleate phenotype. However, hepatoma cells pharmacologically arrested in S phase still support robust and complete Plasmodium liver stage development, which thus does not require cell cycle progression in the infected cell in vitro. Furthermore, murine hepatocytes remain quiescent throughout in vivo infection with either Plasmodium berghei or Plasmodium yoelii, as do Plasmodium falciparum-infected primary human hepatocytes, demonstrating that the rapid and prodigious growth of liver stage parasites is accomplished independent of host hepatocyte cell cycle progression during natural infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Krebs cycle function is required for activation of the Spo0A transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis.


    Ireton, K; Jin, S.; Grossman, A D; Sonenshein, A L


    Expression of genes early during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis requires the activity of the transcription factor encoded by spo0A. The active, phosphorylated form of Spo0A is produced through the action of a multicomponent pathway, the phosphorelay. A mutant defective in the first three enzymes of the Krebs citric acid cycle was unable to express early sporulation genes, apparently because of a failure to activate the phosphorelay. Cells that produce an altered Spo0A protein that can be ph...

  11. Krebs cycle function is required for activation of the Spo0A transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis.


    Ireton, K.; Jin, S.; Grossman, A D; Sonenshein, A L


    Expression of genes early during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis requires the activity of the transcription factor encoded by spo0A. The active, phosphorylated form of Spo0A is produced through the action of a multicomponent pathway, the phosphorelay. A mutant defective in the first three enzymes of the Krebs citric acid cycle was unable to express early sporulation genes, apparently because of a failure to activate the phosphorelay. Cells that produce an altered Spo0A protein that can be ph...

  12. Requirement for chloride channel function during the hepatitis C virus life cycle


    Igloi, Z; Mohl, BP; Lippiat, JD; Harris, M.; Mankouri, J


    Hepatocytes express an array of plasma membrane and intracellular ion channels, yet their role during the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle remains largely undefined. Here, we show that HCV increases intracellular hepatic chloride (Cl−) influx that can be inhibited by selective Cl− channel blockers. Through pharmacological and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing, we demonstrate that Cl− channel inhibition is detrimental to HCV replication. This represents the first observation o...

  13. Hair bleaching and skin burning. (United States)

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M


    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  14. 14 CFR 33.79 - Fuel burning thrust augmentor. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel burning thrust augmentor. 33.79... thrust augmentor. Each fuel burning thrust augmentor, including the nozzle, must— (a) Provide cutoff of the fuel burning thrust augmentor; (b) Permit on-off cycling; (c) Be controllable within the intended...

  15. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  16. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  17. Sporophyte Formation and Life Cycle Completion in Moss Requires Heterotrimeric G-Proteins1[OPEN (United States)

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Quatrano, Ralph


    In this study, we report the functional characterization of heterotrimeric G-proteins from a nonvascular plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. In plants, G-proteins have been characterized from only a few angiosperms to date, where their involvement has been shown during regulation of multiple signaling and developmental pathways affecting overall plant fitness. In addition to its unparalleled evolutionary position in the plant lineages, the P. patens genome also codes for a unique assortment of G-protein components, which includes two copies of Gβ and Gγ genes, but no canonical Gα. Instead, a single gene encoding an extra-large Gα (XLG) protein exists in the P. patens genome. Here, we demonstrate that in P. patens the canonical Gα is biochemically and functionally replaced by an XLG protein, which works in the same genetic pathway as one of the Gβ proteins to control its development. Furthermore, the specific G-protein subunits in P. patens are essential for its life cycle completion. Deletion of the genomic locus of PpXLG or PpGβ2 results in smaller, slower growing gametophores. Normal reproductive structures develop on these gametophores, but they are unable to form any sporophyte, the only diploid stage in the moss life cycle. Finally, the mutant phenotypes of ΔPpXLG and ΔPpGβ2 can be complemented by the homologous genes from Arabidopsis, AtXLG2 and AtAGB1, respectively, suggesting an overall conservation of their function throughout the plant evolution. PMID:27550997

  18. Understanding the Life Cycle Surface Land Requirements of Natural Gas-Fired Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Garvin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordaan, Sarah [University of Calgary; Johns Hopkins University; Mohammadi, Ehsan [University of Calgary; Ben-Horin, Dan [Formerly NREL; Urrea, Victoria [Formerly NREL; Marceau, Danielle [University of Calgary


    The surface land use of fossil fuel acquisition and utilization has not been well characterized, inhibiting consistent comparisons of different electricity generation technologies. Here we present a method for robust estimation of the life cycle land use of electricity generated from natural gas through a case study that includes inventories of infrastructure, satellite imagery and well-level production. Approximately 500 sites in the Barnett Shale of Texas were sampled across five life cycle stages (production, gathering, processing, transmission and power generation). Total land use (0.62 m2 MWh-1, 95% confidence intervals +/-0.01 m2 MWh-1) was dominated by midstream infrastructure, particularly pipelines (74%). Our results were sensitive to power plant heat rate (85-190% of the base case), facility lifetime (89-169%), number of wells per site (16-100%), well lifetime (92-154%) and pipeline right of way (58-142%). When replicated for other gas-producing regions and different fuels, our approach offers a route to enable empirically grounded comparisons of the land footprint of energy choices.

  19. [Current treatment strategies for paediatric burns]. (United States)

    Küntscher, M V; Hartmann, B


    Paediatric burns occupy the third place in the severe accident statistics in Germany after traffic injuries and drowning. The paper reviews current treatment concepts of pre-hospital management, fluid resuscitation and surgical therapy in paediatric burned patients. Specific features in the approximation of the total body surface area burn and indications for transfer of paediatric burn victims to specialized units are discussed. The therapy of severe paediatric burns requires an interdisciplinary team consisting of especially skilled plastic or paediatric surgeons,anaesthetists, psychiatrists or psychologists, specifically trained nurses, physiotherapists and social workers. The rehabilitation process starts basically with admission to the burn unit. A tight cooperation between therapists and the relatives of the paediatric burn victim is needed for psychological recovery and reintegration into society.'The adaptation to the suffered trauma resulting in life-long disability and disfigurement is the main task of psychotherapy.

  20. Adult campfire burns: two avenues for prevention. (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Heimbach, David M; Honari, Shari; Engrav, Loren H; Gibran, Nicole S


    Campfires are a common component of outdoor festivities. Pediatric campfire burns have been well described. Adult campfire injuries also are common and have several important distinguishing characteristics. We performed a retrospective review of adult patients admitted with campfire burns to our burn center from July 1998 to July 2003. Medical records were reviewed with attention to mechanism of injury, intoxication level, burn size, and surgeries performed. A total of 27 patients with this injury were treated as inpatients over the course of the study period. Two distinct mechanisms of injury emerged: 1) contact with the campfire and 2) flash/flame injuries from igniting the fire. Eighty-one percent (13/16) of patients who sustained contact burns were intoxicated, as compared with 11% (1/11) of those who sustained flash/flame injuries. Nearly half of the patients with contact burns and more than half the patients with flash/flame burns required excision and grafting.

  1. Burns (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting ... What's in this article? Common Causes Types of Burns First-Degree Burns Second-Degree Burns ...

  2. Life cycle water consumption and withdrawal requirements of ethanol from corn grain and residues. (United States)

    Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Yeh, Sonia


    We assessed the water requirements of ethanol from corn grain and crop residue. Estimates are explicit in terms of sources-green (GW) and blue (BW) water, consumptive and nonconsumptive requirements across the lifecycle, including evapotranspiration, application and conveyance losses, biorefinery uses, and water use of energy inputs, and displaced requirements or credits due to coproducts. Ethanol consumes 50-146 L/vehicle kilometer traveled (VKT) of BW and 1-60 L/VKT of GW for irrigated corn and 0.6 L/VKT of BW and 70-137 L/VKT of GW for rain-fed corn after coproduct credits. Extending the system boundary to consider application and conveyance losses and the water requirements of embodied energy increases the total BW withdrawal from 23% to 38% and BW + GW consumption from 5% to 16%. We estimate that, in 2009, 15-19% of irrigation water is used to produce the corn required for ethanol in Kansas and Nebraska without coproduct credits and 8-10% after credits. Harvesting and converting the cob to ethanol reduces both the BW and GW intensities by 13%. It is worth noting that the use of GW is not without impacts, and the water quantity and water quality impacts at the local/seasonal scale can be significant for both fossil fuel and biofuel.

  3. Determining the requirements for e-selection in a small recruitment company - using the regulative cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, T.V.; Ruel, H.J.M.; Timmermans, P.; Buragga, K.A.; Zaman, N.


    The requirements for e-selection technology to be of practical use for Company T have been investigated. Company T’s main business is in identifying and seconding personnel, especially in the technical sector, and it had been anticipating a shortage in the supply of candidates. This served as the in

  4. Mitotic destruction of the cell cycle regulated NIMA protein kinase of Aspergillus nidulans is required for mitotic exit.


    Pu, R T; Osmani, S A


    NIMA is a cell cycle regulated protein kinase required, in addition to p34cdc2/cyclin B, for initiation of mitosis in Aspergillus nidulans. Like cyclin B, NIMA accumulates when cells are arrested in G2 and is degraded as cells traverse mitosis. However, it is stable in cells arrested in mitosis. NIMA, and related kinases, have an N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal extension. Deletion of the C-terminus does not completely inactivate NIMA kinase activity but does prevent functional compl...

  5. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane


    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  6. Pyruvate and citric acid cycle carbon requirements in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria. (United States)

    Messer, Jeffrey I; Jackman, Matthew R; Willis, Wayne T


    Carbohydrate depletion precipitates fatigue in skeletal muscle, but, because pyruvate provides both acetyl-CoA for mainline oxidation and anaplerotic carbon to the citric acid cycle (CAC), the mechanism remains obscure. Thus pyruvate and CAC kinetic parameters were independently quantified in mitochondria isolated from rat mixed skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (Jo) was measured polarographically while either pyruvate or malate was added stepwise in the presence of a saturating concentration of the other substrate. These substrate titrations were carried out across a physiological range of fixed extramitochondrial ATP free energy states (DeltaGP), established with a creatine kinase energy clamp, and also at saturating [ADP]. The apparent Km,malate for mitochondrial Jo ranged from 21 to 32 microM, and the apparent Km,pyruvate ranged from 12 to 26 microM, with both substrate Km values increasing as DeltaGP declined. Vmax for both substrates also increased as DeltaGP fell, reflecting thermodynamic control of Jo. Reported in vivo skeletal muscle [malate] are >10-fold greater than the Km,malate determined in this study. In marked contrast, the K(m,pyruvate) determined is near the [pyruvate] reported in muscle approaching exhaustion associated with glycogen depletion. When data were evaluated in the context of a linear thermodynamic force-flow (DeltaGP-Jo) relationship, the DeltaGP-Jo slope was essentially insensitive to changes in [malate] in the range observed in vivo but decreased markedly with declining [pyruvate] across the physiological range. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly sensitive to variations in [pyruvate] in the physiological range. In contrast, physiological [malate] exerts very little, if any, influence on mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation measured in vitro.

  7. Cell cycle requirements for transduction by foamy virus vectors compared to those of oncovirus and lentivirus vectors. (United States)

    Trobridge, Grant; Russell, David W


    Retroviral vectors based on foamy viruses (FV) are efficient gene delivery vehicles for therapeutic and research applications. While previous studies have shown that FV vectors transduce quiescent cell cultures more efficiently than oncoviral vectors, their specific cell cycle requirements have not been determined. Here we compare the transduction frequencies of FV vectors with those of onco- and lentiviral vectors in nondividing and dividing normal human fibroblasts by several methods. FV vectors transduced serum-deprived fibroblast cultures more efficiently than oncoretroviral vectors and at rates comparable to those of lentiviral vectors. However, in these cultures FV vectors only transduced a subpopulation of proliferating cells, as determined by bromodeoxyuridine staining for DNA synthesis. In contrast to lentiviral vectors, FV vectors were unable to transduce human fibroblasts arrested by aphidicolin (G(1)/S phase) or gamma-irradiation (G(2) phase), and a partial cell cycle that included mitosis but not DNA synthesis was required. We could not determine if mitosis facilitated nuclear entry of FV vectors, since cell-free vector preparations contained long terminal repeat circles, precluding their use as nuclear markers. In contrast to oncoviral vectors, both FV and lentiviral vectors efficiently transduced G(0) fibroblasts that were later stimulated to divide. In the case of FV vectors, this was due to the persistence of a stable transduction intermediate in quiescent cells. Our findings support the use of FV vectors as a safe and effective alternative to lentiviral vectors for ex vivo transduction of stem cells that are quiescent during culture but divide following transplantation.

  8. Patient safety measures in burn care: do National reporting systems accurately reflect quality of burn care? (United States)

    Mandell, Samuel P; Robinson, Ellen F; Cooper, Claudette L; Klein, Matthew B; Gibran, Nicole S


    UHC CDB provide a potential to benchmark quality of care. However, reporting quality data for trauma and burns requires stringent understanding of injury data collection. Although quality measures are important for improving patient safety and establishing benchmarks for complication and mortality rates, caution must be taken when applying them to specific product lines.

  9. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.


    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  10. Unsupervised Spatio-Temporal Data Mining Framework for Burned Area Mapping (United States)

    Boriah, Shyam (Inventor); Kumar, Vipin (Inventor); Mithal, Varun (Inventor); Khandelwal, Ankush (Inventor)


    A method reduces processing time required to identify locations burned by fire by receiving a feature value for each pixel in an image, each pixel representing a sub-area of a location. Pixels are then grouped based on similarities of the feature values to form candidate burn events. For each candidate burn event, a probability that the candidate burn event is a true burn event is determined based on at least one further feature value for each pixel in the candidate burn event. Candidate burn events that have a probability below a threshold are removed from further consideration as burn events to produce a set of remaining candidate burn events.

  11. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)


    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  12. Patterns of grease burn injury: development of a classification system. (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Gibran, Nicole S; Emerson, Dominic; Sullivan, Stephen R; Honari, Shari; Engrav, Loren H; Heimbach, David M


    Grease burns occur commonly in the home during food preparation. It has been our observation that grease burns follow a particular pattern of injury. The purpose of this study was to review our institutional experience in the management of these burns to develop a classification scheme. We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted to our burn center with grease burns. Subjects were identified through our database and their charts were reviewed with particular attention to burn distribution, TBSA and need for grafting. We excluded workplace burns and children under the age of six. A total of 249 patients who fit the above criteria were admitted with grease burns to our burn center from 1993 to 2003. The sequence of events leading to burn and its distribution followed a consistent pattern. The majority of patients (86%) had an isolated upper extremity burn or upper extremity burn in combination with a face, trunk or lower extremity burn. Forty percent of patients required at least one excision and grafting procedure. Grease burns associated with cooking at home follow predictable patterns of injury. Based on these patterns we proposed a classification system for domestic grease burns.

  13. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka


    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  14. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Tiwari


    Full Text Available Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds.

  15. The microtubule cytoskeleton is required for a G2 cell cycle delay in cancer cells lacking stathmin and p53. (United States)

    Carney, Bruce K; Caruso Silva, Victoria; Cassimeris, Lynne


    In several cancer cell lines, depleting the microtubule (MT)-destabilizing protein stathmin/oncoprotein18 leads to a G2 cell cycle delay and apoptosis. These phenotypes are observed only in synergy with low levels of p53, but the pathway(s) activated by stathmin depletion to delay the cell cycle are unknown. We found that stathmin depletion caused greater MT stability in synergy with loss of p53, measured by the levels of acetylated α-tubulin and the rate of centrosomal MT nucleation. Nocodazole or vinblastine-induced MT depolymerization abrogated the stathmin-depletion induced G2 delay, measured by the percentage of cells staining positive for several markers (TPX2, CDK1 with inhibitory phosphorylation), indicating that MTs are required to lengthen G2. Live cell imaging showed that stathmin depletion increased time in G2 without an impact on the duration of mitosis, indicating that the longer interphase duration is not simply a consequence of a previous slowed mitosis. In contrast, stabilization of MTs with paclitaxel (8 nM) slowed mitosis without lengthening the duration of interphase, demonstrating that increased MT stability alone is not sufficient to delay cells in G2.

  16. Emergency in Burn; Burn in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bayram


    Full Text Available Physicians who first meet with burned patients are often emergency service employees. When the patient was admitted to emergency service, especially in patients with major burn injury, is a matter should be dealt with strongly. Before sending the patients to a burn center, some interventions could became life saving which should be done as a first line treatment. Herein, review of the literature related to emergency burn treatment was performed and presented to all physicians as a summary guide. In addition, some questions such as how should be physician, who first meet with the burned patient, evaluated the patient, what should be physician paid attention, which principles should be employed for fluid replacement, how should be approached to burn wound are tried to be addressed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 365-368

  17. Dosage-sensitive function of retinoblastoma related and convergent epigenetic control are required during the Arabidopsis life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal J Johnston


    Full Text Available The plant life cycle alternates between two distinct multi-cellular generations, the reduced gametophytes and the dominant sporophyte. Little is known about how generation-specific cell fate, differentiation, and development are controlled by the core regulators of the cell cycle. In Arabidopsis, RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED (RBR, an evolutionarily ancient cell cycle regulator, controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and regulation of a subset of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 genes and METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1 in the male and female gametophytes, as well as cell fate establishment in the male gametophyte. Here we demonstrate that RBR is also essential for cell fate determination in the female gametophyte, as revealed by loss of cell-specific marker expression in all the gametophytic cells that lack RBR. Maintenance of genome integrity also requires RBR, because diploid plants heterozygous for rbr (rbr/RBR produce an abnormal portion of triploid offspring, likely due to gametic genome duplication. While the sporophyte of the diploid mutant plants phenocopied wild type due to the haplosufficiency of RBR, genetic analysis of tetraploid plants triplex for rbr (rbr/rbr/rbr/RBR revealed that RBR has a dosage-dependent pleiotropic effect on sporophytic development, trichome differentiation, and regulation of PRC2 subunit genes CURLY LEAF (CLF and VERNALIZATION 2 (VRN2, and MET1 in leaves. There were, however, no obvious cell cycle and cell proliferation defects in these plant tissues, suggesting that a single functional RBR copy in tetraploids is capable of maintaining normal cell division but is not sufficient for distinct differentiation and developmental processes. Conversely, in leaves of mutants in sporophytic PRC2 subunits, trichome differentiation was also affected and expression of RBR and MET1 was reduced, providing evidence for a RBR-PRC2-MET1 regulatory feedback loop involved in sporophyte development. Together, dosage-sensitive RBR

  18. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns (United States)


    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease , peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease , peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...because it was almost uniformly ssociated with serious lethal burns. This was in the period efore effective gastric acid control, explaining the high

  19. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin


    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  20. Harborview burns--1974 to 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren H Engrav

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1 identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2 make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3 determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4 model mortality over time, during a 36-year period (1974-2009 at the Harborview Burn Center in Seattle, WA, USA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 14,266 consecutive admissions were analyzed in five-year periods and many parameters compared to the National Burn Repository. Fluid resuscitation was compared in five-year periods from 1974 to 2009. Mortality was modeled with the rBaux model. Many changes are highlighted at the end of the manuscript including 1 the large increase in numbers of total and short-stay admissions, 2 the decline in numbers of large burn injuries, 3 that unadjusted case fatality declined to the mid-1980s but has changed little during the past two decades, 4 that race/ethnicity and payer status disparity exists, and 5 that the trajectory to death changed with fewer deaths occurring after seven days post-injury. Administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula during resuscitation of uncomplicated injuries was evident at least by the early 1990s and has continued to the present; the cause is likely multifactorial but pre-hospital fluids, prophylactic tracheal intubation and opioids may be involved. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The dramatic changes include the rise in short-stay admissions; as a result, the model of burn care practiced since the 1970s is still required but is no longer sufficient. 2 Fluid administration in excess of the Baxter formula with uncomplicated injuries began at least two decades ago. 3 Unadjusted case fatality declined to ∼6% in the mid-1980s and changed little since then. The rBaux mortality model is quite accurate.

  1. Harborview burns--1974 to 2009. (United States)

    Engrav, Loren H; Heimbach, David M; Rivara, Frederick P; Kerr, Kathleen F; Osler, Turner; Pham, Tam N; Sharar, Sam R; Esselman, Peter C; Bulger, Eileen M; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S


    Burn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during a 36-year period (1974-2009) at the Harborview Burn Center in Seattle, WA, USA. 14,266 consecutive admissions were analyzed in five-year periods and many parameters compared to the National Burn Repository. Fluid resuscitation was compared in five-year periods from 1974 to 2009. Mortality was modeled with the rBaux model. Many changes are highlighted at the end of the manuscript including 1) the large increase in numbers of total and short-stay admissions, 2) the decline in numbers of large burn injuries, 3) that unadjusted case fatality declined to the mid-1980s but has changed little during the past two decades, 4) that race/ethnicity and payer status disparity exists, and 5) that the trajectory to death changed with fewer deaths occurring after seven days post-injury. Administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula during resuscitation of uncomplicated injuries was evident at least by the early 1990s and has continued to the present; the cause is likely multifactorial but pre-hospital fluids, prophylactic tracheal intubation and opioids may be involved. 1) The dramatic changes include the rise in short-stay admissions; as a result, the model of burn care practiced since the 1970s is still required but is no longer sufficient. 2) Fluid administration in excess of the Baxter formula with uncomplicated injuries began at least two decades ago. 3) Unadjusted case fatality declined to ∼6% in the mid-1980s and changed little since then. The rBaux mortality model is quite accurate.

  2. Cloud condensation nuclei in polluted air and biomass burning smoke near the mega-city Guangzhou, China – Part 2: Size-resolved aerosol chemical composition, diurnal cycles, and externally mixed weakly CCN-active soot particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rose



    Based on κ values derived from AMS and VTDMA data, the observed CCN number concentrations (NCCN,S≈102–104 cm−3 at S = 0.068–0.47% could be efficiently predicted from the measured particle number size distribution. The mean relative deviations between observed and predicted CCN concentrations were ~10% when using κt,p, and they increased to ~20% when using only κa,p. The mean relative deviations were not higher (~20% when using an approximate continental average value of κ≈0.3, although the constant κ value cannot account for the observed temporal variations in particle composition and mixing state (diurnal cycles and biomass burning events.

    Overall, the results confirm that on a global and climate modeling scale an average value of κ≈0.3 can be used for approximate predictions of CCN number concentrations in continental boundary layer air when aerosol size distribution data are available without information about chemical composition. Bulk or size-resolved data on aerosol chemical composition enable improved CCN predictions resolving regional and temporal variations, but the composition data need to be highly accurate and complemented by information about particle mixing state to achieve high precision (relative deviations <20%.

  3. Starch-Branching Enzyme IIa Is Required for Proper Diurnal Cycling of Starch in Leaves of Maize1[OA (United States)

    Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Laurens, Lieve; Shi, Zi; Xia, Huan; Smith, Alison M.; Guiltinan, Mark J.


    Starch-branching enzyme (SBE), a glucosyl transferase, is required for the highly regular pattern of α-1,6 bonds in the amylopectin component of starch. In the absence of SBEIIa, as shown previously in the sbe2a mutant of maize (Zea mays), leaf starch has drastically reduced branching and the leaves exhibit a severe senescence-like phenotype. Detailed characterization of the maize sbe2a mutant revealed that SBEIIa is the primary active branching enzyme in the leaf and that in its absence plant growth is affected. Both seedling and mature sbe2a mutant leaves do not properly degrade starch during the night, resulting in hyperaccumulation. In mature sbe2a leaves, starch hyperaccumulation is greatest in visibly senescing regions but also observed in green tissue and is correlated to a drastic reduction in photosynthesis within the leaf. Starch granules from sbe2a leaves observed via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses are larger, irregular, and amorphous as compared with the highly regular, discoid starch granules observed in wild-type leaves. This appears to trigger premature senescence, as shown by an increased expression of genes encoding proteins known to be involved in senescence and programmed cell death processes. Together, these results indicate that SBEIIa is required for the proper diurnal cycling of transitory starch within the leaf and suggest that SBEIIa is necessary in producing an amylopectin structure amenable to degradation by starch metabolism enzymes. PMID:21508184

  4. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia. (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C


    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia.

  5. Hospital costs associated with pediatric burn injury. (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Hollingworth, William; Rivara, Frederick P; Kramer, C Bradley; Askay, Shelley W; Heimbach, David M; Gibran, Nicole S


    Modern burn care is a resource intensive endeavor requiring specialized equipment, personnel, and facilities in order to provide optimum care. The costs associated with burn injury to both patients and society as a whole can be multifaceted and large. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hospital costs, patient characteristics, and injury factors in a cohort of pediatric patients admitted to a regional burn center. We performed a review of the hospital charges accrued by pediatric patients (age dollar costs using an inflation index and a cost to charge ratio. Univariate and multivariate regressions were performed to identify the factors most significantly associated with cost. In addition, we performed a subset cost analysis for patients with burns more than 20% TBSA. A total of 1443 pediatric patients (age dollars was dollars 9026 (SD = dollars 25,483; median = dollars 2138). Area of full thickness burn was the only patient or injury factor significantly associated with greater hospital costs (P < .05) on multivariate analysis. No single anatomic area was associated with increased hospital costs when adjusted for total overall burn size. Injury severity was the most significant factor impacting index hospitalization costs following pediatric burn injury. Further studies defining the long-term societal costs impact of burn injury are needed as are studies that evaluate the impact of burn injury on quality of life.

  6. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  7. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea


    Christmas, Richard


    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment...

  8. Burned Microporous Alumina-Graphite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition,classifica-tion,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation and quality certificate of burned microporous alumina-graphite brick.

  9. Learn Not To Burn. (United States)

    English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.


    Describes the "Learn Not to Burn Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and burn prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight burn prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and…

  10. Minor burns - aftercare (United States)

    ... the burn: Use cool water, not ice. The extreme cold from ice can injure the tissue even more. If possible, especially if the burn is caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until it ...

  11. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  12. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan


    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  13. High burn rate solid composite propellants (United States)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  14. Activation-Inactivation Cycling of Rab35 and ARF6 Is Required for Phagocytosis of Zymosan in RAW264 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhei Egami


    Full Text Available Phagocytosis of zymosan by phagocytes is a widely used model of microbial recognition by the innate immune system. Live-cell imaging showed that fluorescent protein-fused Rab35 accumulated in the membranes of phagocytic cups and then dissociated from the membranes of newly formed phagosomes. By our novel pull-down assay for Rab35 activity, we found that Rab35 is deactivated immediately after zymosan internalization into the cells. Phagosome formation was inhibited in cells expressing the GDP- or GTP-locked Rab35 mutant. Moreover, the simultaneous expression of ACAP2—a Rab35 effector protein—with GTP-locked Rab35 or the expression of plasma membrane-targeted ACAP2 showed a marked inhibitory effect on phagocytosis through ARF6 inactivation by the GAP activity of ACAP2. ARF6, a substrate for ACAP2, was also localized on the phagocytic cups and dissociated from the membranes of internalized phagosomes. In support of the microscopic observations, ARF6-GTP pull-down experiments showed that ARF6 is transiently activated during phagosome formation. Furthermore, the expression of GDP- or GTP-locked ARF6 mutants also suppresses the uptake of zymosan. These data suggest that the activation-inactivation cycles of Rab35 and ARF6 are required for the uptake of zymosan and that ACAP2 is an important component that links Rab35/ARF6 signaling during phagocytosis of zymosan.

  15. Phytophthora capsici homologue of the cell cycle regulator SDA1 is required for sporangial morphology, mycelial growth and plant infection. (United States)

    Zhu, Chunyuan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Lv, Rongfei; Li, Zhuang; Ding, Xiaomeng; Tyler, Brett M; Zhang, Xiuguo


    SDA1 encodes a highly conserved protein that is widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. SDA1 is essential for cell cycle progression and organization of the actin cytoskeleton in yeasts and humans. In this study, we identified a Phytophthora capsici orthologue of yeast SDA1, named PcSDA1. In P. capsici, PcSDA1 is strongly expressed in three asexual developmental states (mycelium, sporangia and germinating cysts), as well as late in infection. Silencing or overexpression of PcSDA1 in P. capsici transformants affected the growth of hyphae and sporangiophores, sporangial development, cyst germination and zoospore release. Phalloidin staining confirmed that PcSDA1 is required for organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and PcSDA1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions revealed that PcSDA1 is involved in the regulation of nuclear distribution in hyphae and sporangia. Both silenced and overexpression transformants showed severely diminished virulence. Thus, our results suggest that PcSDA1 plays a similar role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear division in this filamentous organism as in non-filamentous yeasts and human cells.

  16. Partial Burn Laws in Propellant Erosive Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Finjakov


    Full Text Available Experimental and computer methods were developed for investigating the combustion phenomena in the propellants which burn in streams of hot gas flowing along the burn surfaces of the propellants. The experimental investigations allowed establishment of different dependencies for erosive burning. Computer solutions of the problem for double-base (DB propellants showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The suggested variant of modified theory considers the change of heat release in solids, the real burn surface roughness, the nonisothermality of boundary layer and the effect of gas mass blow from the propellant burn surface into the gas stream. This modified theory was used for studying burn laws at 30-1000 atm and up to gas stream sound velocities for different DB propellants. It was found that gas stream leads to splitting of the propellant burn laws, m = bp/sup v/. Pressure power (v, in this case depends on gas stream velocity (W, diameter of the propellant tube canal (d and gas stream temperature (T/sub w/. It is because of this that these burn laws were named partial burn laws. They have the form (m = bp/sup w(omega/ w,d,T/sub w/ -const. The dependencies w(omega = f(w,d,T/sub w/ were obtained by the modified theory. It was found that omega values mainly decrease when pressure increases beginning from ~200 to 400 atm and they can decrease up to w(omega = 0,1- 0,3. Similar results can be obtained for composite propellants.

  17. Modern trends in fluid therapy for burns. (United States)

    Tricklebank, Stephen


    The majority of burn centres use the crystalloid-based Parkland formula to guide fluid therapy, but patients actually receive far more fluid than the formula predicts. Resuscitation with large volumes of crystalloid has numerous adverse consequences, including worsening of burn oedema, conversion of superficial into deep burns, and compartment syndromes. Resuscitation fluids influence the inflammatory response to burns in different ways and it may be possible, therefore to affect this response using the appropriate fluid, at the appropriate time. Starches are effective volume expanders and early use of newer formulations may limit resuscitation requirements and burn oedema by reducing inflammation and capillary leak. Advanced endpoint monitoring may guide clinicians in when to 'turn off' aggressive fluid therapy and therefore avoid the problems of over-resuscitation.

  18. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. (United States)

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang


    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of burns patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, burn injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the burns occurred in the home. The leading type of burn injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical burns, and chemical burns due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface area (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The average length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for burn injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of burn injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children.

  19. Increased admissions for diabetes mellitus after burn. (United States)

    Duke, Janine M; Randall, Sean M; Fear, Mark W; Boyd, James H; O'Halloran, Emily; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M


    Currently, limited long-term data on hyperglycaemia and insulin sensitivity in burn patients are available and the data that do exist are primarily related to paediatric severe burns. The aim of this study was to assess if burn is associated with increased post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus. A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia was undertaken of all persons hospitalized for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012 and a frequency matched non-injury comparison cohort, randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations and electoral roll (n=123,399). Crude admission rates and summed length of stay for diabetes mellitus were calculated. Negative binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling were used to generate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and hazard ratios (HR), respectively. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors and pre-existing health status, the burn cohort had 2.21 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.36-1.56) as many admissions and almost three times the number of days in hospital with a diabetes mellitus diagnosis (IRR, 95% CI: 2.94, 2.12-4.09) than the uninjured cohort. Admission rates were significantly elevated for those burned during childhood (diabetes mellitus in the burn cohort provide evidence that burns have longer term effects on blood glucose and insulin regulation after wound healing. The first five years after burn discharge appears to be a critical period with significantly elevated incident admissions for diabetes mellitus during this time. Results would suggest prolonged clinical management after discharge and or wound healing to minimise post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    in the small scale water basin. Boilovers were also observed during the burning of a heavy crude oil with a substantial light fraction without a water layer, however, which suggests that water is not essential for boilover occurrence. Further studies are required to determine the conditions under which......The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...

  1. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly. (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid


    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  2. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G. Jeschke


    Full Text Available Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p  0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  3. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients]. (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P


    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p diet was very good, and only mild complications such as diarrhoea developed in two patients. Enteral nutrition is a suitable nutritional support method for patients with

  4. [The pain from burns]. (United States)

    Latarjet, J


    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  5. Acetate-dependent photoheterotrophic growth and the differential requirement for the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle in Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. (United States)

    Laguna, Rick; Tabita, F Robert; Alber, Birgit E


    Rhodobacter sphaeroides ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO)-deletion strain 16 was capable of photoheterotrophic growth with acetate, while Rhodopseudomonas palustris RubisCO-deletion strain 2040 could not grow under these conditions. The reason for this difference lies in the fact that Rba. sphaeroides and Rps. palustris use different pathways for acetate assimilation, the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, and glyoxylate-bypass cycle, respectively. The ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway is distinct from the glyoxylate cycle as one molecule of CO(2) and one molecule of HCO(3) (-) per three molecules of acetyl-CoA are co-assimilated to form two malate molecules. The glyoxylate cycle directly converts two acetyl-CoA molecules to malate. Each pathway, therefore, also dictates at what point, CO(2) and reductant are consumed, thereby determining the requirement for the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle.

  6. Kif11 dependent cell cycle progression in radial glial cells is required for proper neurogenesis in the zebrafish neural tube. (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly; Moriarty, Chelsea; Tania, Nessy; Ortman, Alissa; DiPietrantonio, Kristina; Edens, Brittany; Eisenman, Jean; Ok, Deborah; Krikorian, Sarah; Barragan, Jessica; Golé, Christophe; Barresi, Michael J F


    Radial glia serve as the resident neural stem cells in the embryonic vertebrate nervous system, and their proliferation must be tightly regulated to generate the correct number of neuronal and glial cell progeny in the neural tube. During a forward genetic screen, we recently identified a zebrafish mutant in the kif11 loci that displayed a significant increase in radial glial cell bodies at the ventricular zone of the spinal cord. Kif11, also known as Eg5, is a kinesin-related, plus-end directed motor protein responsible for stabilizing and separating the bipolar mitotic spindle. We show here that Gfap+ radial glial cells express kif11 in the ventricular zone and floor plate. Loss of Kif11 by mutation or pharmacological inhibition with S-trityl-L-cysteine (STLC) results in monoastral spindle formation in radial glial cells, which is characteristic of mitotic arrest. We show that M-phase radial glia accumulate over time at the ventricular zone in kif11 mutants and STLC treated embryos. Mathematical modeling of the radial glial accumulation in kif11 mutants not only confirmed an ~226× delay in mitotic exit (likely a mitotic arrest), but also predicted two modes of increased cell death. These modeling predictions were supported by an increase in the apoptosis marker, anti-activated Caspase-3, which was also found to be inversely proportional to a decrease in cell proliferation. In addition, treatment with STLC at different stages of neural development uncovered two critical periods that most significantly require Kif11 function for stem cell progression through mitosis. We also show that loss of Kif11 function causes specific reductions in oligodendroglia and secondary interneurons and motorneurons, suggesting these later born populations require proper radial glia division. Despite these alterations to cell cycle dynamics, survival, and neurogenesis, we document unchanged cell densities within the neural tube in kif11 mutants, suggesting that a mechanism of

  7. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting. (United States)

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered.

