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  1. ERRATA SHEET for Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 2.1.1.3 of the Table of Contents reference on Page v and on Page 12 of the Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada erroneously refers to the Nevada Environmental Policy Act Determination. The correct title of the referenced document is the National Environmental Policy Act Determination

  2. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation Area; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the

  6. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  7. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU Number 453: Area 9 Landfill, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 9 Landfill, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 453/Corrective Action (CAS) 09-55-001-0952, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Area 9 Landfill is located northwest of Area 9 on the TTR. The landfill cells associated with CAU 453 were excavated to receive waste generated from the daily operations conducted at Area 9 and from range cleanup which occurred after test activities

  8. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-09-30

    This corrective action plan proposes the closure method for the area 9 unexploded Ordnance landfill, corrective action unit 453 located at the Tonopah Test Range. The area 9 UXO landfill consists of corrective action site no. 09-55-001-0952 and is comprised of three individual landfill cells designated as A9-1, A9-2, and A9-3. The three landfill cells received wastes from daily operations at area 9 and from range cleanups which were performed after weapons testing. Cell locations and contents were not well documented due to the unregulated disposal practices commonly associated with early landfill operations. However, site process knowledge indicates that the landfill cells were used for solid waste disposal, including disposal of UXO.

  9. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS

  10. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  11. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  12. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 427: Area 3 septic waste system numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Compound, specifically Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 427, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit Work Plan, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada divides investigative activities at TTR into Source Groups. The Septic Tanks and Lagoons Group consists of seven CAUs. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is one of three septic waste system CAUs in TTR Area 3. Corrective Action Unit Numbers 405 and 428 will be investigated at a future data. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is comprised of Septic Waste Systems Number 2 and 6 with respective CAS Numbers 03-05-002-SW02 and 03-05-002-SW06

  13. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; Werf, van der G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    [1] In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires ofte

  14. ERRATA SHEET for Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar year 2001; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifth sentence of the first paragraph on Page 1 of the Post Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada erroneously states that Revision 1 of the CR was issued in December of 2001 and was approved by NDEP on January 7, 2002. The sentence should state that Revision 1 of the CR was issued in December of 2001 and was approved by NDEP on February 22, 2002

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408: Bomblet Target Area (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. This CAS includes the following seven target areas: • Mid Target • Flightline Bomblet Location • Strategic Air Command (SAC) Target Location 1 • SAC Target Location 2 • South Antelope Lake • Tomahawk Location 1 • Tomahawk Location 2 The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for the CAS within CAU 408 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 408 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From July 2009 through August 2010, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Identify and remove munitions of explosive concern (MEC) associated with DOE activities. • Investigate potential disposal pit locations. • Remove depleted uranium-contaminated fragments and soil. • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting 238U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected 241Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  18. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan provides the details for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area. CAU 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. One Corrective Action Site (CAS) is included in CAU 408: (lgbullet) CAS TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, process knowledge, site visits, aerial photography, multispectral data, preliminary geophysical surveys, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), clean closure will be implemented for CAU 408. CAU 408 closure activities will consist of identification and clearance of bomblet target areas, identification and removal of depleted uranium (DU) fragments on South Antelope Lake, and collection of verification samples. Any soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels will be excavated and transported to an appropriate disposal facility. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include explosives. In addition, at South Antelope Lake, bomblets containing DU were tested. None of these contaminants is expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results. The corrective action investigation and closure activities have been planned to include data collection and hold points throughout the process. Hold points are designed to allow decision makers to review the existing data and decide which of the available options are most suitable. Hold points include the review of radiological, geophysical, and analytical data and field observations

  19. Corrective action investigation plan for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Corrective Action Unit 407, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. CAUs consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 407, the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA) which is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 km (140 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU No. 407 is comprised of only one CAS (TA-23-001-TARC). The RCRSA was used during May and June 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The surface and subsurface soils are likely to have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) associated with decontamination activities at this site. The purpose of the corrective action investigation described in this CAIP is to: identify the presence and nature of COPCs; determine the vertical and lateral extent of COPCs; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the CAS

  20. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  1. Burn Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [burn_preapproval_area_LOSCO_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ burning, according...

  2. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425, Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area. This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This site will be cleaned up under the SAFER process since the volume of waste exceeds the 23 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (30 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) limit established for housekeeping sites. CAU 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 09-08-001-TA09, Construction Debris Disposal Area (Figure 1). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 is an area that was used to collect debris from various projects in and around Area 9. The site is located approximately 81 meters (m) (265 feet [ft]) north of Edwards Freeway northeast of Main Lake on the TTR. The site is composed of concrete slabs with metal infrastructure, metal rebar, wooden telephone poles, and concrete rubble from the Hard Target and early Tornado Rocket sled tests. Other items such as wood scraps, plastic pipes, soil, and miscellaneous nonhazardous items have also been identified in the debris pile. It is estimated that this site contains approximately 2280 m{sup 3} (3000 yd{sup 3}) of construction-related debris.

  3. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-03-30

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2010 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  4. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2010 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (5) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); (6) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR); and (7) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR).

  5. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-05-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area Corrective Action Unit 407 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved Corrective Action Alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified during the site characterization include plutonium, uranium, and americium. No other COCS were identified. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: (1) Remove and dispose of surface soils which are over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal will be disposed of at an approved disposal facility. Excavated areas will be backfilled with clean borrow soil fi-om a nearby location. (2) An engineered cover will be constructed over the waste disposal pit area where subsurface COCS will remain. (3) Upon completion of the closure and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site. Barbed wire fencing will be installed along the perimeter of this unit. Post closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 90 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP.

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, the Area 3 Landfill Complex at Tonopah Test Range, consists of eight landfill sites, Corrective Action Sites (CASS), seven of which are landfill cells that were closed previously by capping. (The eighth CAS, A3-7, was not used as a landfill site and was closed without taking any corrective action.) Figure 1 shows the locations of the landfill cells. CAU 424 closure activities included removing small volumes of soil containing petroleum hydrocarbons, repairing cell covers that were cracked or had subsided, and installing above-grade and at-grade monuments marking the comers of the landfill cells. Post-closure monitoring requirements for CAU 424 are detailed in Section 5.0, Post-Closure Inspection Plan contained, in the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range. Nevada, report number DOE/NV-283. The Closure Report (CR) was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1999. The CR includes compaction and permeability results of soils that cap the seven landfill cells. Post-closure monitoring consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 20, 2000, and November 20, 2000. The inspections were preformed after the NDEP approval of the CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklist and photographs, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C

  7. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution. PMID:26915202

  8. Global estimation of burned area using MODIS active fire observations

    OpenAIRE

    GIGLIO, L.; G. R. van der Werf; J. T. Randerson; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a method for estimating monthly burned area globally at 1° spatial resolution using Terra MODIS data and ancillary vegetation cover information. Using regression trees constructed for 14 different global regions, MODIS active fire observations were calibrated to ''true'' burned area estimates derived from 500-m MODIS imagery based on the conventional assumption that burned area is proportional to counts of fire pixels. Unlike earlier methods, we...

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: (1) Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. (2) Identifying and remediating disposal pits. (3) Collecting verification samples. (4) Performing radiological screening of soil. (5) Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: • Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. • Identifying and remediating disposal pits. • Collecting verification samples. • Performing radiological screening of soil. • Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  11. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2001; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, the Area 3 Landfill Complexes at Tonopah Test Range, consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), seven of which are landfill cells that were closed previously by capping. (The eighth CAS, A3-7, was not used as a landfill site and was closed without taking any corrective action.) Figure 1 shows the general location of the landfill cells. Figure 2 shows in more detail the location of the eight landfill cells. CAU 424 closure activities included removing small volumes of soil containing petroleum hydrocarbons, repairing cell covers that were cracked or had subsided, and installing above-grade and at-grade monuments marking the comers of the landfill cells. Post-closure monitoring requirements for CAU 424 are detailed in Section 5.0, Post-Closure Inspection Plan, contained in the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-283, July 1999. The Closure Report (CR) was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1999. The CR includes compaction and permeability results of soils that cap the seven landfill cells. As stated in Section 5.0 of the NDEP-approved CR, post-closure monitoring at CAU 424 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections conducted twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit. (2) Verification that landfill markers and warning signs are in-place, intact, and readable. (3) Notice of any subsidence, erosion, unauthorized use, or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the landfill covers. (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery. (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on May 16, 2001, and November 6, 2001. The inspections were preformed after the NDEP approval of the CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklist, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in

  12. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2001; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Area 9 Unexploded Ordinance Landfill (Corrective Action Unit[CAU] 453) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-284, August 1999. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 5 , 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on September 10,1999. As stated in Section 5.0 of the NDEP-approved CR, post-closure monitoring at CAU 453 consists of the following: (1) Visual site inspections are conducted twice a year to evaluate the condition of the cover. (2) Verification that the site is secure and the condition of the fence and posted warning signs. (3) Notice of any subsidence, erosion, unauthorized excavation, etc., deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit. (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery. (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on May 15, 2001 and November 6, 2001. Both site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and inspection photographs are found in Attachment C

  13. 1996 Site environmental report Tonopah test range Tonopah, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1996) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, clean-up of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE Orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmentals surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized herein

  14. 1996 Site environmental report Tonopah test range Tonopah, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forston, W. [Kirk-Mayer, Inc., Tonopah, NV (United States); Duncan, D. [ed.] [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, R. [Jobs Plus, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1996) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, clean-up of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE Orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmentals surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized herein.