  8. Conceptual Design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactor With Modified CANDLE Burn-up Scheme (United States)

    Nur Asiah, A.; Su'ud, Zaki; Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.


    In this paper, conceptual design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input has been performed. In this study Gas Cooled Fast Reactor is slightly modified by employing modified CANDLE burn-up scheme so that it can use Natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Due to their hard spectrum, GCFR in this study showed very good performance in converting U-238 to plutonium in order to maintain the operation condition requirement of long-life reactors. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. With such condition we got an optimal design of 325 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input. The average discharge burn-up is about 290 GWd/ton HM.

  9. The initial management of acute burns. (United States)

    Treharne, L J; Kay, A R


    The initial management of burns, in common with all trauma, follows the ABCDE approach. The outline management plan detailed above assumes the availability of certain medical supplies but even simple measures are invaluable in burn care if they are all that are available. The most basic supplies required to resuscitate a casualty are oral salt and water in appropriate volumes. Similarly it should be possible in field conditions to monitor vital signs and urine output, dress the burns with clingfilm or plastic bags and wrap the casualty in absorbent materials.

  10. Burns and epilepsy. (United States)

    Berrocal, M


    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  11. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    . Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context......, The Burning Saints presents a highly original analysis of how mental processes can shape social and religious behaviour....

  12. Management of Hand Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Irmak


    Full Text Available Objective: The hand is one of the most frequently affected body parts by burn injuries with a rate of 80% among all burn wounds. Early and effective treatment ensures the best chance of survival as well as a good functional prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, variation, relationship between etiology and hospital stay, clinical features, and management of hand burns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted the University of Health Sciences; Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Application and Research Center, Departmant of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery and the Intensive Burn Care Unit between April 2009 and April 2014. Burns were assessed based on etiology, anatomical location, percentage of total body surface area affected, and depth of injury. Treatment was categorized as conservative, elective operative, or urgent operative. Results: In the study period, 788 patients were admitted to our Burn Unit. Of these, 240 were females (30.5% and 548 were males (69.5%. The most common type of burn injury in this study was thermal injury (695 cases; 88.2%, followed by electrical injury (67 cases; 8.5%, and chemical, frictional or unknown injuries (26 cases; 3.3%. Majority (more than 85% of the patients had second-degree burns, and some had third-degree burns. Conclusions: Burns commonly affect the hands, and many functional problems may develop if appropriate basic treatments are neglected. The best treatment for burns is prevention. Appropriate indoor arrangement and simple but effective measures that can be taken at home can significantly reduce burn trauma exposure.

  13. Management of Outpatient Burns


    Waslen, G. D.


    The severity of burns depends on the depth and extent of body surface involved. The total body surface area (TBSA) involved can be estimated by the ‘rule of nines’; body locations are 9% of body surface or multiples of nine. Depth and TBSA can be used to classify burns as minor, moderate, or critical. Diagnosis depends on history and physical examination. Most burns can be treated in an outpatient setting. Treatment should include debriding necrotic tissue, preventing infection and encouragin...

  14. Aerodigestive tract burn from ingestion of microwaved food. (United States)

    Silberman, Michael; Jeanmonod, Rebecca


    Aerodigestive tract burns represent a rare but potentially devastating injury pattern throughout the world. Although the majority of these injuries do not require intervention, these burns have the potential for poor outcomes. Traditionally this disease has been caused by superheated gases found in explosions or fire-related injury. However, as technology advances, it brings novel methods for injury that require physician awareness of potential hazards. We describe a case of laryngeal and esophageal thermal burn caused by a microwave heated food bolus.

  15. Burns in pregnancy. (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Samnia, Roya; Garadaghi, Abasad; Kianvar, Hadi


    A 9-year prospective study of burns in pregnant women hospitalized at the Sina hospital burn center was conducted to determine the etiology and outcome of pregnant patients. Fifty-one patients (27.45% self-inflicted, 72.55% unintentional) were identified and stratified by age, burn size, presence or absence of inhalation injury, trimester of pregnancy, maternal and fetal mortality, and cause of burn. The mean patient age was 24.2 years. There were 20 maternal deaths and 23 fetal deaths. The majority of which (maternal: 13 and fetal: 13) were among self-inflicted burned pregnant women. The mean burn size was 37.7%, and was significantly larger for nonsurvivors of mother than survivors (68.8% versus 17.6%; pburned body surface area exceeds 40%, both maternal and fetal mortality reaches 100%. Inhalation injuries were strongly associated with large burns, and were presents in all suicide patients. Kerosene ignition (68.6% of all patients, 100% of self-inflicted patients) was the most common type of burn. Large burn size was the strongest predictor of mortality of mother and fetus followed by the presence of inhalation injury.

  16. [Treatment of pain in children burns]. (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Pommier, C; Robert, A; Comparin, J P; Foyatier, J L


    Burn injury is considered by children as one of the most painful traumas (just after bone factures). Burn pain in children can and must be controlled as well as for adult patients, with almost identical techniques. Continuous pain from injury and intermittent pain caused by therapeutic procedures must be evaluated and treated separately. Due to very high levels of nociception, satisfactory management of procedural pain requires the use of opioid therapy. Non pharmacological methods are meaningless if pharmacological treatment is not optimal.

  17. Modelling burned area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehsten


    Full Text Available The simulation of current and projected wildfires is essential for predicting crucial aspects of vegetation patterns, biogeochemical cycling as well as pyrogenic emissions across the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize two burned area models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs and Earth system models (ESMs. We restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available, or that are calculated by DVMs, and we consider a spatial scale of one degree as the scale typical for DVMs and ESMs. By using the African continent here as an example, an analogue approach could in principle be adopted for other regions, for global scale dynamic burned area modelling.

    We used 9 years of data (2000–2008 for the variables: precipitation over the last dry season, the last wet season and averaged over the last 2 years, a fire-danger index (the Nesterov index, population density, and annual proportion of area burned derived from the MODIS MCD45A1 product. Two further variables, tree and herb cover were only available for 2001 as a remote sensing product. Since the effect of fires on vegetation depends strongly on burning conditions, the timing of wildfires is of high interest too, and we were able to relate the seasonal occurrence of wildfires to the daily Nesterov index.

    We parameterized two generalized linear models (GLMs, one with the full variable set (model VC and one considering only climate variables (model C. All introduced variables resulted in an increase in model performance. Model VC correctly predicts the spatial distribution and extent of fire prone areas though the total variability is underrepresented. Model VC has a much lower performance in both aspects (correlation coefficient of predicted and observed ratio of burned area: 0.71 for model VC and 0.58 for model C. We expect the remaining variability to be attributed to additional

  18. Rhythmic beating of stem cell-derived cardiac cells requires dynamic coupling of electrophysiology and Ca cycling. (United States)

    Zahanich, Ihor; Sirenko, Syevda G; Maltseva, Larissa A; Tarasova, Yelena S; Spurgeon, Harold A; Boheler, Kenneth R; Stern, Michael D; Lakatta, Edward G; Maltsev, Victor A


    There is an intense interest in differentiating embryonic stem cells to engineer biological pacemakers as an alternative to electronic pacemakers for patients with cardiac pacemaker function deficiency. Embryonic stem cell-derived cardiocytes (ESCs), however, often exhibit dysrhythmic excitations. Using Ca(2+) imaging and patch-clamp techniques, we studied requirements for generation of spontaneous rhythmic action potentials (APs) in late-stage mouse ESCs. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of ESCs generates spontaneous, rhythmic, wavelet-like Local Ca(2+)Releases (LCRs) (inhibited by ryanodine, tetracaine, or thapsigargin). L-type Ca(2+)current (I(CaL)) induces a global Ca(2+) release (CICR), depleting the Ca(2+) content SR which resets the phases of LCR oscillators. Following a delay, SR then generates a highly synchronized spontaneous Ca(2+)release of multiple LCRs throughout the cell. The LCRs generate an inward Na(+)/Ca(2+)exchanger (NCX) current (absent in Na(+)-free solution) that ignites the next AP. Interfering with SR Ca(2+) cycling (ryanodine, caffeine, thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, BAPTA-AM), NCX (Na(+)-free solution), or I(CaL) (nifedipine) results in dysrhythmic excitations or cessation of automaticity. Inhibition of cAMP/PKA signaling by a specific PKA inhibitor, PKI, decreases SR Ca(2+) loading, substantially reducing both spontaneous LCRs (number, size, and amplitude) and rhythmic AP firing. In contrast, enhancing PKA signaling by cAMP increases the LCRs (number, size, duration) and converts irregularly beating ESCs to rhythmic "pacemaker-like" cells. SR Ca(2+) loading and LCR activity could be also increased with a selective activation of SR Ca(2+) pumping by a phospholamban antibody. We conclude that SR Ca(2+) loading and spontaneous rhythmic LCRs are driven by inherent cAMP/PKA activity. I(CaL) synchronizes multiple LCR oscillators resulting in strong, partially synchronized diastolic Ca(2+) release and NCX current. Rhythmic ESC automaticity can be

  19. Burns and military clothing. (United States)

    McLean, A D


    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  20. Critical issues in burn care. (United States)

    Holmes, James H


    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation.

  1. An overview of acute burn management in the Emergency Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaira Landry


    Full Text Available Despite the frequency and severity of burns in Low Income Countries, including many in Africa, there is a paucity of research and funding for these populations to aid in prevention, treatment and recovery of burn patients. The objectives of this paper are four-fold. First, by addressing the pathophysiology of burns the reader may strengthen understanding of the clinical progression of burns. Second, through describing proper assessment of burn patients one will learn how to decide if patients can be discharged, admitted or transferred to burn centre. Third, the inclusion of treatments solidifies the steps necessary to manage a patient in a hospital setting. Lastly, the overall goal of the paper, is to raise awareness that more research, publication and funding is required to create a better understanding of burns in Africa and why they continue to be devastating social and economic burdens.

  2. Tracking non-burn center care: what you don't know may surprise you. (United States)

    Davis, James S; Dearwater, Stephen; Rosales, Oscar; Varas, Robin; Quintana, Olga D; Pizano, Louis; Namias, Nicholas; Schulman, Carl I


    The American Burn Association publishes a list of defined criteria for patients who require admission or transfer to a burn center. This study examines the extent to which those criteria are observed within a regional burn network. Hospital discharge data for 2008 were obtained for all hospitals within the South Florida regional burn network. Patients with International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision discharge diagnoses for burns were reviewed, and their triage destination was compared with the burn triage referral criteria to determine whether patients were inappropriately triaged. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Four hundred ninety-eight burn admissions were documented to non-burn center center hospitals, 269 (54%) of which were deemed inappropriate by burn triage referral criteria. Burn center patients had greater length of stay when compared with non-burn center patients (14 vs 7 days), but a greater percentage were discharged home for self-care (88 vs 57%). Thirty-three percent of the inappropriate admissions were in a neighboring county, whereas 27% were in the same county where the burn center is located. Inappropriate burn patient triage may be occurring to more than half of the burn patients within our regional burn network despite better functional outcomes at the burn center. This may be because of a lack of knowledge regarding triage criteria, patient insurance status, or other factors. Further studies are necessary to fully characterize the problem and implement education or incentives to encourage appropriate burn patient triage.

  3. Pain in burn patients. (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M


    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  4. Nutrition of burned patients. (United States)

    Gudaviciene, Daiva; Rimdeika, Rytis; Adamonis, Kestutis


    Burns form 5-12% of all traumas. About 2,200 of patients are annually hospitalized in Lithuania. In most cases people of the employable age get burned. The treatment is often long-lasting, and afterwards recovered patients often have invalidity from burn sequels. The mortality of hospitalized burned patients is about 10%. The most common causes of death are pulmonary edema, pneumonia, sepsis and multiorgan failure. All these complications are related with insufficient nutrition. These complications are extremely frequent and dangerous for patients with more than 20% of body burned. The nutritional support of burned patient gives a possibility to increase the survival probability, to decrease complication rate and hospitalization time. Currently in Lithuania there are no standards for burned patient nutrition. More attention is given to strategy of surgical strategy and techniques, as well as antibiotic therapy. This article is the review of the different aspects of artificial nutrition of burned patient: indications, modes of nutrition, mixtures and terms of nutritional support.

  5. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts]. (United States)

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L


    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  6. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  7. Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: intentional burns in adults. (United States)

    Peck, Michael D


    A significant number of burns and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional burns are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized burn patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface area burned in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted burning of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by burning include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by burning are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious burn-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas (United States)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng


    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  9. Software safety analysis on the model specified by NuSCR and SMV input language at requirements phase of software development life cycle using SMV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kwang Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Safety-critical software process is composed of development process, verification and validation (V and V) process and safety analysis process. Safety analysis process has been often treated as an additional process and not found in a conventional software process. But software safety analysis (SSA) is required if software is applied to a safety system, and the SSA shall be performed independently for the safety software through software development life cycle (SDLC). Of all the phases in software development, requirements engineering is generally considered to play the most critical role in determining the overall software quality. NASA data demonstrate that nearly 75% of failures found in operational software were caused by errors in the requirements. The verification process in requirements phase checks the correctness of software requirements specification, and the safety analysis process analyzes the safety-related properties in detail. In this paper, the method for safety analysis at requirements phase of software development life cycle using symbolic model verifier (SMV) is proposed. Hazard is discovered by hazard analysis and in other to use SMV for the safety analysis, the safety-related properties are expressed by computation tree logic (CTL)

  10. The transcription factor NFAT5 is required for cyclin expression and cell cycle progression in cells exposed to hypertonic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Drews-Elger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertonicity can perturb cellular functions, induce DNA damage-like responses and inhibit proliferation. The transcription factor NFAT5 induces osmoprotective gene products that allow cells to adapt to sustained hypertonic conditions. Although it is known that NFAT5-deficient lymphocytes and renal medullary cells have reduced proliferative capacity and viability under hypertonic stress, less is understood about the contribution of this factor to DNA damage responses and cell cycle regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated conditional knockout mice to obtain NFAT5(-/- T lymphocytes, which we used as a model of proliferating cells to study NFAT5-dependent responses. We show that hypertonicity triggered an early, NFAT5-independent, genotoxic stress-like response with induction of p53, p21 and GADD45, downregulation of cyclins, and cell cycle arrest. This was followed by an NFAT5-dependent adaptive phase in wild-type cells, which induced an osmoprotective gene expression program, downregulated stress markers, resumed cyclin expression and proliferation, and displayed enhanced NFAT5 transcriptional activity in S and G2/M. In contrast, NFAT5(-/- cells failed to induce osmoprotective genes and exhibited poorer viability. Although surviving NFAT5(-/- cells downregulated genotoxic stress markers, they underwent cell cycle arrest in G1/S and G2/M, which was associated with reduced expression of cyclins E1, A2 and B1. We also show that pathologic hypertonicity levels, as occurring in plasma of patients and animal models of osmoregulatory disorders, inhibited the induction of cyclins and aurora B kinase in response to T cell receptor stimulation in fresh NFAT5(-/- lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that NFAT5 facilitates cell proliferation under hypertonic conditions by inducing an osmoadaptive response that enables cells to express fundamental regulators needed for cell cycle progression.

  11. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  12. Burns in patients over 90: a fifteen-year series from a regional burns centre. (United States)

    Shariff, Zakir; Rodrigues, Jeremy N; Anwar, Umair; Austin, Orla; Phipps, Alan


    The elderly constitute an expanding subgroup within society, and may have differences in health needs compared to younger patients. The specific needs and outcomes of elderly patients with burns have been widely studied. However, the definition of elderly often used in previous studies is a cut off of 65 years old. Within this broadly defined group, the very elderly may have distinct health care needs and issues. This study investigated aetiology, management and outcome of burns in those over 90 years treated at a single UK burns service over a period of 15 years between 1998 and 2013, and compares these data to published data describing 'younger' elderly burns patients. Twenty two patients were included, with a 2:1 female:male ration, and a mean 9%TBSA burn. Six of the 22 died during their admission, and those who survived averaged 8 days inpatient stay per %TBSA. The very elderly with burns may fare worse than younger elderly patients. Although burns in the very elderly are relatively infrequent events, they require significant resource. Further work to optimise their outcome is required.

  13. Pediatric Treadmill Burns: Assessing the effectiveness of prevention strategies. (United States)

    Goltsman, David; Li, Zhe; Connolly, Siobhan; Meyerowitz-Katz, Daniel; Allan, James; Maitz, Peter K M


    Legislative changes in 2008 in Australia mandated that all new treadmills display a warning sticker about the risk of friction burns in children. This was accompanied by a health promotion campaign advising of the risks of treadmills to children. Analyses of pediatric burns data identified all cases of treadmill burns occurring between 2005 and 2014. The incidence of treadmill burns, associations with age and gender, characteristics of the burns and the adequacy of first aid provided immediately after the burn was examined. There were 298 cases of treadmill burns over the 10-year period (3.5% of all pediatric burns). The incidence rose until the introduction of legislation and health promotion in 2008, and then declined over the remaining study period. The majority of treadmill burns in children were inflicted on the upper limbs (91%), and 93% involved the hands. Most burns were full thickness (62%, n=182) and 49% (n=148) required skin grafts. Approximately one-third of treadmill burns (35%, n=105) occurred while someone else was using the treadmill. In the vast majority of treadmill burn injuries (74%, n=223), there was either no first aid or inadequate first aid provided immediately after the injury. A significant number of treadmill burns occur in children, and these often result in serious injuries that are not treated with appropriate first aid. A reduction in the incidence of these burns was associated with the introduction of legislation and health promotion targeted at child safety around treadmills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. The cell cycle timing of centromeric chromatin assembly in Drosophila meiosis is distinct from mitosis yet requires CAL1 and CENP-C. (United States)

    Dunleavy, Elaine M; Beier, Nicole L; Gorgescu, Walter; Tang, Jonathan; Costes, Sylvain V; Karpen, Gary H


    CENP-A (CID in flies) is the histone H3 variant essential for centromere specification, kinetochore formation, and chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent studies have elucidated major cell cycle mechanisms and factors critical for CENP-A incorporation in mitosis, predominantly in cultured cells. However, we do not understand the roles, regulation, and cell cycle timing of CENP-A assembly in somatic tissues in multicellular organisms and in meiosis, the specialized cell division cycle that gives rise to haploid gametes. Here we investigate the timing and requirements for CID assembly in mitotic tissues and male and female meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster, using fixed and live imaging combined with genetic approaches. We find that CID assembly initiates at late telophase and continues during G1 phase in somatic tissues in the organism, later than the metaphase assembly observed in cultured cells. Furthermore, CID assembly occurs at two distinct cell cycle phases during male meiosis: prophase of meiosis I and after exit from meiosis II, in spermatids. CID assembly in prophase I is also conserved in female meiosis. Interestingly, we observe a novel decrease in CID levels after the end of meiosis I and before meiosis II, which correlates temporally with changes in kinetochore organization and orientation. We also demonstrate that CID is retained on mature sperm despite the gross chromatin remodeling that occurs during protamine exchange. Finally, we show that the centromere proteins CAL1 and CENP-C are both required for CID assembly in meiosis and normal progression through spermatogenesis. We conclude that the cell cycle timing of CID assembly in meiosis is different from mitosis and that the efficient propagation of CID through meiotic divisions and on sperm is likely to be important for centromere specification in the developing zygote.

  15. The cell cycle timing of centromeric chromatin assembly in Drosophila meiosis is distinct from mitosis yet requires CAL1 and CENP-C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M Dunleavy

    Full Text Available CENP-A (CID in flies is the histone H3 variant essential for centromere specification, kinetochore formation, and chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent studies have elucidated major cell cycle mechanisms and factors critical for CENP-A incorporation in mitosis, predominantly in cultured cells. However, we do not understand the roles, regulation, and cell cycle timing of CENP-A assembly in somatic tissues in multicellular organisms and in meiosis, the specialized cell division cycle that gives rise to haploid gametes. Here we investigate the timing and requirements for CID assembly in mitotic tissues and male and female meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster, using fixed and live imaging combined with genetic approaches. We find that CID assembly initiates at late telophase and continues during G1 phase in somatic tissues in the organism, later than the metaphase assembly observed in cultured cells. Furthermore, CID assembly occurs at two distinct cell cycle phases during male meiosis: prophase of meiosis I and after exit from meiosis II, in spermatids. CID assembly in prophase I is also conserved in female meiosis. Interestingly, we observe a novel decrease in CID levels after the end of meiosis I and before meiosis II, which correlates temporally with changes in kinetochore organization and orientation. We also demonstrate that CID is retained on mature sperm despite the gross chromatin remodeling that occurs during protamine exchange. Finally, we show that the centromere proteins CAL1 and CENP-C are both required for CID assembly in meiosis and normal progression through spermatogenesis. We conclude that the cell cycle timing of CID assembly in meiosis is different from mitosis and that the efficient propagation of CID through meiotic divisions and on sperm is likely to be important for centromere specification in the developing zygote.

  16. The Cell Cycle Timing of Centromeric Chromatin Assembly in Drosophila Meiosis Is Distinct from Mitosis Yet Requires CAL1 and CENP-C (United States)

    Gorgescu, Walter; Tang, Jonathan; Costes, Sylvain V.; Karpen, Gary H.


    CENP-A (CID in flies) is the histone H3 variant essential for centromere specification, kinetochore formation, and chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent studies have elucidated major cell cycle mechanisms and factors critical for CENP-A incorporation in mitosis, predominantly in cultured cells. However, we do not understand the roles, regulation, and cell cycle timing of CENP-A assembly in somatic tissues in multicellular organisms and in meiosis, the specialized cell division cycle that gives rise to haploid gametes. Here we investigate the timing and requirements for CID assembly in mitotic tissues and male and female meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster, using fixed and live imaging combined with genetic approaches. We find that CID assembly initiates at late telophase and continues during G1 phase in somatic tissues in the organism, later than the metaphase assembly observed in cultured cells. Furthermore, CID assembly occurs at two distinct cell cycle phases during male meiosis: prophase of meiosis I and after exit from meiosis II, in spermatids. CID assembly in prophase I is also conserved in female meiosis. Interestingly, we observe a novel decrease in CID levels after the end of meiosis I and before meiosis II, which correlates temporally with changes in kinetochore organization and orientation. We also demonstrate that CID is retained on mature sperm despite the gross chromatin remodeling that occurs during protamine exchange. Finally, we show that the centromere proteins CAL1 and CENP-C are both required for CID assembly in meiosis and normal progression through spermatogenesis. We conclude that the cell cycle timing of CID assembly in meiosis is different from mitosis and that the efficient propagation of CID through meiotic divisions and on sperm is likely to be important for centromere specification in the developing zygote. PMID:23300382

  17. 30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons? (United States)


    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons...

  18. The epidemiology of geriatric burns in Iran: A national burn registry-based study. (United States)

    Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Momeni, Mahnoush; Karimi, Hamid


    Defining the epidemiology and outcome of geriatric burn patients is critical for specialized burn centers, health-care workers, and governments. Better resource use and effective guidelines are some of the advantages of studies focusing on this aspect. The outcome of these patients serves as an objective criterion for quality control, research, and preventive programs. We used data from the burn registry program in our country. For 2 years, >28,700 burn patients were recorded, 1721 of whom were admitted. Among them, 187 patients were ≥55 years old. Sixty-nine percent of patients were male and 31% female, with a male to female ratio of 2.22:1. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of age was 63.4±8.1. The cause of burns was flame (58.2%) and scalds (20.3%). Most of the burns were sustained at home. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.5 days (range 3-59 days). The mean (SD) of the total body surface area (TBSA) was 20.3% (8.4%). The median hospital stay (length of stay (LOS)) was 11 days (SD=14). The increase in TBSA was related to a longer LOS (pBurn wound infection developed in 44.3% of patients. The presence of inhalation injury was significantly related to mortality (ppatients, 9% recovered completely, 74.9% recovered partially (requiring further treatment), 1% underwent amputation, and 12.8% died. The lack of insurance coverage did not affect the survival of our geriatric burn patients. However, being alone or single, ignition of clothing, cause of burn, comorbid illnesses, complications following the burn, TBSA, age, and sepsis were positively correlated with mortality. The mean cost of treatment for each patient was about $7450.

  19. Uptake and Requirements of Molybdenum and Vanadium in Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria: Implications for the Nitrogen Cycle Now and in the Past. (United States)

    Bellenger, J.; Wichard, T.; Kraepiel, A. M.


    Three nitrogenases (Mo-, V- and Fe-Nase) have thus far been identified. The requirement and use efficiency of those metals are key parameters for the nitrogen cycle. Within present terrestrial ecosystems, the Mo- Nase is considered to be dominant and the so called alternative nitrogenases (V- and Fe-Nase) have heretofore been neglected, likely resulting in misconceptions about the soil nitrogen cycle. Here, I present an overview of recent findings on trace metals speciation in soils and requirements, homeostasis, and uptake of these metals by free-livng nitrogen fixing bacteria. Our data show that Mo in soils associates strongly with organic matter, contrary to the classic view of Mo being associated with iron oxides. We also find that free- living nitrogen fixers, such as Azotobacter vinelandii, acquire both Mo and V through highly regulated uptake systems using released ligands specifically targeting the required metals, similar to that of iron. Finally, our findings demonstrate that nitrogen fixers, e.g. A. vinelandii, use Mo and V to fix nitrogen with close efficiency. This, and recent work showing that Mo may be limiting N2 fixation in a variety of terrestrial systems suggest that the worldwide dominance of Mo-nitrogenase may have been overestimated, and the role of the alternative nitrogenases in present environments deserves more attention. Interestingly, two decades after the identification of the alternative V and Fe nitrogenases, their evolution and exact role in the terrestrial nitrogen cycle over geologic time are still unclear. As crustal V abundance is about 100 times higher than Mo, nitrogen fixers might have benefited throughout geologic time from being able to utilize this additional metal source to sustain nitrogen fixation. A better understanding of the past and present nitrogen cycle is critical to anticipate the possible responses of terrestrial environments to global changes due to recent and future anthropic activities.

  20. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E


    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  1. Management of burn wounds. (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin


    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery.

  2. Burn Wise Awareness Kit (United States)

    Health and safety outreach materials in the form of an awareness kit. Designed specifically for state, local, and tribal air agencies working to reduce wood smoke pollution, it includes best burn tips, social media m

  3. Molten Metal Burns


    Kahn, Arthur M.; McCrady-Kahn, Virginia L.


    Molten metal burns are a frequent industrial injury among workers in foundries. The injury is typically small but very deep. Usually the depth and seriousness of these injuries is not recognized immediately by emergency department or industrial clinic physicians.

  4. New Fashioned Book Burning. (United States)

    Gardner, Robert


    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  5. Psychiatric Assessment and Rehabilitation of Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu


    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation has gained significance owing to improved healthcare facilities for burn injuries and decreased mortality/ morbidity rates. Burn traumas may result in psychiatric signs such as denial, anger, guilt, confusion, disgrace, anxiety, distress, and nervousness. Psychiatric disorders such as delirium, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems can also be encountered. Therefore, it is necessary to look for these signs and disorders through regular sessions with burn patients and appropriate psychometric tests. This study aims at examining the process of psychological rehabilitation for burn patients in light of the current literature. Material and Methods: This study has been carried out in the light of the main and current literature review. The study intends to put forth the data observed in the course of the psychological diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of burn patients. The study has been conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration Guidelines. Results: Treatment and rehabilitation process requires a multidisciplinary teamwork that consists of physicians, dieticians, psychologists, social service specialists, and other healthcare workers who can meet the needs of burn patients and their families. It is necessary for the team to contribute both to the hospitalization process and the social environment of the patients and their families. Conclusion: It is observed that the quality of life of these patients can be considerably improved with the effective assessment of psychiatric signs that occur during or after the injury and with appropriate treatment methods.

  6. A DNA2 Homolog Is Required for DNA Damage Repair, Cell Cycle Regulation, and Meristem Maintenance in Plants. (United States)

    Jia, Ning; Liu, Xiaomin; Gao, Hongbo


    Plant meristem cells divide and differentiate in a spatially and temporally regulated manner, ultimately giving rise to organs. In this study, we isolated the Arabidopsis jing he sheng 1 (jhs1) mutant, which exhibited retarded growth, an abnormal pattern of meristem cell division and differentiation, and morphological defects such as fasciation, an irregular arrangement of siliques, and short roots. We identified JHS1 as a homolog of human and yeast DNA Replication Helicase/Nuclease2, which is known to be involved in DNA replication and damage repair. JHS1 is strongly expressed in the meristem of Arabidopsis. The jhs1 mutant was sensitive to DNA damage stress and had an increased DNA damage response, including increased expression of genes involved in DNA damage repair and cell cycle regulation, and a higher frequency of homologous recombination. In the meristem of the mutant plants, cell cycle progression was delayed at the G2 or late S phase and genes essential for meristem maintenance were misregulated. These results suggest that JHS1 plays an important role in DNA replication and damage repair, meristem maintenance, and development in plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus


    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  8. Evaluation of deriving fire cycle of forested landscape based on time-since-fire distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quan-fa; Kurt S. Pregitzer; JIANG Ming-xi; CHEN Wen-jun


    Estimation of fire cycle has been conducted by using the negative exponential function as an approximation of time-since-fire distribution of a landscape assumed .to be homogeneous with respect to fire spread processes. The authors imposed predefined fire cycles on a virtual landscape of 100 cell ×100 cell, and obtained a mosaic composing of patches with different stand ages (i.e. time since fire). Graphical and statistical methods (Van Wagner 1978; Reed et al. 1998) were employed to derive fire cycle from the virtual landscape. By comparing the predefined and the derived fire cycles, the two methods and tested the effects of sample size and hazard of burning (i.e., stand's susceptibility to fire in relation to its stand age) were evaluated on fire cycle deviation. The simulation results indicated a minimum sample size of 10 times of the annual burnt area would be required for partitioning time-since-fire distribution into homogeneous epochs indicating temporal change in fire cycle. Statistically, there was significant difference among the imposed and the derived fire cycle, regardless of sample sizes with or without consideration of hazard of burning. Both methods underestimated the more recent fire cycle without significant difference between them. The results imply that deviation of fire cycle based on time-since-fire distribution warrants cautious interpretation, especially when a landscape is spatially partitioned into small units and temporal changes in fire cycle are involved.

  9. Burns Caused by Medical Therapy (United States)


    fear of litigation, patients with such injuries, even if the injuries are minor, arc often referred to a burn center for care. Burn injury...the potential burn hazards found elsewhere in the hospital. Even fewer studies have addressed the burn risks posed by medical therapy administered...35. Mills GH, Ralph S). Bums due to pulse oximetry [ letter ]. Anaesthesia 1992j47:276·7. 36. Shdlock: FG, Kana! E. Burns associated with the use of

  10. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.


    An assessment was conducted of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle-related areas, focusing on the nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. As a result of the study, a list of subject areas has been compiled as best representing the current content of an educational program. In addition to identifying subject areas, a set of course descriptions and reference materials has been developed around each subject. Each course description contains information regarding objectives, anticipated audience, and prerequisites and offers a suggested course outline. An initial modest program of implementation is recommended which would continue to concentrate on the Southeast as a target area.

  11. Hemogenic endothelial cell specification requires c-kit, notch signaling, and p27-mediated cell-cycle control (United States)

    Delineating the mechanism or mechanisms that regulate the specification of hemogenic endothelial cells from primordial endothelium is critical for optimizing their derivation from human stem cells for clinical therapies. We previously determined that retinoic acid (RA) is required for hemogenic spec...

  12. Ezh1 is required for hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and prevents senescence-like cell cycle arrest. (United States)

    Hidalgo, Isabel; Herrera-Merchan, Antonio; Ligos, Jose Manuel; Carramolino, Laura; Nuñez, Javier; Martinez, Fernando; Dominguez, Orlando; Torres, Miguel; Gonzalez, Susana


    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key epigenetic regulators of hematopietic stem cell (HSC) fate. The PcG members Ezh2 and Ezh1 are important determinants of embryonic stem cell identity, and the transcript levels of these histone methyltransferases are inversely correlated during development. However, the role of Ezh1 in somatic stem cells is largely unknown. Here we show that Ezh1 maintains repopulating HSCs in a slow-cycling, undifferentiated state, protecting them from senescence. Ezh1 ablation induces significant loss of adult HSCs, with concomitant impairment of their self-renewal capacity due to a potent senescence response. Epigenomic and gene expression changes induced by Ezh1 deletion in senesced HSCs demonstrated that Ezh1-mediated PRC2 activity catalyzes monomethylation and dimethylation of H3K27. Deletion of Cdkn2a on the Ezh1 null background rescued HSC proliferation and survival. Our results suggest that Ezh1 is an important histone methyltransferase for HSC maintenance.

  13. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P


    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  14. Harborview Burns – 1974 to 2009 (United States)

    Engrav, Loren H.; Heimbach, David M.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Osler, Turner; Pham, Tam N.; Sharar, Sam R.; Esselman, Peter C.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Carrougher, Gretchen J.; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S.


    Background Burn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during a 36-year period (1974–2009) at the Harborview Burn Center in Seattle, WA, USA. Methods and Findings 14,266 consecutive admissions were analyzed in five-year periods and many parameters compared to the National Burn Repository. Fluid resuscitation was compared in five-year periods from 1974 to 2009. Mortality was modeled with the rBaux model. Many changes are highlighted at the end of the manuscript including 1) the large increase in numbers of total and short-stay admissions, 2) the decline in numbers of large burn injuries, 3) that unadjusted case fatality declined to the mid-1980s but has changed little during the past two decades, 4) that race/ethnicity and payer status disparity exists, and 5) that the trajectory to death changed with fewer deaths occurring after seven days post-injury. Administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula during resuscitation of uncomplicated injuries was evident at least by the early 1990s and has continued to the present; the cause is likely multifactorial but pre-hospital fluids, prophylactic tracheal intubation and opioids may be involved. Conclusions 1) The dramatic changes include the rise in short-stay admissions; as a result, the model of burn care practiced since the 1970s is still required but is no longer sufficient. 2) Fluid administration in excess of the Baxter formula with uncomplicated injuries began at least two decades ago. 3) Unadjusted case fatality declined to ∼6% in the mid-1980s and changed little since then. The rBaux mortality model is quite accurate. PMID:22792216

  15. Bacteriological profile of burn patients at Yekatit 12 Hospital Burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    injuries, creating a formidable public health problem. (3). Despite major ... change with time. Thus, to have an in-depth knowledge .... Table 4: Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from burn wound at Yekatit 12 hospital burn center.

  16. Firefighter burn injuries: predictable patterns influenced by turnout gear. (United States)

    Kahn, Steven A; Patel, Jignesh H; Lentz, Christopher W; Bell, Derek E


    Approximately 100 firefighters suffer fatal injuries annually and tens of thousands receive nonfatal injuries. Many of these injuries require medical attention and restricted activity but may be preventable. This study was designed to elucidate etiology, circumstances, and patterns of firefighter burn injury so that further prevention strategies can be designed. In particular, modification of protective equipment, or turnout gear, is one potential strategy to prevent burn injury. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was conducted with records of firefighters treated for burn injury from 2005 to 2009. Data collected included age, gender, TBSA, burn depth, anatomic location, total hospital days per patient, etiology, and circumstances of injury. Circumstances of injury were stratified into the following categories: removal/dislodging of equipment, failure of equipment to protect, training errors, and when excessive external temperatures caused patient sweat to boil under the gear. Over the 4-year period, 20 firefighters were treated for burn injury. Mean age was 38.9 ± 8.9 years and 19 of 20 patients were male. Mean burn size was 1.1 ± 2.7% TBSA. Eighteen patients suffered second-degree burns, while two patients suffered first-degree burns. Mean length of hospitalization was 2.45 days. Scald burns were responsible for injury to 13 firefighters (65%). Flame burns caused injury to four patients (20%). Only three patients received contact burns (15%). The face was the site most commonly burned, representing 29% of injuries. The hand/wrist and ears were the next largest groups, with 23 and 16% of the injuries, respectively. Other areas burned included the neck (10%), arm (6.5%), leg (6.5%), knees (3%), shoulders (3%), and head (3%). Finally, the circumstance of injury was evaluated for each patient. Misuse and noncontiguous areas of protective equipment accounted for 14 of the 20 injuries (70%). These burns were caused when hot steam

  17. Paediatric ICU burns in Finland 1994-2004. (United States)

    Papp, Anthony; Rytkönen, Tanja; Koljonen, Virve; Vuola, Jyrki


    The paediatric burn population requiring intensive care in Finland has never been examined before. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the aetiology, incidence and prognosis of paediatric burns requiring intensive care in Finland and secondly to compare the possible differences between the two national burn centres. All burn patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed in two national burn centres from an 11-year-period. Patients whose ICU stay was more than 48h, were included. Forty-five children who were hospitalized in the two burn centres during the study period met the inclusion criteria. They represent 2.4% (45/1898) of all burns victims hospitalized in these burn centres during that time giving an incidence of 0.1/100,000 per year in Finland. The median age was 5 years, every third patient was 0-2 years old and 75.6% were male. Most burns were scalds (42.2%), which caused all burns (100%) in age group 0-2 years. Flame burns were most frequent (83%) in the age group 6-10 years. In the 11-16 years old patients, high voltage/electric burns caused 50% of all burns and flame the other 50%. The overall median TBSA in all burns was 26%. The median (range) hospital stay was 12 days (2-193) (0.88 days/% burned) and the median (range) ICU days was 7 (2-64) (0.29 days/%). Intubation and respirator therapy was needed in 31 (46%) patients. There were no patients who needed haemofiltration or haemodialysis and no mortality. Only six patients (13%) were treated conservatively and 39 (87%) surgically. Dressing changes under general anaesthesia were preferred in Helsinki (37 times) and especially in the paediatric hospital (32 times) compared to Kuopio (7 times). Allografts were used only in Helsinki in 4 patients whereas artificial skin was used only in Kuopio in 15 patients. The overall cost of care was very similar in both centres being 1292-1425 euros per hospital day. There were some small differences between the two burn centres in treatment policies. Most

  18. A mechanism regulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling that requires cycles of protein palmitoylation and depalmitoylation. (United States)

    Jia, Lixia; Chisari, Mariangela; Maktabi, Mohammad H; Sobieski, Courtney; Zhou, Hao; Konopko, Aaron M; Martin, Brent R; Mennerick, Steven J; Blumer, Kendall J


    Reversible attachment and removal of palmitate or other long-chain fatty acids on proteins has been hypothesized, like phosphorylation, to control diverse biological processes. Indeed, palmitate turnover regulates Ras trafficking and signaling. Beyond this example, however, the functions of palmitate turnover on specific proteins remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a mechanism regulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling in neuronal cells requires palmitate turnover. We used hexadecyl fluorophosphonate or palmostatin B to inhibit enzymes in the serine hydrolase family that depalmitoylate proteins, and we studied R7 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-binding protein (R7BP), a palmitoylated allosteric modulator of R7 RGS proteins that accelerate deactivation of Gi/o class G proteins. Depalmitoylation inhibition caused R7BP to redistribute from the plasma membrane to endomembrane compartments, dissociated R7BP-bound R7 RGS complexes from Gi/o-gated G protein-regulated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels and delayed GIRK channel closure. In contrast, targeting R7BP to the plasma membrane with a polybasic domain and an irreversibly attached lipid instead of palmitate rendered GIRK channel closure insensitive to depalmitoylation inhibitors. Palmitate turnover therefore is required for localizing R7BP to the plasma membrane and facilitating Gi/o deactivation by R7 RGS proteins on GIRK channels. Our findings broaden the scope of biological processes regulated by palmitate turnover on specific target proteins. Inhibiting R7BP depalmitoylation may provide a means of enhancing GIRK activity in neurological disorders.

  19. Gold standards for primary care of burn management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Zor


    Full Text Available Every year, about 2.5 million people are affected from burns in the world. In our country there is no reliable database related to this subject. There are ongoing studies about the epidemiology of burns in Turkey. After burn injury had represent many various complications, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac deficiency, acute hypertension, endocarditis, thromboembolism, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, respiratuar failure, renal failure, gastric ulcus, ileus, sepsis, coagulopathy and anemia. Such complications can preventable or treatable. In this respect, preventive management in the first step burn treatment had very importantly in burn cases. Skin is a barrier which protects evaporative heat loss. In cases of acute burn, hypothermia occurs related to skin loss. For these cases, care must be taken to keep the patient warm. In addition fluid resuscitation is very important in these cases. Furthermore, the damaged tissues are highly susceptible to infection in burned patients. Burn care and rehabilitation includes challenging and complex procedures. Briefly, treatments of burn cases require a multidisciplinary and meticulous approach.

  20. Burns in Turkish children and adolescents: nine years of experience. (United States)

    Sakallioğlu, A E; Başaran, O; Tarim, A; Türk, E; Kut, A; Haberal, M


    The aim of this study was to describe information about burns that occur in children and adolescents in Turkey. The subjects were 362 patients whom were younger than 18 years who were treated at 3 burn centers in 2 different regions of Turkey between 1997 and 2005. The data collected for each case were age, gender, place of residence, cause and extent of burn, body sites affected, environment in which the injury occurred, interval from injury to arrival at a burn center, hospitalization status (inpatient versus outpatient), surgical treatment, and mortality. The 362 patients comprised 35.5% of all 1021 burn victims admitted during the study period. There were 183 boys and 179 girls (ratio 1:0.98) and the mean total body surface area burned was 17.7+/-16.5%. The highest proportion of patients were in the 1-6 years age group. Non-bath (not immersed) hot water scalding (216 cases, 59.7%) was the leading burn cause. The most common environment in which burn injury occurred was the home. The trunk was the body site most frequently affected (62.7%). 241 (66.6%) subjects lived in urban environments and 121 (33.4%) lived in rural areas. 171 patients (47.2%) were taken directly to the burn units, whereas the others (52.8%) were referred from other medical centers. 124 (34.3%) subjects were treated as outpatients and 238 (65.7%) were hospitalized. The overall mortality rate was 8.6% (31 deaths). Of the 238 inpatients, 92 (38.7%) were treated with daily dressings only, 128 (53.8%) required debridement, and 75 (31.5%) needed both debridement and grafting. Every country needs a nationwide public education system that is aimed at preventing burns and ensuring that burn victims receive proper first aid and age-appropriate, specialized burn care.

  1. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D


    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  2. Thermoregulation in burn patients during exercise. (United States)

    Austin, K G; Hansbrough, J F; Dore, C; Noordenbos, J; Buono, M J


    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of patients with burns on 30 to 40% and 60% or greater of their BSA to thermoregulate their core temperature during exercise in the heat. Two groups (n = 3 in each) of subjects with healed third-degree burns (34.0 +/- 1.4% and 77.7 +/- 12.4%, respectively) and a group of unburned subjects (n = 2) exercised for 1 hour on a cycle ergometer at 75 Watts in an environmental chamber set at 35 degrees C and 60% relative humidity. Subjects were monitored for rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, whole body sweat rate, skin blood flow, and active sweat gland density (number per cm ) in unburned, burned, and harvested skin. The results demonstrated that patients with burns on 60% or greater BSA did not show an intolerance to moderate exercise in the heat, as evidenced by only a moderate rise in rectal temperature and heart rate. Furthermore, the responses were similar to those of the unburned subjects.

  3. Spontaneous Healing and Treatment Alternatives in Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bozkurt


    Full Text Available Tissue losses that may occur in certain burn wounds may heal spontaneously without requiring any surgical intervention. However, this spontaneous healing is usually observed in smaller and superficial burn wounds, whereas surgical intervention may be indispensable in the tissue damages that occur in deeper and larger-scale burns treated using classical methods. Although surgery is frequently applied in the treatment of burn wounds, the variety of methods that enhance spontaneous healing are increasing in number. For this purpose, these methods involve the prevention of the wound from drying and maintaining a physiological and aseptic moisturization. On the other hand, especially in burn wounds with extensive tissue loss, the lack of adequate skin donor areas gives rise to the need for a cover material alternative to the skin. For these reasons, efforts to develop equivalent materials that may replace the original skin are progressing rapidly nowadays. The increase in the variety and advantages of the materials, which are developed using state-of-the-art bioengineering methods in the light of modern technologies, is quite promising. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(3.000: 186-196

  4. Back Bay Wilderness burning support (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum concerning prescribed burns between members of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It states that burning should be supported...

  5. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors (United States)

    ... Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery community and creating resources for survivors. Since 1977, we have partnered with survivors, families, health care professionals, burn centers, and the fire ...

  6. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M


    .... We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond...

  7. Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dignon, J.


    Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout much of the history of our plant. This report addresses the coupled evolution of our planet`s atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate.

  8. ARC System fuel cycle analysis capability, REBUS-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosteny, R.P.


    A detailed description is given of the ARC System fuel cycle modules FCI001, FCC001, FCC002, and FCC003 which form the fuel cycle analysis modules of the ARC System. These modules, in conjunction with certain other modules of the ARC System previously described in documents of this series, form the fuel cycle analysis system called REBUS-2. The physical model upon which the REBUS-2 fuel cycle modules are based and the calculational approach used in solving this model are discussed in detail. The REBUS-2 system either solves for the infinite time (i.e., equilibrium) operating conditions of a fuel recycle system under fixed fuel management conditions, or solves for the operating conditions during each of a series of explicitly specified (i.e., nonequilibrium) sequence of burn cycles. The code has the capability to adjust the fuel enrichment, the burn time, and the control poison requirements in order to satisfy user specified constraints on criticality, discharge fuel burnup, or to give the desired multiplication constant at some specified time during the reactor operation.

  9. The year in burns 2008. (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E


    For 2008, approximately 1200 original burn research articles were published in scientific journals using the English language. This article reviews those with the most impact on burn treatment according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns). As in the previous year's review, articles were divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology, wound characterisation, critical care physiology, inhalation injury, infection, metabolism and nutrition, psychological considerations, pain management, rehabilitation, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.

  10. TIRES, OPEN BURNING (United States)

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  11. Chemical burn or reaction (United States)

    ... this page: // Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective Endotoxin as the inciting agentof cytokines and other mediators, whose highlevel expression correlates with the septicshock and MOF, has been the one of leadingcauses of death in ICU. Methods For treatingsepsis and MOF caused by endotoxin, the anti-lipid A of LPS antibody was used. 19 burned

  13. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.


    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  14. Modern management of paediatric burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2010 ... Jackson's. 3-dimensional burn wound model describes 3 zones: • a central zone ... the burn.7 Care must be taken not to induce hypothermia in larger burns – especially in .... Fluid therapy thereafter consists of 2 components ...

  15. An epidemiological study of 1063 hospitalized burn patients in a tertiary burns centre in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Ho, W S; Ying, S Y


    A total of 1063 acute burn patients were admitted to the Burns Unit of Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong between March 1993 and February 1999. There were 678 males and 385 females with a male to female ratio of 1.76:1. The median age was 13.1 year-old and the median burn size was 6% total body surface area (TBSA). Pediatric patients under the age of 15 year-old accounted for 550 (51.7%) admissions and 235 (42.7%) of them were toddlers patients of age above 15 year-old accounted for the other 513 (48.3%) admissions. There was no seasonal variation in admission. Domestic burns resulted in 756 (71.1%) injuries followed by industrial burns that caused 175 (16.5%) admissions. The median hospital stay was 9 days and 54 patients (5.1%) had inhalation injury requiring intubation and ventilatory support. Twenty-four patients died in this series which yielded a mortality rate of 2.3%. The median age for this mortality group was 46.6 year-olds with a median extent of burns of 68% TBSA. There were 16 males and 8 females with a male to female ratio of 2:1. Eighteen (75%) patients had flame burns and 15 (83.3%) of them had inhalation injury. The mortality group had significantly larger burn size (P<0.001), higher incidence of inhalation injury (P<0.001) and older age (P<0.001) compared to the survivors.

  16. Effect of water table variations and input of natural organic matter on the cycles of C and N, and mobility of As, Zn and Cu from a soil impacted by the burning of chemical warfare agents: A mesocosm study. (United States)

    Thouin, Hugues; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Gautret, Pascale; Le Forestier, Lydie; Breeze, Dominique; Séby, Fabienne; Norini, Marie-Paule; Dupraz, Sebastien


    A mesocosm study was conducted to assess the impact of water saturation episodes and of the input of bioavailable organic matter on the biogeochemical cycles of C and N, and on the behavior of metal(loid)s in a soil highly contaminated by the destruction of arsenical shells. An instrumented mesocosm was filled with contaminated soil taken from the "Place-à-Gaz" site. Four cycles of dry and wet periods of about one month were simulated for 276days. After two dry/wet cycles, organic litter sampled on the site was added above the topsoil. The nitrogen cycle was the most impacted by the wet/dry cycles, as evidenced by a denitrification microbial process in the saturated level. The concentrations of the two most mobile pollutants, Zn and As, in the soil water and in the mesocosm leachate were, respectively, in the 0.3-1.6mM and 20-110μM ranges. After 8months of experiment, about 83g·m(-3) of Zn and 3.5g·m(-3) of As were leached from the soil. These important quantities represent cycles had no major effect on Zn mobility. However, soil saturation induced the immobilization of As by trapping As V but enhanced As III mobility. These phenomena were amplified by the presence of bioavailable organic matter. The study showed that the natural deposition of forest organic litter allowed a part of the soil's biological function to be restored but did not immobilize all the Zn and As, and even contributed to transport of As III to the surrounding environment. The main hazard of this type of site, contaminated by organo-arsenic chemical weapons, is the constitution of a stock of As that may leach into the surrounding environment for several hundred years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerodigestive Tract Burn from Ingestion of Microwaved Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Silberman


    Full Text Available Aerodigestive tract burns represent a rare but potentially devastating injury pattern throughout the world. Although the majority of these injuries do not require intervention, these burns have the potential for poor outcomes. Traditionally this disease has been caused by superheated gases found in explosions or fire-related injury. However, as technology advances, it brings novel methods for injury that require physician awareness of potential hazards. We describe a case of laryngeal and esophageal thermal burn caused by a microwave heated food bolus.

  18. Moisture effects on carbon and nitrogen emission from burning of wildland biomass


    L.-W. A. Chen; Verburg, P.; A. Shackelford; Zhu, D.; R. Susfalk; Chow, J. C.; J. G. Watson


    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) released from biomass burning have multiple effects on the Earth's biogeochemical cycle, climate change, and ecosystem. These effects depend on the relative abundances of C and N species emitted, which vary with fuel type and combustion conditions. This study systematically investigates the emission characteristics of biomass burning under different fuel moisture contents, through controlled burning experiments with biomass and soil samples collected from a typical...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopez-Hernandez


    Full Text Available The annual harvest of sugarcane plantations together with the burning of the crop before harvest, a common practice of management of sugarcane plantations in South America, leads to the loss of significant amounts of nutrients in those agroecosystems. Thus prescribed burning operations could progressively diminish the level of soil organic matter and increase nutrient deficiency in soils of sugar cane agrosystems. This study is an attempt to quantify the P distribution during the period of growth in a plantation of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum located near San Felipe, Yaracuy State, Central, Venezuela focusing on processes related to the cycling of the element as affected by burning operations. The work was performed in 4.5 ha experimental plots planted with the varieties Puerto Rico (PR 1028 and Venezuela (V 58-4. The principal flows of phosphorus, as well the quantities of this element in the soil-plant components were measured throughout the growing cycle of the crop (third ratoon. The inputs through precipitation (wet and dry were high, that was associated with the intense agricultural (prescribed burning and industrial activities occurring in the area. The annual balance for both varieties was negative (-17.31 and -23.63 kg ha–1 for V 58-4 and PR 1028, respectively. The negative budget is mainly due to the important amounts of P that are exported with the cane stems. The losses must be compensated through fertilization; nonetheless, preliminary results indicated no response to P dressing, suggesting that in the studied mollisols the internal processes e.g., Organic-P (Po mineralization and P solubilization efficiently operate generating important available P levels. It was also found that the burning of the sugar cane plantation plays an important role in the recycling of phosphorus, since 25-28 % of the P requirements of the varieties are reincorporated into the soil from the ashes coming as bulk deposition.

  20. Transuranic Waste Burning Potential of Thorium Fuel in a Fast Reactor - 12423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenner, Michael; Franceschini, Fausto; Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC,Cranberry Township, PA, 16066 (United States); Sartori, Alberto; Ricotti, Marco [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)


    Westinghouse Electric Company (referred to as 'Westinghouse' in the rest of this paper) is proposing a 'back-to-front' approach to overcome the stalemate on nuclear waste management in the US. In this approach, requirements to further the societal acceptance of nuclear waste are such that the ultimate health hazard resulting from the waste package is 'as low as reasonably achievable'. Societal acceptability of nuclear waste can be enhanced by reducing the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste, which is currently driven primarily by the protracted radiotoxicity of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Therefore, a transition to a more benign radioactive waste can be accomplished by a fuel cycle capable of consuming the stockpile of TRU 'legacy' waste contained in the LWR Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) while generating waste which is significantly less radio-toxic than that produced by the current open U-based fuel cycle (once through and variations thereof). Investigation of a fast reactor (FR) operating on a thorium-based fuel cycle, as opposed to the traditional uranium-based is performed. Due to a combination between its neutronic properties and its low position in the actinide chain, thorium not only burns the legacy TRU waste, but it does so with a minimal production of 'new' TRUs. The effectiveness of a thorium-based fast reactor to burn legacy TRU and its flexibility to incorporate various fuels and recycle schemes according to the evolving needs of the transmutation scenario have been investigated. Specifically, the potential for a high TRU burning rate, high U-233 generation rate if so desired and low concurrent production of TRU have been used as metrics for the examined cycles. Core physics simulations of a fast reactor core running on thorium-based fuels and burning an external TRU feed supply have been carried out over multiple cycles of irradiation, separation and reprocessing. The TRU burning capability as well as

  1. The year in burns 2011. (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Arnoldo, Brett D


    For 2011, approximately 1746 original research articles in burns were published in English in scientific journals. This article reviews those with the most potential impact on for burn therapeutics and outcomes according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and his colleague. As done previously, articles were found and divided into these topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterisation, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.

  2. Prehospital cooling of severe burns: Experience of the Emergency Department at Edendale Hospital, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. (United States)

    Fiandeiro, D; Govindsamy, J; Maharaj, R C


    Early cooling with 10 - 20 minutes of cool running water up to 3 hours after a burn has a direct impact on the depth of the burn and therefore on the clinical outcome of the injury. An assessment of the early cooling of burns is essential to improve this aspect of burns management. To assess the rates and adequacy of prehospital cooling received by patients with severe burns before presentation to the Emergency Department (ED) at Edendale Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Patients with inadequate prehospital cooling who presented to the ED within 3 hours were also identified. A retrospective reviewof the burns database for all the patients with severe burns admitted from the ED at Edendale Hospital from September 2012 to August 2013 was undertaken. Demographic details, characteristics and timing of the burns, and presentation were correlated with burn cooling. Ninety patients were admitted with severe burns. None received sufficient cooling of their burns, 25.6% received cooling of inadequate duration, and 32.3% arrived at the ED within 3 hours after the burn with either inadequate or no cooling. The median time to presentation to the ED after the burn was 260 minutes. Appropriate cooling of severe burns presenting to Edendale Hospital is inadequate. Education of the community and prehospital healthcare workers about the iiportance of early appropriate cooling of severe burns is required. Many patients would benefit from cooling of their burns in the ED, and facilities should be provided for this vital function.

  3. CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement analysis of power plant using modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.J.; Zhao, C.S.; Chen, H.C.; Ren, Q.Q.; Duan, L.B. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment


    This paper examines the average carbonation conversion, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture system during the modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle. The limestone modified with acetic acid solution, i.e. calcium acetate is taken as an example of the modified calcium-based sorbents. The modified limestone exhibits much higher average carbonation conversion than the natural sorbent under the same condition. The CO{sub 2} capture efficiency increases with the sorbent flow ratios. Compared with the natural limestone, much less makeup mass flow of the recycled and the fresh sorbent is needed for the system when using the modified limestone at the same CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. Achieving 0.95 of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency without sulfation, 272 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} is required in the calciner for the natural limestone, whereas only 223 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} for the modified sorbent. The modified limestone possesses greater advantages in CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy consumption than the natural sorbent. When the sulfation and carbonation of the sorbents take place simultaneously, more energy is required. It is significantly necessary to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas before it enters the carbonator in order to reduce energy consumption in the calciner.

  4. [Reconstruction of the ear in the burns patient]. (United States)

    Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl


    Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology of burns in Lithuania during 1991-2004. (United States)

    Rimdeika, Rytis; Kazanavicius, Mindaugas; Kubilius, Darius


    The objective of this article is to overview and present the burn incidence and burn care in Lithuania. In this study, data from the period of 1991-2004 were collected from the Lithuanian Department of Statistics, Department of Fire and Rescue, Lithuanian Health Information Center, State Patient Fund, health care institutions, burn care facilities. In the 14-year period, 9459 persons per year (2.6/1000 population) in average sustained burn injuries. The majority of burned patients (74.8%) were adults and 25.2% were children; 21.5% of all burned patients were hospitalized (2013 inpatients per year). The number of hospitalizations per 100 000 individuals has decreased from 65.6 to 39.5, but it is still very high and worrying. Among all the patients admitted to hospitals, 67% were males and 33% females, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. The length of hospitalization decreased from 16.2 to 12.7 days. The number of fire-related deaths for the 14-year period was 289 deaths per year (8 per 100 000 persons). The number of deaths among inpatients was 63.6 deaths per year, the age being an important factor in mortality rates. Although the mortality of inpatients has increased in recent years, the mortality in the age group up to 14 years has decreased to 0. Children made up 24.6% of burn patients; among those admitted to hospital, they accounted for 41.1%. Mortality rates for males and females were almost the same. The number of burns is decreasing. The hospitalization rate and hospitalization time are becoming shorter. In the last few years, patients suffer from more severe burns, while children sustain more severe burns requiring hospitalization. Children and working-age persons make up 91.9% of hospitalized burn patients. Number of deaths in fire accidents is increasing.

  6. Bushfire disaster burn casualty management: the Australian "Black Saturday" bushfire experience. (United States)

    Seifman, Marc; Ek, Edmund W; Menezes, Hana; Rozen, Warren M; Whitaker, Iain S; Cleland, Heather J


    Mass burn disasters are among the most difficult disasters to manage, with major burns requiring complex management in a multidisciplinary setting and specialist burns services having limited capacity to deal with large numbers of complex patients. There is a paucity of literature addressing health system responses to mass burn disasters resulting from wildfires, with the events of the "Black Saturday" disaster in the state of Victoria, Australia, able to provide a unique opportunity to draw lessons and increase awareness of key management issues arising in mass burn casualty disasters. The event comprised the worst natural disaster in the state's history and one of the worst wildfire disasters in world history, claiming 173 lives and costing more than AUD 4 billion. This article draws on the national burns disaster plan instituted, Australian Mass Casualty Burn Disaster Plan (AUSBURNPLAN), and details the management of mass burn cases through a systems-based perspective.

  7. Surgical wound debridement sequentially characterized in a porcine burn model with multispectral imaging. (United States)

    King, Darlene R; Li, Weizhi; Squiers, John J; Mohan, Rachit; Sellke, Eric; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E


    Multispectral imaging (MSI) is an optical technique that measures specific wavelengths of light reflected from wound site tissue to determine the severity of burn wounds. A rapid MSI device to measure burn depth and guide debridement will improve clinical decision making and diagnoses. We used a porcine burn model to study partial thickness burns of varying severity. We made eight 4 × 4 cm burns on the dorsum of one minipig. Four burns were studied intact, and four burns underwent serial tangential excision. We imaged the burn sites with 400-1000 nm wavelengths. Histology confirmed that we achieved various partial thickness burns. Analysis of spectral images show that MSI detects significant variations in the spectral profiles of healthy tissue, superficial partial thickness burns, and deep partial thickness burns. The absorbance spectra of 515, 542, 629, and 669 nm were the most accurate in distinguishing superficial from deep partial thickness burns, while the absorbance spectra of 972 nm was the most accurate in guiding the debridement process. The ability to distinguish between partial thickness burns of varying severity to assess whether a patient requires surgery could be improved with an MSI device in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. An Epidemiologic Survey on Burns in Yazd from 2008 till 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Delbari


    Full Text Available Burns are injuries which may require long hospitalization and may result in important impairment and disability. Burn injuries are still common especially in developing countries. Assessment of the epidemiology of burns is very important for introduction of preventive methods. This study was conducted in Yazd to assess and describe the epidemiology of burns including its main causes, and its demographics. In a prospective study during a 1 year period, we assessed the epidemiology of burns in Shahid Sadoughi Burns hospital in Yazd. During this period, 1947 injured patients referred to this hospital. Data were gathered using a questionnaire about demographics and the properties of the burn injury. Burns were more frequent among men than women. A significant number of patients were children. 8.8% of patients needed hospitalization. Thermal burns were much more common than other types. Scalds were the most common cause of burn, and hands were the body region most commonly affected. Mean total body surface area burned (TBSA was 6.16% (±9.93. This study showed a high incidence of burn injuries at home and in the workplace. The burns were mostly preventive and many of them can be prevented by education.

  9. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging. (United States)

    Krezdorn, N; Limbourg, A; Paprottka, F J; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R; Vogt, P M


    Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours.

  10. [Hydrofluoric acid burns]. (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S


    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  11. [Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)]. (United States)


    Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms.

  12. Deployment and operation of a transportable burn intensive care unit in response to a burn multiple casualty incident. (United States)

    Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Stack, Richard S; Carr, Shamus R; Broger, Kristine P; Crews, David M; Renz, Evan M; Blackbourne, Lorne H


    In many hospitals, intensive care units (ICUs) operate at or above capacity on a daily basis. Multiple casualty incidents will create a sudden need for additional ICU beds and hospital planning for disaster response must anticipate the need for rapid ICU expansion. In this article, the authors describe the management of 6 patients who were burned in Guam and successfully transported a distance of 7,268 miles to San Antonio, TX, for tertiary burn center care. The mission required creation of a temporary burn ICU at Tripler Army Medical Center in Hawaii, approximately midway between the referring hospital and the receiving burn center. A method of creating a temporary burn center is described. Lessons learned, including the need to standardize equipment, and to cross-train and cross-credential medical personnel, are applicable to both military and civilian mass casualty management.

  13. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani


    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  14. Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dignon, J.


    Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout most of the history of our planet. Ice core studies have been very beneficial in paleoclimate studies and constraining the budgets of biogeochemical cycles through the past 160,000 years of the Vostok ice core. Although to date there has been no way of determining cause and effect, concentration of greenhouse gases directly correlates with temperature in ice core analyses. Recent ice core studies on Greenland have shown that significant climate change can be very rapid on the order of a decade. This chapter addresses the coupled evolution of our planet`s atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate.

  15. A ten-year review of lower extremity burns in diabetics: small burns that lead to major problems. (United States)

    Barsun, Alura; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G


    Diabetes mellitus with its resulting neurovascular changes may lead to an increased risk of burns and impaired wound healing. The purpose of this article is to review 10 years of experience with foot and lower leg burns in patients with diabetes at a single adult burn center. Patients with lower extremity burns and diabetes mellitus, between May 1999 and December 2009, were identified in the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons database, and their charts were reviewed for data related to their outcomes. Sixty-eight diabetic patients, 87% male, with a mean age of 54 years, sustained foot or lower extremity burns with 37 having burns resulting from insensate feet. The pathogenesis included walking on a hot or very cold surface (8), soaking feet in hot water (22), warming feet on or near something hot such as a heater (13), or spilling hot water (7). The majority of patients were taking insulin (59.6%) or oral hyperglycemic medications (34.6%). Blood sugar levels were not well controlled (mean glucose, 215.8 mg/dl; mean hemoglobin A1c, 9.08%). Renal disease was common with admission serum blood urea nitrogen (27.5 mg/dl) and creatinine (2.21 mg/dl), and 13 were on dialysis preinjury. Cardiovascular problems were common with 39 (57%) having hypertension or cardiac disease, 3 having peripheral vascular disease, and 9, previous amputations. The mean burn size was 4.2% TBSA (range, 0.5-15%) with 57% being full thickness. Despite the small burn, the mean length of stay was 15.2 days (range, 1-95), with 5.65 days per 1% TBSA. Inability to heal these wounds was evident in 19 patients requiring readmission (one required 10 operative procedures). At least one patient sustained more than one burn. There were 62 complications with 30 episodes of infection (cellulitis, 28; osteomyelitis, 4; deep plantar infections, 2; ruptured Achilles tendon, 1) and 3 deaths. Eleven patients needed amputations (7 below-knee amputations, 4 transmetatarsal amputations, and 20 toe

  16. New Perspectives on African Biomass Burning Dynamics (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth; Wooster, Martin J.


    Biomass burning is a key Earth system process and, in particular a major element of the terrestrial carbon cycle and a globally significant source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Smoke emitted during combustion affects air quality, atmospheric chemical composition, and Earth's radiation budget [Le Canut et al., 1996]. In terms of carbon emissions, vegetation fires are, globally and on average, believed to generate emissions equivalent to between perhaps one third and one half of those from fossil fuel combustion, and savanna fires are responsible for around 50% of the global vegetation fire carbon release [Williams et al., 2007].

  17. ED handles 30 burn patients after plant fire and explosion in Georgia. (United States)


    Dealing with a mass casualty event involving a high number of burn victims requires strategic use of ED resources. The ED at Memorial University Medical Center in Savannah, GA, was praised by the receiving burn center for the care it gave victims of a recent plant disaster. Here are some of their key strategies: After making your primary concern the patient's airway, turn to fluid resuscitation and pain management. Be certain burn victims are placed in warm rooms and are covered with blankets. Have a pre-plan with a regional burn center, then establish contact with that center in multiple-burn patient incidents.

  18. Full thickness burn caused by exposure to giant hogweed: delayed presentation, histological features and surgical management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y


    We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with a full thickness chemical burn on his right pretibial area due to phytophotodermatitis (PPD) following contact with giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum). Although cutaneous burns due to plants are a well-established cause of chemical burn, previous reports described partial thickness burns that healed with conservative measures. This patient presented to our unit two weeks after the initial injury with an established full thickness burn. Debridement and split thickness skin grafting was required. We presented the histological features of the debrided skin specimen and discussed potential factors leading to this unexpected full thickness injury.

  19. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update. (United States)

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride.

  20. Hydrocolloid dressing in pediatric burns may decrease operative intervention rates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Fiachra T


    Partial-thickness scalds are the most common pediatric burn injury, and primary management consists of wound dressings to optimize the environment for reepithelialization. Operative intervention is reserved for burns that fail to heal using conservative methods. Worldwide, paraffin-based gauze (Jelonet) is the most common burn dressing; but literature suggests that it adheres to wounds and requires more frequent dressing change that may traumatize newly epithelialized surfaces. Hydrocolloid dressings (DuoDERM) provide an occlusive moist environment to optimize healing and are associated with less frequent dressing changes.

  1. [The organization of burn care]. (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques


    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  2. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N


    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn

  3. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  4. The burn wound inflammatory response is influenced by midazolam. (United States)

    Babcock, George F; Hernandez, Laura; Yadav, Ekta; Schwemberger, Sandy; Dugan, Amy


    Burn patients requiring hospitalization are often treated for anxiety with benzodiazepines (BDZs). Benzodiazepines are reported to influence immune system function. Immune system alterations are a major cause of burn-induced mortality. We wanted to determine whether the BDZ, midazolam given daily at an anxiolytic dose, had any influence on the burn injury-induced inflammatory response in the blood and wound. Mice received a 15% total body surface area flame burn and received either midazolam 1 mg/kg i.p. or saline 0.1 ml daily. Blood and skin wounds were harvested 24 h after injection on post-burn day 2, 3, 7, or 8. Mice treated with midazolam had significantly lower serum IL-1β (p=0.002), TNF-α (p=0.002), IL-6 (p=0.016), IL-10 (p=0.009), and TGF-β (p=0.004) than saline-treated mice, with little impact on serum chemokine levels. In the wound, TNF-α and IL-10 were the only cytokines significantly influenced by the drug, being lower (p=0.018) and higher (p=0.006), respectively. The chemokines in the wound influenced significantly by midazolam were MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MIP-2 while MCP-1 and KC were not. There were more inflammatory cells at the burn wound margin in midazolam-treated mice on post-burn day 3. Although serum nitrate/nitrite was significantly increased by midazolam (p=0.03), both eNOS and iNOS mRNA expression in the wound were similar to the saline group. We found that midazolam given daily after burn injury significantly influenced the inflammatory response. The clinical implications of these findings on wound healing and shock following burn injury, especially larger burns, deserve further investigation.

  5. Does fire severity influence shrub resprouting after spring prescribed burning? (United States)

    Fernández, Cristina; Vega, José A.; Fonturbel, Teresa


    Prescribed burning is commonly used to reduce the risk of severe wildfire. However, further information about the associated environmental effects is required to help forest managers select the most appropriate treatment. To address this question, we evaluated if fire severity during spring prescribed burning significantly affects the resprouting ability of two common shrub species in shrubland under a Mediterranean climate in NW Spain. Fire behaviour and temperatures were recorded in tagged individuals of Erica australis and Pterospartum tridentatum during prescribed burning. The number and length of resprouted shoots were measured three times (6, 12 and 18 months) after the prescribed burning. The influence of a series of fire severity indicators on some plant resprouting vigour parameters was tested by canonical correlation analysis. Six months and one year after prescribed burning, soil burn severity (measured by the absolute reduction in depth of the organic soil layer, maximum temperatures in the organic soil layer and the mineral soil surface during burning and the post-fire depth of the organic soil layer) reduced the resprouting vigour of E. australis and P. tridentatum. In contrast, direct measurements of fire effects on plants (minimum branch diameter, duration of temperatures above 300 °C in the shrub crown and fireline intensity) did not affect the post-fire plant vigour. Soil burn severity during spring prescribed burning significantly affected the short-term resprouting vigour in a mixed heathland in Galicia. The lack of effects eighteen months after prescribed burning indicates the high resilience of these species and illustrates the need to conciliate fire prevention and conservation goals.