  15. National Uranium Resource Evaluation, Tonopah quadrangle, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tonopah Quadrangle, Nevada, was evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. Investigations included reconnaissance and detailed surface geologic and radiometric studies, geochemical sampling and evaluation, analysis and ground-truth followup of aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data, and subsurface data evaluation. The results of these investigations indicate environments favorable for hydroallogenic uranium deposits in Miocene lacustrine sediments of the Big Smoky Valley west of Tonopah. The northern portion of the Toquima granitic pluton is favorable for authigenic uranium deposits. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits include Quaternary sediments; intermediate and mafic volcanic and metavolcanic rocks; Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks; those plutonic rocks not included within favorable areas; and those felsic volcanic rocks not within the Northumberland and Mount Jefferson calderas

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428, Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 428 consists of Corrective Action Sites 03- 05- 002- SW01 and 03- 05- 002- SW05, respectively known as Area 3 Septic Waste System 1 and Septic Waste System 5. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada , Rev. 1 (DOE/ NV, 1998c). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 428. A system of leachfields and associated collection systems was used for wastewater disposal at Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990 to replace the discrete septic waste systems. Operations within various buildings at Area 3 generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters potentially contaminated with contaminants of potential concern and disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. Corrective Action Unit 428 is composed of two leachfield systems in the northern portion of Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern for the site include oil/ diesel range total petroleum hydrocarbons, and Resource Conservation

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-04-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.

  18. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-19

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2008 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following ten CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  19. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2008 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following ten CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  20. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  1. Automated mapping of burned areas in Landsat imagery; tracking spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas and greenhouse gas emissions in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd; Vanderhoof, Melanie; French, Nancy; Billmire, Michael; Beal, Yen-Ju Grace; Takacs, Josh; Bosshart, Robbert; Caldwell, Megan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimates of greenhouse gas emissions depend on precise mapping of burned area extent and timing. Consequently, fire disturbance has been identified by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program as one of the 14 Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). Landsat's temporal resolution and sensor characteristics make it more suitable for mapping burned area than existing burned area products from coarse resolution sensors. We have developed an automated algorithm to identify burned areas in temporally rich stacks of Landsat surface reflectance data using boosted regression trees and spatial filters. For this analysis, we quantified trends in burned area and fire emissions using the USGS Burned Area ECV data and the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity data, the latter of which is known to be incomplete. Both datasets were combined with the LANDFIRE Fuel Characteristic Classification System to assign pre-fire biomass loads, and the CONSUME model was used to estimate biomass consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Both data sets show a dramatic increase in burned area between 1984-1999 and 2000-2015, but the Burned Area ECV included more small fires and fires in non-forest ecosystems. Emission estimates were similar between the two burned area datasets, but were generally greater for the Burned Area ECV. Our results suggest that national and regional scale emission estimates could be improved by incorporating the more complete Burned Area ECV dataset.

  2. 1984–2010 trends in fire burn severity and area for the conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Peterson, Birgit; Meier, Gretchen; Howard, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Burn severity products created by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project were used to analyse historical trends in burn severity. Using a severity metric calculated by modelling the cumulative distribution of differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and Relativized dNBR (RdNBR) data, we examined burn area and burn severity of 4893 historical fires (1984–2010) distributed across the conterminous US (CONUS) and mapped by MTBS. Yearly mean burn severity values (weighted by area), maximum burn severity metric values, mean area of burn, maximum burn area and total burn area were evaluated within 27 US National Vegetation Classification macrogroups. Time series assessments of burned area and severity were performed using Mann–Kendall tests. Burned area and severity varied by vegetation classification, but most vegetation groups showed no detectable change during the 1984–2010 period. Of the 27 analysed vegetation groups, trend analysis revealed burned area increased in eight, and burn severity has increased in seven. This study suggests that burned area and severity, as measured by the severity metric based on dNBR or RdNBR, have not changed substantially for most vegetation groups evaluated within CONUS.

  3. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical burns Burns can be the result of: House and industrial fires Car accidents Playing with matches ... hairs Burned lips and mouth Coughing Difficulty breathing Dark, black-stained mucus Voice changes Wheezing

  4. 1990 Environmental monitoring report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no routine radioactive emission from Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range (SNL, TTR). However, based on the types of test activities such as air drops, gun firings, ground- launched rockets, air-launched rockets, and other explosive tests, possibilities exist that small amounts of depleted uranium (DU) (as part of weapon components) may be released to the air or to the ground because of unusual circumstances (failures) during testing. Four major monitoring programs were used in 1990 to assess radiological impact on the public. The EPA Air Surveillance Network (ASN) found that the only gamma (γ) emitting radionuclide on the prefilters was beryllium-7 (7Be), a naturally-occurring spallation product formed by the interaction of cosmic radiation with atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. The weighted average results were consistent with the area background concentrations. The EPA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (TLD) Network and Pressurized Ion Chamber (PIC) reported normal results. In the EPA Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP), analytical results for tritium (3H) in well water were reported and were well below DOE-derived concentration guides (DCGs). In the Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) Drinking Water Sampling Program, analytical results for 3H, gross alpha (α), beta (β), and γ scan, strontium-90 (90Sr) and plutonium-239 (239Pu) were within the EPA's primary drinking water standards. 29 refs., 5 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Data Summary Report D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.

  6. [Estimating Biomass Burned Areas from Multispectral Dataset Detected by Multiple-Satellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Chen, Liang-fu; Li, Shen-shen; Tao, Jin-hua; Su, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Biomass burning makes up an important part of both trace gases and particulate matter emissions, which can efficiently degrade air quality and reduce visibility, destabilize the global climate system at regional to global scales. Burned area is one of the primary parameters necessary to estimate emissions, and considered to be the largest source of error in the emission inventory. Satellite-based fire observations can offer a reliable source of fire occurrence data on regional and global scales, a variety of sensors have been used to detect and map fires in two general approaches: burn scar mapping and active fire detection. However, both of the two approaches have limitations. In this article, we explore the relationship between hotspot data and burned area for the Southeastern United States, where a significant amount of biomass burnings from both prescribed and wild fire took place. MODIS (Moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, which has high temporal-resolution, can be used to monitor ground biomass. burning in time and provided hot spot data in this study. However, pixel size of MODIS hot spot can't stand for the real ground burned area. Through analysis of the variation of vegetation band reflectance between pre- and post-burn, we extracted the burned area from Landsat-5 TM (Thematic Mapper) images by using the differential normalized burn ratio (dNBR) which is based on TM band4 (0.84 μm) and TM band 7(2.22 μm) data. We combined MODIS fire hot spot data and Landsat-5 TM burned scars data to build the burned area estimation model, results showed that the linear correlation coefficient is 0.63 and the relationships vary as a function of vegetation cover. Based on the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), we built burned area estimation model over different vegetation cover, and got effective burned area per fire pixel, values for forest, grassland, shrub, cropland and wetland are 0.69, 1.27, 0.86, 0.72 and 0.94 km2 respectively. We validated the

  7. Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution burned area and active fire observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.

    2011-12-01

    In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of burned area products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m burned area observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to burned area and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m burn scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 burned area observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the burned area associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied burned area to active fire ratios derived solely from within burned area perimeters to active fires outside of burn perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m burned area estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of burned areas (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 burned areas increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of burn perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside burn scars, providing evidence for burn scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha area of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of burn perimeters. In our

  8. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... touching the stove This list is not all-inclusive. You can also burn your airways if you ... extinguishers in key locations at home, work, and school. Remove electrical cords from floors and keep them ...