  6. [Analysis of microRNA expression profile in serum of patients with electrical burn or thermal burn]. (United States)

    Ruan, Q F; Jiang, M J; Ye, Z Q; Zhao, C L; Xie, W G


    expressed microRNAs in serum of electrical burn group, compared with those in serum of normal control group. Enrichment analysis of KEGG signaling pathway showed that compared with those in serum of normal control group, microRNAs which changed distinctly in serum of electrical burn group took part in the insulin secretion signaling pathway, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy signaling pathway, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy signaling pathway, glutamatergic synapse signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathway, glycerophospholipid metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, serotonergic synapse signaling pathway, etc, while microRNAs which changed distinctly in serum of thermal burn group took part in the tumor transcription misregulation signaling pathway, proteoglycans in tumor signaling pathway, microRNAs in tumor signaling pathway, long-term potentiation signaling pathway, citrate cycle signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, focal adhesion signaling pathway, endocytosis signaling pathway, insulin secretion signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, and estrogen signaling pathway, etc. Conclusions: MicroRNA expression profiles in serum of electrical and thermal burn are different from that in serum of healthy adult. The signaling pathways enriched with target genes which are regulated by the differentially expressed microRNAs are related to the pathological changes and clinical manifestations after electrical or thermal burn.

  7. [Epidemiology of burns in France]. (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François


    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  8. Genital burns and vaginal delivery. (United States)

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C


    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  9. Curbing Inflammation in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme A. Farina


    Full Text Available Patients who suffer from severe burns develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into burn injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in burn injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary.

  10. Burns ITU admissions: length of stay in specific levels of care for adult and paediatric patients. (United States)

    Maan, Zeshaan N; Frew, Quentin; Din, Asmat H; Unluer, Zeynep; Smailes, Sarah; Philp, Bruce; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter


    Prediction of total length of stay (LOS) for burns patients based on the total burn surface area (TBSA) is well accepted. Total LOS is a poor measure of resource consumption. Our aim was to determine the LOS in specific levels of care to better inform resource allocation. We performed a retrospective review of LOS in intensive treatment unit (ITU), burns high dependency unit (HDU) and burns low dependency unit (LDU) for all patients requiring ITU admission in a regional burns service from 2003 to 2011. During this period, our unit has admitted 1312 paediatric and 1445 adult patients to our Burns ITU. In both groups, ITU comprised 20% of the total LOS (mean 0.23±0.02 [adult] and 0.22±0.02 [paediatric] days per %burn). In adults, 33% of LOS was in HDU (0.52±0.06 days per %burn) and 48% (0.68±0.06 days per %burn) in LDU, while in children, 15% of LOS was in HDU (0.19±0.03 days per %burn) and 65% in LDU (0.70±0.06 days per %burn). When considering Burns ITU admissions, resource allocation ought to be planned according to expected LOS in specific levels of care rather than total LOS. The largest proportion of stay is in low dependency, likely due to social issues.

  11. Jewelry Ring-Associated Electrothermal Burn Injuries: A Nine-Patient Case Series. (United States)

    Mushin, Oren P; Bogue, Jarrod T; Pencek, Megan E; Bell, Derek E

    Ring-associated burns are infrequent, comprising only a small fraction of burn consults and admissions. However, because of the location of these burns and the propensity for circumferential wounds, small burn size may belie the severity of resultant injuries. Herein, the authors present their experience with this potentially severe type of burn. Records from a regional burn center were retrospectively analyzed during a 36-month period. All patients who sustained ring burns were included. Data points included demographics, burn location, need for surgical intervention, grafted area, hospital days (length of stay), percent graft take, complications, and time to re-epithelialization. Nine patients sustained ring-associated burns during the study period, accounting for 1.4% of all patients with burns seen during the same period. Average age was 41 years (range: 29-52 years). Seven (77%) ring-associated burns involved contact with a battery. All injuries were circumferential. Average burn TBSA was 0.07%. Two patients (22%) had third-degree injuries, both of which received split-thickness skin grafts. Grafted area was 4 and 5 cm, respectively. Average length of stay was 2.8 days. Mean graft take was 99.5 ± 1.5%. Average time to complete re-epithelialization was 12 days. One patient suffered temporary disability. No patients suffered from compartment syndrome. Ring-associated burns are an uncommon source of injury in the burn population. Despite small burn TBSA, these patients are more likely to require split-thickness skin grafts and suffer dysfunction compared with similarly-sized burns in other body regions. Expedient treatment and coordination with occupational therapy should be undertaken to achieve optimal outcomes.

  12. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan


    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  13. A primer on burn resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacomo Ferdinand


    Full Text Available Since the early 1900s, the scope of burn resuscitation has evolved dramatically. Due to various advances in pre-hospital care and training, under-resuscitation of patients with severe burns is now relatively uncommon. Over-resuscitation, otherwise known as "fluid creep", has emerged as one of the most important problems during the initial phases of burn care over the past decade. To avoid the complications of over-resuscitation, careful hourly titration of fluid rates based on compilation of various clinical end points by a bedside provider is vital. The aim of this review is to provide a practical approach to the resuscitation of severely burned patients.

  14. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde


    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  15. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.


    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high-inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  16. Exercise following burn injury. (United States)

    de Lateur, Barbara J; Shore, Wendy S


    Fatigue is a major barrier to recovery for burned individuals. Studies indicate that a slow return to normal or near-normal muscle strength is the natural course of recovery. With no special interventions, other than the "usual care" tailored to the needs of the individual, postburn patients will make gradual improvement in strength and aerobic capacity. Using the principle of initial condition (the worse the initial condition, the greater the response to exercise intervention) the authors outline an augmented exercise program that should result in a robust improvement in aerobic capacity.

  17. MSFR TRU-burning potential and comparison with an SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorina, C.; Cammi, A. [Politecnico di Milano: Via La Masa 34, 20136 Milan (Italy); Franceschini, F. [Westinghouse Electric Company LL: 1000 Westinghouse Dr., Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Krepel, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI WEST, 5234 Villigen (Switzerland)


    The objective of this work is to evaluate the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) potential benefits in terms of transuranics (TRU) burning through a comparative analysis with a sodium-cooled FR. The comparison is based on TRU- and MA-burning rates, as well as on the in-core evolution of radiotoxicity and decay heat. Solubility issues limit the TRU-burning rate to 1/3 that achievable in traditional low-CR FRs (low-Conversion-Ratio Fast Reactors). The softer spectrum also determines notable radiotoxicity and decay heat of the equilibrium actinide inventory. On the other hand, the liquid fuel suggests the possibility of using a Pu-free feed composed only of Th and MA (Minor Actinides), thus maximizing the MA burning rate. This is generally not possible in traditional low-CR FRs due to safety deterioration and decay heat of reprocessed fuel. In addition, the high specific power and the lack of out-of-core cooling times foster a quick transition toward equilibrium, which improves the MSFR capability to burn an initial fissile loading, and makes the MSFR a promising system for a quick (i.e., in a reactor lifetime) transition from the current U-based fuel cycle to a novel closed Th cycle. (authors)

  18. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections for the Isotopes relevant to the Thorium Fuel Cycle

    CERN Multimedia


    The present concern about a sustainable energy supply is characterised by a considerable uncertainty: the green house effect and foreseeable limits in fossil fuel resources on the one hand, the concern about the environmental impact of nuclear fission energy and the long term fusion research on the other hand, have led to the consideration of a variety of advanced strategies for the nuclear fuel cycle and related nuclear energy systems. The present research directories concern such strategies as the extension of the life span of presently operating reactors, the increase of the fuel burn-up, the plutonium recycling, and in particular the incineration of actinides and long-Lived fission products, the accelerator driven systems (ADS), like the "Energy Amplifier" (EA) concept of C. Rubbia, and the possible use of the Thorium fuel cycle. The detailed feasibility study and safety assessment of these strategies requires the accurate knowledge of neutron nuclear reaction data. Both, higher fuel burn-up and especiall...

  19. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients (United States)


    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  20. How to manage burns in primary care.


    Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P C


    Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns.

  1. Technology Insights and Perspectives for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bays; S. Piet; N. Soelberg; M. Lineberry; B. Dixon


    The following report provides a rich resource of information for exploring fuel cycle characteristics. The most noteworthy trends can be traced back to the utilization efficiency of natural uranium resources. By definition, complete uranium utilization occurs only when all of the natural uranium resource can be introduced into the nuclear reactor long enough for all of it to undergo fission. Achieving near complete uranium utilization requires technologies that can achieve full recycle or at least nearly full recycle of the initial natural uranium consumed from the Earth. Greater than 99% of all natural uranium is fertile, and thus is not conducive to fission. This fact requires the fuel cycle to convert large quantities of non-fissile material into fissile transuranics. Step increases in waste benefits are closely related to the step increase in uranium utilization going from non-breeding fuel cycles to breeding fuel cycles. The amount of mass requiring a disposal path is tightly coupled to the quantity of actinides in the waste stream. Complete uranium utilization by definition means that zero (practically, near zero) actinide mass is present in the waste stream. Therefore, fuel cycles with complete (uranium and transuranic) recycle discharge predominately fission products with some actinide process losses. Fuel cycles without complete recycle discharge a much more massive waste stream because only a fraction of the initial actinide mass is burned prior to disposal. In a nuclear growth scenario, the relevant acceptable frequency for core damage events in nuclear reactors is inversely proportional to the number of reactors deployed in a fuel cycle. For ten times the reactors in a fleet, it should be expected that the fleet-average core damage frequency be decreased by a factor of ten. The relevant proliferation resistance of a fuel cycle system is enhanced with: decreasing reliance on domestic fuel cycle services, decreasing adaptability for technology misuse

  2. Bad advice; bad burn: a new problem in burn prevention. (United States)

    Deans, L; Slater, H; Goldfarb, I W


    Deep partial-thickness burns had been inflicted on the perineal area of an infant who was recently treated in our Burn Center. The burns were a result of advice to the patient's mother by a pediatrician. The doctor told her to use a hair dryer to prevent diaper rash. We surveyed pediatricians, well-baby clinics, and pediatric nurse practitioners in our area and found that approximately half of them advised the use of hair dryers to treat or prevent diaper rash. We tested four widely available hand-held hair dryers to determine potential for inflicting burn injury. All of the dryers are capable of delivering air heated to at least 53 degrees C after 2 minutes of use. We believe that warnings against the use of hair dryers for perineal hygiene should be included in burn prevention programs.

  3. YvcK of Bacillus subtilis is required for a normal cell shape and for growth on Krebs cycle intermediates and substrates of the pentose phosphate pathway. (United States)

    Görke, Boris; Foulquier, Elodie; Galinier, Anne


    The HPr-like protein Crh has so far been detected only in the bacillus group of bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, its gene is part of an operon composed of six ORFs, three of which exhibit strong similarity to genes of unknown function present in many bacteria. The promoter of the operon was determined and found to be constitutively active. A deletion analysis revealed that gene yvcK, encoded by this operon, is essential for growth on Krebs cycle intermediates and on carbon sources metabolized via the pentose phosphate pathway. In addition, cells lacking YvcK acquired media-dependent filamentous or L-shape-like aberrant morphologies. The presence of high magnesium concentrations restored normal growth and cell morphology. Furthermore, suppressor mutants cured from these growth defects appeared spontaneously with a high frequency. Such suppressing mutations were identified in a transposon mutagenesis screen and found to reside in seven different loci. Two of them mapped in genes of central carbon metabolism, including zwf, which encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and cggR, the product of which regulates the synthesis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. All these results suggest that YvcK has an important role in carbon metabolism, probably in gluconeogenesis required for the synthesis of cell wall precursor molecules. Interestingly, the Escherichia coli homologous protein, YbhK, can substitute for YvcK in B. subtilis, suggesting that the two proteins have been functionally conserved in these different bacteria.

  4. CLNR1, the AREA/NIT2-like global nitrogen regulator of the plant fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is required for the infection cycle. (United States)

    Pellier, Anne-Laure; Laugé, Richard; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Langin, Thierry


    Nitrogen starvation is generally assumed to be encountered by biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens at the beginning of their infection cycle. We tested whether nitrogen starvation constitutes a cue regulating genes that are required for pathogenicity of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a fungal pathogen of common bean. The clnr1 (C. lindemuthianumnitrogen regulator 1) gene, the areA/nit-2 orthologue of C. lindemuthianum, was isolated. The predicted CLNR1 protein exhibits high amino acid sequence similarities with the AREA and NIT2 global fungal nitrogen regulators. Targeted clnr1- mutants are unable to use a wide array of nitrogen sources, indicating that clnr1 is the C. lindemuthianum major nitrogen regulatory gene. The clnr1- mutants are non-pathogenic, although few anthracnose lesions seldom occur on whole plantlets. Surprisingly, cytological analysis reveals that the clnr1- mutants are not disturbed from the penetration stage until the end of the biotrophic phase, but that they are impaired during the setting up of the necrotrophic phase. Thus, through CLNR1, nitrogen starvation constitutes a cue for the regulation of genes that are compulsory for this stage of the C. lindemuthianum infection process. Additionally, clnr1- mutants complemented with the Aspergillus nidulans areA gene are fully pathogenic, indicating that areA is able to activate the C. lindemuthianum suited genes, normally under the control of clnr1.

  5. Update on the critical care management of severe burns. (United States)

    Kasten, Kevin R; Makley, Amy T; Kagan, Richard J


    Care of the severely injured patient with burn requires correct diagnosis, appropriately tailored resuscitation, and definitive surgical management to reduce morbidity and mortality. Currently, mortality rates related to severe burn injuries continue to steadily decline due to the standardization of a multidisciplinary approach instituted at tertiary health care centers. Prompt and accurate diagnoses of burn wounds utilizing Lund-Browder diagrams allow for appropriate operative and nonoperative management. Coupled with diagnostic improvements, advances in resuscitation strategies involving rates, volumes, and fluid types have yielded demonstrable benefits related to all aspects of burn care. More recently, identification of comorbid conditions such as inhalation injury and malnutrition have produced appropriate protocols that aid the healing process in severely injured patients with burn. As more patients survive larger burn injuries, the early diagnosis and successful treatment of secondary and tertiary complications are becoming commonplace. While advances in this area are exciting, much work to elucidate immune pathways, diagnostic tests, and effective treatment regimens still remain. This review will provide an update on the critical care management of severe burns, touching on accurate diagnosis, resuscitation, and acute management of this difficult patient population.

  6. Retrospective analysis of photographic evaluation of burn depth. (United States)

    Boccara, David; Chaouat, Marc; Uzan, Cindy; Lacheré, Anne; Mimoun, Maurice


    Evaluation of burn depth is an essential and difficult step that conditions surgical or non-surgical treatment. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the opportunity to diagnose burn depth only with initial photography of the burn. For all patients admitted to our burn unit between January 2002 and March 2008, we performed a retrospective analysis of burn depth based on a photographic evaluation. Blinded photos were submitted to three experienced surgeons who were asked if the burns required a graft or not. The diagnosis done by photography evaluation was then compared to initial diagnosis and treatment. Out of 911 patients photography analysed, the photographic evaluation was equivalent to clinical evaluation in 76% of the cases. The sensitivity and specificity of the photographic evaluation were, respectively, 0.77 and 0.75. The main evaluation errors were in intermediate burns (29.6% of errors) and were more often due to overestimation of the depth. In 75% of cases, there was a full agreement between 3 surgeons (683/911). A secondary analysis excluding electrical and chemical injuries showed an improvement of predictability. Even though a photographic analysis cannot replace clinical examination, photographic evaluation may be one option to consider for an early distance diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Ameliorative property of Teucrium polium on second degree burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Roya


    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditionally, burn wound healing activities have been claimed for Teucrium polium. Teucrium polium possesses antioxidant and inflammatory activities and seems to ameliorate burn wound healing. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Teucrium polium on burn healing in Balb/C mice. Materials and Methods: In this preclinical experimental study 56 mice were randomly designated into 4 equal groups. Burn wounds were made using a hot plate with a surface area of 1.5 cm2. Animals were treated with Teucrium 2%, Silver sulfadiazine or Vaseline 2 times per day for 21 days. The forth group received no treatment. Results: The percentage of burn wounds healing and total time required for complete healing were evaluated and compared in different groups. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Conclusion: Teucrium extract accelerated the burn wound healing more rapidly than control groups (p<0.01. Teucrium polium is effective on burn wounds healing and might be beneficial in these groups of patients.

  8. Epidemiology of outpatient burns in Tehran: an analysis of 4813 cases. (United States)

    Taghavi, Morteza; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Boddouhi, Nosratollah; Zarei, Mohammad Reza; Khaji, Ali; Abdollahi, Morteza


    This study aims to demonstrate the epidemiologic characteristics of outpatient burn injuries in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed over a 1-year period in a referral burn centre in Tehran and included all outpatient burns. The required data were recorded by two trained physicians. Of the 4813 studied patients, including 293 infants, 2901 patients (60%) were male (Pburns were non-intentional (n=4808) and 70.5% of the injuries occurred at home. Housewives consisted of 24% of the burn patients. With respect to the site of burn, multiple injuries were the most frequent (53%) followed by upper extremities (37%). Most of the burns (96%) were partial thickness. Significant association was present between the aetiology and depth of burn (Pchildren younger than 10 years are at greater risk of these injuries and therefore should be the target for preventive strategies.

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in the cell cycle modulation and required for effective human cytomegalovirus infection in THP-1 macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Germini, Diego; Rodighiero, Isabella [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Mirandola, Prisco [Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria-Cristina [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Gatti, Rita [Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Chezzi, Carlo; Calderaro, Adriana [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy)


    Suitable host cell metabolic conditions are fundamental for the effective development of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic cycle. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated the ability of this virus to interfere with cell cycle regulation, mainly by blocking proliferating cells in G1 or G1/S. In the present study, we demonstrate that HCMV deregulates the cell cycle of THP-1 macrophages (a cell line irreversibly arrested in G0) by pushing them into S and G2 phases. Moreover, we show that HCMV infection of THP-1 macrophages leads to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Since various studies have indicated TLR4 to be involved in promoting cell proliferation, here we investigate the possible role of TLR4 in the observed HCMV-induced cell cycle perturbation. Our data strongly support TLR4 as a mediator of HCMV-triggered cell cycle activation in THP-1 macrophages favouring, in turn, the development of an efficient viral lytic cycle. - Highlights: ► We studied HCMV infection impact on THP-1 macrophage cell cycle. ► We analysed the role played by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 upon HCMV infection. ► HCMV pushes THP-1 macrophages (i.e. resting cells) to re-enter the cell cycle. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition strongly affects the effectiveness of HCMV replication. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition significantly decreases HCMV-induced cell cycle re-entry.

  10. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors (United States)

    Shen, Yaosong


    Recently, the concept of actinide burning instead of a once-through fuel cycle for disposing spent nuclear fuel seems to get much more attention. A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium-Uranium (Th-U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper. The thorium-based TRU fuel burns all of the long-lived actinides via a hard neutron spectrum while outputting power. A one-dimensional model of the reactor concept was built by means of the ONESN_BURN code with new data libraries. The numerical results included actinide radioactivity, biological hazard potential, and much higher burnup rate of high-level transuranic waste. The comparison of the fusion-fission reactor with the thermal reactor shows that the harder neutron spectrum is more efficient than the soft. The Th-U cycle produces less TRU, less radiotoxicity and fewer long-lived actinides. The Th-U cycle provides breeding of 233U with a long operation time (>20 years), hence significantly reducing the reactivity swing while improving safety and burnup.

  11. Burn, thermal - close-up (image) (United States)

    ... first degree burns cause only reddening of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin), as seen in this photograph. Second degree burns cause blistering and extend into the dermis (lower layer of skin). Third degree burns cause ...

  12. Nutritional management of the burn patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role include: evaporative water loss from the burn wound, bacterial contamination of the burn ... leucocytes and fibroblasts in the burned area.2 Providing exogenous glucose ... immune function, poor wound healing and exacerbation of protein.

  13. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen (United States)

    ... Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  14. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients (United States)


    Houston, TX Purpose:Patients with severe facial burns often suffer indirect damage to their eyes. Burn wound contracture of the periocular skin...periocular muscles , are injured and the protective blink reflex is lost. With loss of the blink reflex the patient quickly develops exposure keratitis

  15. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  16. Burn prevention mechanisms and outcomes: pitfalls, failures and successes. (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Costagliola, Michel; Hayek, Shady N


    Burns are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide and are among the most devastating of all injuries, with outcomes spanning the spectrum from physical impairments and disabilities to emotional and mental consequences. Management of burns and their sequelae even in well-equipped, modern burn units of advanced affluent societies remains demanding and extremely costly. Undoubtedly, in most low and middle income countries (LMICs) with limited resources and inaccessibility to sophisticated skills and technologies, the same standard of care is obviously not possible. Unfortunately, over 90% of fatal fire-related burns occur in developing or LMICs with South-East Asia alone accounting for over half of these fire-related deaths. If burn prevention is an essential part of any integrated burn management protocol anywhere, focusing on burn prevention in LMICs rather than treatment cannot be over-emphasized where it remains the major and probably the only available way of reducing the current state of morbidity and mortality. Like other injury mechanisms, the prevention of burns requires adequate knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics and associated risk factors, it is hence important to define clearly, the social, cultural and economic factors, which contribute to burn causation. While much has been accomplished in the areas of primary and secondary prevention of fires and burns in many developed or high-income countries (HICs) such as the United States due to sustained research on the epidemiology and risk factors, the same cannot be said for many LMICs. Many health authorities, agencies, corporations and even medical personnel in LMICs consider injury prevention to have a much lower priority than disease prevention for understandable reasons. Consequently, burns prevention programmes fail to receive the government funding that they deserve. Prevention programmes need to be executed with patience, persistence, and precision, targeting high

  17. The year in burns 2013. (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herbert A; Arnoldo, Brett D


    Approximately 3415 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2013. We have continued to see an increase in this number; the following reviews articles selected from these by the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and colleagues that in their opinion are most likely to have effects on burn care treatment and understanding. As we have done before, articles were found and divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. The articles are mentioned briefly with notes from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for details.

  18. The biology of burn injury. (United States)

    Evers, Lars H; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Mailänder, Peter


    Burn injury is a complex traumatic event with various local and systemic effects, affecting several organ systems beyond the skin. The pathophysiology of the burn patient shows the full spectrum of the complexity of inflammatory response reactions. In the acute phase, inflammation mechanism may have negative effects because of capillary leak, the propagation of inhalation injury and the development of multiple organ failure. Attempts to mediate these processes remain a central subject of burn care research. Conversely, inflammation is a necessary prologue and component in the later-stage processes of wound healing. In this review, we are attempting to present the current science of burn wound pathophysiology and wound healing. We also describe the evolution of innovative strategies for burn management.

  19. Factors affecting mortality among victims of electrical burns. (United States)

    Tiryaki, Çağrı; Haksal, Mustafa Celalettin; Yazıcıoğlu, Murat Burç; Çiftçi, Ali; Esen, Osman; Turgut, Hamdi Taner; Yıldırım, Abdullah; Güven, Murat


    The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting mortality rate among patients with an electrical burn. A total of 115 patients admitted to the emergency department and hospitalized in the Burn Treatment Center or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to the electrical burn, were included in the study. A total of 115 patients (4 female and 111 male) with a mean age of 32.88±12.87 years were included in the study. The mean hospitalization period was 25.03±20.50 days, and the mean total body surface area burned (% TBSA) was 22.83±15.54%. Among those patients, 9 (8.5%) expired, and the remaining 106 were discharged after treatment. In a logistic regression analysis, TBSA >20% (p=0.02, OR: 11.7, CI: 1.38-99.16); ICU requirement (p=0.005, OR: 1.28, CI: 1.08-1.58); erythrocyte transfusion requirement (p=0.02, OR: 12.48, CI: 1.44-107.83); fresh frozen plasma (FFP) requirement (p=0.03, OR: 10.23, CI: 1.18-88.17); albumin requirement (p=0.02, OR: 12.60, CI: 1.44-109.85); admission serum albumin level patients with electrical burns. In clinical practice, defining a mortality risk analyzer using these factors may be helpful in the management of patients with electrical burns. Additional, more comprehensive studies are required to define the risk factors for mortality and long-term morbidities in patients with electrical burns.

  20. Clinical Experience with Chitosan Matrix and Cultured Fibroblasts for Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaziza Danlybayeva


    Full Text Available Introduction. Burns are an important public health challenge due to the frequency of getting burns in day-to-day life, occupational hazards, and catastrophes. Treatment of burns is complex and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Duration and complexity of burn treatment require finding new ways of curing and rehabilitating burns. The result of burn treatment plays a significant role in post-traumatic status of a patient and his or her consequent adaptation in society. Chitosan is a natural safe non-toxic product compatible with human tissues, characterized by hydrosorbid, anticoagulant, antibacterial, and wound healing features. The study aims to  show a clinical application of chitosan-pectin scaffold with cultured human skin fibroblasts in the treatment of deep burns.Methods. The substrate was prepared by dissolving 3% chitosan in 0.5N acetic acid, which was then mixed with 3% solution of pectin dissolved in distillated water. Chitosan film was formed in a Petri dish for 20-24 hours at 20-25 °C. After drying the film, cultured allogeneic fibroblasts (patent number RK-25091 were seeded on its surface.Results. The results from an in vitro culture study showed that human allogeneic fibroblasts could adhere well and grow on the selected scaffold with a typical morphology. During autodermoplasty surgery, cultured allogeneic fibroblasts were applied on granulating wounds of 9 patients with IIIA to IVB degree burns and limited donor resources. Wounds treated with the fibroblast-seeded scaffold among all patients provided the highest level of re-epithelialization (day 5, in comparison to cell-free scaffold (day 7 and untreated surface of wounds (day 10.Conclusion. Our results indicate the potential use of chitosan for wound healing due to its allogenic fibroblast adherence to scaffolding as well as high epithelization. This warrants further studies on chitosan for use in wounds resulting from third and fourth degree burns.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    During autotrophic growth of Xanthobacter flavus, energy derived from the oxidation of hydrogen methanol or formate is used to drive the assimilation of CO2 via the Calvin cycle. The genes encoding the Calvin cycle enzymes are organized in the cbb operon, which is expressed only during autotrophic g

  2. Acute concentrated phenol dermal burns: Complications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Jayantilal Parikh


    Full Text Available Phenol burns can result in multiple organ failure. This is a case report of acute severe phenol dermal burn after accidental splash of 94% phenol on 35-year-old patient′s body who was brought to hospital after 90 min of exposure. Decontamination was done with high-density water and glycerol. Early complications in form of metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure required hemodialysis. Extensive protein denaturation was managed with IV albumin and high protein diet. Patient also developed pleural effusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but these were successfully managed by intercostal drain tube insertion and noninvasive ventilation. The patient survived after multiple organ failures and widespread burns despite the fact that it has been observed that outcome of phenol burns with >60 2 inches of skin affected or two or more organs failure involving renal system is nearly fatal.

  3. Functional Outcomes Following Burn Injury. (United States)

    Ryan, Colleen M; Parry, Ingrid; Richard, Reginald

    Major advances in functional recovery following burn injury over the last ten years include the development of conceptual framework for disability assessment and its application burn recovery, the description of the long-term outcomes in the burn population, and progress in basic science research leading to new treatments that improve long-term functional outcomes. Future tasks and challenges include the development of common data elements and standards for burn recovery in order to measure and optimize the path toward functional recovery. The development of patient-reported outcome measures with benchmarks for recovery over time has the potential to improve patient-provider communication and quality of patient-centered care. The study of burn recovery should include an examination of resiliency along with the study of disabilities following burn injury. Better understanding of the mechanisms, impact and modulation of hypermetabolism and inflammation following burn injury is essential to improve functional recovery. Continued basic science and clinical research must focus on scar modulation and skin replacements and address recalcitriant problems such as heterotopic ossification. Health tracking technologies should be leveraged to understand and optimize physical therapy interventions.

  4. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı


    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  5. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona


    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  6. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan


    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  7. Burning more than calories: treadmill friction injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davidson, C C


    Treadmill injuries in young children are a serious but little documented problem. Friction burns occur when the hands come into contact with the moving belt resulting in deep burns that often require hospital admission and surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the nature and prevalence of injuries sustained and to highlight treadmill friction burns as a public health issue previously undocumented in Ireland. A retrospective chart review from January 2006 until March 2008 was performed and functional outcome was assessed by the modified Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. Eight girls and four boys from one year and seven months to seven years and five months were treated. Eight children required admission to hospital and to date three have required surgery for their injuries. This is a new and increasing problem in Ireland which must be highlighted.

  8. [Reconstruction of facial burn sequelae]. (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Comparin, J P; Boulos, J P; Bichet, J C; Jacquin, F


    The deep burns of the face can lead to horrible scars functionally and aesthetically. Treatment of these scars need several surgical interventions frequently and during many years. In our region we deal with this type of wounds as team work, multidisciplinary approach carrying out many process starting by emergency treatment of acute burns till the social rehabilitation. The expansion technique was great help in improving the shape of scars, by using the expanding skin as full thickness grafts. Reconstruction of the anatomical units and application of aesthetic techniques (like rhinoplasty, lifting, tattooing and autologous fat injections) participate equally in improving the quality of results. Many examples of treatments of burns scars are shown.

  9. Variants of closing the nuclear fuel cycle (United States)

    Andrianova, E. A.; Davidenko, V. D.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.; Tsibulskiy, S. V.


    Influence of the nuclear energy structure, the conditions of fuel burnup, and accumulation of new fissile isotopes from the raw isotopes on the main parameters of a closed fuel cycle is considered. The effects of the breeding ratio, the cooling time of the spent fuel in the external fuel cycle, and the separation of the breeding area and the fissile isotope burning area on the parameters of the fuel cycle are analyzed.

  10. Computerized Decision Support System Improves Fluid Resuscitation Outcomes Following Severe Burns: An Original Study (United States)


    stantial plasma volume deficit during the initial 48 hrs post burn, which engenders hypovolemic shock and generalized edema formation (4). These include a...3). Burn manage- ment requires specialized expertise and treatment options that may not normally be available at nonburn centers. In addi- tion...principal fluid shift into the surrounding interstitial space (i.e., third-spacing) that has to be treated to avoid burn shock conditions (5–6). *See

  11. A systematic review of quantitative burn wound microbiology in the management of burns patients. (United States)

    Halstead, Fenella D; Lee, Kwang Chear; Kwei, Johnny; Dretzke, Janine; Oppenheim, Beryl A; Moiemen, Naiem S


    The early diagnosis of infection or sepsis in burns are important for patient care. Globally, a large number of burn centres advocate quantitative cultures of wound biopsies for patient management, since there is assumed to be a direct link between the bioburden of a burn wound and the risk of microbial invasion. Given the conflicting study findings in this area, a systematic review was warranted. Bibliographic databases were searched with no language restrictions to August 2015. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed in duplicate using pre-defined criteria. Substantial heterogeneity precluded quantitative synthesis, and findings were described narratively, sub-grouped by clinical question. Twenty six laboratory and/or clinical studies were included. Substantial heterogeneity hampered comparisons across studies and interpretation of findings. Limited evidence suggests that (i) more than one quantitative microbiology sample is required to obtain reliable estimates of bacterial load; (ii) biopsies are more sensitive than swabs in diagnosing or predicting sepsis; (iii) high bacterial loads may predict worse clinical outcomes, and (iv) both quantitative and semi-quantitative culture reports need to be interpreted with caution and in the context of other clinical risk factors. The evidence base for the utility and reliability of quantitative microbiology for diagnosing or predicting clinical outcomes in burns patients is limited and often poorly reported. Consequently future research is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    The Anastenaria are Orthodox Christians in Northern Greece who observe a unique annual ritual cycle focused on two festivals, dedicated to Saint Constantine and Saint Helen. The festivals involve processions, music, dancing, animal sacrifices, and culminate in an electrifying fire-walking ritual...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond J. Fonck


    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  14. Increasing Fuel Utilization of Breed and Burn Reactors (United States)

    Di Sanzo, Christian Diego

    Breed and Burn reactors (B&B), also referred to Traveling Wave Reactors, are fast spectrum reactors that can be fed indefinitely with depleted uranium only, once criticality is achieved without the need for fuel reprocessing. Radiation damage to the fuel cladding limits the fuel utilization of B&B reactors to ˜ 18-20% FIMA (Fissions of Initial Metal Atoms) -- the minimum burnup required for sustaining the B&B mode of operation. The fuel discharged from this type of cores contain ˜ 10% fissile plutonium. Such a high plutonium content poses environmental and proliferation concerns, but makes it possible to utilize the fuel for further energy production. The objectives of the research reported in this dissertation are to analyze the fuel cycle of B&B reactors and study new strategies to extend the fuel utilization beyond ˜ 18-20% FIMA. First, the B&B reactor physics is examined while recycling the fuel every 20% FIMA via a limited separation processing, using either the melt refining or AIROX dry processes. It was found that the maximum attainable burnup varies from 54% to 58% FIMA -- depending on the recycling process and on the fraction of neutrons lost via leakage and reactivity control. In Chapter 3 the discharge fuel characteristics of B&B reactors operating at 20% FIMA and 55% FIMA is analyzed and compared. It is found that the 20% FIMA reactor discharges a fuel with about ˜ 80% fissile plutonium over total plutonium content. Subsequently a new strategy of minimal reconditioning, called double cladding is proposed to extend the fuel utilization in specifically designed second-tier reactors. It is found that with this strategy it is possible to increase fuel utilization to 30% in a sodium fast reactor and up to 40% when a subcritical B&B core is driven by an accelerator-driven spallation neutron source. Lastly, a fuel cycle using Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) to reduce the plutonium content of discharged B&B reactors is analyzed. It was found that it is

  15. Burn Injuries Resulting from Hot Water Bottle Use: A Retrospective Review of Cases Presenting to a Regional Burns Unit in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab Jabir


    Full Text Available Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older. The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40. Seven patients (8.24% required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60% required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18% required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60. Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries.

  16. Hair dryer burns in children. (United States)

    Prescott, P R


    Three children with burn injuries caused by home hair dryers are described. In one patient the injury was believed to be accidental, and in the other two cases the injuries were deliberately caused by a caretaker. The lack of prior experience with hair dryer burns initially led to suspicion of other causes. The characteristics of each case aided in the final determination of accidental vs nonaccidental injury. These cases prompted testing of home hair dryers to determine their heat output. At the highest heat settings, the dryers rapidly generated temperatures in excess of 110 degrees C. After the dryers were turned off, the protective grills maintained sufficient temperatures to cause full-thickness burns for up to 2 minutes. These cases and the results of testing demonstrate that hair dryers must be added to the list of known causes of accidental and nonaccidental burns in children.

  17. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pathophysiology caused by a severe burn is complicated and involves changes in all ... The interstitial pressure and intravascular oncotic pressures decrease while the ... South African Family Practice 2014; 56(6):24-26. Open Access ...

  18. Chemistry of Cigarette Burning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P


    Full Text Available Cigarette-burning and the smoke-formation processes and smoke composition are important topics for understanding cigarette performance. This paper proposes the molecular formulas representing the active components of bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos and a basic chemistry model of the cigarette burning processes. Previous knowledge of the cigarette burning processes and smoke formation helped to establish parameters in deriving the basic chemistry equations. The proposed chemistry provides a brief view of the mechanisms of the cigarette burning during puffing and interpuff smoldering, and can be used to interpret and predict the smoke composition for cigarettes made from bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos. Based on the proposed chemistry, the effect of ventilation on smoke component deliveries is discussed and the reaction heat of the puffing process is estimated.

  19. Regimes Of Helium Burning

    CERN Document Server

    Timmes, F X


    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and ZND detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts which start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star, and the thin shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial directions encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamlet regime at a density of 10^8 g cm^{-3}. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than 10^6 g cm^{-3}. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations travelling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarily, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at 10^7 g cm^{-3}, suggesting that a steady-state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into exista...

  20. White phosphorus burns and arsenic inhalation: a toxic combination. (United States)

    Berndtson, Allison E; Fagin, Alice; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L


    White phosphorus is a common industrial and military compound, which can cause severe thermal and chemical burns beyond what would be predicted from body surface area alone. The authors present a rare case of a 45-year-old male patient who suffered white phosphorus burns combined with arsenic inhalation because of an industrial accident. The presented case is used to review the history and the toxicities of these chemicals as well as current methods of treatment. A literature review was performed to summarize the current knowledge of white phosphorus burns, as well as arsenic poisoning, and no similar case reports of the two combined were found. The patient ultimately recovered and was discharged, though with significant chronic complications. This case highlights the risk of burns and inhalation injury present in industrial manufacturing jobs, as well as the potential severity of these conditions. The systemic effects of chemicals absorbed across burned skin and via inhalation were the main contributors to our patient's severe illness, and required more intensive treatment than the burns themselves. Arsenic toxicity is rare and could easily have been missed without the appropriate patient history.

  1. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients (United States)


    Amniotic Membrane for the Treatment of Severe Exposure Keratopathy in the New Zealand White Rabbit Introduction: Patients with severe facial burns...often suffer indirect damage to their eyes as a sequela of ocular surface exposure keratopathy. Burn wound contracture of the periocular skin causes...inflammatory properties, amniotic membrane has developed into a mainstay of treatment to help maintain the ocular surface when skin grafting is delayed

  2. Treatment of Palm Burns in Children


    Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.


    The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...

  3. Chemical and Common Burns in Children. (United States)

    Yin, Shan


    Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact. In children, the most common cause of chemical burns is from household products such as toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, detergents, and bleaches. Mild chemical burns generally cause redness and pain and can look similar to other common rashes or skin infections, whereas severe chemical burns are more extreme and may cause redness, blistering, skin peeling, and swelling.

  4. Time from accident to admission to a burn intensive care unit: how long does it actually take? A 25-year retrospective data analysis from a german burn center. (United States)

    Schiefer, J L; Alischahi, A; Perbix, W; Grigutsch, D; Graeff, I; Zinser, M; Demir, E; Fuchs, P C; Schulz, A


    Severe burn injuries often require specialized treatment at a burn center. It is known that prompt admission to an intensive care unit is essential for achieving good outcome. Nevertheless, very little is known about the duration of time before a patient is admitted to a specialized center after a burn injury in Germany, and whether the situation has improved over time. We retrospectively analyzed time from burn injury to admission to the burn intensive care unit in the Cologne-Merheim Medical Center - one of Germany's specialized burn centers - over the last 25 years. Moreover, we analyzed the data based on differences according to time of injury and day of the week, as well as severity of the burn injury. There was no weekend effect with regard to transfer time; instead transfer time was particularly short on a Monday or on Sundays. Furthermore, patients with severe burn injuries of 40-89% total body surface area (TBSA) showed the least differences in transfer time. Interestingly, the youngest and the oldest patients arrived at the burn intensive care unit (BICU) the fastest. This study should help elucidate published knowledge regarding transfer time from the scene of the accident to admission to a BICU in Germany.

  5. Burn treatment in the elderly. (United States)

    Keck, M; Lumenta, D B; Andel, H; Kamolz, L P; Frey, M


    The population of elderly patients is expected to rise continuously over the next decades due to global demographic changes. The elderly seem to be most vulnerable to burns and their management remains undoubtedly a challenge. A clear age margin for elderly patients is not yet defined, but most studies adhere to the inclusion of patients 65 years and above, but the general condition and social situation must be taken into account. The understanding of the physiological basis of aging and its related pathophysiological changes has only marginally influenced treatment and decision making in elderly burn patients. When looking at treatment regimens currently applied in elderly burn patients, the discussion of standards in intensive care as well as surgical strategies is ongoing. However, trends towards a moderate, non-aggressive resuscitation approach and careful inclusion of key parameters like physiological age, pre-burn functional status and premorbid conditions, seem to be useful guidelines for interdisciplinary treatment decisions. Once ordered for surgical treatment, the amount of body surface area operated in one session should be adapted to the general status of the patient. Even if older burn victims have a reported higher mortality rate than younger patients, improved therapeutic options have contributed to a reduced mortality rate even in the elderly over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive rehabilitation program. This review will give an overview of the current literature and will draw attention to specific topics related to this important subpopulation of burn patients.

  6. Erosive burning of solid propellants (United States)

    King, Merrill K.


    Presented here is a review of the experimental and modeling work concerning erosive burning of solid propellants (augmentation of burning rate by flow of product gases across a burning surface). A brief introduction describes the motor design problems caused by this phenomenon, particularly for low port/throat area ratio motors and nozzleless motors. Various experimental techniques for measuring crossflow sensitivity of solid propellant burning rates are described, with the conclusion that accurate simulation of the flow, including upstream flow development, in actual motors is important since the degree of erosive burning depends not only on local mean crossflow velocity and propellant nature, but also upon this upstream development. In the modeling area, a brief review of simplified models and correlating equations is presented, followed by a description of more complex numerical analysis models. Both composite and double-base propellant models are reviewed. A second generation composite model is shown to give good agreement with data obtained in a series of tests in which composite propellant composition and heterogeneity (particle size distribution) were systematically varied. Finally, the use of numerical models for the development of erosive burning correlations is described, and a brief discussion of scaling is presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master


    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  8. Iron metabolism in burned children. (United States)

    Belmonte, J A; Ibáñez, L; Ras, M R; Aulesa, C; Vinzo, J; Iglesias, J; Carol, J


    The administration of iron supplementation in children with burns has been a subject of controversy. Recent studies argue against its use in the acute phase of stress. To assess whether iron metabolism parameters show significant differences in the acute phase and the recovery phase of burn, 21 patients (age range: 17 months to 13 years) with burns of more than 10% of body surface who had not received blood transfusions or iron supplementation were studied. Sideraemia, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation index (TSI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed both in the acute and the recovery phase after burn. Sideraemia, transferrin, and TSI were significantly lower in the acute than in the recovery phase (17.3 +/- 3 vs 53.8 +/- 6.6 microg/dL, 190.5 +/- 15 vs 287.9 +/- 14.3 mg/dL and 7.7 +/- 1.3 vs 15.4 +/- 1.6%, P 1.5 vs 0.7 +/- 0.2 mg/dL, P = 0.016 and P 2 years), the observed differences persisted. Hyposideraemia is a frequent finding in the acute phase of paediatric burns and is accompanied by increased ferritin levels and decreased transferrin concentrations. The low iron values tend to recover without the use of iron supplementation suggesting an endogenous block of iron release in the acute phase and indicates that iron therapy should be not recommended in the initial period of stress of the burned patient.

  9. Chemistry of burning the forest floor during the FROSTFIRE experimental burn, interior Alaska, 1999 (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Sandberg, D.V.; Turetsky, M.R.; Ottmar, R.; Gleixner, G.; Fries, T.L.; Manies, K.L.


    Wildfires represent one of the most common disturbances in boreal regions, and have the potential to reduce C, N, and Hg stocks in soils while contributing to atmospheric emissions. Organic soil layers of the forest floor were sampled before and after the FROSTFIRE experimental burn in interior Alaska, and were analyzed for bulk density, major and trace elements, and organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon, nutrients, and several major and trace elements were significantly altered by the burn. Emissions of C, N, and Hg, estimated from chemical mass balance equations using Fe, Al, and Si as stable constituents, indicated that 500 to 900 g C and up to 0 to 4 ?? 10-4 g Hg/M2 were lost from the site. Calculations of nitrogen loss range from -4 to +6 g/m2 but were highly variable (standard deviation 19), with some samples showing increased N concentrations post-burn potentially from canopy ash. Noncombustible major nutrients such as Ca and K also were inherited from canopy ash. Thermogravimetry indicates a loss of thermally labile C and increase of lignin-like C in char and ash relative to unburned counterparts. Overall, atmospheric impacts of boreal fires include large emissions of C, N and Hg that vary greatly as a function of severe fire weather and its access to deep organic layers rich in C, N, and Hg. In terrestrial systems, burning rearranges the vertical distribution of nutrients in fuels and soils, the proximity of nutrients and permafrost to surface biota, and the chemical composition of soil including its nutrient and organic constituents, all of which impact C cycling. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Menstrual Cycle (United States)

    ... Luteal (after egg release) Changes During the Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is regulated by the complex interaction of ... egg release) Luteal (after egg release) The menstrual cycle begins with menstrual bleeding (menstruation), which marks the first day of ...

  11. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys


    Yalcin Kulahci; Fatih Zor; Mehmet Bozkurt; Serdar Ozturk; Mustafa Sengezer


    Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloon...

  12. A Systematic Review on the Epidemiology of Pediatric Burn in Iran. (United States)

    Hashemi, Sayed Saeed; Sharhani, Asaad; Lotfi, Bahare; Ahmadi-Juibari, Toraj; Shaahmadi, Zahra; Aghaei, Abbas


    Burn is the most common pediatric injuries all over the world. The aim of this study was to study the epidemiology of burn in under 15-year-old Iranian children by applying a systematic review. The related articles published before 2016 have been gathered from international databases by using the keywords in term of pediatric burns such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, Iranmedex, Google Scholar, Embase, Magiran, and SID. The checklists of STROBE have been applied to evaluate the quality of the reviewed data. A total of 35 relevant studies were extracted and evaluated. In most studies, the incidence of pediatric burns in male patients was more than female patients by 9.5 to 50 cases in 100,000 per children. Mortality rate of pediatric burn was between 1.7 and 18.5%. The most common cause of pediatric burn was hot water or other hot liquids. Pediatric burn in urban areas was higher and the highest number of pediatric burns occurred at home. Burn is considered as one of the major incidents related to children's health that required planning to reduce its incidence, especially in the lower age groups as well as male patients who are more active and susceptible to burn.

  13. Effects of burn location and investigator on burn depth in a porcine model. (United States)

    Singer, Adam J; Toussaint, Jimmy; Chung, Won Taek; Thode, Henry C; McClain, Steve; Raut, Vivek


    In order to be useful, animal models should be reproducible and consistent regardless of sampling bias, investigator creating burn, and burn location. We determined the variability in burn depth based on biopsy location, burn location and investigator in a porcine model of partial thickness burns. 24 partial thickness burns (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm each) were created on the backs of 2 anesthetized pigs by 2 investigators (one experienced, one inexperienced) using a previously validated model. In one of the pigs, the necrotic epidermis covering each burn was removed. Five full thickness 4mm punch biopsies were obtained 1h after injury from the four corners and center of the burns and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome for determination of burn depth by a board certified dermatopathologist blinded to burn location and investigator. Comparisons of burn depth by biopsy location, burn location and investigator were performed with t-tests and ANOVA as appropriate. The mean (SD) depth of injury to blood vessels (the main determinant of burn progression) in debrided and non-debrided pigs pooled together was 1.8 (0.3)mm, which included 75% of the dermal depth. Non-debrided burns were 0.24 mm deeper than debrided burns (PBurn depth increased marginally from cephalic to caudal in non-debrided burns, but showed no statistical differences for these locations, in debrided burns. Additionally, there were also no statistical differences in burn depths from midline to lateral in either of these burn types. Burn depth was similar for both investigators and among biopsy locations. Burn depth was greater for caudal locations in non-debrided burns and overall non-debrided burns were deeper than debrided burns. However, burn depth did not differ based on investigator, biopsy site, and medial-lateral location. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Tweens feel the burn: "salt and ice challenge" burns. (United States)

    Roussel, Lauren O; Bell, Derek E


    To review our institution's experience with frostbite injury secondary to "salt and ice challenge" (SIC) participation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of intentional freezing burns from 2012 to 2014. Demographics, depth and location of burn, total body surface area of burn, treatment, time to wound healing, length of stay, complications, and motives behind participation were analyzed. Five patients were seen in the emergency department for intentional freezing burns that resulted from SIC (all females; mean age: 12.3 years; range age: 10.0-13.2 years). Mean total body surface area was 0.408%. Salt and ice was in contact with skin for >10 min for two patients, >20 min for two patients, and an unknown duration for one patient. Complications included pain and burn scar dyschromia. Four patients cited peer pressure and desire to replicate SIC as seen on the Internet as their motivation in attempting the challenge. SIC has become a popular, self-harming behavior among youths. Increased public education, and provider and parent awareness of SIC are essential to address this public health concern.

  15. Evaluation of Isotopic Measurements and Burn-up Value of Sample GU3 of ARIANE Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tore, C.; Rodriguez Rivada, A.


    Estimation of the burn-up value of irradiated fuel and its isotopic composition are important for criticality analysis, spent fuel management and source term estimation. The practical way to estimate the irradiated fuel composition and burn.up value is calculation with validated code and nuclear data. Such validation of the neutronic codes and nuclear data requires the benchmarking with measured values. (Author)

  16. Overview of ethno-folkloric burns in the Republic of Slovenia. (United States)

    Stritar, A; Brčić, A; Drnovšek, F; Malvasio, V


    The article describes typical folkloric- and ethnographic-related burns/scalds in Slovenia. All of the mentioned burns/scalds derive from the life of a nation, and are primarily a result of specific customs, traditions and activities carried out in a rural environment. Prolonged periods of lying on a hot tiled wood burner results in deep contact burns. The preparation work for pig slaughtering ('koline') is dangerous due to the large quantities of boiling water required for the slaughter process and meat production technology. Distilling spirits in an improvised domestic setting is another cause of burns/scalds, as the production of spirits is carried out in several stages with a high risk of burn trauma in the event of negligence. These types of burns/scalds occur in rural farming areas. Such injuries are most often ignored and patients, children excepted, do not seek medical help until later, after they have completed their activity. Due to aggressive thermal agents, these are deep burns that often require specialist surgical care with long-term treatment. Results are evaluated on the basis of a tenyear statistical and clinical experience. Incidence of the aforementioned burns is considerably lower today than it was in the past due to national prevention measures and new European legislation on energy and agriculture. In the future, we expect these distinctive burns/scalds to become a rarity.

  17. Sleep quantity and quality is not compromised during planned burn shifts of less than 12 h. (United States)

    Vincent, Grace E; Aisbett, Brad; Hall, Sarah J; Ferguson, Sally A

    Planned burning is a preventative strategy aimed at decreasing fuel loads to reduce the severity of future wildfire events. During planned burn operations, firefighters can work long shifts. Furthermore, remote burning locations may require firefighters to sleep away from home between shifts. The existing evidence surrounding firefighters' sleep during such operations is exclusively anecdotal. The aims of the study were to describe firefighters' sleep during planned burn operations and evaluate the impact of the key operational factors (shift start time, shift length and sleeping location) that may contribute to inadequate sleep. Thirty-three salaried firefighters were recruited from Australia's fire agencies and sleep was measured objectively using wrist actigraphy for four weeks. All variables were examined in two conditions: (1) burn days, and (2) non-burn days. Time in bed, total sleep time, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were evaluated objectively. Subjective reports of pre- and post-sleep fatigue, sleep location, sleep quality, sleep quantity, number of times woken and sleep timing were also recorded. Analyses revealed no differences in measures of sleep quantity and quality when comparing non-burn and burn days. Total sleep time was less when planned burn shifts were >12 h. However, on burn days, work shift start time as well as sleeping location did not impact firefighters' sleep quantity. Self-reported levels of pre- and post-sleep fatigue were greater on burn days compared to non-burn days. These findings indicate that sleep quantity and quality are not compromised during planned burn operations <12 h in duration.

  18. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J


    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support.

  19. LA50 in burn injuries. (United States)

    Seyed-Forootan, K; Karimi, H; Motevalian, S A; Momeni, M; Safari, R; Ghadarjani, M


    Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months - 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country.

  20. Topical management of facial burns. (United States)

    Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N


    The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital areas that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial burns disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial burns may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the burn. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial burns. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial burn. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed.

  1. Telemedicine and burns: an overview. (United States)

    Atiyeh, B; Dibo, S A; Janom, H H


    Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency.

  2. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.


    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  3. Ant Diversity in a Sugarcane Culture without the Use of Straw Burning in Southeast, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora R. De Souza


    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of the current requirements of agroecosystem management is the maintenance of biodiversity. Manual sugarcane harvesting with the previous burning of straw has been gradually replaced by mechanical harvesting in Brazil. However, the diversity of Formicidae, which can be a natural pest controller, has not been studied in this new system yet. Approach: This study was carried out to assess the diversity of ants in an exclusively mechanically harvested sugarcane culture based on the hypothesis that species richness and abundance will increase with the deposition of straw in this culture system. Ants were sampled using pitfall traps in six sugarcane cultivars during three consecutive harvest cycles. Results: A total of 8,139 ants, distributed in 39 species, were collected. Richness, abundance and diversity differed between harvest cycles, especially in the first cycle, when the soil did not have any straw and in the two last cycles and the straw layer was about 10-15 cm thick. The communities found in the second and third cycles were similar and the maintenance of straw in the culture contributed to a greater species diversity, particularly of generalist predaceous taxa, which may contribute to the natural control of pests. Conclusion: The diversity of ants increased with straw deposition, including of taxa that may be beneficial to the sugarcane culture. However, new studies of the predatory and competition relations in this agroecosystem are necessary.

  4. Should early amputation impact initial fluid therapy algorithms in burns resuscitation? A retrospective analysis using 3D modelling. (United States)

    Staruch, Robert M T; Beverly, A; Lewis, D; Wilson, Y; Martin, N


    While the epidemiology of amputations in patients with burns has been investigated previously, the effect of an amputation on burn size and its impact on fluid management have not been considered in the literature. Fluid resuscitation volumes are based on the percentage of the total body surface area (%TBSA) burned calculated during the primary survey. There is currently no consensus as to whether the fluid volumes should be recalculated after an amputation to compensate for the new body surface area. The aim of this study was to model the impact of an amputation on burn size and predicted fluid requirement. A retrospective search was performed of the database at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham Regional Burns Centre to identify all patients who had required an early amputation as a result of their burn injury. The search identified 10 patients over a 3-year period. Burn injuries were then mapped using 3D modelling software. BurnCase3D is a computer program that allows accurate plotting of burn injuries on a digital mannequin adjusted for height and weight. Theoretical fluid requirements were then calculated using the Parkland formula for the first 24 h, and Herndon formula for the second 24 h, taking into consideration the effects of the amputation on residual burn size. This study demonstrated that amputation can have an unpredictable effect on burn size that results in a significant deviation from predicted fluid resuscitation volumes. This discrepancy in fluid estimation may cause iatrogenic complications due to over-resuscitation in burn-injured casualties. Combining a more accurate estimation of postamputation burn size with goal-directed fluid therapy during the resuscitation phase should enable burn care teams to optimise patient outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  5. Notes on burn nursing : aspects of pain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E.E. de


    Adequate management of burn pain may influence pain resistance, analgesic requirements, sensitivity to pain over time, wound healing and the development of delirium and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Efforts should be made to optimize pain management. An important step is effect evaluation of interv

  6. The hospital costs associated with acute paediatric burn injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, E.W.; M.J. Poley (Marten); M. Van Dijk (Monique); Rogers, A.D.; H. Rode (Heinz)


    textabstractBackground. Ongoing rationing of healthcare threatens services that are well established, and cripples others that desperately require investment. Burn, for one, remains a neglected epidemic in South Africa (SA), despite the magnitude of the problem. Objective. To identify the prominent

  7. Notes on burn nursing : aspects of pain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E.E. de


    Adequate management of burn pain may influence pain resistance, analgesic requirements, sensitivity to pain over time, wound healing and the development of delirium and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Efforts should be made to optimize pain management. An important step is effect evaluation of

  8. The rotamase Pin1 is up-regulated, hypophosphorylated and required for cell cycle progression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. (United States)

    Wiegand, Susanne; Dakic, Branka; Rath, Ariane F E; Makarova, Galina; Sterz, Carolina; Meissner, Wolfgang; Bette, Michael; Adamkiewicz, Jürgen; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf; Werner, Jochen A; Mandic, Robert


    The peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 has been implicated in malignant transformation in multiple studies, however, little is known about its potential impact in head and neck cancer. This study evaluates the role of Pin1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Pin1 expression and level of phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blot analysis and 2D-gel-electrophoresis. Pin1 was inhibited with juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione) or Pin1 specific siRNA and its influence on cell cycle checkpoint distribution was assessed by FACS analysis. Pin1 overexpression was found in HNSCC tissues and cell lines. 2D-gel-electrophoresis data pointed to Pin1 being hypophosphorylated in HNSCC cells which is consistent with overactivation of this rotamase. Inhibition of HNSCC cells with juglone or Pin1 siRNA induced the cell cycle inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) with a concomitant reduction of cells in G2/M and an increased fraction of cells with fragmented DNA. Cell death did not correlate with significant levels of apoptosis in Pin1 depleted HNSCC cells. In summary, the data shows that Pin1 is overexpressed and hypophosphorylated in HNSCC, and that inhibition of Pin1 blocks cell cycle progression and triggers tumor cell death. Pin1 therefore could represent a new target for the development of improved HNSCC targeting drugs.

  9. Transient expression of RAD51 in the late G2-phase is required for cell cycle progression in synchronous Physarum cells. (United States)

    Le Cigne, Anthony; Menil-Philippot, Vanessa; Fleury, Fabrice; Takahashi, Masayuki; Thiriet, Christophe


    The homologous recombination factor RAD51 is highly conserved. This criterion enabled us to identify a RAD51 ortholog in Physarum polycephalum. We found that the Physarum protein presents a high homology to the human protein and cross-reacted with antibodies directed against the human RAD51. Taking advantage of the natural synchrony of millions of nuclei within a single cell of Physarum, we investigated the fluctuation of the amount of the PpRAD51 throughout the cell cycle. Our results showed that in the late G2-phase, RAD51 was transiently expressed in a large quantity. Furthermore, knocking-down RAD51 in the G2-phase abolished this transient expression before mitosis and affected cell cycle progression. These results support the idea that RAD51 plays a role in the progression of the cell cycle in the late G2-phase. © 2014 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2014 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Distribution of slow-cycling cells in epiphyseal cartilage and requirement of β-catenin signaling for their maintenance in growth plate. (United States)

    Candela, Maria Elena; Cantley, Leslie; Yasuaha, Rika; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi


    Slow proliferation is one of the characteristics of stem cells. We examined the presence, distribution, and regulation of slow-cycling cells in the developing and growing skeleton using a pulse-chase method with a new nucleoside derivative, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). C57BL/6 mice received daily intraperitoneal injections of EdU from postnatal day 4 to day 7. One day after the last EdU injection, a large population of cells in articular cartilage and growth plate was labeled. Six weeks after the last injection, the number of EdU-labeled cells dramatically decreased, but a small number of them were dominantly present in the articular surface, and the labeling index was significantly higher in the surface than that in the rest of articular cartilage. In the growth plate, most EdU-positive cells were found in the top layer that lies immediately below the secondary ossification center. Interestingly, postnatal conditional ablation of β-catenin in cartilage caused a complete loss of the EdU-labeled cells in growth plate that displayed disorganization and dysfunction. Together, our data demonstrate that slow-cycling cells do reside in specific locations and numbers in both articular cartilage and growth plate. The β-catenin signaling pathway appears to play a previously unsuspected role in maintenance of the slow-cycling cells.

  11. Energy poverty, shack fires and childhood burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Kimemia


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a persisting challenge in South Africa. Energy poverty, prevalent in under-resourced communities, is a key contributor to the problem. The energy-poor rely on solid fuels and flammable hydrocarbons, such as paraffin, for energy services. The fuels are burnt in inefficient, leaky and unstable appliances, leading to health losses from pollutant emissions, burns, and conflagrations. Within cramped informal home settings, using flammable fuels and risky combustion technologies, the situation can become devastating, especially for young children. Those who survive fiery incidents have to contend with trauma and property losses that may lead to further impoverishment. Proactive intervention strategies are required and should include the broadening of access to safe and sustainable energy. We advocate greater enforcement of home appliance standards and targeted support for the distribution of proven alternative energy technologies, such as liquefied petroleum gas and solar power. Support and advocacy from professional and citizen groups would be necessary to ensure that government prioritises the safe energy requirements of poor citizens.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  13. American Burn Association Practice Guidelines: Burn Shock Resuscitation (United States)


    valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JAN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE American Burn Association...colloid or saline solutions. Clin Sci 1964; 26:429–43. 21. Markley K, Bocanegra M, Bazan A, et al. Clinical evaluation of saline solution therapy in

  14. Long-term outcomes in patients surviving large burns: the skin. (United States)

    Holavanahalli, Radha K; Helm, Phala A; Kowalske, Karen J


    The objective of this study was to evaluate persons who have survived severe burns and to describe the long-term residual problems relating to the skin. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that included a one-time evaluation of 98 burn survivors (18 years old or older) who survived >or=30% TBSA burns, were >or=3 years postinjury, and consented to participate. Study participants were required to undergo a physical examination conducted by the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation physicians in addition to completing study questionnaires. Participants were predominantly male (63%) and Caucasian (69%). The average time from injury was 17 years (range 3-53 years), and the average TBSA burn was 57% (range 30-97%). Problems with hot and cold temperature, sensory loss, raised scars, and itching continued to pose problems many years after burn injury. Reports of open wounds, skin rash, painful scars, and shooting pain in scars tended to decrease over time, whereas reports of fragile burns, including cuts and tears, tended to increase over time. Findings from the physical examination of the participants include hypertrophic scars in grafted areas (92%) and in nongrafted areas (38%), decreased sensation to pin in grafted areas (71%), hyperpigmentation in grafted areas (53%), fingernail deformities (35%), and skin breakdown (32%). Individuals with large burns deserve more long-term attention. As survivors of large burns continue to face significant burn-related issues, there is a critical need for long-term follow-up both in the clinic and in research.


    Harats, Moti; Wiessman, Oren; Peleg, Kobi; Givon, Adi; Haik, Joseh


    The treatment of burn patients plays a major role in the health system, requiring numerous resources and extensively long hospitalizations. The treatment involves Intensive Care Units and the entire medical and para-medical staff. Currently, Israel has 5 designated burn units, strategically scattered all over the country. Recently, due to some major burn disasters, reevaluation of the demography, etiology and clinical features of burns has been conducted. The study entails quantity and quality evaluations of burn victims in Israel between the years 2004 and 2010, identification of high risk populations and recent demographic, etiological and clinical trends. A data analysis was conducted of all the burn patients hospitalized in Israel's 5 trauma centers' burn units between the years 2004 and 2010 according to the Israeli Trauma Registry (ITR). Between the years 2004 and 2010, 5270 burn victims were hospitalized in five trauma centers burn units. The average hospitalization period was 11.67 days, while the mortality rate was 3.72%. High risk populations were identified as babies up to 2 years old and the non-Jewish population. High risk populations were identified, such as young babies and the non-Jewish population. These groups should be addressed specifically with proper publicity and information. Even though mortality rates were stable, the mean hospitalization length is declining over the years, possibly secondary to advanced dressing and ambulatory treatments.

  16. Nest box use and productivity of great crested flycatchers in prescribed-burned longleaf pine forests (United States)

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.


    Managing for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) on federal lands requires burning large tracts of mature pine forests every 3-5 yr. Many cavity trees that serve as potential nest sites for primary and secondary hole-nesting birds are destroyed by fire. We assessed the efficacy of a nest box program for the Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge, an area intensively managed for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. During 1996-1998, we installed and monitored 330 (30 in each of 11 sites) nest boxes in mature (>60 yr) longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) tracts that were burned either in April-June (warm season) or December-March (cool season). Prescribed-burned sites were nearly devoid of snags; we estimated only 0.8/ ha in cool-season burns and 1.7/ha in warm-season burns. Great Crested Flycatchers built nests in 20% of the boxes available to them. Clutch sizes were larger in warm-season burns than in cool-season burns, but fledging success (fledglings/nest hatching -1 egg) was lower. Twenty-two of 59 Great Crested Flycatcher nests were depredated and the proportions in each burn class were similar. We recommend the installation of nest boxes for Great Crested Flycatchers in prescribed-burned pine forests, but additional research is needed in these habitats on nest depredation rates and causes.

  17. Medical workers' cognition of using 50% nitrous oxide in children with burns: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Xia; Li, Yu-Xiang; Zhou, Ru-Zhen; Zhao, Ji-Jun


    Pain caused by dressing among children with burns is an issue worth discussing. Medical workers' understanding of pain during dressing in children with burns is correlated with the quality of pain management. Effective pain management is significant to improve anxiety and reduce pain and psychological distress during dressing for children with burns. We aimed to investigate medical workers' understanding of current pain management during dressing among children with burns and their attitudes toward the application of 50% nitrous oxide in pain management. Interviews were conducted with seven doctors and nurses from a burn center in East China. Data were collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Three themes were identified: (1) Medical workers felt sympathy for children with burns and believed that a gap existed between the current and expected situation in pain management. In addition, the prescription of analgesics during dressing for children with burns was not favored. (2) Given the fact that 50% nitrous oxide is effective in pain management for adult patients with burns, medical workers tended to apply it to children with burns during dressing after being provided the literature on the use of 50% nitrous oxide in children. (3) Guidelines for the application of 50% nitrous oxide during dressing for children with burns require further modification. Medical workers deemed the pain management for children with burns unsatisfactory, and they supported the application of 50% nitrous oxide during dressing for children with burns. Meanwhile, they hoped that administrators would also support it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Life Cycle Management in the Textile Sector a Study of Up-streram Requirements on Environment, Working Environment, Child Labour, Pesticides and Organic Grown Cotton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Nielsen, Anne


    The scope of the study has been to investigate the experiences of Danish enterprises setting requirements upstream the textile supply chain. The project has examined the experiences setting requirements, obtaining improvements and getting documentation for this in relation to the following aspects......, working environment, child labour, use of pesticides and use of organic grown cotton the project have resulted in a large number of findings divided on the different aspects. However, the following common findings should be mentioned: - International trade quota and tariffs and changes in currency...... requirements are to be met rather than finding a new supplier - There is no uniform way of setting and managing requirements. The enterprises often use existing co-operation patterns to include new requirements on environment, working environment or child labour - The enterprises find it easier to set...

  19. Periorbital burns – a 6 year review of management and outcome. (United States)

    Fitzgerald O'Connor, Edmund; Frew, Q; Din, A; Pleat, J; Ashraff, S; Ghazi-Nouri, S; El-Muttardi, N; Philp, B; Dziewulski, P


    Periorbital burns are an infrequent but potentially devastating injury. This study aimed to elucidate the spectrum of such injuries presenting to a UK burns centre and the outcome achieved in the cases requiring periorbital reconstruction for the restoration of function and form. Patients admitted to a UK regional burns centre between January 2005 and January 2011 with periorbital burns were identified from the Patient Administration System (PAS), theatre logs and the International Burns Injury database (IBID). Multiple parameters were assessed using patient notes, ITU and hospital image databases. Over 6 years, 167 patients with facial burns requiring surgery were treated, including 103 patients with eyelid burns. The mean burn size was 33% total body surface area. The eyelid burn depth varied; 67% superficial partial thickness, 17% deep dermal and 16% full thickness. Two patients lost complete vision in one eye, one patient underwent amniotic membrane grafting. In total 16 patients required periorbital reconstruction to maintain eye closure, with 1.8 operations on average per patient. Acute surgery was required in 11 patients, whilst late intervention (>3 months) was needed in 5, 2 patients had both acute and delayed surgery. Of the 5 late intervention patients 4 were treated with full thickness skin grafts and 1 with a Z plasty. Average time for final reconstruction with delayed surgery was 4.5 months. The goal in management of periorbital burns is preservation of vision, prevention of future complications and restoration of an acceptable aesthetic outcome. Total visual loss is thankfully rare, but early ophthalmology intervention is vital given the evidence of corneal damage as a brief therapeutic window exists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Examination of the Entry to Burn and Burn Control for the ITER 15 MA Baseline and Other Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesse, Charles E. [PPPL; Kim, S-H. [ITER; Koechl, F. [EURATOM-OAW/ATI


    The entry to burn and flattop burn control in ITER will be a critical need from the first DT experiments. Simulations are used to address time-dependent behavior under a range of possible conditions that include injected power level, impurity content (W, Ar, Be), density evolution, H-mode regimes, controlled parameter (Wth, Pnet, Pfusion), and actuator (Paux, fueling, fAr), with a range of transport models. A number of physics issues at the L-H transition require better understanding to project to ITER, however, simulations indicate viable control with sufficient auxiliary power (up to 73 MW), while lower powers become marginal (as low as 43 MW).

  1. The elderly patient with burns: treatment considerations. (United States)

    Staley, M; Richard, R


    When therapists treat elderly patients with burns, they should ask themselves several questions: Am I treating elderly patients with burns "just like other patients with burns?" Am I assessing the patient's joint mobility and strength as critically as I should? Am I ensuring that further tissue trauma is avoided by instructing the nursing staff in turning/transfer techniques? Am I routinely monitoring heart rate and blood pressure? Am I requiring repetition and practice of exercises before the patient's discharge? Is my patient safe to function in the environment to which he or she is being discharged? Most physical changes in the elderly population are attributed to the aging process but often are due to diminished movement disorders arising from poor physical fitness and disuse. The "slowdown" in the older adult may result from a lack of appropriate movement practice and failure to receive reinforcement for activity. Regardless of age, physiological challenges result in enhanced functional status. Training for a specific skill increases performance in that skill just as strength training increases strength. Practice or repetition of a task improves movement and response time for that task. Appropriate physical training programs for the elderly can (1) counterbalance age-associated declines in work capacity and physical performance; (2) maintain and improve range of motion, strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance; and (3) reduce the disability of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and musculoskeletal systems that may result in decreased risk of falls and accidents. Practice of a task and maintenance of physical fitness helps ensure a high level of motor performance and speed as a person grows older. One is never too old to exercise!

  2. Optimal Mechansim Design and Money Burning

    CERN Document Server

    Hartline, Jason D


    Mechanism design is now a standard tool in computer science for aligning the incentives of self-interested agents with the objectives of a system designer. There is, however, a fundamental disconnect between the traditional application domains of mechanism design (such as auctions) and those arising in computer science (such as networks): while monetary transfers (i.e., payments) are essential for most of the known positive results in mechanism design, they are undesirable or even technologically infeasible in many computer systems. Classical impossibility results imply that the reach of mechanisms without transfers is severely limited. Computer systems typically do have the ability to reduce service quality--routing systems can drop or delay traffic, scheduling protocols can delay the release of jobs, and computational payment schemes can require computational payments from users (e.g., in spam-fighting systems). Service degradation is tantamount to requiring that users burn money}, and such ``payments'' can...

  3. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety (United States)

    ... Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Youth Violence Prevention Burn Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir We ... to prevent leading causes of child injury, like burns, is a step toward this goal. Every day, ...

  4. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... rare, have ranged from mild to severe chemical burns with use of such brand-name topical muscle ...

  5. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management. (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel


    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns.

  6. Evaluating potential benefits of burning lower quality fuel oils using the oil burn optimization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babilonia, P.