  9. 1994 site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Kirk-Mayer, Inc., for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories' responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400. 1

  10. 1993 site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories' responsibility for environmental monitoring results extend to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental monitoring activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1

  11. Relationships between Human Population Density and Burned Area at Continental and Global Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Bistinas; Duarte Oom; Ana C L Sá; Harrison, Sandy P.; I. Colin Prentice; PEREIRA José M.c.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and burned area, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived burned area maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land area, and the area affected varies from continent to continent: populat...

  12. A comparative analysis of potential impact area of common sugar cane burning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, A. L.; Flecher, S.; Wang, J. J.; Viator, H. P.

    2015-04-01

    The negative effects of agricultural burning are well-known, although the actual impact area of different activities has not previously been quantified. An elastic backscatter lidar system was used to examine the impact-area size and dispersion of smoke generated from different types of sugarcane burning activities; pre-harvest (standing) burning and post-harvest (ground) burning. Experiments were conducted in the sugarcane harvest season of 2010 and 2011 at two locations in Louisiana, USA. Current dispersion theory would suggest that the primary difference between burn types would be primarily in the initial plume rise, but that the overall plume shape would remain the same. However, remotely sensed lidar data with the capability to measure plume dispersion and the short time dynamics of plume location showed pre-harvest (standing) burning produced a larger plume with greater rise and more spread within the 300 m of the plume, but a decrease in dispersion, but not concentration further downwind. Post-harvest (ground) burning produced a more traditional plume shape, but still exceeded impact area predictions near the source. Moreover, large changes in plume size can occur with small increases in wind speed. These are the first instrumented measurements of the meteorological effects of the different types of sugarcane burning. These results indicate that ground burning is preferable, but should be avoided in lower wind speed conditions.

  13. A Spatio-temporal Data Mining Approach to Global scale Burned Area Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithal, V.; Khandelwal, A.; Nayak, G.; Kumar, V.; Nemani, R. R.; Oza, N.

    2014-12-01

    We present a novel technique for burned area mapping in forests using the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the MODIS 16-day Level 3 1km Vegetation Indices (MOD13A2) and the Active Fire (AF) from the MODIS 8-day Level 3 1km Thermal Anomalies and Fire products (MOD14A2). The proposed method leverages the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of thermal anomalies and vegetation loss caused due to forest fires to detect burned areas. Our approach derives features from Enhanced Vegetation Index that target locations which show an abrupt change in their vegetation time series that take at least several months to recover. One unique aspect of our approach is that it uses data from multiple months around the fire event and is therefore more robust to issues in data quality. Comparison with other burned area products show that our approach detects several large previously undetected burned areas across multiple geographical regions. In particular, we found that our approach detects several large burned regions in the tropical forests of Indonesia and South America that had been missed by the state-of-arts burned area approaches. For example, using our approach in Indonesia we discovered that the state-of-the-art MODIS Burned area product had missed around 20,000 sq. km. of burned area (nearly as much burned area as it has reported). We show that all these previously unreported burned areas detected by our approach are actually significant fires which suffered a large, abrupt loss in their vegetation at the time of the fire event and take at least several months to recover back to their normal vegetation. To evaluate these burned areas we compared the Landsat-based composites before and after the date of the event. Our Landsat analysis shows that the burned areas detected by the proposed approach are true burns with a very small error of commission. We believe our work has the potential to provide a scalable approach to global forest monitoring as well as reduce the

  14. How much global burned area can be forecast on seasonal time scales using sea surface temperatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Morton, Douglas C.; Andela, Niels; Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) patterns influence the interannual variability of burned area in many regions by means of climate controls on fuel continuity, amount, and moisture content. Some of the variability in burned area is predictable on seasonal timescales because fuel characteristics respond to the cumulative effects of climate prior to the onset of the fire season. Here we systematically evaluated the degree to which annual burned area from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 4 with small fires (GFED4s) can be predicted using SSTs from 14 different ocean regions. We found that about 48% of global burned area can be forecast with a correlation coefficient that is significant at a p accounting for about 1/3 of the total predictable global burned area. A model that combined two indices from different oceans considerably improved model performance, suggesting that fires in many regions respond to forcing from more than one ocean basin. Using OCI—burned area relationships and a clustering algorithm, we identified 12 hotspot regions in which fires had a consistent response to SST patterns. Annual burned area in these regions can be predicted with moderate confidence levels, suggesting operational forecasts may be possible with the aim of improving ecosystem management.

  15. Brazil Fire Characterization and Burn Area Estimation Using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment (AIRDAS) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, J. A.; Riggan, P. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Lockwood, R. N.; Pereira, J. A.; Higgins, R. G.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Remotely sensed estimations of regional and global emissions from biomass combustion have been used to characterize fire behavior, determine fire intensity, and estimate burn area. Highly temporal, low resolution satellite data have been used to calculate estimates of fire numbers and area burned. These estimates of fire activity and burned area have differed dramatically, resulting in a wide range of predictions on the ecological and environmental impacts of fires. As part of the Brazil/United States Fire Initiative, an aircraft campaign was initiated in 1992 and continued in 1994. This multi-aircraft campaign was designed to assist in the characterization of fire activity, document fire intensity and determine area burned over prescribed, agricultural and wildland fires in the savanna and forests of central Brazil. Using a unique, multispectral scanner (AIRDAS), designed specifically for fire characterization, a variety of fires and burned areas were flown with a high spatial and high thermal resolution scanner. The system was used to measure flame front size, rate of spread, ratio of smoldering to flaming fronts and fire intensity. In addition, long transects were flown to determine the size of burned areas within the cerrado and transitional ecosystems. The authors anticipate that the fire activity and burned area estimates reported here will lead to enhanced information for precise regional trace gas prediction.

  16. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giglio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001–2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees to develop relationships between burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated the global annual area burned for the years 1997–2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 12 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  17. Global analysis of the persistence of the spectral signal associated with burned areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, A.; Boschetti, L.

    2015-12-01

    Systematic global burned area maps at coarse spatial resolution (350 m - 1 km) have been produced in the past two decades from several Earth Observation (EO) systems (including MODIS, Spot-VGT, AVHRR, MERIS), and have been extensively used in a variety of applications related to emissions estimation, fire ecology, and vegetation monitoring (Mouillot et al. 2014). There is however a strong need for moderate to high resolution (10-30 m) global burned area maps, in order to improve emission estimations, in particular on heterogeneous landscapes and for local scale air quality applications, for fire management and environmental restoration, and in support of carbon accounting (Hyer and Reid 2009; Mouillot et al. 2014; Randerson et al. 2012). Fires causes a non-permanent land cover change: the ash and charcoal left by the fire can be visible for a period ranging from a few weeks in savannas and grasslands ecosystems, to over a year in forest ecosystems (Roy et al. 2010). This poses a major challenge for designing a global burned area mapping system from moderate resolution (10-30 m) EO data, due to the low revisit time frequency of the satellites (Boschetti et al. 2015). As a consequence, a quantitative assessment of the permanence of the spectral signature of burned areas at global scale is a necessary step to assess the feasibility of global burned area mapping with moderate resolution sensors. This study presents a global analysis of the post-fire reflectance of burned areas, using the MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area product to identify the location and timing of burning, and the MO(Y)D09 global surface reflectance product to retrieve the time series of reflectance values after the fire. The result is a spatially explicit map of persistence of burned area signal, which is then summarized by landcover type, and by fire zone using the subcontinental regions defined by Giglio et al. (2006).

  18. Burned Area Mapping in Greece Using SPOT-4 HRVIR Images and Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Polychronaki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The devastating series of fire events that occurred during the summers of 2007 and 2009 in Greece made evident the need for an operational mechanism to map burned areas in an accurate and timely fashion to be developed. In this work, Système pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT-4 HRVIR images are introduced in an object-based classification environment in order to develop a classification procedure for burned area mapping. The development of the procedure was based on two images and then tested for its transferability to other burned areas. Results from the SPOT-4 HRVIR burned area mapping showed very high classification accuracies ( 0.86 kappa coefficient, while the object-based classification procedure that was developed proved to be transferable when applied to other study areas.

  19. LandCarbon Conterminous United States Burned Area and Severity Mosaics 2001-2050 Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The burn area and severity data were stochastically generated using a probabilistic ignition model and mechanistic fire-spread model. The ignition model consisted...