    As a result of a 1987 New York State Public Service Commission Audit of Niagara Mohawk`s Fuel Supply operations, Niagara Mohawk (NMPC) became interested in analyzing the plant performance impacts of burning fuels of differing qualities at its various generating stations. Black & Veatch (B&V) had previously developed a computer model for EPRI that analyzed coal quality impacts (i.e., Coal Quality Impact Model). As a result of B&V`s work, NMPC contracted with B&V to first develop custom-designed software for its coal stations (Coal Burn Optimization Model (CBOM)). Subsequently, B&V was retained to develop a similar designed software for its oil stations, Oswego and Albany Steam Stations. The Oil Burn Optimization Model (OBOM) was, therefore, developed. OBOM was designed to be used to evaluate residual fuel oil supply options by predicting their fuel-related plant operating and maintenance costs. Fuel oil-related costs can also be compared to natural gas-related costs. Costs are estimated by predicting performance of various plant equipment. Predictions focus on combustion calculations, material flows, auxiliary power, boiler efficiency, precipitator and fan performance, fuel pumping and preheating requirements, and corrosion considerations. Total costs at the busbar attributed to fuel are calculated from these predictions. OBOM is a PC-based system operating under MS-DOS. The model produces hard copy results for quick comparison of fuels and their potential effects on plant operating and maintenance costs.

  7. Life Cycle Management in the Textile Sector a Study of Up-streram Requirements on Environment, Working Environment, Child Labour, Pesticides and Organic Grown Cotton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Nielsen, Anne


    The scope of the study has been to investigate the experiences of Danish enterprises setting requirements upstream the textile supply chain. The project has examined the experiences setting requirements, obtaining improvements and getting documentation for this in relation to the following aspects...... exchange rates used for import and export are influencing heavily on the enterprises' choice of suppliers and set constraints for their ability to set requirements - Enterprises have different reasons to start working with an aspect: Public regulation, public debate, market opportunities and enterprises...

  8. Engineering dissipation with phononic spectral hole burning (United States)

    Behunin, R. O.; Kharel, P.; Renninger, W. H.; Rakich, P. T.


    Optomechanics, nano-electromechanics, and integrated photonics have brought about a renaissance in phononic device physics and technology. Central to this advance are devices and materials supporting ultra-long-lived photonic and phononic excitations that enable novel regimes of classical and quantum dynamics based on tailorable photon-phonon coupling. Silica-based devices have been at the forefront of such innovations for their ability to support optical excitations persisting for nearly 1 billion cycles, and for their low optical nonlinearity. While acoustic phonon modes can persist for a similar number of cycles in crystalline solids at cryogenic temperatures, it has not been possible to achieve such performance in silica, as silica becomes acoustically opaque at low temperatures. We demonstrate that these intrinsic forms of phonon dissipation are greatly reduced (by >90%) by nonlinear saturation using continuous drive fields of disparate frequencies. The result is a form of steady-state phononic spectral hole burning that produces a wideband transparency window with optically generated phonon fields of modest (nW) powers. We developed a simple model that explains both dissipative and dispersive changes produced by phononic saturation. Our studies, conducted in a microscale device, represent an important step towards engineerable phonon dynamics on demand and the use of glasses as low-loss phononic media.

  9. CtrA response regulator binding to the Caulobacter chromosome replication origin is required during nutrient and antibiotic stress as well as during cell cycle progression. (United States)

    Bastedo, D Patrick; Marczynski, Gregory T


    The Caulobacter crescentus chromosome replication origin (Cori) has five binding sites for CtrA, an OmpR/PhoB family 'response regulator'. CtrA is degraded in replicating 'stalked' cells but is abundant in the non-replicating 'swarmer' cells, where it was proposed to repress replication by binding to Cori. We systematically mutated all Cori CtrA binding sites, and examined their consequences in the contexts of autonomous Cori-plasmid replication and in the natural chromosome locus. Remarkably, the C. crescentus chromosome tolerates severe mutations in all five CtrA binding sites, demonstrating that CtrA is not essential for replication. Further physiological and cell cycle experiments more rigorously supported the original hypothesis that CtrA represses replication. However, our experiments argued against another hypothesis that residual and/or replenished CtrA protein in stalked cells might prevent extra or unscheduled chromosome replication before cell division. Surprisingly, we also demonstrated that Cori CtrA binding sites are very advantageous and can become essential when cells encounter nutrients and antibiotics. Therefore, the CtrA cell cycle regulator co-ordinates replication with viable cell growth in stressful and rapidly changing environments. We argue that this new role for CtrA provided the primary selective pressure for evolving control by CtrA.

  10. Inhibition of prostate cancer growth by solanine requires the suppression of cell cycle proteins and the activation of ROS/P38 signaling pathway. (United States)

    Pan, Bin; Zhong, Weifeng; Deng, Zhihai; Lai, Caiyong; Chu, Jing; Jiao, Genlong; Liu, Junfeng; Zhou, Qizhao


    Solanine, a naturally steroidal glycoalkaloid in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of solanine-suppressing prostate cancer cell growth remains to be elucidated. This study investigates the inhibition mechanism of solanine on cancer development in vivo and in cultured human prostate cancer cell DU145 in vitro. Results show that solanine injection significantly suppresses the tumor cell growth in xenograft athymic nude mice. Solanine regulates the protein levels of cell cycle proteins, including Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and P21 in vivo and in vitro. Also, in cultured DU145 cell, solanine significantly inhibits cell growth. Moreover, the administration of NAC, an active oxygen scavenger, markedly reduces solanine-induced cell death. Blockade of P38 MAPK kinase cannot suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS), but can suppress solanine-induced cell apoptosis. Also, inhibition of ROS by NAC inactivates P38 pathway. Taken together, the data suggest that inhibition of prostate cancer growth by solanine may be through blocking the expression of cell cycle proteins and inducing apoptosis via ROS and activation of P38 pathway. These findings indicate an attractive therapeutic potential of solanine for suppression of prostate cancer.

  11. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  12. Imaging acute thermal burns by photoacoustic microscopy


    Zhang, Hao F.; Maslov, Konstantin; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.


    The clinical significance of a burn depends on the percentage of total body involved and the depth of the burn. Hence a noninvasive method that is able to evaluate burn depth would be of great help in clinical evaluation. To this end, photoacoustic microscopy is used to determine the depth of acute thermal burns by imaging the total hemoglobin concentration in the blood that accumulates along the boundaries of injuries as a result of thermal damage to the vasculature. We induce acute thermal ...

  13. Antibiotics and the burn patient. (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard


    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Biogeochemical Cycling (United States)

    Bebout, Brad; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)


    This lecture will introduce the concept of biogeochemical cycling. The roles of microbes in the cycling of nutrients, production and consumption of trace gases, and mineralization will be briefly introduced.

  15. Use of previously burned skin as random cutaneous local flaps in pediatric burn reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN; McCauley, RL


    Reconstruction after post-burn scarring remains a challenge. It is especially true in the severely burned patient, who normally presents with a paucity of donor sites Healed skin from areas that had been burned and skin from grafted areas (termed as previously burned skin) have been occasionally use

  16. Use of previously burned skin as random cutaneous local flaps in pediatric burn reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN; McCauley, RL

    Reconstruction after post-burn scarring remains a challenge. It is especially true in the severely burned patient, who normally presents with a paucity of donor sites Healed skin from areas that had been burned and skin from grafted areas (termed as previously burned skin) have been occasionally

  17. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  18. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  19. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management


    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel


    The clinical presentation and severity of hydrofluoric acid burns vary considerably, making management particularly challenging. Given that current knowledge of HF burns is derived from small case series, case reports, animal studies and anecdotal evidence, this narrative review discusses the current understanding of the effects associated with severe hydrofluoric acid burns, describing the mechanism of injury, systemic toxicity and treatment options.

  20. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.


    Chitkara, D K; McNeela, B. J.


    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  1. Quantifying soil burn severity for hydrologic modeling to assess post-fire effects on sediment delivery (United States)

    Dobre, Mariana; Brooks, Erin; Lew, Roger; Kolden, Crystal; Quinn, Dylan; Elliot, William; Robichaud, Pete


    Soil erosion is a secondary fire effect with great implications for many ecosystem resources. Depending on the burn severity, topography, and the weather immediately after the fire, soil erosion can impact municipal water supplies, degrade water quality, and reduce reservoirs' storage capacity. Scientists and managers use field and remotely sensed data to quickly assess post-fire burn severity in ecologically-sensitive areas. From these assessments, mitigation activities are implemented to minimize post-fire flood and soil erosion and to facilitate post-fire vegetation recovery. Alternatively, land managers can use fire behavior and spread models (e.g. FlamMap, FARSITE, FOFEM, or CONSUME) to identify sensitive areas a priori, and apply strategies such as fuel reduction treatments to proactively minimize the risk of wildfire spread and increased burn severity. There is a growing interest in linking fire behavior and spread models with hydrology-based soil erosion models to provide site-specific assessment of mitigation treatments on post-fire runoff and erosion. The challenge remains, however, that many burn severity mapping and modeling products quantify vegetation loss rather than measuring soil burn severity. Wildfire burn severity is spatially heterogeneous and depends on the pre-fire vegetation cover, fuel load, topography, and weather. Severities also differ depending on the variable of interest (e.g. soil, vegetation). In the United States, Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps, derived from Landsat satellite images, are used as an initial burn severity assessment. BARC maps are classified from either a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) or differenced Normalized Burned Ratio (dNBR) scene into four classes (Unburned, Low, Moderate, and High severity). The development of soil burn severity maps requires further manual field validation efforts to transform the BARC maps into a product more applicable for post-fire soil rehabilitation activities

  2. Mortality rate associated with hospital acquired infections among burn patients

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    Saima Aslam Bharwana


    broad spectrum antibiotics, and reduction of the environmental contamination are required to reduce the HAIs rates among burn patients. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(9.000: 790-799

  3. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study. (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J


    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  4. Paediatric suicidal burns: A growing concern. (United States)

    Segu, Smitha; Tataria, Rachana


    An alarming rise in rates of paediatric population committing self-immolation acts is a growing social and medical problem. In recent times there seems to be a rising concern in paediatric population. A study was conducted at a government tertiary care burn centre over 5 years in paediatric age group of middle and upper lower class families. Most had deep partial thickness burns. Psychiatric and personality disorder were found in 24.03% and 31.46% patients respectively. Kerosene was the main agent chosen to inflict injury. The average length of hospital stay was 19.8 days. The crude mortality rate observed was 38.2%. With cultural and socio-economic changes children and adolescents are exposed to increased levels of stress and peer pressure leaving them vulnerable. A multidisciplinary care involving medical, psychological and social support is required. Identifying children at risk and proper counselling and support can form an important strategy at prevention rather than cure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Tl(I) and Tl(III) alter the expression of EGF-dependent signals and cyclins required for pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell-cycle resumption and progression. (United States)

    Pino, María T L; Verstraeten, Sandra V


    The effects of thallium [Tl(I) and Tl(III)] on the PC12 cell cycle were evaluated without (EGF(-)) or with (EGF(+)) media supplementation with epidermal growth factor (EGF). The following markers of cell-cycle phases were analyzed: cyclin D1 (G1 ); E2F-1, cyclin E and cytosolic p21 (G1 →S transition); nuclear PCNA and cyclin A (S); and cyclin B1 (G2). The amount of cells in each phase and the activation of the signaling cascade triggered by EGF were also analyzed. Tl(I) and Tl(III) (5-100 μM) caused dissimilar effects on PC12 cell proliferation. In EGF(-) cells, Tl(I) increased the expression of G1 →S transition markers and nuclear PCNA, without affecting cyclin A or cyclin B1. In addition to those, cyclin B1 was also increased in EGF(+) cells. In EGF(-) cells, Tl(III) increased the expression of cyclin D1, all the G1→S and S phase markers and cyclin B1. In EGF(+) cells, Tl(III) increased cyclin D1 expression and decreased all the markers of G1 →S transition and the S phase. Even when these cations did not induce the activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) in EGF(-) cells, they promoted the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. In the presence of EGF, the cations anticipated EGFR phosphorylation without affecting the kinetics of EGF-dependent ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. Altogether, results indicate that Tl(I) promoted cell proliferation in both EGF(-) and EGF(+) cells. In contrast, Tl(III) promoted the proliferation of EGF(-) cells but delayed it in EGF(+) cells, which may be related to the toxic effects of this cation in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Using Life-Cycle Human Factors Engineering to Avoid $2.4 Million in Costs: Lessons Learned from NASA's Requirements Verification Process for Space Payloads (United States)

    Carr, Daniel; Ellenberger, Rich


    The Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) process has been used to verify human factors requirements for NASA International Space Station (ISS) payloads since 2003, resulting in $2.4 million in avoided costs. This cost benefit has been realized by greatly reducing the need to process time-consuming formal waivers (exceptions) for individual requirements violations. The HFIT team, which includes astronauts and their technical staff, acts as the single source for human factors requirements integration of payloads. HFIT has the authority to provide inputs during early design phases, thus eliminating many potential requirements violations in a cost-effective manner. In those instances where it is not economically or technically feasible to meet the precise metric of a given requirement, HFIT can work with the payload engineers to develop common sense solutions and formally document that the resulting payload design does not materially affect the astronaut s ability to operate and interact with the payload. The HFIT process is fully ISO 9000 compliant and works concurrently with NASA s formal systems engineering work flow. Due to its success with payloads, the HFIT process is being adapted and extended to ISS systems hardware. Key aspects of this process are also being considered for NASA's Space Shuttle replacement, the Crew Exploration Vehicle.

  7. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol


    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle

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    Galina eChurkina


    Full Text Available Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40 % of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr and ~24 (15-39 % of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/yr from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC and landfills (~30 PgC. Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3 % of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the dynamics of these pools and accompanying uptake of carbon. Predictions of the future trajectories of the global carbon cycle will require a much better understanding of how urban development affects the carbon cycle over the long term.

  9. Love burns: An essay about bride burning in India. (United States)

    Jutla, Rajni K; Heimbach, David


    Each year in countries like India, thousands of young women are burned to death or afflicted with fatal burns. They are victims of dowry deaths. The husband and/or in-laws have determined that the dowry, a gift given from the daughter's parents to the husband, was inadequate and therefore attempt to murder the new bride to make the husband available to remarry or to punish the bride and her family. Unfortunately, this is a domestic issue that is often ignored or minimized, and the prosecution is often inadequate. This review article illustrates various scenarios of dowry deaths, investigates different predispositions, summarizes the current legislation, and proposes solutions to this problem. One hopes that the exposure of this problem may curtail its rampant, yet well-hidden, prevalence.

  10. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

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    Shohei Ohgi


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  11. Management of post burn hand deformities

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    Sabapathy S


    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  12. Practical burns management Practical burns management Harvey J Kemble B Lamb Hodder & Stoughton 262pp £9.95 0-340-36997-3. (United States)


    J Harvey Kemble and Brenda Lamb aim to equip staff without a specialist knowledge in the care of burns patients with practical information so that they can give the correct care. The authors cover burns patients ranging from those requiring first aid in an A&E department to those needing admission to an intensive care unit. This seemed to be a very ambitious aim for any book, so I decided to test its claims.

  13. New type of sauna-related burn: conductive contact burn. (United States)

    Shin, Seung Jun; Yoo, Heon; Park, Myong Chul


    A 70-year-old woman visited a Korean-style hot dry sauna room. The patient had a medical history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the sauna, the patient slept for 30 minutes. During the sleep, the right medial thigh was covered with a fully wet towel. The patient sustained a second-degree burn on the right medial thigh area with multiple bullas. On physical examination, erythema, heating sensation, and swelling around the bullas were noted. The patient was admitted and received intravenous antibiotics for 7 days. A dressing with Silmazine 1% cream (sulfadiazine) was applied twice a day for prevention of local infection. The patient was discharged on day 14 without complication. In this case, the mechanism of the burn was different. Hot air has much thermal energy but is not conducted to the skin directly. A wet towel will have a relatively higher thermal capacity or heat capacity than a dry or damp towel, and the sodden water might be a medium for the conduction of thermal energy. Owing to the global popularity of sauna bathing, it is important to recognize all sources of sauna-related burns.

  14. A large impact of tropical biomass burning on CO and CO2 in the upper troposphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A large interannual variation of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia is associated with the ENSO events. During 1997/98 and 1994 El Nino years, uncontrolled wildfires of tropical rainforests and peat lands in Indonesia were enlarged due to a long drought. Enhanced CO injection into the upper troposphere from the intense Indonesian fires was clearly observed in the 8-year measurements from a regular flask sampling over the western Pacific using a JAL airliner between Australia and Japan. This airliner observation also revealed that upper tropospheric CO2 cycle largely changed during the 1997 El Nino year due partly to the biomass burning emissions. Widespread pollution from the biomass burnings in Southeast Asia was simulated using a CO tracer driven by a 3D global chemical transport model. This simulation indicates that tropical deep convections connected to rapid advection by the subtropical jet play a significant role in dispersing biomass-burning emissions from Southeast Asia on a global scale.

  15. Suicide by self-burning in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and risk factors. (United States)

    Othman, Nasih


    This study aims to provide evidence for the problem of suicide by self-burning in Iraqi Kurdistan. Data were collected prospectively from all patients admitted to the burn center in the province of Sulaymaniyah and cases of self-burning were compared with cases of accidental burns. There were 197 cases with an annual incidence rate of 8.4 per 100,000 per year and female to male risk ratio of 13.1. Independent risk factors for self-burning were female sex (odds ratio 13.75, 95% CI 6.91-27.36, P Kurdistan especially among women. Urgent action is required to provide a better understanding of the situation, and identify partners, capacities, and opportunities for action.

  16. The Pyrogenic Carbon Cycle (United States)

    Bird, Michael I.; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Saiz, Gustavo; Wurster, Christopher M.; McBeath, Anna


    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC; includes soot, char, black carbon, and biochar) is produced by the incomplete combustion of organic matter accompanying biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption. PyC is pervasive in the environment, distributed throughout the atmosphere as well as soils, sediments, and water in both the marine and terrestrial environment. The physicochemical characteristics of PyC are complex and highly variable, dependent on the organic precursor and the conditions of formation. A component of PyC is highly recalcitrant and persists in the environment for millennia. However, it is now clear that a significant proportion of PyC undergoes transformation, translocation, and remineralization by a range of biotic and abiotic processes on comparatively short timescales. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the production, stocks, and fluxes of PyC as well as the physical and chemical processes through which it interacts as a dynamic component of the global carbon cycle.

  17. Pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival in Fuyang city, China. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhou, Bo; Tao, Ren Qin; Chen, Xu Lin


    The Chinese people in Fuyang city, a northwest city of Anhui Province, are accustomed to burning incense at home for blessing during the Spring Festival. Their children, especially toddlers, like playing around the burning incense and are at risk of burning by hot incense ashes. The purpose of this study was to describe the unique cause and clinical characteristics of pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival. Twelve consecutive children admitted to our Burn Center and Fuyang People's Hospital during 2014 Spring Festival, with burn injuries caused by hot incense ashes which were epidemiologically studied retrospectively. Data on age, gender, size, depth and site of burn, incidence by day, number of operation, hospital stay, and causes of burns were collected. All patients came from Fuyang city. Of the 12 patients, the average age was 2.17 years, with a range of 1-6. The boy-to-girl ratio was 2: 1. The mean total burn surface area (TBSA) was 5.83%, and 91.67% of the children sustained full-thickness burn. Hands were the most common parts of the body to be injured. Dry necrosis developed in 14 fingers of 3 patients. January 31, 2014, the first day of the Chinese New Year, was the time of highest incidence. Six patients (50%) required surgical intervention while the number of operations including escharectomy, excision, skin grafting, or amputation of necrotic fingers, per patient was 2. A total of 14 fingers were amputated of the necrotic parts. All children survived and mean length of hospital stay of the patients was 20 days. Hot incense ashes cause serious injuries to children in Fuyang city during the Spring Festival. Preventive programs should be directed towards high risk groups to reduce the incidence of this burn.

  18. Epidemiology of childhood burn: yield of largest community based injury survey in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Rahman, A; Chowdhury, S M; Giashuddin, S; SvanstrOm, L; Linnan, M; Shafinaz, S; Uhaa, I J; Rahman, F


    In terms of mortality, morbidity and disability, burns are emerging as a major child health problem in Bangladesh. This trend is similar to many other developing countries. To develop effective burn prevention programmes, information on its magnitude and determinants is necessary. The purpose of this study was to document the magnitude and determinant of childhood burns in Bangladesh, based on a population-based survey which was conducted between January and December 2003. Nationally representative data was collected from 171,366 rural and urban households, comprising of a total population of 819,429. To facilitate data collection, face-to-face interviews were conducted. The rate of non-fatal burn among children under 18 years of age was calculated as 288.1 per 100,000 children-year. The highest incidence (782.1/100,000 children-year) was found among the 1-4 years age group. About 46% of non-fatal burn injuries occurred between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. The incidence of childhood burn was found to be more than four times higher in rural children than urban children. Ninety percent (90%) of the childhood burns occurred at homes and the kitchen was the most common place. The rate of disability due to burn was 5.7 per 100,000 children per year. The rate of fatal burn was 0.6 per 100,000 per year among all children. The study findings confirmed that childhood burn was a major childhood illness in Bangladesh. An urgent and appropriate prevention programme is required to prevent these unwanted morbidities, disabilities and deaths due to burn.

  19. Timing constraints on remote sensing of wildland fire burned area in the southeastern US (United States)

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Robertson, Kevin


    Remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery is increasingly used for mapping wildland fire burned area and burn severity, owing to its frequency of collection, relatively high resolution, and availability free of charge. However, rapid response of vegetation following fire and frequent cloud cover pose challenges to this approach in the southeastern US. We assessed these timing constraints by using a series of Landsat TM images to determine how rapidly the remotely sensed burn scar signature fades following prescribed burns in wet flatwoods and depression swamp community types in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, USA during 2006. We used both the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) of reflectance bands sensitive to vegetation and exposed soil cover, as well as the change in NBR from before to after fire (dNBR), to estimate burned area. We also determined the average and maximum amount of time following fire required to obtain a cloud-free image for burns in each month of the year, as well as the predicted effect of this time lag on percent accuracy of burn scar estimates. Using both NBR and dNBR, the detectable area decreased linearly 9% per month on average over the first four months following fire. Our findings suggest that the NBR and dNBR methods for monitoring burned area in common southeastern US vegetation community types are limited to an average of 78–90% accuracy among months of the year, with individual burns having values as low as 38%, if restricted to use of Landsat 5 TM imagery. However, the majority of burns can still be mapped at accuracies similar to those in other regions of the US, and access to additional sources of satellite imagery would improve overall accuracy.

  20. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem. (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S


    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupational burns treated in emergency departments. (United States)

    Reichard, Audrey A; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L


    Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15-24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations. (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard


    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Septicemia: The Principal Killer of Burns Patients

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    B. R. Sharma


    Full Text Available Burn injury is a major problem in many areas of the world and it has been estimated that 75% of all deaths following burns are related to infection. Burns impair the skin’s normal barrier function thus allowing microbial colonization of the burn wounds and even with the use of topical antimicrobial agents, contamination is almost unavoidable. It is therefore essential for every burn institution to determine its specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, time related changes in predominant flora and antimicrobial resistance profiles. This would allow early management of septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics before the results of microbiologic culture becomes available, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality. We attempted to examine the factors affecting risk of infection; strategies for infection control and prevention in burn victims.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley


    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  5. Pre-hospital care in burn injury

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    Shrivastava Prabhat


    Full Text Available The care provided to the victims of burn injury immediately after sustaining burns can largely affect the extent and depth of the wound. Although standard guidelines have been formulated by various burn associations, they are still not well known to public at large in our country. In burn injuries, most often, the bystanders are the first care providers. The swift implementation of the measures described in this article for first aid in thermal, chemical, electrical and inhalational injuries in the practical setting, within minutes of sustaining the burn, plays a vital role and can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality to a great extent. In case of burn disasters, triage needs to be carried out promptly as per the defined protocols. Proper communication and transport from the scene of the accident to the primary care centre and onto the burn care facility greatly influences the execution of the management plans

  6. Polarized Reflectance Measurement of Burned Skin Tissues (United States)

    de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.


    In the US, there are over 400,000 burn victims with 3,500 deaths in 2010. Recent evidence suggests that early removal of burn tissues can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since burns continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that burns trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore, it is important to distinguish burn areas so that it can be removed. The problem with this is that it is difficult to recognize the margins of the burn area. In our project, we use polarized reflectance as a tool to identify the burned tissues from unburned ones.

  7. Development of dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Isao; Seki, Yasushi [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Shintani, Kiyonori; Kim, Yeong-Chan


    A dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle of a fusion experimental reactor has been developed. The code follows the fuel inventory change with time in the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system during 2 days pulse operation cycles. The time dependence of the fuel inventory distribution is evaluated considering the fuel burn and exhaust in the plasma chamber, purification and supply functions. For each subsystem of the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system, the fuel inventory equation is written based on the equation of state considering the fuel burn and the function of exhaust, purification, and supply. The processing constants of subsystem for steady states were taken from the values in the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) report. Using this code, the time dependence of the fuel supply and inventory depending on the burn state and subsystem processing functions are shown. (author)

  8. Ventilator-associated pneumonia after combined burn and trauma is caused by associated injuries and not the burn wound. (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Wade, Terence E; Davis, Kimberly A; Luchette, Fred A; Esposito, Thomas J; Poulakidas, Stathis J; Santaniello, John M; Gamelli, Richard L


    An increased risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has previously been demonstrated in trauma patients urgently intubated in the prehospital (ie, field) and emergency department (ED) settings. This study investigated the impact of urgent intubation on subsequent VAP in patients who sustained both a burn injury and a traumatic injury. We undertook a retrospective review of both trauma registry data and medical records for all patients with combined thermal and traumatic injuries admitted to a single verified burn center and level I trauma center. Patients undergoing field or ED intubation during the 5-year period ending December 2002 were identified and studied. Data abstracted included admission demographics and vital signs, presence of inhalation injury, location at the time of intubation, presence of associated injury, percentage TBSA burn, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, and hospital day of VAP diagnosis. Seventy-eight of the 3388 patients (2.3%) admitted during the study period sustained a combination of burn wounds and trauma and underwent urgent field or ED intubation. The majority of patients were men (71%), with a mean age of 46 +/- 24 years. There was one failed oral intubation, which required cricothyroidotomy. The location of the patient at the time of intubation was ED, 66%; burn center ED, 17%; and field, 17%. Eighty percent of all patients were diagnosed with an inhalation injury. VAP was diagnosed in 39 patients (50%), with a mean time to diagnosis of 10 +/- 9 days. TBSA burn, smoke inhalation, and time (in days) to diagnosis of VAP were not independent risk factors for the occurrence of pneumonia in any of the 3 groups. However, those intubated at the initial ED were more likely to develop VAP (P = .028) compared to those intubated in the field or in the burn center. The incidence of associated injuries was significantly greater (P burn patients also sustain blunt trauma. VAP occurs in 50% of the patients requiring urgent

  9. Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Burn Patients (United States)

    Boucher, Bradley A.; King, Stephen R.; Wandschneider, Heidi L.; Hickerson, William L.; Hanes, Scott D.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Canada, Todd W.; Hess, Mary M.


    The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface area) burns were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means ± standard deviations) for all nine patients for the two study periods were as follows: t1/2, 24.4 ± 5.8 h; CL, 0.36 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; and V, 0.72 ± 0.12 liters/kg. These estimates of t1/2 and CL in burn patients were approximately 13% shorter and 30% more rapid, respectively, than the most extreme estimates reported for other populations. PMID:9559811

  10. Zinc supplementation in burn patients. (United States)

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh


    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  11. Southeast U.S. burns (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Human beings were responsible for most of 12,000 forest fires in the southeastern United States that burned for 10 days in late October and early November 1987. 910 km2, mostly hardwood forest, were destroyed in the fires, with arson and carelessness as the primary causes, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.Measured in monetary terms, the toll was more than $40 million in resource and property damage. While the amount of forest burned did not rival the 3390 km2 lost to fires in the western United States last summer, the human impact was severe in the southeast and all along the East Coast. Favorable winds blew smoke from the southern and central Appalachians as far north as New England and as far east as Delaware, and cool fall air close to the ground prevented the smoke from rising, thickening the air in many northeastern cities on November 8 and 9.

  12. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    , the advanced gasifiers and automatic stoves (Digital and Forced air) were identified to be among the best performing technologies. In spite of the fact that the thermal efficiency of the most advanced type of heating stoves (Gasifier) is around twice larger than that achieved for the most advanced type......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use...

  13. Steel Wool-Aided Dermabrasion of Deep Partial-Thickness Burns. (United States)

    Yontar, Yalcin; Coruh, Atilla; Dinc, Nadire; Kontas, Olgun


    Early tangential excision of the burn wound is essential for removal of necrotic tissue and promotion of burn wound healing process. However, the depth of the burn wound is not easily assessed during the tangential excision performed by hand-held dermatomes, and it may be possible to excise unburned vital dermis unnecessarily, which aids in primary epithelization of the burn wound by adnexal structures. We herein present early clinical results of steel wool-aided dermabrasion in patients with deep partial-thickness burns. This is a retrospective case study of 23 consecutive hospitalized patients with deep partial-thickness burns. All of the steel wool-aided dermabrasions were performed under general anesthesia within 48 hours after injury. Patients were excluded from the study if the admission was not within 24 hours after injury, and if the burn wound was entirely superficial partial- or full-thickness. Thirteen male and 10 female patients with a mean age of 26.2 ± 17.1 years were enrolled in the study. During the follow-up period, all of the patients had burn wounds primary epithelized on postburn day 15.1 ± 1.8, without any complications. None of the patients exhibited a mortal course, and redebridement or skin grafting of the previously dermabraded deep partial-thickness burn wounds were not required in any of the patients. Steel wool-aided dermabrasion is an easy, cost-effective, and reliable technique for the treatment of deep partial-thickness burns, which provides complete removal of necrotic tissue, preserves the vital dermis, reduces the requirement for skin grafting, and decreases length of hospital stay.

  14. An unsuspected cause of meal-time morbidity: instant noodle scald burns. (United States)

    Koltz, Peter F; Wasicek, Philip; Mays, Chester; Bell, Derek E


    Observational analysis revealed a concerning frequency of scald burns secondary to instant noodles. A literature review reveals studies with small sample sizes of pediatric populations and analysis of container engineering. The adult cohort, treatments, and short-term outcomes have been neglected. Considering these deficiencies, we reviewed our institution's experience with burns secondary to instant noodles. Patient encounters due to instant noodle burns from January 1, 2007, through May 15, 2011, were reviewed. Demographics, burn characteristics, treatment, length of stay, number of operative interventions, and complications were analyzed. Eight hundred fifty-two patients were seen (460 were admitted) for scald burns of all pathogenesis. Of these, 121 (14%) were seen for burns secondary to noodles (63 men and 58 women). Of these, 48 were older than age 4 (group 1), and 73 were younger than age 4 (group 2). TBSA was 2.34 in group 1 and 1.64 in group 2 (P = .04). The most commonly burned areas in group 1 were extremities (n = 43) and in group 2 were chest (n = 32) and extremities (n = 31). Seven patients in group 1 and two patients in group 2 required operative intervention. Length of stay in groups 1 and 2 were 3.5 and 6 days, respectively. Noodle scald burns cause morbidity at all ages. Pediatric burns due to noodles are frequently managed conservatively but more often necessitate inpatient treatment. The nonpediatric population has larger TBSA and requires more frequent operative intervention. The morbidity of noodle burns is significant. Increased public education and container re-engineering is warranted.

  15. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell division cycle under limited glucose requires Ssp1 kinase, the putative CaMKK, and Sds23, a PP2A-related phosphatase inhibitor. (United States)

    Hanyu, Yuichiro; Imai, Kumiko K; Kawasaki, Yosuke; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakaseko, Yukinobu; Nagao, Koji; Kokubu, Aya; Ebe, Masahiro; Fujisawa, Asuka; Hayashi, Takeshi; Obuse, Chikashi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro


    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) is required for diverse cellular functions, and similar kinases exist in fungi. Although mammalian CaMK kinase (CaMKK) activates CaMK and also evolutionarily-conserved AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), CaMKK is yet to be established in yeast. We here report that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ssp1 kinase, which controls G2/M transition and response to stress, is the putative CaMKK. Ssp1 has a CaM binding domain (CBD) and associates with 14-3-3 proteins as mammalian CaMKK does. Temperature-sensitive ssp1 mutants isolated are defective in the tolerance to limited glucose, and this tolerance requires the conserved stretch present between the kinase domain and CBD. Sds23, multi-copy suppressor for mutants defective in type 1 phosphatase and APC/cyclosome, also suppresses the ssp1 phenotype, and is required for the tolerance to limited glucose. We demonstrate that Sds23 binds to type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2A) and PP2A-related phosphatase Ppe1, and that Sds23 inhibits Ppe1 phosphatase activity. Ssp1 and Ppe1 thus seem to antagonize in utilizing limited glucose. We also show that Ppk9 and Ssp2 are the catalytic subunits of AMPK and AMPK-related kinases, respectively, which bind to common beta-(Amk2) and gamma-(Cbs2) subunits.

  16. Corneoscleral burn during phacoemulsification surgery. (United States)

    Majid, M A; Sharma, M K; Harding, S P


    We report a case in which a severe corneoscleral burn occurred during phacoemulsification surgery. The equipment-tuning process was uneventful and routine surgery was expected. Severe tissue injury occurred because the anterior chamber collapsed momentarily and the phaco tip touched corneoscleral tissue. We discuss mechanisms by which this type of injury may occur and the likely cause in our case. We also suggest methods to reduce the incidence.

  17. Burn injuries related to suicide. (United States)

    Persley, G V; Pegg, S P


    Of 1060 admissions to the burns unit, Royal Brisbane Hospital, over a 12-year period, there were 30 cases (2.8%) of attempted suicide. Fourteen (47%) of these patients died. The psychosocial features of people using self-ignition as a method of suicide are consistent with those of suicide in general. The morbidity if high and the outcome is often fatal, especially for those using a flammable liquid.

  18. Candidemia in major burns patients. (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier


    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. American Burn Association Consensus Statements (United States)


    medications (eg, propranolol , morphine, sertraline)13,15,16 should be a research pri- ority. Improved pain management has also been sug- gested as a...2000;232:455–65. 2. Jeschke MG, Norbury WB, Finnerty CC, Branski LK, Herndon DN. Propranolol does not increase inflammation, sepsis, or infectious...SE, Matin S, Herndon DN, Wolfe RR. A submaximal dose of insulin promotes net skel- etal muscle protein synthesis in patients with severe burns. Ann

  20. Rehabilitation of the Burned Hand (United States)


    13 Mallet and swan-neck deformities Thermal injury to the terminal slip of the extensor tendon can result in loss of DIP joint extension or mallet...deformity. Injury to the terminal slip can be a result of direct thermal injury or tendon ischemia induced as the injured tendon is compressed between...elastic bandage or self-adherent wrap may be necessary. Cotton socks over the splint may prevent the child from removing the splint. Contact burns

  1. Fast resuscitation and care of the burn patients by telemedicine: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ajami


    Full Text Available Background: In Iran, burns are the second most common cause of death, after traffic accidents in individuals under the age of 15 years. Many burned patients die or suffer injury due to lack of immediate care, so we need to use an alternative resuscitations to cure them immediately. Telemedicine describes the use of medical information exchanged from one site to another via electronic communications to improve patients′ health status and care. The aim of this study was to express the advantages of Telemedicine to resuscitate and care burn patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a narrative review. The literature was searched on fast resuscitation and care of the patients′ burn by telemedicine with the help of libraries, databases, and also searches engines available at Google, Google scholar, books and conference proceedings. In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Telemedicine, Telecare, Burn, Burn patient, Air transport, Triage and Health Information Management in the searching areas of titles, keywords, abstracts and full texts. Results: In this study, more than 78 articles and reports were collected and 30 of them were selected based on their relevancy. Conclusion: Acute evaluation of burn patients can be performed by the telemedicine and it plays an important role in improving access to the required expertise, and raises physician confidence in treating burn patients. This can reduce under-triage or over-triage for air transport and finally lead to saving time and cost.