  20. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  1. Prevention and control of coalfield fire technology: A case study in the Antaibao Open Pit Mine goaf burning area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Kai; Zhong Xiaoxing; Wang Deming; Shi Guoqing; Wang Yanming; Shao Zhenlu

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to clearly detect the location of a burning area in a coal mine since it is hidden underground.So we conducted research on the distribution of the burning area before controlling it.Firstly,the original drilling technique was used to analyze and determine the loose and scope of caving of burning area through field test,and then obtained the gases and the temperature data in this area were according to the borehole data.By analyzing these data,we found out that the location of burning area concentrated in the loose and caving area; and finally,the location and development of the burning area within the tested area were accurately determined.Based on this theory,we used the ground penetrating radar (GPR) to find out the loose and caving scale in the burning area during the control process of the burning area,and then located the fire-extinguishing boreholes within target which we used to control burning fire in the section.A mobile comprehensive fire prevention and extinguishing system based on the three-phase foam fire prevention and control technique was then adopted and conducted in the burning area which took only 9 months to extinguish the 227,000 m2 of burning area of 9# coal.This control technology and experience will provide a very important reference to the control of other coalfield fire and hillock fire in the future.

  2. Analysis and Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Burned Areas in the Amazon Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle da Silva Cardozo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of burned areas in Rondônia State, Brazil during the years 2000 to 2011 and evaluate the burned area maps. A Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM was applied to MODIS surface reflectance images to originate the burned areas maps, which were validated with TM/Landsat 5 and ETM+/Landsat 7 images and field data acquired in August 2013. The validation presented a correlation ranging from 67% to 96% with an average value of 86%. The lower correlation values are related to the distinct spatial resolutions of the MODIS and TM/ETM+ sensors because small burn scars are not detected in MODIS images and higher spatial correlations are related to the presence of large fires, which are better identified in MODIS, increasing the accuracy of the mapping methodology. In addition, the 12-year burned area maps of Rondônia indicate that fires, as a general pattern, occur in areas that have already been converted to some land use, such as vegetal extraction, large animal livestock areas or diversified permanent crops. Furthermore, during the analyzed period, land use conversion associated with climatic events significantly influenced the occurrence of fire in Rondônia and amplified its impacts.

  3. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Revision 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484 Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) activities called for the identification and remediation of surface hot spot depleted uranium (DU) with some excavation to determine the vertical extent of contamination (NNSA/NSO, 2004). During the CAU 484 SAFER investigation (conducted November 2003 through August 2007), approximately 50 locations containing DU were identified on Antelope Lake. All but four locations (CA-1, SA-5-9, SA-12-15, and SA-4) were remediated. Figure 1-1 shows locations of the four use restriction (UR) sites. The four locations were determined to have failed the SAFER conceptual site model assumption of a small volume hot spot. Two of the locations (CA-1 and SA-5-9) were excavated to depths of 3.5 to 7 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), and a third location (SA-12-15) with a footprint of 30 by 60 ft was excavated to a depth of 0.5 ft. At the fourth site (SA-4), the discovery of unexploded ordnance (UXO) halted the excavation due to potential safety concerns. Remediation activities on Antelope Lake resulted in the removal of approximately 246 cubic yards (yd3) of DU-impacted soil from the four UR sites; however, Kiwi surveys confirmed that residual DU contamination remained at each of the four sites. (The Kiwi was a Remote Sensing Laboratory [RSL] vehicle equipped with a data-acquisition system and four sodium iodide gamma detectors. Surveys were conducted with the vehicle moving at a rate of approximately 10 miles per hour with the gamma detectors positioned 14 to 28 inches [in.] above the ground surface [NNSA/NSO, 2004]).

  4. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Revision 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burmeister

    2011-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484 Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) activities called for the identification and remediation of surface hot spot depleted uranium (DU) with some excavation to determine the vertical extent of contamination (NNSA/NSO, 2004). During the CAU 484 SAFER investigation (conducted November 2003 through August 2007), approximately 50 locations containing DU were identified on Antelope Lake. All but four locations (CA-1, SA-5-9, SA-12-15, and SA-4) were remediated. Figure 1-1 shows locations of the four use restriction (UR) sites. The four locations were determined to have failed the SAFER conceptual site model assumption of a small volume hot spot. Two of the locations (CA-1 and SA-5-9) were excavated to depths of 3.5 to 7 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), and a third location (SA-12-15) with a footprint of 30 by 60 ft was excavated to a depth of 0.5 ft. At the fourth site (SA-4), the discovery of unexploded ordnance (UXO) halted the excavation due to potential safety concerns. Remediation activities on Antelope Lake resulted in the removal of approximately 246 cubic yards (yd3) of DU-impacted soil from the four UR sites; however, Kiwi surveys confirmed that residual DU contamination remained at each of the four sites. (The Kiwi was a Remote Sensing Laboratory [RSL] vehicle equipped with a data-acquisition system and four sodium iodide gamma detectors. Surveys were conducted with the vehicle moving at a rate of approximately 10 miles per hour with the gamma detectors positioned 14 to 28 inches [in.] above the ground surface [NNSA/NSO, 2004]).

  5. Sensitivity of global terrestrial carbon cycle dynamics to variability in satellite-observed burned area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Benjamin; Cadule, Patricia; Cheiney, Audrey; Ciais, Philippe; Hodson, Elke; Peylin, Philippe; Plummer, Stephen; Spessa, Allan; Saatchi, Sassan; Yue, Chao; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    2015-02-01

    Fire plays an important role in terrestrial ecosystems by regulating biogeochemistry, biogeography, and energy budgets, yet despite the importance of fire as an integral ecosystem process, significant advances remain to improve its prognostic representation in carbon cycle models. To recommend and to help prioritize model improvements, this study investigates the sensitivity of a coupled global biogeography and biogeochemistry model, LPJ, to observed burned area measured by three independent satellite-derived products, GFED v3.1, L3JRC, and GlobCarbon. Model variables are compared with benchmarks that include pantropical aboveground biomass, global tree cover, and CO2 and CO trace gas concentrations. Depending on prescribed burned area product, global aboveground carbon stocks varied by 300 Pg C, and woody cover ranged from 50 to 73 Mkm2. Tree cover and biomass were both reduced linearly with increasing burned area, i.e., at regional scales, a 10% reduction in tree cover per 1000 km2, and 0.04-to-0.40 Mg C reduction per 1000 km2. In boreal regions, satellite burned area improved simulated tree cover and biomass distributions, but in savanna regions, model-data correlations decreased. Global net biome production was relatively insensitive to burned area, and the long-term land carbon sink was robust, ~2.5 Pg C yr-1, suggesting that feedbacks from ecosystem respiration compensated for reductions in fuel consumption via fire. CO2 transport provided further evidence that heterotrophic respiration compensated any emission reductions in the absence of fire, with minor differences in modeled CO2 fluxes among burned area products. CO was a more sensitive indicator for evaluating fire emissions, with MODIS-GFED burned area producing CO concentrations largely in agreement with independent observations in high latitudes. This study illustrates how ensembles of burned area data sets can be used to diagnose model structures and parameters for further improvement and also

  6. Design-based validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Stehman, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. Product comparison with independent reference data is needed to determine product accuracy. Design-based accuracy assessment methods select the independent reference data using a probability sampling and are preferred as the reference data can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics that explicitly take into account the sampling probability. To date, no global burned area product has been validated using a design-based methodology due to the technical challenges of designing an appropriate independent reference data sampling strategy, and, until recently, due to the high cost of independent reference data collection. Burned area product errors are not randomly distributed in space and time and tend to be linked to seasonal phenomena that can be confused with burning. This paper describes the design-based sampling strategy developed for the validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Products using more than 200 globally distributed multi-temporal pairs of Landsat scenes, processed following the recommendations of the CEOS Cal/Val Burned Area Validation Protocol. The sampling design is illustrated and the advantages of the design-based sampling discussed.

  7. Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating Burned Areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate burned area in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in burned land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt areas The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating burned areas are vegetation type dependant.

  8. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... level. 2523.4--Suppression-Damaged Areas Clarified that costs for suppression-damage rehabilitation... Response activities on National Forest System lands. Agency regulations at 36 CFR 220.6(d)(2) (73 FR 43093... cost-effective response actions. This interim directive supersedes the existing directive located...

  9. Burn Exclusion Areas from USCG source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [burn_exclusion_areas_USCG_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset delineating areas in the Gulf of Mexico that are excluded from Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ...