  2. Epidemiology of burn injuries in the East Mediterranean Region: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick Denise


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn injuries remain one of the leading causes of injury morbidity and mortality in the World Health Organization's East Mediterranean Region. To provide an overview on the epidemiology of burn injuries in this region, a systematic review was undertaken. Methods Medline, Embase and CINAHL were searched for publications on burns in this region published between 01/01/1997 and 16/4/2007. Data were extracted to a standard spreadsheet and synthesised using a narrative synthesis. No attempt has been made to quantitatively synthesise the data due to the large degree of clinical heterogeneity between study populations. Results Seventy one studies were included in the review, from 12 countries. Burn injuries were found to be one of the leading causes of injury morbidity and mortality. The reported incidence of burns ranged from 112 to 518 per 100,000 per year. Burn victims were more frequently young and approximately one third of the victims were children aged 0-5 years. Hospital mortality ranged from 5 to 37%, but was commonly above 20%. Intentional self-harm burns particularly involving women were common in some countries of the region and were associated with a very high mortality of up to 79%. Conclusion Burn injuries remain an important public health issue in the East Mediterranean Region therefore further research is required to investigate the problem and assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes.

  3. Verified centers, nonverified centers, or other facilities: a national analysis of burn patient treatment location. (United States)

    Zonies, David; Mack, Christopher; Kramer, Bradley; Rivara, Frederick; Klein, Matthew


    Although comprehensive burn care requires significant resources, patients may be treated at verified burn centers, nonverified burn centers, or other facilities due to a variety of factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between patient and injury characteristics and treatment location using a national database. We performed an analysis of all burn patients admitted to United States hospitals participating in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project over 2 years. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify patient and injury factors associated with the likelihood of treatment at designated burn care facilities. Definitive care facilities were categorized as American Burn Association-verified centers, nonverified burn centers, or other facilities. During the 2 years of the study, 29,971 burn patients were treated in 1,376 hospitals located in 19 participating states. A total of 6,712 (22%) patients were treated at verified centers, with 26% and 52% treated at nonverified or other facilities, respectively. Patients treated at verified centers were younger than those treated at nonverified or other facilities (33.1 years versus 33.7 years versus 41.9 years; p facilities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. FES cycling. (United States)

    Newham, D J; Donaldson, N de N


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a partial or complete disruption of motor, sensory, and autonomic nerve pathways below the level of the lesion. In paraplegic patients, functional electrical stimulation (FES) was originally widely considered as a means to restore walking function but this was proved technically very difficult because of the numerous degrees of freedom involved in walking. FES cycling was developed for people with SCI and has the advantages that cycling can be maintained for reasonably long periods in trained muscles and the risk of falls is low. In the article, we review research findings relevant to the successful application of FES cycling including the effects on muscle size, strength and function, and the cardiovascular and bone changes. We also describe important practical considerations in FES cycling regarding the application of surface electrodes, training and setting up the stimulator limitations, implanted stimulators and FES cycling including FES cycling in groups and other FES exercises such as FES rowing.

  5. American Burn Association consensus conference to define sepsis and infection in burns. (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Holmes, James H; Gamelli, Richard L; Palmieri, Tina L; Horton, Jureta W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Traber, Daniel L; Mozingo, David W; Deitch, Edwin A; Goodwin, Cleon W; Herndon, David N; Gallagher, James J; Sanford, Art P; Jeng, James C; Ahrenholz, David H; Neely, Alice N; O'Mara, Michael S; Wolf, Steven E; Purdue, Gary F; Garner, Warren L; Yowler, Charles J; Latenser, Barbara A


    Because of their extensive wounds, burn patients are chronically exposed to inflammatory mediators. Thus, burn patients, by definition, already have "systemic inflammatory response syndrome." Current definitions for sepsis and infection have many criteria (fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis) that are routinely found in patients with extensive burns, making these current definitions less applicable to the burn population. Experts in burn care and research, all members of the American Burn Association, were asked to review the literature and prepare a potential definition on one topic related to sepsis or infection in burn patients. On January 20, 2007, the participants met in Tucson, Arizona to develop consensus for these definitions. After review of the definitions, a summary of the proceedings was prepared. The goal of the consensus conference was to develop and publish standardized definitions for sepsis and infection-related diagnoses in the burn population. Standardized definitions will improve the capability of performing more meaningful multicenter trials among burn centers.

  6. [Treatment of burns in infants]. (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L


    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  7. Epidemiologic evaluation of patients with major burns and recommendations for burn prevention. (United States)

    Ciftçi, Ilhan; Arslan, Kemal; Altunbaş, Zeynep; Kara, Fatih; Yilmaz, Hüseyin


    Burns are an important health problem in our country and in the world. In our study, we aimed to epidemiologically analyze the patients who were hospitalized in a burn unit that serves 3 million individuals in Central Anatolia. Records of 457 patients who had been hospitalized in the burn unit during the period 2008-2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were assessed in terms of gender, age, burn area, burn depth, admission time to the health center, burn region, and factors causing burns. Most (44.6%) of the patients were in the 0-5 age group. Burn surface area was detected as 11.6 +/- 8.5%. Patients had reached the health center in 252.8 +/- 892.5 minutes. While 82.7% of the patients had second degree bums, 17.3% had third degree burns. Most burns were on the extremities (39.6%). The most common burn agent was scalds with hot liquids (54.1%). In our study, children in the 0-5 age group were found to be the most commonly affected group with respect to indoor burns. The basic contributing factor is that children spend more time in the house and are more active. Scalding burns may be prevented when greater care is taken when using hot liquids that may lead to indoor burns. Informing parents on this issue is of first priority.

  8. Levoglucosan indicates high levels of biomass burning aerosols over oceans from the Arctic to Antarctic (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Xie, Z.; Wang, X.; Kang, H.; Zhang, P.


    Biomass burning discharges numerous kinds of gases and aerosols, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), black carbon (BC), alcohols, organic acids and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and is known to affect air quality, global carbon cycle, and climate. However, the extent to which biomass burning gases/aerosols are present on a global scale, especially in the marine atmosphere, is poorly understood. Here we measure levoglucosan, a superior molecular tracer of biomass burning aerosols because of its single source, in marine air from the Arctic Ocean through the North and South Pacific Ocean to coastal Antarctica during burning season. Levoglucosan was found to be present in all regions at ng/m3 levels. As a whole, levoglucosan concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere were comparable to those in the Northern Hemisphere. Marine air in the mid-latitudes (30°-60° N and S) has the highest levoglucosan loading due to the emission from adjacent lands. Air over the Arctic Ocean which affected by biomass burning in the east Siberia has intermediate loading. Equatorial latitudes is the main source of biomass burning emissions, however, levoglucosan is in relatively low level. Large amount of precipitation and high hydroxyl radical concentration in this region cause more deposition and degradation of levoglucosan during transport. Previous studies were debatable on the influence of biomass burning on the Antarctic because of uncertain source of BC. Here via levoglucosan, it is proved that although far away from emission sources, the Antarctic is still affected by biomass burning aerosols which may be derived from South America. Biomass burning has a significant impact on mercury (Hg) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in marine aerosols from pole to pole, with more contribution to WSOC in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

  9. Self-inflicted burns in soldiers. (United States)

    Gronovich, Yoav; Binenboym, Rami; Tuchman, Izhak; Eizenman, Nirit; Golan, Jacob


    Self-inflicted burns are a multidisciplinary medical challenge. In contrast to the more common motive of attempted suicide in self-infliction of a burn, usually of a serious degree, a second motive is malingering. Motivation of this nature has been exhibited among Israeli soldiers who inflict on themselves low- to moderate-degree burns to obtain dismissal from mandatory military service. The purpose of our study is to investigate and define this phenomenon. A retrospective analysis was performed on a population of 75 soldiers admitted to our Medical Center during the year 2010 with the diagnosis of any sort of burn. We set up a database including all relevant information about the burns including date and time of occurrence, cause, body location, depth of burn injury, area and shape of burn, etiology, and prescribed treatment. The summer was found to be the season with the highest incidence of burns. As far as the day of the week was influential, we found that the greater percentage of burns occurred at the beginning of the week. Most of the burns involved a minor surface area on the dorsal aspect of the foot. Scalding with hot water was the most common cause of burn. Eighty-one percent of the burns were atypical, being well demarcated.Most of the burn cases happened at home with no witnesses to the event. Sixty-one percent of the patients were not admitted to the hospital and were conservatively treated. Israeli soldiers tend to inflict burns on themselves for ulterior motives. Such burns are almost always minor with a small trauma area and sharp demarcations, and hence can be differentiated from other self-inflicted burns described in the literature. We found that most of the burns occur when the soldiers are on vacation at home. This is probably because the privacy allows them to carry out their act undisturbed. It is important to raise the awareness of attending physicians to the characteristics of these burns. Such patients should be evaluated by medical teams

  10. Increasing the utility of the Functional Assessment for Burns Score: Not just for major burns. (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Rodgers, Louise; Upson, Clara


    The Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score is established as an objective measure of physical function that predicts discharge outcome in adult patients with major burn. However, its validity in patients with minor and moderate burn is unknown. This is a multi-centre evaluation of the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome in adult inpatients with minor and moderate burns. FAB assessments were undertaken within 48 h of admission to (FAB 1), and within 48 h of discharge (FAB 2) from burn wards in 115 patients. Median age was 45 years and median burn size 4%. There were significant improvements in the patients' FAB scores (pburns.

  11. Animating the Carbon Cycle



    Understanding the biogeochemical processes reg- ulating carbon cycling is central to mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. The role of living organisms has been accounted for, but the focus has traditionally been on contributions of plants and microbes. We develop the case that fully ‘‘animating’’ the carbon cycle requires broader consideration of the functional role of animals in mediating biogeochemical processes and quanti- fication of their effects on carbon storage and exchange among ter...

  12. Value Analysis of Engine Maintenance Scheduling relative to Fuel Burn and Minimal Operating Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Van der Zwan, F.M.; Ouwehand, A.; Ghijs, S.S.A.


    The paper presents the results from a study in collaboration with an airline that looked at modeling the relationship of maintenance and fuel burn costs relative to minimizing the life cycle cost relative to schedule. The work has verified that the bucket theory presented in the paper is a correct a

  13. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest (United States)

    Chen, X.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Rollins, M.; Ohlen, D.; Key, C.H.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Shi, H.


    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  14. Evaluation of the breed/burn fast reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atefi, B.; Driscoll, M.J.; Lanning, D.D.


    A core design concept and fuel management strategy, designated breed/burn, has been evaluated for heterogeneous fast breeder reactors. In this concept internal blanket assemblies after fissile material is bred in over several incore cycles, are shuffled into a moderated radial blanket and/or central island. The most promising materials combination identified used thorium in the internal blankets (due to the superior performance of epithermal Th-U233 systems) and zirconium hydride (ZrH/sub 16/) as the moderator (because of the compact assembly and core designs it permitted).

  15. Risk factors for hypotension in urgently intubated burn patients. (United States)

    Dennis, Christopher J; Chung, Kevin K; Holland, Seth R; Yoon, Brian S; Milligan, Daun J; Nitzschke, Stephanie L; Maani, Christopher V; Hansen, Jacob J; Aden, James K; Renz, Evan M


    When urgently intubating patient in the burn intensive care unit (BICU), various induction agents, including propofol, are utilized that may induce hemodynamic instability. A retrospective review was performed of consecutive critically ill burn patients who underwent urgent endotracheal intubation in BICU. Basic burn-related demographic data, indication for intubation, and induction agents utilized were recorded. The primary outcomes of interest were clinically significant hypotension requiring immediate fluid resuscitation, initiation or escalation of vasopressors immediately after intubation. Secondary outcomes included ventilator days, stay length, and in-hospital mortality. Between January 2003 and August 2010, we identified 279 urgent intubations in 204 patients. Of these, the criteria for presumed sepsis were met in 60% (n=168) of the intubations. After intubation, 117 patients (42%) experienced clinically significant hypotension. Propofol (51%) was the most commonly utilized induction agent followed by etomidate (23%), ketamine (15%), and midazolam (11%). On multiple logistic regression, %TBSA (OR 1.016, 95% CI 1.004-1.027, ppredictors of hypotension. None of the induction agents, including propofol, were significantly associated with hypotension in patients with or without presumed sepsis. In critically ill burn patients undergoing urgent endotracheal intubation, specific induction agents, including propofol, were not associated with clinically significant hypotension. Presumed sepsis and %TBSA were the most important risk factors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Development of a Burn Escharotomy Assessment Tool: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Ur, Rebecca; Holmes, James H; Johnson, James E; Molnar, Joseph A; Carter, Jeffrey E


    Severe burn injuries can require escharotomies which are urgent, infrequent, and relatively high-risk procedures necessary to preserve limb perfusion and sometimes ventilation. The American Burn Association Advanced Burn Life Support© course educates surgeons and emergency providers about escharotomy incisions but lacks a biomimetic trainer to demonstrate, practice, or provide assessment. The goal was to build an affordable biomimetic trainer with discrete points of failure and pilot a validation study. Fellowship-trained burn and plastic surgeons worked with special effect artists and anatomists to develop a biomimetic trainer with three discrete points of failure: median or ulnar nerve injury, fasciotomy, and failure to check distal pulse. Participants were divided between experienced and inexperienced, survey pre- and post-procedure on a biomimetic model while being timed. The trainer total cost per participant was less than $35. Eighteen participants were involved in the study. The inexperienced (0-1 prior escharotomies performed) had significantly more violations at the discrete points of failure relative to more experienced participants (P = .036). Face validity was assessed with 100% of participants agreement that the model appeared similar to real life and was valuable in their training. Given the advancements in biomimetic models and the need to train surgeons in how to perform infrequent, emergent surgical procedures, an escharotomy trainer is needed today. The authors developed an affordable model with a successful pilot study demonstrating discrimination between experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Additional research is needed to increase the reliability and assessment metrics.

  17. Debridement Techniques in Pediatric Trauma and Burn-Related Wounds (United States)

    Block, Lisa; King, Timothy W.; Gosain, Ankush


    Significance: Traumatic injuries are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the initial assessment and management of traumatic and burn wounds in children. Special attention is given to wound cleansing, debridement techniques, and considerations for pain management and psychosocial support for children and families. Recent Advances: Basic and translational research over the last 5–7 years has advanced our knowledge related to the optimal care of acute pediatric traumatic and burn wounds. Data concerning methods, volume, solution and timing for irrigation of acute traumatic wounds, timing and methods of wound debridement, including hydrosurgery and plasma knife coblation, and wound dressings are presented. Additionally, data concerning the long-term psychosocial outcomes following acute injury are presented. Critical Issues: The care of pediatric trauma and burn-related wounds requires prompt assessment, pain control, cleansing, debridement, application of appropriate dressings, and close follow-up. Ideally, a knowledgeable multidisciplinary team cares for these patients. A limitation in the care of these patients is the relative paucity of data specific to the care of acute traumatic wounds in the pediatric population. Future Directions: Research is ongoing in the arenas of new debridement techniques and instruments, and in wound dressing technology. Dedicated research on these topics in the pediatric population will serve to strengthen and advance the care of pediatric patients with acute traumatic and burn wounds. PMID:26487978

  18. Debridement Techniques in Pediatric Trauma and Burn-Related Wounds. (United States)

    Block, Lisa; King, Timothy W; Gosain, Ankush


    Significance: Traumatic injuries are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the initial assessment and management of traumatic and burn wounds in children. Special attention is given to wound cleansing, debridement techniques, and considerations for pain management and psychosocial support for children and families. Recent Advances: Basic and translational research over the last 5-7 years has advanced our knowledge related to the optimal care of acute pediatric traumatic and burn wounds. Data concerning methods, volume, solution and timing for irrigation of acute traumatic wounds, timing and methods of wound debridement, including hydrosurgery and plasma knife coblation, and wound dressings are presented. Additionally, data concerning the long-term psychosocial outcomes following acute injury are presented. Critical Issues: The care of pediatric trauma and burn-related wounds requires prompt assessment, pain control, cleansing, debridement, application of appropriate dressings, and close follow-up. Ideally, a knowledgeable multidisciplinary team cares for these patients. A limitation in the care of these patients is the relative paucity of data specific to the care of acute traumatic wounds in the pediatric population. Future Directions: Research is ongoing in the arenas of new debridement techniques and instruments, and in wound dressing technology. Dedicated research on these topics in the pediatric population will serve to strengthen and advance the care of pediatric patients with acute traumatic and burn wounds.

  19. Regenerative Medicine: Novel Approach in Burn Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Context Burn wounds of the skin require a long period to healing, which very often is incomplete, with functional and esthetic consequences for the patients. Stem cells in the traumatized tissue represent the promoters of the healing process and are a primary focus for regenerative medicine, which aims to find and use the triggers for the activation of stem cells of sin tissue. Evidence Acquisition At present, tissue engineering, composite epithelial autografts, multipotent stem cells and combined gene delivery with stem cell therapy are the approaches used in regenerative medicine. Alongside, the development of 3D scaffolds or matrices is a promising adjunct, as studies investigate the multiple uses of these supports for wound repair. Results Application of cells to the burn wound could be performed, either by the bedside, as a non-invasive procedure, or in the operating room, with the use of a matrix, scaffold or dermal substitute. Cell spraying, although under use in clinical setting, is not yet supported by conclusive data. Magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging and positron emission tomography are currently used to assess the viability and location of stem cells, after transplantation. Conclusions Stem cell therapies in wound care may lessen the morbidities associated with wound healing. An ideal method for the effective administration of stem cells for burn patients has not yet been elucidated. Further comparison of the local and systemic effects in burn patients, associated with each route of stem cell delivery, needs to be performed.

  20. Burn Wound Mucormycosis: A Case Study on Poor Wound Healing. (United States)

    Stanistreet, Bryan; Bell, Derek

    Mucormycosis is a rare, rapidly progressive and often fatal fungal infection. The rarity of the condition lends itself to unfamiliarity, delayed treatment, and poor outcomes. Diagnosis of fungal infections early enough to enable appropriate treatment occurs in less than half of affected patients. A 56-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus II, hepatitis C, and intravenous drug abuse was involved in a rollover motor vehicle accident. He sustained circumferential partial and full-thickness burns to his lower extremities with 20% BSA burns. He ultimately required a below-knee amputation of his right lower extremity due to poor wound healing and nonviability of the soft tissue and foot. Debridement found muscle fibers that were necrotic and purulent. Pathology revealed Mucor species with extensive vascular invasion. This case and discussion highlights the importance of maintaining vigilance for mycotic infections and acting appropriately when there are concerning signs and symptoms of serious wound complications. Caretakers of severe trauma patients should have a high level of suspicion for complications and be cognizant of the American Burn Association's guidelines for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Progressive necrosis outside the confines of the original burn wound should raise concern for impaired wound healing, an immunocompromised state or an underlying infection.

  1. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline


    management addresses and alleviates these complications. The aim of our study was to compare clinical guidelines for pain management in burn patients in selected European and non-European countries. We included pediatric guidelines due to the high rate of children in burn units. METHOD: The study had...... patients. The most highly recommended guidelines provided clear and accurate recommendations for the nursing and medical staff on pain management in burn patients. We recommend the use of a validated appraisal tool such as the AGREE instrument to provide more consistent and evidence-based care to burn......OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...

  2. Clothing-related burns in New South Wales, Australia: impact of legislation on a continuing problem. (United States)

    Harvey, Lara A; Connolley, Siobhan; Harvey, John G


    To combat the risk of nightwear burns a mandatory standard regulating the design, flammability and labelling requirements of children's nightwear was introduced in Australia in 1987. This population-based study examined the trends, characteristics and causes of clothing-related burns to inform a review of the current standard, and to facilitate the development of targeted prevention strategies. Clothing-related burns for 1998-2013 were identified from hospitalisation data for all hospitals in NSW and detailed information regarding circumstance of injury from a burn data registry. To investigate percentage annual change (PAC) in trends negative binomial regression analysis was performed. There were 541 hospitalisations for clothing-related burns, 18% were nightwear-related and 82% were for other clothing. All clothing burns decreased by an estimated 4% per year (95% CI -6.2 to -2.1). Nightwear-related burns decreased by a significantly higher rate (PAC -7.4%; 95% CI -12.5 to -2.1) than other clothing (PAC -2.5%; 95%CI -4.7 to -0.1). Exposure to open heat source (campfire/bonfire) was the most common cause, followed by cooking. Of factors known to be associated with clothing burns, accelerant use was reported in 27% of cases, cigarettes 17%, loose skirt or dress 8%, and angle grinders in 6% of cases. Hospitalisations for clothing burns are relatively uncommon in NSW and rates, particularly of nightwear burns, have decreased over the last 15 years. Strategies for continued reduction of these injuries include increasing the scope of the current clothing standard or developing new standards to include all children's clothing and adult nightwear, and increasing community awareness of the risk associated with open heat sources, accelerant use and loose clothing.

  3. Fluid management in major burn injuries

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    Haberal Mehmet


    Full Text Available It is a widely accepted fact that severe fluid loss is the greatest problem faced following major burn injuries. Therefore, effective fluid resuscitation is one of the cornerstones of modern burn treatment. The aim of this article is to review the current approaches available for modern trends in fluid management for major burn patients. As these current approaches are based on various experiences all over the world, the knowledge is essential to improve the status of this patient group.

  4. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Perenlei Enkhbaatar, MD., PhD...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our recent findings demonstrate that burn injury significantly depleted stores of vitamin E in adipose tissue of children by nearly...oxidative stress. The objectives of our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to

  5. Infection control in severely burned patients


    Coban, Yusuf Kenan


    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  6. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Bari, S; Sen, S L; Rahman, A; Khan, T F; Rahman, F


    Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  7. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashreky S


    Full Text Available Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  8. The Hand Burn Severity (HABS) score: A simple tool for stratifying severity of hand burns. (United States)

    Bache, Sarah E; Fitzgerald O'Connor, Edmund; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Frew, Quentin; Philp, Bruce; Dziewulski, Peter


    Hand burns represent a unique challenge to the burns team due to the intricate structure and unrivalled functional importance of the hand. The initial assessment and prognosis relies on consideration of the specific site involved as well as depth of the burn. We created a simple severity score that could be used by referring non-specialists and researchers alike. The Hand Burn Severity (HABS) score stratifies hand burns according to severity with a numerical value of between 0 (no burn) and 18 (most severe) per hand. Three independent assessors scored the photographs of 121 burned hands of 106 adult and paediatric patients, demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability (r=0.91, pburn depth alone. The HABS score is a simple to use tool to stratify severity at initial presentation of hand burns which will be useful when referring, and when reporting outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Applied physiology of cycling. (United States)

    Faria, I E


    Historically, the bicycle has evolved through the stages of a machine for efficient human transportation, a toy for children, a finely-tuned racing machine, and a tool for physical fitness development, maintenance and testing. Recently, major strides have been made in the aerodynamic design of the bicycle. These innovations have resulted in new land speed records for human powered machines. Performance in cycling is affected by a variety of factors, including aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. Bicycle races range from a 200m sprint to approximately 5000km. This vast range of competitive racing requires special attention to the principle of specificity of training. The physiological demands of cycling have been examined through the use of bicycle ergometers, rollers, cycling trainers, treadmill cycling, high speed photography, computer graphics, strain gauges, electromyography, wind tunnels, muscle biopsy, and body composition analysis. These techniques have been useful in providing definitive data for the development of a work/performance profile of the cyclist. Research evidence strongly suggests that when measuring the cyclist's aerobic or anaerobic capacity, a cycling protocol employing a high pedalling rpm should be used. The research bicycle should be modified to resemble a racing bicycle and the cyclist should wear cycling shoes. Prolonged cycling requires special nutritional considerations. Ingestion of carbohydrates, in solid form and carefully timed, influences performance. Caffeine appears to enhance lipid metabolism. Injuries, particularly knee problems which are prevalent among cyclists, may be avoided through the use of proper gearing and orthotics. Air pollution has been shown to impair physical performance. When pollution levels are high, training should be altered or curtailed. Effective training programmes simulate competitive conditions. Short and long interval training, blended with long

  10. Medical management of paediatric burn injuries: best practice. (United States)

    Kim, Leo K P; Martin, Hugh C O; Holland, Andrew J A


    Burns commonly occur in children and their first aid remains inadequate despite burn prevention programmes. While scald injuries predominate, contact and flame burns remain common. Although typically less severe injuries overall than those in adults, hypertrophic scarring complicating both the burn wound and even donor sites occur more frequently in children. The heterogeneous nature of burn wounds, coupled with the difficulties associated with the early clinical assessment of burn depth, has stimulated the application of novel technologies to predict burn wound outcome. This review explores current best practice in the management of paediatric burns, with a focus on prevention, optimal first aid, resuscitation, burn wound prediction and wound management strategies.

  11. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

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    Sh. Fahimi


    Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

  12. Aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient. (United States)

    Yasti, Ahmet Cinar; Otan, Emrah; Doganay, Mutlu; Kama, Nuri A


    Infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. Among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. Here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. With the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, which resulted in a successful patient management. Aeromonads should always be kept in mind in burn cases that contacted with tanked water or soil after the burn.

  13. Renal failure in burn patients: a review. (United States)

    Emara, S S; Alzaylai, A A


    Burn care providers are usually challenged by multiple complications during the management of acute burns. One of the most common complications worldwide is renal failure. This article reviews the various aspects of renal failure management in burn patients. Two different types of renal failures develop in these patients. The different aetiological factors, incidence, suspected prognosis, ways of diagnosing, as well as prevention methods, and the most accepted treatment modalities are all discussed. A good understanding and an effective assessment of the problem help to reduce both morbidity and mortality in burn management.

  14. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  15. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

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    Jennifer K. Costanza


    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  16. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  17. Survey of care and evaluation of East African burn unit feasibility: an academic burn center exchange. (United States)

    Mitchell, Katrina B; Giiti, Geofrey; Gallagher, James J


    Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, partnered with Weill Bugando Medical College and Sekou Toure Regional Referral Hospital, in Mwanza, Tanzania, to consider the development of a burn unit there. This institutional partnership provided a unique opportunity to promote sustainable academic exchange and build burn care capacity in the East African region. A Weill Cornell burn surgeon and burn fellow collaborated with the Sekou Toure department of surgery to assess its current burn care capabilities and potential for burn unit development. All aspects of interdisciplinary burn care were reviewed and institutional infrastructure evaluated. Sekou Toure is a 375-bed regional referral center and teaching hospital of Weill Bugando Medical College. In 2010-2011, it admitted 5244 pediatric patients in total; 100 of these patients were burn-injured children (2% of admissions). There was no specific data kept on percentage of body surface burned, degree of burn, length of stay, or complications. No adult, operative, or outpatient burn data were available. There are two operating theaters. Patient's families perform wound care with nursing supervision. Rehabilitation therapists consult as needed. Meals are provided three times daily by a central kitchen. Public health outreach is possible through village-based communication networks. Infrastructure to support the development of a burn care unit exists at Sekou Toure, but needs increased clinical focus, human resource capacity building, and record-keeping to track accurate patient numbers. A multidisciplinary center could improve record-keeping and outcomes, encourage referrals, and facilitate outreach through villages.

  18. Experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for fuel cycle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San-Felice, L.; Eschbach, R.; Bourdot, P. [DEN, DER, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 ST Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Tsilanizara, A.; Huynh, T. D. [DEN, DM2S, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ourly, H. [EDF, R and D, 1 av. General de Gaulle, F-92131 Clamart Cedex (France); Thro, J. F. [AREVA, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris la Defense (France)


    The DARWIN package, developed by the CEA and its French partners (AREVA and EDF) provides the required parameters for fuel cycle applications: fuel inventory, decay heat, activity, neutron, {gamma}, {alpha}, {beta} sources and spectrum, radiotoxicity. This paper presents the DARWIN2.3 experimental validation for fuel inventory and decay heat calculations on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In order to validate this code system for spent fuel inventory a large program has been undertaken, based on spent fuel chemical assays. This paper deals with the experimental validation of DARWIN2.3 for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel inventory calculation, focused on the isotopes involved in Burn-Up Credit (BUC) applications and decay heat computations. The calculation - experiment (C/E-1) discrepancies are calculated with the latest European evaluation file JEFF-3.1.1 associated with the SHEM energy mesh. An overview of the tendencies is obtained on a complete range of burn-up from 10 to 85 GWd/t (10 to 60 GWcVt for MOX fuel). The experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for decay heat calculation is performed using calorimetric measurements carried out at the Swedish Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies, covering a large burn-up (20 to 50 GWd/t) and cooling time range (10 to 30 years). (authors)

  19. Electrical burns of the abdomen

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    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava


    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  20. Fes cycling

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    Berkelmans Rik


    Full Text Available Many research with functional electrical stimulation (FES has been done to regain mobility and for health benefits. Better results have been reported for FES-cycling than for FES-walking. The majority of the subjects during such research are people with a spinal cord injury (SCI, cause they often lost skin sensation. Besides using surface stimulation also implanted stimulators can be used. This solves the skin sensation problem, but needs a surgery. Many physiological effects of FES-cycling has been reported, e.g., increase of muscles, better blood flow, reduction of pressure ulcers, improved self-image and some reduction of bone mineral density (BMD loss. Also people with an incomplete SCI benefit by FES-cycling, e.g. cycling time without FES, muscle strength and also the walking abilities increased. Hybrid exercise gives an even better cardiovascular training. Presently 4 companies are involved in FES-cycling. They all have a stationary mobility trainer. Two of them also use an outdoor tricycle. One combined with voluntary arm cranking. By optimizing the stimulation parameters the power output and fatigue resistance will increase, but will still be less compared to voluntary cycling.

  1. Moderate systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression. (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Burgess, Pamela; Cartie, Richard J; Prasad, Balakrishna M


    Therapeutic hypothermia has been proposed to be beneficial in an array of human pathologies including cardiac arrest, stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and hemorrhagic shock. Burn depth progression is multifactorial but inflammation plays a large role. Because hypothermia is known to reduce inflammation, we hypothesized that moderate hypothermia will decrease burn depth progression. We used a second-degree 15% total body surface area thermal injury model in rats. Burn depth was assessed by histology of biopsy sections. Moderate hypothermia in the range of 31-33°C was applied for 4h immediately after burn and in a delayed fashion, starting 2h after burn. In order to gain insight into the beneficial effects of hypothermia, we analyzed global gene expression in the burned skin. Immediate hypothermia decreased burn depth progression at 6h post injury, and this protective effect was sustained for at least 24h. Burn depth was 18% lower in rats subjected to immediate hypothermia compared to control rats at both 6 and 24h post injury. Rats in the delayed hypothermia group did not show any significant decrease in burn depth at 6h, but had 23% lower burn depth than controls at 24h. Increased expression of several skin-protective genes such as CCL4, CCL6 and CXCL13 and decreased expression of tissue remodeling genes such as matrix metalloprotease-9 were discovered in the skin biopsy samples of rats subjected to immediate hypothermia. Systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression in a rodent model and up-regulation of skin-protective genes and down-regulation of detrimental tissue remodeling genes by hypothermia may contribute to its beneficial effects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

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    Gupta J


    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  3. Management of Critical Burn Injuries: Recent Developments

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    David J. Dries


    Full Text Available Background Burn injury and its subsequent multisystem effects are commonly encountered by acute care practitioners. Resuscitation is the major component of initial burn care and must be managed to restore and preserve vital organ function. Later complications of burn injury are dominated by infection. Burn centers are often called to manage problems related to thermal injury, including lightning and electrical injuries. Methods A selected review is provided of key management concepts as well as of recent reports published by the American Burn Association. Results The burn-injured patient is easily and frequently over resuscitated, with ensuing complications that include delayed wound healing and respiratory compromise. A feedback protocol designed to limit the occurrence of excessive resuscitation has been proposed, but no new “gold standard” for resuscitation has replaced the venerated Parkland formula. While new medical therapies have been proposed for patients sustaining inhalation injury, a paradigm-shifting standard of medical therapy has not emerged. Renal failure as a specific contributor to adverse outcome in burns has been reinforced by recent data. Of special problems addressed in burn centers, electrical injuries pose multisystem physiologic challenges and do not fit typical scoring systems. Conclusion Recent reports emphasize the dangers of over resuscitation in the setting of burn injury. No new medical therapy for inhalation injury has been generally adopted, but new standards for description of burn-related infections have been presented. The value of the burn center in care of the problems of electrical exposure, both manmade and natural, is demonstrated in recent reports.

  4. Mass spectrometry based data of the blister fluid proteome of paediatric burn patients

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    Tuo Zang


    Full Text Available The data presented here are associated with the article “The blister fluid proteome of paediatric burns” (Zang et al., 2016 [1]. Burn injury is a highly traumatic event for children. The degree of burn severity (superficial-, deep-, or full-thickness injury often dictates the extent of later scar formation which may require long term surgical operation or skin grafting. The data were obtained by fractionating paediatric burn blister fluid samples, which were pooled according to burn depth and then analysed using data dependent acquisition LC–MS/MS. The data includes a table of all proteins identified, in which burn depth category they were found, the percentage sequence coverage for each protein and the number of high confidence peptide identifications for each protein. Further Gene Ontology enrichment analysis shows the significantly over-represented biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components of the burn blister fluid proteome. In addition, tables include the proteins associated with the biological processes of “wound healing” and “response to stress” as examples of highly relevant processes that occur in burn wounds.

  5. Non-accidental burns in children--are we neglecting neglect? (United States)

    Chester, Darren L; Jose, Rajive Mathew; Aldlyami, Ehab; King, Helen; Moiemen, Naiem S


    Although many studies have described burn abuse in detail, burns that have occurred as a result of neglect have been studied to a much lesser degree. A retrospective study of 440 hospitalised paediatric burns patients during 2000-2002 inclusive was performed. A multidisciplinary team investigation of suspicious cases was used. This included a home assessment. There were 41 cases of neglect (9.3%) and 395 cases of accidental burning (89.8%). Parental drug abuse, single parent families, delay to presentation and a lack of first aid were statistically more prevalent in the "neglect" group than in the "accidental" group. Children in the "neglect" group were also statistically more likely to have deeper burns and require skin grafting. 82.9% of children whose burns were deemed to be due to neglect had a previous entry on the child protection register. 48.8% were transferred into foster care. This study shows that burning by neglect is far more prevalent than abuse. We advocate a multidisciplinary investigation coupled with the use of home assessments to aid diagnosis. It may be possible to target preventative strategies on the children with the above risk factors.