  10. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  11. Wood is burning in capital city area's fireplaces as well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The firewood market situation in the capital city area was examined by a mail questionnaire in the spring of 1997. The questionnaire form was distributed to 800 single-family houses in Espoo, Helsinki and Vantaa. The responses to the questionnaire numbered 297 (37 %). Wood was found to be the main source of heat energy in the households of 2 % of the respondents and as an alternative source of heat energy in 58 % of the households. The most common fireplace in the respondents' homes was a wood-fired sauna stove. Heat-accumulating fireplaces were in the second place and open fireplaces in the third place. The installation of heat-accumulating fireplaces has become more popular while wood-fired sauna stoves and open fireplaces have lost some of their popularity during the past few years. Thirteen percent of the owners responding to the questionnaire intend to install new fireplaces. Half of the respondents were of the opinion that there is nothing to restrict the use of their fireplaces. Those who felt that there were restrictions stated that the high cost of firewood was the most significant restricting factor. Other restricting factors were the difficulty of getting firewood and the shortcomings of wood storage facilities. The storage problem can be dealt with by, for example, resorting to joint purchases, in which case the batch of wood for one house can be smaller in size. One quarter of the interviewers showed interest in concerted purchasing and deliveries of wood. An average of 3.6 m3 of wood was used in the single-family houses in the capital city area in 1996. This wood was obtained either by purchasing it, from one's own forest/block of land or by some other independent means (not by purchasing). These three forms of acquiring wood were almost equally important. Typically, firewood was bought the form of logging residues. The greatest demand is for bulk batches of chopped firewood. When firewood is purchased, the customer typically prefers to have it

  12. Large-area burns with pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Fang-gang; ZHAO Xiao-zhuo; BIAN Jing; ZHANG Guo-an

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection due to pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PDRPA) has become a challenge in clinical practice. The aim of this research was to summarize the treatment of large-area burns (60%-80%) with PDRPA infection and respiratory failure in our hospital over the last two years, and to explore a feasible treatment protocol for such patients.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the treatment of five patients with large-area burns accompanied by PDRPA infection and respiratory failure transferred to our hospital from burn units in hospitals in other Chinese cities from January 2008 to February 2010. Before PDRPA infection occurred, all five patients had open wounds with large areas of granulation because of the failure of surgery and dissolving of scar tissue; they had also undergone long-term administration of carbapenems. This therapy included ventilatory support, rigorous repair of wounds, and combined antibiotic therapy targeted at drug-resistance mechanisms, including carbapenems, ciprofloxacin, macrolide antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors.Results Four patients recovered from bums and one died after therapy.Conclusions First, compromised immunity caused by delayed healing of burn wounds in patients with large-area bums and long-term administration of carbapenems may be the important factors in the initiation and progression of PDRPA infection. Second, if targeted at drug-resistance mechanisms, combined antibiotic therapy using carbapenems,ciprofloxacin, macrolide antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors could effectively control PDRPA infection. Third, although patients with large-area burns suffered respiratory failure and had high risks from anesthesia and surgery, only aggressive skin grafting with ventilatory support could control the infection and save lives. Patients may not be able to tolerate a long surgical procedure, so the duration of surgery should be minimized, and the frequency of surgery increased.

  13. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).

  14. Global estimation of CO emissions using three sets of satellite data for burned area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Atul K.

    Using three sets of satellite data for burned areas together with the tree cover imagery and a biogeochemical component of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) the global emissions of CO and associated uncertainties are estimated for the year 2000. The available fuel load (AFL) is calculated using the ISAM biogeochemical model, which accounts for the aboveground and surface fuel removed by land clearing for croplands and pasturelands, as well as the influence on fuel load of various ecosystem processes (such as stomatal conductance, evapotranspiration, plant photosynthesis and respiration, litter production, and soil organic carbon decomposition) and important feedback mechanisms (such as climate and fertilization feedback mechanism). The ISAM estimated global total AFL in the year 2000 was about 687 Pg AFL. All forest ecosystems account for about 90% of the global total AFL. The estimated global CO emissions based on three global burned area satellite data sets (GLOBSCAR, GBA, and Global Fire Emissions Database version 2 (GFEDv2)) for the year 2000 ranges between 320 and 390 Tg CO. Emissions from open fires are highest in tropical Africa, primarily due to forest cutting and burning. The estimated overall uncertainty in global CO emission is about ±65%, with the highest uncertainty occurring in North Africa and Middle East region (±99%). The results of this study suggest that the uncertainties in the calculated emissions stem primarily from the area burned data.

  15. Diversity of the soil biota in burned areas of southern taiga forests (Tver oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongalsky, K. B.; Zaitsev, A. S.; Korobushkin, D. I.; Saifutdinov, R. A.; Yazrikova, T. E.; Benediktova, A. I.; Gorbunova, A. Yu.; Gorshkova, I. A.; Butenko, K. O.; Kosina, N. V.; Lapygina, E. V.; Kuznetsova, D. M.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Shakhab, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Relations between soil biota diversity and its contribution to the performance of some ecosystem functions were assessed based on the results obtained in undisturbed and burned spruce forests near the Central Forest Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tver oblast). In August 2014, in two 4-year-old burned areas, abiotic parameters of the soils, indicators of the state of the microbial communities, the number, taxonomic diversity, and the abundance of the main groups of soil invertebrates (testate amoebae, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembolans, and the mesofauna as a whole) were determined. In the soils of the burned areas, higher CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions were observed. The number of bacterial cells remained similar, and the total length of active mycelium was not significantly different. All this implies a certain intensification of biogenic processes promoting the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen after fire. The number of most of the groups of soil animals was lower (not always significantly) in the burned area than that in the soils of the undisturbed forests. The changes in the taxonomic diversity were specific for each taxon studied. Overall, the diversity of invertebrates was related to the litter thickness. However, the high taxonomic diversity of soil fauna did not always correspond to the active functioning of the ecosystem. Thus, for some taxa, a quite close correlation was found, for instance, between the total number of species (of testate amoebae in particular) and the berry crop, as well as between the soil mesofauna population and the dead wood stock. The total diversity of the investigated taxa included in the detrital trophic web was the most reliable indicator of the carbon stock in the burned areas.

  16. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. B. Jackson

    2003-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report provides documentation of the semiannual inspections conducted at the following Corrective Action Units (CAU)s: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill; CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench; CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area; CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes; CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches; CAU 427: Septic Waste Systems 2, 6; and CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, all located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Post-closure inspections are not required at CAU 400 but are conducted to monitor vegetation and fencing at the site. Site inspections were conducted in May and November 2002. All site inspections were made after Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) approval of the appropriate Closure Report (CR), excluding CAU 400 which did not require a CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plans in the NDEP-approved CRs. Post-closure inspections conducted during 2002 identified several areas requiring maintenance/repairs. Maintenance work and proposed additional monitoring are included in the appropriate section for each CAU. This report includes copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Plans, Post-Closure Inspection Checklists, copies of the field notes, photographs, and the Post-Closure Vegetative Monitoring Report. The Post-Closure Inspection Plan for each CAU is located in Attachment A. Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are in Attachment B. Copies of the field notes from each inspection are included in Attachment C. Attachment D consists of the photographic logs and photographs of the sites. The post-closure vegetative monitoring report for calendar year 2002 is included in Attachment E.

  17. 1997 annual site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Todd; Duncan, Dianne (ed.); Forston, William; Sanchez, Rebecca (ed.)

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. Thes annual report (calendar year 1997) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act. In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared as required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  18. An estimate of the area burned in southern Africa during the 2000 dry season using SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, JoãO. M. N.; Pereira, José M. C.; Cabral, Ana I.; Sá, Ana C. L.; Vasconcelos, Maria J. P.; Mota, Bernardo; GréGoire, Jean-Marie

    2003-07-01

    The area burned in southern Africa during the 2000 dry season was mapped on a monthly basis from May to November using SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) satellite imagery at 1 km spatial resolution. Burned areas were identified with a classification tree that relied only on the near-infrared channel of VGT. The classification tree algorithm yielded very accurate results (Kappa = 0.93). However, when compared with burned area maps derived from 30 m resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery, the VGT 1 km burned area maps reveal variable accuracy, dependent on vegetation type and on the spatial pattern of the burned areas. Fire incidence was higher in the northern part of the study area, especially in Wetter Zambezian Miombo Woodland, Mosaic of Guineo-Congolian Lowland Forest and Secondary Grassland, Edaphic and Secondary Grassland on Kalahari Sand, Drier Zambezian Miombo Woodland, and Undifferentiated North-Zambezian Miombo Woodland. Fire incidence was lower in the eastern part of the study area and almost absent from the western and southern semiarid and desert regions. The most extensively burned countries were, in decreasing order, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Mozambique and Zambia. The total area burned was estimated at 959480 km2.

  19. Dominating soil typologies in burned areas of Dz¯u kija National Park (Lithuania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gallego, David; Lapele, Mindaugas; Pereira, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    A big part of the scientific community consider fire disturbance as an ecological factor which becomes an integral part of the structure and dynamics of the biotic components of forests. In Dzūkija National Park, likewise occurs in other boreal forests, fire perturbation has become over time one of the main natural components which models and structures the landscape. It is indeed know that park's forest territory presents a high sensitivity to wildfire and soil typologies could have certain implications when evaluating vulnerability to fire. To carry out this study, a total of 28 burned-stands were explored. Information collected in the forest related to fire concurrence as well as current dominating overgrowing were registered. In this way, interpretation of field work results was aimed to elucidate dominating soils in burned areas which potentially are more prone to wildfire. The majority of fire-affected stands were found on soils of type "Na" -78% of total sites-, a few ones of "Nb" -18% of burned plots- and, eventually, fire was also evidenced in "Lb" soils -4%. "Na" typology belongs to very dry and unfertilized soils and, thus, very sensitive to fire, with dominating community of Cladonio-pinetum sylvestris. In "Nb" stands there are more fertilized soils with Vaccinium vitis-idaea in some cases with transitional associations of Vaccinium myrtillus. "Lb" typology refers to wetter soils with undergrown of Vaccinium myrtillus. Overall, fire has regularly been occurring in dried and non-fertilized soils, were preconditions for burning increase; whereas burned stands within more humid environments were rarely found.

  20. Tonopah Test Range 2030 Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Closed, Closed in Place, or Closure in Progress. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized. CASs and CAUs where contaminants and/or waste have been closed in place are summarized. There is also a table that summarizes the contaminant that has been closed at each site, if land-use restrictions are present, and if post-closure inspections are required.

  1. Tonopah Test Range Summary of Corrective Action Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald B. Jackson

    2007-05-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Clean Closure/No Further Action, Closure in Place, or Closure in Progress.

  2. MERIS burned area algorithm in the framework of the ESA Fire CCI Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, P.; Calado, T.; Gonzalez, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Fire-CCI project aims at generating long and reliable time series of burned area (BA) maps based on existing information provided by European satellite sensors. In this context, a BA algorithm is currently being developed using the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor. The algorithm is being tested over a series of ten study sites with a area of 500x500 km2 each, for the period of 2003 to 2009. The study sites are located in Canada, Colombia, Brazil, Portugal, Angola, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Borneo, Russia and Australia and include a variety of vegetation types characterized by different fire regimes. The algorithm has to take into account several limiting aspects that range from the MERIS sensor characteristics (e.g. the lack of SWIR bands) to the noise presented in the data. In addition the lack of data in some areas caused either because of cloud contamination or because the sensor does not acquire full resolution data over the study area, provokes a limitation difficult to overcome. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the design of the BA algorithm is based on the analysis of maximum composites of spectral indices characterized by low values of temporal standard deviation in space and associated to MODIS hot spots. Accordingly, for each study site and year, composites of maximum values of BAI are computed and the corresponding Julian day of the maximum value and number of observations in the period are registered by pixel . Then we computed the temporal standard deviation for pixels with a number of observations greater than 10 using spatial matrices of 3x3 pixels. To classify the BAI values as burned or non-burned we extract statistics using the MODIS hot spots. A pixel is finally classified as burned if it satisfies the following conditions: i) it is associated to hot spots; ii) BAI maximum is higher than a certain threshold and iii) the standard deviation of the Julian day is less than a given number of days.

  3. Using Logistic Regression to Predict the Probability of Debris Flows in Areas Burned by Wildfires, Southern California, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in areas recently burned by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that burned in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those burned areas were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high burn severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular area of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently burned areas of

  4. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2013-01-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2012 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  5. Dominating fire direction in burned areas of Dz¯ u kija National Park (Lithuania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gallego, David; Lapele, Mindaugas; Pereira, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    Fire perturbation has been often breaking out in Dzukija's National Park landscapes over the last 150 years -coinciding with the age of oldest forests in the park's territory. Valuable information was obtained by carrying out a retrospective analysis which helped to reveal ancient presence of fire in the park. The study was developed on previously stipulated old forest stands around the area of Marcinkonys village. Of a total of 28 burned-stands, direction of fire spread was noted down from all standing trees presenting fire traces within two plot areas of 20 meters x 10 meters. It should be stated, however, that for half of the plots fire direction was uncertain and, hence, not taken into account. South-west direction was evidenced in half of the plots, being indeed the one with most presence in the burned stands; west and south direction were dominating in 28.5% and 25% of the plots respectively; in 10.7% of plots north-west was dominating direction; whereas fire traces were rarely observed facing north -only in 3.7% of plots-. Regarding the rest of directions, they were absent in all sampling sites. The direction of fire spread is largely determined by wind flow patterns: specifically wind and relative humidity could significantly change burning conditions. Despite that wind in the region blows predominantly from west and south-west, when analyzing our findings, it appears that dry continental air masses, and in general wind events associated with passing of dry cold fronts, produce more favorable conditions for the occurrence of fire. Wind-driven fires are mostly spreading to south-west as dry wind coming from north-west and west might generate the principle source of ignition and make vegetation more flammable.

  6. Assessing differences in phenology patterns between burned and non burned areas using MODIS and Landsat time series satellite images. A case study in Peloponnisos (Greece) and Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsias, Nikos; Bajocco, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus can be helpful for assessing, for example, phenology patterns between burned and non-burned areas. The aim of this study is to define phenological patterns for the fire ignition points in two Mediterranean study areas located in Italy (Sardinia) and Greece (Peloponnisos) and compare them with control points created after random sampling techniques restricted to certain buffer zones. Remotely sensed data from MODIS (2000-2015) and LANDSAT (1984-2015) satellites were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal of fire ignition points and of control points. Apart of the use of the original spectral data, we used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been derived and used to assess vegetation phenology in the fire-affected areas.

  7. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2009 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (5) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); (6) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR); and (7) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 5-6, 2009. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2009, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance was performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection were backfilled, and a depression was restored to grade on June 25, 2009. Post-closure site inspections should continue as scheduled. Vegetation survey inspections have been conducted annually at CAUs 400, 404, 407, and 426. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is recommended at the CAU 400 Bomblet Pit and CAU 426, which have been successfully revegetated. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is also recommended at CAU 404, which has been changed to an administrative closure with no inspections

  8. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-05-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2009 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 5–6, 2009. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2009, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance was performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection were backfilled, and a depression was restored to grade on June 25, 2009. Post-closure site inspections should continue as scheduled. Vegetation survey inspections have been conducted annually at CAUs 400, 404, 407, and 426. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is recommended at the CAU 400 Bomblet Pit and CAU 426, which have been successfully revegetated. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is also recommended at CAU 404, which has been changed to an administrative closure with no inspections required. Vegetation

  9. Chemical and toxicological effects of medicinal Baccharis trimera extract from coal burning area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Paula S; da Silva, Juliana; Fisher, Camila; da Silva, Fernanda R; Reyes, Juliana M; Picada, Jaqueline N; Ferraz, Alice G; Corrêa, Dione S; Premoli, Suziane M; Dias, Johnny F; de Souza, Claudia T; Ferraz, Alexandre de B F

    2016-03-01

    The entire process of power generation, extraction, processing and use of coal strongly impact water resources, soil, air quality and biota leads to changes in the fauna and flora. Pollutants generated by coal burning have been contaminating plants that grow in area impacted by airborne pollution with high metal contents. Baccharis trimera is popularly consumed as tea, and is widely developed in Candiota (Brazil), one of the most important coal burning regions of the Brazil. This study aims to investigate the phytochemical profile, in vivo genotoxic and mutagenic potential of extracts of B. trimera collected from an exposed region to pollutants generated by coal burning (Candiota City) and other unexposed region (Bagé City), using the Comet assay and micronucleus test in mice and the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay. The HPLC analyses indicated higher levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids for B. trimera aqueous extract from Bagé and absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for both extracts. The presence of toxic elements such as cobalt, nickel and manganese was statistically superior in the extract from Candiota. For the Comet assay and micronucleus test, the mice were treated with Candiota and Bagé B. trimera aqueous extracts (500-2000 mg/kg). Significant genotoxicity was observed at higher doses treated with B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota in liver and peripheral blood cells. Micronuclei were not observed but the results of the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay showed a significant increase in TA98 revertants for B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota. The extract of B. trimera from Candiota bioacumulated higher levels of trace elements which were associated with the genotoxic effects detected in liver and peripheral blood cells. PMID:26741544

  10. Initial land reclamation procedures related to possible Pu-cleanup activities at the Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) are to be used for experimental tests of procedures for clean-up of 239Pu contamination, there are experiences in the Great Basin Desert portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which can serve as guides to reclamation and revegetation of such arid lands. Procedures which will encourage development of the grasses Hilaria jamesii and Oryzopsis hymenoides, as well as the perennial shrubs Eurotia lanata and Atriplex canescens would greatly improve the area as range land

  11. Validation Framework for USGS Landsat-derived Essential Climate Variables: the Burned Area Product Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladinich, C. S.; Brunner, N. M.; Beal, Y. G.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), as defined by the Global Climate Observing System program, from the Landsat data archive. The Landsat archive will provide high spatial resolution (30 m) and long-term (1972 to present) global land products, meeting the needs of climate and ecological studies at global, national, and regional scales. Validation protocols for these products are being established, paralleling the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Calibration/Validation Working Groups' best practice guidelines, but also being modified to account for the unique characteristics of the Landsat data. The USGS validation plan is unique in that it incorporates protocols that span not only the breadth of ecoregions but the timespan of the ECV products and Landsat satellite sensors (MSS, TM, TM+, and OLI). To achieve these goals, the incorporation of existing data bases is essential. Protocols are being developed to perform a CEOS Working Group on Calibration/Validation Stage 2 validation with plans on performing a full Stage 4 validation ensuring the spatial and temporal consistency of the ECV products. A Stage 2 validation reports product accuracies over a large number of locations and time periods by comparison with in situ or other suitable reference data. The Stage 3 validation reports product uncertainties in a statistically robust way over multiple locations and time periods representing global conditions. Validation at this stage reports on the accuracies and confidence of products for the user communities as well as to the algorithm developers. The Stage 4 validation calls for continual assessments as new product versions of the algorithms are released. This presentation will report on the validation protocols used for the Burned Area ECV product. The burned area ECV product is unique from other ECV products such as land cover or LAI because of the transitory nature of fires. In the United

  12. Can we go beyond burned area assessment with fire patch metrics from global remote rensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Pereira Messias, Joana; Ruffault, Julien; Chuvieco, Emilio; Mouillot, Florent

    2016-04-01

    Fire is a major event influencing global biogeochemical cycles and contribute to the emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Global burned area (BA) datasets from remote sensing have provided the fruitful information for quantifying carbon emissions in global biogeochemical models, and for DGVM's benchmarking. Patch level analysis from pixel level information recently emerged as an informative additional feature of the regime as fire size distribution. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of global BA products to accurately represent characteristics of fire patches (size, complexity shape and spatial orientation). We selected a site in the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado), one of the most fire prone biome and one of the validation test site for the ESA fire-Cci project. We used the pixel-level burned area detected by Landsat, MCD45A1 and the newly delivered MERIS ESA fire-Cci for the period 2002-2009. A flood-fill algorithm adapted from Archibald and Roy (2009) was used to identify the individual fire patches (patch ID) according to the burned date (BD). For each patch ID, we calculated a panel of patch metrics as area, perimeter and core area, shape complexity (shape index and fractal dimension) and the feature of the ellipse fitted over the spatial distribution of pixels composing the patch (eccentricity and direction of the main axis). Paired fire patches overlapping between each BA products were compared. The correlation between patch metrics were evaluated by linear regression models for each inter-product comparison according to fire size classes. Our results showed significant patch overlaps (>30%) between products for patches with areas larger than 270ha, with more than 90% of patches overlapping between MERIS and MCD45A1. Fire Patch metrics correlations showed R2>0.6 for all comparisons of patch Area and Core Area, with a slope of 0.99 between MERIS and MCD45A1 illustrating the agreement between the two global products. The

  13. Daily burned area and carbon emissions from boreal fires in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-06-01

    Boreal fires burn into carbon-rich organic soils, thereby releasing large quantities of trace gases and aerosols that influence atmospheric composition and climate. To better understand the factors regulating boreal fire emissions, we developed a statistical model of carbon consumption by fire for Alaska with a spatial resolution of 450 m and a temporal resolution of 1 day. We used the model to estimate variability in carbon emissions between 2001 and 2012. Daily burned area was mapped using imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer combined with perimeters from the Alaska Large Fire Database. Carbon consumption was calibrated using available field measurements from black spruce forests in Alaska. We built two nonlinear multiplicative models to separately predict above- and belowground carbon consumption by fire in response to environmental variables including elevation, day of burning within the fire season, pre-fire tree cover and the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR). Higher belowground carbon consumption occurred later in the season and for mid-elevation forests. Topographic slope and aspect did not improve performance of the belowground carbon consumption model. Aboveground and belowground carbon consumption also increased as a function of tree cover and the dNBR, suggesting a causal link between the processes regulating these two components of carbon consumption. Between 2001 and 2012, the median carbon consumption was 2.54 kg C m-2. Burning in land-cover types other than black spruce was considerable and was associated with lower levels of carbon consumption than for pure black spruce stands. Carbon consumption originated primarily from the belowground fraction (median = 2.32 kg C m-2 for all cover types and 2.67 kg C m-2 for pure black spruce stands). Total carbon emissions varied considerably from year to year, with the highest emissions occurring during 2004 (69 Tg C), 2005 (46 Tg C), 2009 (26 Tg C), and 2002 (17 Tg C) and a

  14. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  15. Tonopah test range - outpost of Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.

    1996-03-01

    Tonopah Test Range is a unique historic site. Established in 1957 by Sandia Corporation, Tonopah Test Range in Nevada provided an isolated place for the Atomic Energy Commission to test ballistics and non-nuclear features of atomic weapons. It served this and allied purposes well for nearly forty years, contributing immeasurably to a peaceful conclusion to the long arms race remembered as the Cold War. This report is a brief review of historical highlights at Tonopah Test Range. Sandia`s Los Lunas, Salton Sea, Kauai, and Edgewood testing ranges also receive abridged mention. Although Sandia`s test ranges are the subject, the central focus is on the people who managed and operated the range. Comments from historical figures are interspersed through the narrative to establish this perspective, and at the end a few observations concerning the range`s future are provided.

  16. Slash and Burn Agriculture: A Dynamic Spatio-temporal Model of Shifting Cultivation Locations and Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagge, C. E.; Frolking, S.; Chini, L. P.; Hurtt, G.

    2008-12-01

    Shifting cultivation is a form of agriculture, also known as slash-and-burn or swidden agriculture, in which a plot of forest is cleared and then cultivated continuously for several years, after which it is abandoned to revert to natural vegetation, and then is subsequently re-cleared after a longer fallow period. Shifting cultivation is an important form of agriculture because it affects soil erosion rates, canopy cover in tropical forests, nutrient deficiency in soils, and also has an impact on the global carbon cycle. Because it is generally outside of the larger economy, shifting cultivation is not well-represented in large-scale earth system analyses. We investigated a new way to model shifting cultivation which will be included in a global land-use transitions model to better quantify this type of land use, both historically and into the future. Ultimately this study will improve simulations of changes in the Earth system and will aid in the study of the carbon cycle and thus climate change. Our model calculates the area of shifting cultivation in square kilometers per half-degree grid cell, using gridded population data, the fraction of that population that is rural, the fraction of global population that practices shifting cultivation, the crop area needed per person, and the length of cultivation plus the fallow. Locations of shifting cultivation were further constrained by variables such as potential vegetation biomass density, population density, fraction of land already in use, GDP per capita, and average winter temperatures. With this model, we generated global estimates for total cultivated area, total population involved in shifting cultivation, and total shifting cultivation area including fallow lands. From this model it was estimated that the total global area of shifting cultivation in 2000 was approximately 1.5 million km2 with 90,000 km2 of that actually in cultivation by 190 million people.

  17. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program

  18. Tonopah Test Range capabilities: technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhart, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    This manual describes Tonopah Test Range (TTR), defines its testing capabilities, and outlines the steps necessary to schedule tests on the Range. Operated by Sandia National Laboratories, TTR is a major test facility for DOE-funded weapon programs. The Range presents an integrated system for ballistic test vehicle tracking and data acquisition. Multiple radars, optical trackers, telemetry stations, a central computer complex, and combined landline/RF communications systems assure full Range coverage for any type of test. Range operations are conducted by a department within Sandia's Field Engineering Directorate. While the overall Range functions as a complete system, it is operationally divided into the Test Measurements, Instrumentation Development, and Range Operations divisions. The primary function of TTR is to support DOE weapons test activities. Management, however, encourages other Government agencies and their contractors to schedule tests on the Range which can make effective use of its capabilities. Information concerning Range use by organizations outside of DOE is presented. Range instrumentation and support facilities are described in detail. This equipment represents the current state-of-the-art and reflects a continuing commitment by TTR management to field the most effective tracking and data acquisition system available.

  19. Validation of the Two Standard MODIS Satellite Burned-Area Products and an Empirically-Derived Merged Product in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Philemon Tsela; Konrad Wessels; Joel Botai; Sally Archibald; Derick Swanepoel; Karen Steenkamp; Philip Frost

    2014-01-01

    The 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area products, MCD45A1, MCD64A1, and a merged product were validated across six study sites in South Africa using independently-derived Landsat burned-area reference data during the fire season of 2007. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the likelihood of the improved detection of small burns through an empirically-derived merged product; (ii) quantify the probability of detection by each product using ...

  20. [The treatment of burn patients. What are the prospects for the northern area of Portugal?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Comba, A; Amarante, J; Malheiro, E

    1993-11-01

    The AA studied the distribution of age, sex, aetiology, and destiny of the 173 in-patients at the S. João Hospital (Central hospital that has no Burn Unit). In what concerns age, 38.1% are children less than 10 years old; the male/female ratio was 1.7:1. The fire and scalds are the most important aetiology. These findings are similar to those found in other countries (except in the Arabian Countries). Of these 99 burn patients have been treated in S. João Hospital, 71 patients were sent to the Burn Unit of Prelada Hospital and 3 to the Burn Unit of Coimbra University Hospital. These findings were compared to a Burn Unit of a Spanish Hospital (Alicante) which has 18 beds for adults and children, normally interning 132 patients per year. As the WHO suggest one special bed per 30,000 persons, we should be expected to have at least 110 beds for burn patients (we only have 9 beds at Prelada Hospital), the AA suggest the establishment of a Burn Unit at S. João Hospital, also due to the fact that is the only hospital that has a permanent emergency care for Plastic Surgery. PMID:8140918

  1. Quantifying differences in biodiversity between a tropical forest area and a grassland area subject to traditional burning

    OpenAIRE

    Nangendo, G.; A. Stein; Gelens, M.; de Gier, A.; Albricht, R.

    2002-01-01

    Mosaics of natural forest and grassland tracts in sub-Saharan Africa provide differences in woody species biodiversity. These mosaics are of considerable interest as they are a major biodiversity bank. Their richness is felt to be threatened, for example by local burning. This study focuses on the impact of burning on biodiversity in the Budongo Forest Reserve in Uganda. Woody species at different development stages are compared between a forest stratum and the adjacent grassland stratum. Spa...

  2. Bare soil erosion modelling with rainfall simulations: experiments on crop and recently burned areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, F.; Menci, S.; Moretti, S.; Keizer, J.

    2006-12-01

    The use of numerical models is of fundamental importance in the comprehension and prediction of soil erosion. At the very basis of the calibration process of the numerical models are the direct measurements of the governing parameters, carried out during field or laboratory tests. To measure and model soil erosion rainfall simulations can be used, that allow the reproduction of project rainfall having chosen characteristics of intensity and duration. The main parameters that rainfall simulators can measure are hydraulic conductivity, parameters of soil erodibility, rate and features of splash erosion, discharge coefficient and sediment yield. Other important parameters can be estimated during the rainfall simulations through the use of photogrammetric instruments able to memorize high definition stereographic models of the soil plot under analysis at different time steps. In this research rainfall simulator experiments (rse) were conducted to measure and quantify runoff and erosion processes on selected bare soil plots. The selected plots are located in some vineyards, olive groves and crops in central Italy and in some recently burned areas in north-central Portugal, affected by a wildfire during early July 2005 and, at the time, largely covered by commercial eucalypt plantations. On the Italian crops the choice of the rainfall intensities and durations were performed on the basis of the previous knowledge of the selected test areas. The procedure was based on an initial phase of soil wetting and a following phase of 3 erosion cycles. The first should reproduce the effects of a normal rainfall with a return time of 2 years (23 mm/h). The second should represent a serious episode with a return time of 10 years (34 mm/h). The third has the objective to reproduce and understand the effects of an intense precipitation event, with a return time of 50 years (41 mm/h). During vineyards experiments some photogrammetric surveys were carried out as well. In the Portugal

  3. Tonopah Test Range Environmental Restoration Corrective Action Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the status (closed, closed in place, or closure in progress) of the Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized

  4. Validation of the Two Standard MODIS Satellite Burned-Area Products and an Empirically-Derived Merged Product in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philemon Tsela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS burned area products, MCD45A1, MCD64A1, and a merged product were validated across six study sites in South Africa using independently-derived Landsat burned-area reference data during the fire season of 2007. The objectives of this study were to: (i investigate the likelihood of the improved detection of small burns through an empirically-derived merged product; (ii quantify the probability of detection by each product using sub-pixel burned area measures; and, (iii compare the mean percent concurrence of burned pixels between the standard products over a ten-year time series in each site. Results show that MCD45A1 presented higher detection probabilities (i.e., 3.0%–37.9% for small fractions ≤50%, whereas MCD64A1 appeared more reliable (i.e., 12.0%–89.2% in detecting large fractions >50% of a burned MODIS pixel, respectively. Overall, the merged product demonstrated improved detection of the burned area in all fractions. This paper also demonstrates that, on average, >50% of MODIS burned pixels temporally concur between the MCD45A1 and MCD64A1 products in each site. These findings have significant implications for fire monitoring in southern Africa and contribute toward the understanding of the range and of the sources of errors present in the MODIS burned area products.

  5. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss, and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the data sets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalously high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010, which was not reported by PRODES. The burned area data indicated that this was predominantly related to increased burned area occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicated that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover

  6. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations

  7. Joint Use of Sentinel-1 and Landsat-8 data for Burned Areas Mapping: the Case of the Sardinia Island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Antonio; Azar, Ramin; Calò, Fabiana; Stroppiana, Daniela; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Imperatore, Pasquale

    2016-04-01

    Fires widely affect Mediterranean regions, causing severe threats to human lives and damages to natural environments. The socio-economic impacts of fires on the affected local communities are significant, indeed, the activation of prevention measures and the extinguishment of fires and reclamation of the pre-fire conditions are very expensive. Moreover, fires have also global impacts: they affect global warming and climate changes due to gas and aerosol emissions to atmosphere. In such a context, fire scars mapping and monitoring are fundamental tasks for a sustainable management of natural resources and for the prevention/mitigation of fire risk. With this respect, remotely sensed data offer the opportunity for a regional-up-to-global scale monitoring of areas prone to fires, on a cost-effective and regular basis. In this work, the potential of a joint use of Sentinel-1A (C-band) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data for detecting burned areas is investigated. The experimental analyses are conducted by focusing on Sardinia Island, which is one of the Italian regions most affected by fire events during summer. Our analysis shows that the capability of monitoring burned areas in the Mediterranean environment can be improved by exploiting information embedded in OLI multispectral bands in conjunction with multi-temporal dual-polarized SAR data. Indeed, limitations experienced in analyses based on the use of only optical data (e.g., cloud cover, spectral overlap/confusion of burned areas with dark soils, water surfaces and shaded regions) may be overcome by using SAR data, owing to the insensitiveness to sunlight-illumination conditions and the cloud-penetrating capability of microwave radiation. Results prove the effectiveness of an integrated approach based on the combination of optical and microwave imagery for the monitoring and mapping of burned areas in vegetated regions.

  8. Burned Area Mapping Using Support Vector Machines and the FuzCoC Feature Selection Method on VHR IKONOS Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Dragozi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing need for accurate burned area mapping has led to a number of studies that focus on improving the mapping accuracy and effectiveness. In this work, we investigate the influence of derivative spectral and spatial features on accurately mapping recently burned areas using VHR IKONOS imagery. Our analysis considers both pixel and object-based approaches, using two advanced image analysis techniques: (a an efficient feature selection method based on the Fuzzy Complementary Criterion (FuzCoC and (b the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. In both cases (pixel and object-based, a number of higher-order spectral and spatial features were produced from the original image. The proposed methodology was tested in areas of Greece recently affected by severe forest fires, namely, Parnitha and Rhodes. The extensive comparative analysis indicates that the SVM object-based scheme exhibits higher classification accuracy than the respective pixel-based one. Additionally, the accuracy increased with the addition of derivative features and subsequent implementation of the FuzCoC feature selection (FS method. Apart from the positive effect in the classification accuracy, the application of the FuzCoC FS method significantly reduces the computational requirements and facilitates the manipulation of the large data volume. In both cases (pixel and objet the results confirmed that the use of an efficient feature selection method is a prerequisite step when extra information through higher-order features is added to the classification process of VHR imagery for burned area mapping.

  9. Using Logistic Regression To Predict the Probability of Debris Flows Occurring in Areas Recently Burned By Wildland Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2003-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of debris flows occurring