  6. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerneni LK


    Full Text Available Ever since man invented fire he has been more frequently burning himself by this creation than by the naturally occurring bushfires. It is estimated that over 1.152 million people in India suffer from burn injuries requiring treatment every year and majority of them are women aged between 16-40 years and most of them occur in the kitchen. The treatment for burns basically involves autologous skin grafting, which originated in India more than two thousand years ago (Sushruta Samhita, is still the gold standard for the wound resurfacing, although, autografting is difficult where graftable donor sites are limited. Although, Cadaver skin, porcine or bovine xenografts are used alternatively over the past thirty years, modern approaches like the Bioengineering of skin substitutes emerged during the past 20 years as advanced wound management technologies with no social impediment. They can be broadly categorized as Acellular and Cellular biotechnological products. The acellular products like Alloderm (LifeCell Corporation, Integra (Integra Life Sciences act like template and depend on natural regeneration, while the cellular ones are either ‘Off-the-Shelf’ products like Apligraf (Organogenesis Inc and Orcel (Ortec International have allogenic elements and ‘home grown’ autologous cell products like Cultured Epithelial Autograft (CEA and epidermal-dermal composite skin use synthetic or natural non-human matrices. The CEA is based on the ex-vivo epidermal stem cell-expansion and our laboratory has been engaged in CEA technique development with innovative cost-effective approach and yielded promising preliminary clinical success. The basic methodological approach in CEA technique which is still clinically adopted by several developed countries involves the use of growth arrested mouse dermal fibroblasts as growth supportive matrix and is thus considered a drawback as a whole. Additionally, there is no superior enough method available to augment the

  7. The Role of a Burn Research Coordinator: A Guide for Novice Coordinators. (United States)

    Honari, Shari; Caceres, Maria; Romo, Mariana; Gibran, Nicole S; Gamelli, Richard L


    As health-care complexity and costs increase, evidence-based research has become essential to the advancement of burn care. Multicenter trials involve procedures, regulations, and guidelines that require meticulous attention to details and strict adherence to compliance issues. Taking on a large, multicenter trial can be a daunting task for a new burn research coordinator. The purpose of this article is to provide a resource for new burn research coordinators in multicenter clinical trial planning, especially in the field of burns. The burn research coordinator must possess organizational and multitasking skills, attention to detail, professionalism, initiative, and motivation. The burn research coordinator must exercise five principles of practice: compliance, confidentiality, consistency and correctness, and collaboration. Compliance assures subject safety, study integrity, and burn center reputation. Confidentiality is essential, especially when handling sensitive health information. Maintaining subject privacy through secure links and destruction of linked data in a timely matter protects the subjects and complies with the regulations of many governing bodies. Consistency and correctness minimize human errors through continuous data validation and self-auditing and peer auditing. Collaboration between the Principal Investigator/burn research coordinator and all departments involved in the study maintains the study focus and allows for enforcement of procedures. Preparing a budget confirms adequate compensation for work done by the research team and can be broken down into the following five steps: protocol review, calculation of initial payment, establishment of indirect costs, calculation of direct costs, and budget negotiation. Over time, one becomes familiar with the details involved with study success. Advocating for subject safety and protocol adherence are of highest priority. Study design is the most important element that dictates the success of the

  8. Multispectral and Photoplethysmography Optical Imaging Techniques Identify Important Tissue Characteristics in an Animal Model of Tangential Burn Excision. (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E; Li, Weizhi; Rodriguez-Vaqueiro, Yolanda; Squiers, John J; Mo, Weirong; Lu, Yang; Plant, Kevin D; Sellke, Eric; King, Darlene R; Fan, Wensheng; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose A; DiMaio, J Michael


    Burn excision, a difficult technique owing to the training required to identify the extent and depth of injury, will benefit from a tool that can cue the surgeon as to where and how much to resect. We explored two rapid and noninvasive optical imaging techniques in their ability to identify burn tissue from the viable wound bed using an animal model of tangential burn excision. Photoplethysmography (PPG) imaging and multispectral imaging (MSI) were used to image the initial, intermediate, and final stages of burn excision of a deep partial-thickness burn. PPG imaging maps blood flow in the skin's microcirculation, and MSI collects the tissue reflectance spectrum in visible and infrared wavelengths of light to classify tissue based on a reference library. A porcine deep partial-thickness burn model was generated and serial tangential excision accomplished with an electric dermatome set to 1.0 mm depth. Excised eschar was stained with hematoxylin and eosin to determine the extent of burn remaining at each excision depth. We confirmed that the PPG imaging device showed significantly less blood flow where burn tissue was present, and the MSI method could delineate burn tissue in the wound bed from the viable wound bed. These results were confirmed independently by a histological analysis. We found these devices can identify the proper depth of excision, and their images could cue a surgeon as to the preparedness of the wound bed for grafting. These image outputs are expected to facilitate clinical judgment in the operating room.

  9. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs (United States)

    ... Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | Visit our YouTube ...

  10. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch ... learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. ...

  11. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch ... learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. ...

  12. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food? (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won


    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  13. Current approach to burn critical care. (United States)

    Sakallioglu, A E; Haberal, M


    Burn trauma is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Advancements in resuscitation, surgical tecniques, infection control and nutritional/metaolic support decreased mortality and morbidity. This article intends to review current outlines for initial treatment and resuscitation nutritional/metabolic support and wound management peculiar to burn patients.

  14. Epidemiology of pediatric burn in southern Taiwan. (United States)

    Lin, Tsai-Ming; Wang, Kai-Hung; Lai, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw


    A 5-year retrospective review of 157 pediatric patients admitted to burn center of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) was undertaken to identify the incidence, mechanism, and agents of pediatric burn. The highest incidence of pediatric burn was in children aged 1-6 years (57.3%), followed by age group 6-14 years (31.8%). Scald burn (75.2%) made up the major cause of this injury and was dominant in each age group compared to non-scald burn. The kitchen/dining area (57.3%) and living room (29.9%) accounted for the most frequent places where pediatric burns occurred. Among the agents of scald burn, hot drink (49.2%) and soup (32.2%) were the two leading causes. There were more pediatric burns reported in colder seasons (38.2% and 33.1% in winter and fall respectively) and during dining time (19.7% in 11 a.m.-1 p.m. and 35.0% in 5 p.m.-8 p.m.). The results of this report may be closely related to special culinary habits (use of chafing-dish and making hot tea) in the south of Taiwan.

  15. Eradicating Understory Hardwoods By Repeated Prescribed Burning (United States)

    Charles X. Grano


    In a loblolly-shorleaf pine stand contained abundant litter, one winter fire killed 94 percent of the stems of understory hardwoods up to 3.5 inches in diameter at teh base. Prolific sprouting ensued. Eleven annual summer burns eliminated sprouting on 85 percent of the rootstocks, and seven biennial summer burns eliminated sprouting on 59 percent of them.

  16. Treating burns caused by hydrofluoric acid. (United States)

    Summers, Anthony


    Hydrofluoric acid is an ingredient of many common household and industrial solutions. Even seemingly minor burns caused by this acid can have catastrophic effects if they are treated inappropriately or late. This article describes the signs and symptoms, the pathophysiology and the emergency management of hydrofluoric acid burns.

  17. Steam vaporizers: A danger for paediatric burns. (United States)

    Lonie, Sarah; Baker, Paul; Teixeira, Rodrigo


    Steam vaporizers are used to humidify air in dry environments. They are marketed to moisten children's airway secretions and thus to help relieve symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately the steam emitted from the unit can also pose a significant risk of burns to children. Our study aimed to ascertain patterns of injury and treatment outcomes from steam burns resulting from these devices. Potential preventative measures are discussed. Children who had sustained vaporizer scald burns were identified at the outpatient burns clinic over a 10-month period (November 2014-August 2015). Medical records were reviewed retrospectively and data collected on pattern of injury, management and outcomes. Ten children were treated for vaporizer steam burns over the study period. The mean age was 1.6 years and 8 (80%) patients were male. Operative intervention was undergone in 5 (50%) cases; four acutely and one as a secondary reconstructive procedure. Hand burns accounted for 8 (80%) of cases. Steam vaporizers can cause significant burns in the paediatric population. Toddlers were most at risk, frequently sustaining hand burns that underwent skin grafting. Greater public awareness of the danger is indicated and measures to prevent such injuries should be addressed by appropriate authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictive Factors of Mortality in Burn Patients


    Fazeli; Karami-Matin; Kakaei; Pourghorban; Safari-Faramani


    Background: Burn injuries impose a considerable burden on healthcare systems in Iran. It is among the top ten causes of mortality and a main cause of disability. Objectives: This study aimed to examine factors influencing mortality in burn patients admitted to the main educational tertiary referral hospital in Kermanshah. Patients and Methods: All patients admitted to the Imam Khom...



    Jaiprakash, B.; Chandramohan,; Reddy, D. Narishma


    The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity.

  20. 'Sabbath' electric plate burn: a ritual hazard. (United States)

    Benmeir, P; Sagi, A; Rosenberg, L; Picard, E; Ben Yakar, Y


    This report describes the burns caused by an electric hot plate which is used by orthodox Jews for keeping food and liquids warm during the Sabbath (Saturday). An illustrative case is presented and the preventable aspects of this particular burn are discussed.

  1. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach]. (United States)

    Wagenblast, Lene


    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area.

  2. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud


    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  3. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci


    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 291-296


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿利; 邵慧珍; 支立民; 肖玉瑞; 杨丽英; 史济湘


    Seventy-eight burned patients (53 males and 25 females) were classified into 4 groups (mild type: 14 cases, moderate type: 13 cases, severe type: 17 cases and super-severe type: 34 cases) in accordence with criteria established by the Chinese Society for burns. Twenty-two parameters related to platelet, coagulant and anticoagulant factors, fibrinolysis system and hemorrheology were determined at first 24 hours, on third and fifth post-burn days. The results were as follow: Fibrinogen antigen, von Willebrand factor antigen, plasminogen activitor inhibitor activity, thromboxane B2 and hematocrit and whole blood viscosity significantly increased, however antithrombin Ⅲ, protein C antigen, free protein S and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α markedly decreased compared with normal control at first 24 hours post burn. In addition, fibrinogen antigen, von Willebrand factor antigen, plasminogen activitor inhibitor activity, thromboxane B2 and whole blood viscosity were persistently elevated, however, antithrombin Ⅲ, protein C, free protein S and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α declined on third and fifth post burn days. These changes resulted in a prethrombotic state, being an important factor in genesis of microthrombosis on burn site and the cause of the deepening and aggravation of burn wound on the third and fifth days in burned patients.

  5. 7 CFR 29.6004 - Burn. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burn. 29.6004 Section 29.6004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6004 Burn. The duration of combustion or length of time that a...

  6. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci


    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  7. Burn Treatment: Annual Research Progress Report. (United States)


    positive for 127 a given species may be indicative of its importance in pathogenesis of pulmon - ary disease in burned patients. Table 6. Principal...pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is, of course, the conspicuous successful opportunist in burns, cancer wards, debilitated aged, newborns, and other

  8. Cost of providing inpatient burn care in a tertiary, teaching, hospital of North India. (United States)

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Goswami, Prasenjit


    There is an extreme paucity of studies examining cost of burn care in the developing world when over 85% of burns take place in low and middle income countries. Modern burn care is perceived as an expensive, resource intensive endeavour, requiring specialized equipment, personnel and facilities to provide optimum care. If 'burn burden' of low and middle income countries (LMICs) is to be tackled deftly then besides prevention and education we need to have burn centres where 'reasonable' burn care can be delivered in face of resource constraints. This manuscript calculates the cost of providing inpatient burn management at a large, high volume, tertiary burn care facility of North India by estimating all cost drivers. In this one year study (1st February to 31st January 2012), in a 50 bedded burn unit, demographic parameters like age, gender, burn aetiology, % TBSA burns, duration of hospital stay and mortality were recorded for all patients. Cost drivers included in estimation were all medications and consumables, dressing material, investigations, blood products, dietary costs, and salaries of all personnel. Capital costs, utility costs and maintenance expenditure were excluded. The burn unit is constrained to provide conservative management, by and large, and is serviced by a large team of doctors and nurses. Entire treatment cost is borne by the hospital for all patients. 797 patients (208 60% BSA burns. 258/797 patients died (32.37%). Of these deaths 16, 68 and 174 patients were from 0 to 30%, 31 to 60% and >60% BSA groups, respectively. The mean length of hospitalization for all admissions was 7.86 days (ranging from 1 to 62 days) and for survivors it was 8.9 days. There were 299 operations carried out in the dedicated burns theatre. The total expenditure for the study period was Indian Rupees (Rs) 46,488,067 or US$ 845,237. At 1 US$=Rs 55 it makes the cost per patient to be US$ 1060.5. Almost 70% of cost of burn management resulted from salaries, followed by

  9. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury......; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...

  10. Long hair, smoking, and deep facial burns. (United States)

    Koljonen, Virve


    The purpose of this article is to describe deep facial burn injuries by cigarette lighters in longhaired adults and to report our experience in their treatment. Eight consecutive cigarette lighter burn victims are treated in the Helsinki Burn Center in the year 2006. Seven of the patients were women; their mean age was 50 years. All were under the influence of alcohol at the time of injury. The mean burnt area was 3.5% TBSA. The burnt areas were primarily forehead, cheek, and ipsilateral ear. After a conservative treatment, all the patients underwent an operation, whereby the nonhealing burns were excised and covered with autologous split thickness skin grafts. Postoperative period was uneventful in all the patients. Besides having severe detrimental effects on general health status and wound healing, smoking is the leading cause of residential and total fire deaths worldwide. The patients in this article suffered deep facial burns because of cigarette lighters.

  11. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review. (United States)

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis


    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation.

  12. Psychosocial care of persons with severe burns. (United States)

    Blakeney, Patricia E; Rosenberg, Laura; Rosenberg, Marta; Faber, A W


    Treatment of people with burn injuries includes recovery of optimal function for survivors to fully participate in society, psychologically and physically. Increased likelihood of physical survival has led to greater concern for potential psychological morbidity for the burn survivor. Based on research and on many years of clinical experience in providing psychosocial care to burned children and adults, the authors outline their approach to assisting burn survivors and their families through the arduous process of recovery from admission through critical care, inpatient recuperation and reintegration upon hospital discharge. A philosophy of rehabilitation, a process that may occur for many months or years after patients' discharge from their acute hospitalization, is presented in the form of seven guidelines for working with burn survivors.

  13. Coping with severe burns in the early stage after burn injury. (United States)

    Bras, Marijana; Loncar, Zoran; Brajković, Lovorka; Gregurek, Rudolf; Micković, Vlatko


    This study examined the relationship between coping strategies, anxiety and depression levels and burn injury characteristics in the early phase of the treatment in burn-injured patients. Seventy patients with severe burns were interviewed within two weeks of their burn trauma. Coping strategies were measured by the coping with burns questionnaire (CBQ). Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were no statistically significant gender differences in various coping strategies. Avoidance was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression and hopelessness. The percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) and localization of burns were not associated with coping patterns. Implications for the assessment and management of burn injured patients were discussed.

  14. A review of the specialties that care for inpatient burns and smoke inhalation in the English counties of Lancashire and South Cumbria. (United States)

    Rajpura, Arif


    Prevention is by far the best strategy to minimise the burden of burns and smoke inhalation injuries on public health. However, it is inevitable that some injuries will occur despite the best attempts to prevent them. We must, therefore, optimise treatment in order to restore individuals to the best possible condition. Previous experience has shown that a wide range of specialties, many of which are untrained in burn care medicine, are involved in the care of inpatient burns/smoke inhalation victims in the UK. In light of this, a local review of which specialties care for such injuries was conducted for the population of Lancashire and South Cumbria in the north-west of England. Using population-based health authority data from 1997 to 1999, all Hospital Episodes relating to a primary diagnosis of burns or smoke inhalation were ascertained. The results showed that 41% of all burns episodes were treated by specialties other than burns/plastics. The short lengths of stay in non-plastics/burns specialties suggest that relatively minor injuries are being admitted to these units. Analysis of smoke inhalation injuries showed admission to various different specialties. Admission to burn services ensures that key specialties are available for the care of complex burn injuries. These multidisciplinary teams include burn nurses, burn surgeons and burn anaesthetists/intensivists. From the data available, it was not possible to assess the appropriateness of admission of burns and smoke inhalation injuries to the various branches of medicine. In order to assess appropriateness, we need information on severity of injury and outcome of treatment in each specialty. Further research in this area is required since it is concerning that many burns/smoke inhalation injuries are being treated by specialties with no formal training in burn care medicine. This may have major implications for service planning alongside changes in referral patterns.

  15. Skills, sunspots and cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Marchetti, Enrico

    This paper explores the ability of a class of one-sector,multi-input models to generate indeterminate equilibrium paths, andendogenous cycles, without relying on factors' hoarding. The modelpresents a novel theoretical economic mechanism that supportssunspot-driven expansions without requiring up...

  16. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran. (United States)

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra


    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  17. An evaluation of Emergency Management of Severe Burn (EMSB) course in Bangladesh: a strategic direction. (United States)

    Biswas, Animesh; Rahman, Fazlur; Maitz, Peter; Baset, Kamran Ul; Hossain, Jahangir; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman


    Burn is one of the major public health problems in Bangladesh. Specialized personnel and technologies are required, however, in many cases they are not readily available. Taking the situation into account, Interplast Australia and New Zealand, Australia & New Zealand Burn Association (ANZBA), and Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB) initiated Emergency Management of Severe Burn (EMSB) training programme for Bangladeshi physicians in 2008 to help improving their burn management skill. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of EMSB programme in Bangladesh. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were adopted. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to obtain quantitative information from 38 randomly selected EMSB-trained doctors among 380 trained physicians based on a five year database of EMSB (2008-2012). In-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussion (FGD) were used as data collection techniques to get information. A total of 32 participants completed the interview. It was found that 87.5% (n=28) doctors were using their skill in burn management that they learnt from the EMSB course. About 43.8% (n=14) doctors felt that the course largely helped improve their confidence. Majority (56.2%, n=18) of doctors stated EMSB is essential for the Bangladeshi doctors to learn better management of burns. Qualitative findings show that the courses were organized successfully with an excellent coordination, maintaining same quality and standard as running anywhere in the world. For its effectiveness, the course has been recommended to train graduate nurses and junior doctors from the periphery of the country. EMSB has already created a large doctor community who are able to effectively manage burn patients. It also has proven its indispensability for learning burn management skill. The EMSB established a platform to serve the burn victims and reduce the burden of injuries in Bangladesh.

  18. Threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury. (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R; Amini-Nik, Saeid


    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care.

  19. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image]. (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai


    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution.

  20. Simulating modern-day cropland and pasture burning in an Earth system model (United States)

    Rabin, Sam; Malyshev, Sergey; Shevliakova, Elena; Magi, Brian; Pacala, Steve


    Throughout the Holocene, humans have extended our influence across a larger and larger fraction of ecosystems, even creating some new ones in the process. Herds of livestock grazing either native vegetation (rangeland) or specially planted species (pasture) have modified huge areas of land. We have even developed new plant species and cultivated them as crops. The extent of our ecosystem modification intensified dramatically with the advent of industrialized agriculture, to the point where cropland and pasture (which will henceforth encompass rangeland as well) now cover over a third of the Earth's land area. One way we have altered the terrestrial biosphere is by intentionally and unintentionally altering fire's frequency, intensity, and seasonal timing. This is especially true for agricultural ecosystems. Because their maintenance and use require a level of human control, cropland and pasture often experience fire regimes substantially different from those of the ecosystems they replaced or what would occur in the absence of active fire management. For example, farmers might burn to prepare land for planting or to dispose of crop residues, and pastoralists often use fire to prevent encroachment of unpalatable woody plants. Due to the vast global extent of agriculture, and considering the myriad ways fire affects the Earth system, it is critical that we understand (a) the ways people manage fire on cropland and pasture and (b) the effects of this management on the Earth system. Earth system models are an ideal tool for examining this kind of question. By simulating the processes within and interactions among the atmosphere, oceans, land, and terrestrial ecosystems, Earth system models allow phenomena such as fire to be examined in their global context. However, while the past fifteen years have seen great progress in the simulation of vegetation fire within Earth system models, the direct human influence via cropland and pasture management burning has been mostly

  1. Characteristics of atmospheric ice nucleating particles associated with biomass burning in the US: Prescribed burns and wildfires (United States)

    McCluskey, Christina S.

    addition to LRT of mineral dust. The chemical compositions of INP were probed directly via TEM imaging. Single particle analyses of residual INP showed that they comprised various C-containing particle types, but with a higher abundance of mineral and metal oxide containing INP in emissions from flaming phase combustion. Fractal soot was found as an INP type comprising up to 60% of collected INP in young smoke emissions from the Georgia prescribed burns. In a series of laboratory combustion experiments, the use of a new instrumental set up, pairing the CFDC with a single particle soot photometer, revealed up to a 60% decrease in active INP after the removal of refractory black carbon from smoke aerosol emitted from a highly flaming burn of wiregrass, supporting that soot particles serve as INP in fire emissions. The presence of soil minerals was clearly evident in TEM images of samples taken during the wildfires in addition to tarballs, carbon balls most commonly associated with aged smoke plumes. These results demonstrate that the ice nucleating particles observed in the wildfires were influenced by other factors not represented in the smoke emitted from the laboratory or prescribed burns. Finally, an INP parameterization was developed based on the temperature dependent relationship between nINP and n500nm, following methods used by previous studies. This parameterization is likely only representative of the Hewlett and High Park wildfires due to the apparent impact of non-biomass-burning aerosol. However, all wildfires are typically associated with vigorous localized convection and arid soils, required for the lofting of the soils and dusts similar to these wildfires. It will be useful to compare future wildfires in various regions to the proposed parameterization. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...

  3. Significant chemical burns associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod detergent. (United States)

    Russell, Jason L; Wiles, Devin A; Kenney, Brian; Spiller, Henry A


    Concentrated laundry pods have been reported to cause significant clinical effects including oropharyngeal burns and respiratory distress requiring intubation. Dermal burns have been reported, but no incidents of serious isolated dermal injury have been published. We report a case of significant, isolated dermal injury as a result of dermal exposure to a concentrated laundry detergent pod. Total body surface area partial thickness burns in this case were estimated at approximately 2 % with an additional 4-5 % of total body surface area (TBSA) displaying superficial burns/chemical dermatitis. Health-care providers should be aware of this complication and should perform thorough dermal decontamination in the event of an exposure. Parents should be educated regarding the dangers associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod compounds and the need to secure these items away from children as well as proper decontamination techniques should an exposure occur.

  4. NO2 emissions from agricultural burning in São Paulo, Brazil. (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Clive; Tsanev, Vitchko I; Allen, Andrew G; McGonigle, Andrew J S; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Wiatr, Antony; Paterlini, Willian; Dias, Cristine de Mello


    We report here on the application of a compact ultraviolet spectrometer to measurement of NO2 emissions from sugar cane field burns in São Paulo, Brazil. The time-resolved NO2 emission from a 10 ha plot peaked at about 240 g (NO2) s(-1), and amounted to a total yield of approximately 50 kg of N, or about 0.5 g (N) m(-2). Emission of N as NOx (i.e., NO + NO2) was estimated at 2.5 g (N) m(-2), equivalent to 30% of applied fertilizer nitrogen. The corresponding annual emission of NOx nitrogen from São Paulo State sugar cane burning was >45 Gg N. In contrast to mechanized harvesting, which does not require prior burning of the crop, manual harvesting with burning acts to recycle nitrogen into surface soils and ecosystems.

  5. Burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ringbaek, Thomas; Huss, Fredrik;


    BACKGROUND: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) increases life expectancy in patients with COPD and severe hypoxemia. Smoking is the main cause of burn injury during LTOT. Policy regarding smoking while on LTOT varies between countries. In this study, we compare the incidence of burn injury that requ......BACKGROUND: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) increases life expectancy in patients with COPD and severe hypoxemia. Smoking is the main cause of burn injury during LTOT. Policy regarding smoking while on LTOT varies between countries. In this study, we compare the incidence of burn injury...... that required contact with a health care specialist, between Sweden (a country with a strict policy regarding smoking while on LTOT) and Denmark (a country with less strict smoking policy). METHODS: This was a population-based, cohort study of patients initiating LTOT due to any cause in Sweden and Denmark...

  6. An epidemiological study of burn patients hospitalized in Valencia, Spain during 1989. (United States)

    Tejerina, C; Reig, A; Codina, J; Safont, J; Baena, P; Mirabet, V


    A retrospective study has been made of the patients hospitalized in the Burn Centre of La Fe Hospital in Valencia (Spain) during 1989. Of the 1825 patients seen during this period, 146 (8 per cent) were admitted to hospital. The mean patient age was 31.42 years, 68.5 per cent of the patients were male; 34.1 per cent were children under the age of 15 years and 15 per cent were over 60 years old. Fire was the most common cause of burns (50 per cent), and produced the most extensive lesions. Electrical current and firm contact with hot surfaces caused deeper burns. Thermal lesions were most frequently produced within the domestic environment. Burns caused by fire affected mainly the head and neck, scalding tended to involve the trunk and electrical current caused injury to the limbs. Half the hospital admissions were discharged within 15 days. Most of the lesions requiring hospital admission occurred during the winter months.

  7. A comparative evaluation of MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data and burn indices for mapping southern California fires (United States)

    Harris, S. L.; Hook, S. J.


    Large fires occur annually in southern California, producing impacts at a number of scales, from local impacts on vegetation, hydrology and microclimates, to global impacts such as emissions, affecting atmospheric chemistry, air quality, radiation balance and biogeochemical cycling. As a consequence fires are routinely mapped using various sensors and burn indices. However, the indices employed for mapping these fires have not been developed and optimized for mapping southern California burned surfaces. Therefore, this study utilizes the high spatial and spectral resolution imagery from the MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) to identify the most effective bands and indices specifically for burned area mapping of the southern California region. The fire perimeter is based on the Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) map created by the United States Forest Service (USFS), Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and a supervised classification which defines the burned and unburned regions. A separability index is employed to identify the bands and indices that can best distinguish between classes. The results identify a range of well performing indices, such as the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and the Vegetation Index based on mid-infrared spectral region (VI3), and some poor performing indices, such as the Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI) and the Burned Area Index (BAI). Additionally this study highlights the indices that perform better over certain vegetation types. These results are useful for understanding the application of remotely sensed data for mapping burned surfaces. Improved burned area mapping capabilities are essential for informing land managers when identifying regions susceptible to hazards (such as debris and flood flows) and for deciding where to allocate time and resources in recovery efforts. Additionally, these results can be used to validate other sensors that are used to map burned surfaces on greater spatial and

  8. Nuclear data requirements for the ADS conceptual design EFIT: Uncertainty and sensitivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Herranz, N., E-mail: nuria@din.upm.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Velarde, F. [CIEMAT (Spain); Sanz, J. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, UNED (Spain); Gonzalez-Romero, E.M. [CIEMAT (Spain); Juan, J. [Laboratorio de Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)


    In this paper, we assess the impact of activation cross-section uncertainties on relevant fuel cycle parameters for a conceptual design of a modular European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) with a 'double strata' fuel cycle. Next, the nuclear data requirements are evaluated so that the parameters can meet the assigned design target accuracies. Different discharge burn-up levels are considered: a low burn-up, corresponding to the equilibrium cycle, and a high burn-up level, simulating the effects on the fuel of the multi-recycling scenario. In order to perform this study, we propose a methodology in two steps. Firstly, we compute the uncertainties on the system parameters by using a Monte Carlo simulation, as it is considered the most reliable approach to address this problem. Secondly, the analysis of the results is performed by a sensitivity technique, in order to identify the relevant reaction channels and prioritize the data improvement needs. Cross-section uncertainties are taken from the EAF-2007/UN library since it includes data for all the actinides potentially present in the irradiated fuel. Relevant uncertainties in some of the fuel cycle parameters have been obtained, and we conclude with recommendations for future nuclear data measurement programs, beyond the specific results obtained with the present nuclear data files and the limited available covariance information. A comparison with the uncertainty and accuracy analysis recently published by the WPEC-Subgroup26 of the OECD using BOLNA covariance matrices is performed. Despite the differences in the transmuter reactor used for the analysis, some conclusions obtained by Subgroup26 are qualitatively corroborated, and improvements for additional cross sections are suggested.

  9. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.


    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  10. Early markers of renal injury in predicting outcome in thermal burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Alaa


    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a well known complication of severe burn and is an important factor that can increase mortality. To determine the predictors of acute renal failure that occur in major burns, we studied 40 patients with moderate to severe thermal burn injury - second to third degree with > 20% of total body surface area. All patients were subjected to routine in-vestigations including: Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, fractional excretion of sodium, uri-nary malondialdehyde and microalbuminuria on day 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of hospitalization. Nine patients (22.5 % developed acute renal failure; 4 patients required supportive dialysis. The group that de-veloped ARF showed an increase of markers of glomerular damage with appearance of micro-albuminuria on day 0 that reached 3 - 4 folds above its normal level on day 14 and remained constant with elevated serum creatinine and burn size in the 3 rd week of ARF, and progressed to overt proteinuria in 3 cases. Urinary malondialdehyde increased 3 folds above normal values before de-veloping acute renal failure, and gradually increased on day 14, which coincided with the increased of microalbuminuria. Two cases (22.2% in the ARF group who developed septicemia and required dialysis died on the 32 nd and 36 th days post-burn. Burn size and occurrence of septicemia were the only predictors of acute renal failure using multiple regression analysis (P value < 0.001 and < 0.0371, respectively. We conclude that acute renal failure complicates burn patients and is related to the size and depth of burn and occurrence of septicemia. Microalbuminuria and urinary malon-dialdehyde are useful markers for prediction of renal outcome in such group of patients.

  11. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom


    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  12. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...

  13. Koszul cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Bruns, Winfreid; Römer, Tim


    We prove regularity bounds for Koszul cycles holding for every ideal of dimension at most 1 in a polynomial ring. We generalize the lower bound for the Green-Lazarsfeld index of Veronese rings we proved in arXiv:0902.2431 to the multihomogeneous setting.

  14. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients. (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M


    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI.

  15. Prevention-oriented epidemiology of burns in Ardabil provincial burn centre, Iran. (United States)

    Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Arshi, S; Ekman, R; Mohammadi, R


    In preventing burns, it is essential to know how they occur and which population groups, environments and heating appliances can be targeted for prevention work. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of burns leading to hospitalisation in the northwest of Iran with a focus on the pre-event phase of injury. Between 2007 and 2008, 237 burn victims hospitalised in Ardabil provincial burn centre were enrolled into a descriptive study. A questionnaire was filled in during hospital stay for all patients, with a focus on obtaining information necessary for prevention purposes. Males constituted 56% of victims. Mean age was 22 years. The most severe burns occurred between the ages of 18 and 32 years, and were mainly flame related. Both in case of flame and non-flame burns, women suffered more severe burns and mortality than men. However, with respect to non-flame burns of which most were scalds, the majority of the severe cases involved children under the age of 5 years. More than 80% of burns occurred at home. The kitchen was the main place of injury in 47% of cases, followed by living rooms in 28%. Nearly 45% of burns were scalds and 47% were flame burns. The main container was the samovar in 37%, followed by kettles in 32% and pots in 22%. The overturning of a container was the major mechanism of contact with hot liquids in 86%. Bumping into a container was the main scenario of a scald injury, constituting nearly 70% of the cases. The difference between flame and non-flame burns in the distribution of burns in extremities was not statistically significant, but head and neck burns were 3.7 times more likely to be caused by flame. The two most important injury patterns, more common among women, were getting burned while using a camping gas stove or while refilling the chamber of kerosene-burning appliances without first extinguishing them. Domestic burns among children and young women are a priority in injury-prevention programmes

  16. [Advances in the research of the relationship between calpains and post-burn skeletal muscle wasting]. (United States)

    Ma, Li; Chai, Jia-ke


    Calpains are intracellular nonlysosomal Ca(2+-) regulated cysteine proteases, widely located in the tissues of most mammals. Skeletal muscle tissue mainly expresses m-calpain, µ-caplain, n-calpain, and their endogenous inhibitor calpastatin. They are closely related to the cell apoptosis, cytoskeleton formation, cell cycles, etc. Calpains are also considered to be participating in the protein degradation process. Severe burns are typically followed by hypermetabolic responses that are characterized by hyperdynamic circulatory responses with increased proteolysis and cell apoptosis. Recently, overloading of Ca(2+) in skeletal muscle cells, which activates the calpains is observed after a serious burn. This paper aims to review the current research of the relationship between calpains and post-burn skeletal muscle wasting from the perspectives of structure, function, and physiological activities.

  17. Healthcare Resource Utilization Associated with Burns and Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Single-Center Comparative Analysis. (United States)

    Burnett, Eileen; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Shek, Kevin; Logsetty, Sarvesh


    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) patients are increasingly managed in burn units. Although treated similarly to burns, the healthcare resource utilization (HRU) in NF appears to be greater. Accurate knowledge of the HRU is important to better allocate resources and to compare outcomes between units. The goal of this study is to provide better understanding of the HRU for NF compared with burns. A retrospective chart review of patients ≥18 years admitted to two regional tertiary referral centers with either NF or burns requiring surgery. The authors examined age, sex, %TBSA, geographic region, anatomical location, length of stay (LOS) in hospital, LOS in intensive care unit, number of operative procedures, number of packed red blood cells transfused, amputation, death, and use of free tissue transfer or skin graft. There were 210 NF and 209 burn patients. The NF cohort had a smaller TBSA (3.3 vs 10.0%), longer LOS (20 vs 14 days), and consequently a longer LOS/%TBSA (6.0 vs 1.5 days). This difference persisted after adjusting for age. More of the NF cohort (44.8%) spent ≥1 day in the intensive care unit. The NF cohort also had more procedures (median 2 vs 1), required blood (46.2 vs 16.7%), died in hospital (13.3 vs 4.3%), had an amputation (12.4 vs 4.8%), or required free tissue transfer (7.6 vs 2.9%). This study shows that NF requires substantially more HRU compared with burns. This information is important in recognizing the impact of these patients on burn units and planning for allocation of appropriate resources.

  18. The progression of burn depth in experimental burns: a histological and methodological study. (United States)

    Papp, A; Kiraly, K; Härmä, M; Lahtinen, T; Uusaro, A; Alhava, E


    This study was designed to create a reproducible model for experimental burn wound research in pigs. Previously, the thicker paraspinal skin has been used. We used the more human-like ventral skin to create burns of different depths. Contact burns were created to 11 pigs using a brass plate heated to 100 degrees C in boiling water. Different contact times were used to create burns of different depths. In pigs 1-6, the follow-up time was 72 h and in pigs 7-11 24 h. Burn depth was determined by histology. Histologically, samples were classified into five anatomical layers: epidermis, upper one-third of the dermis, middle third of the dermis, deepest third of the dermis and subcutaneous fat. The location of both thromboses and burn marks were evaluated, respectively. The 1 s contact time lead to a superficial thermal injury, 3 s to a partial thickness and 9 s to a full thickness injury. A progression of burn depth was found until 48 h post-injury. The intra-observer correlation after repeated histological analyses of burn depths by the same histopathologist and the repeatability of burn depth creation yielded kappa coefficients 0.83 and 0.92, respectively. a reproducible burn model for further research purposes was obtained.

  19. The Application of Erosive Burning to Propellant Charge Interior Ballistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-lin


    Erosive burning is a common burning phenomenon of the gunpowder with inner holes. The actual combustion law of the gunpowder with inner holes can be changed by erosive burning. Pressure difference between the inner and the outer of hole caused by loading density variation of the propellant charge makes erosive burning occur at inner holes during in-bore burning. The effect of erosive burning on burning speed of the propellant is studied by using the effects of flow rate, heat transfer and erosion of the combustion gas in inner holes on burning rate. The mathematic model of erosive burning of the propellant is established. The effects of the factors such as loading density, inner hole size and grain length on erosive burning and interior ballistic performance are analyzed .The method to improve the bore pressure for small charge mass and small firing range by erosive burning is proposed.

  20. Infections in critically ill burn patients. (United States)

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P


    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations.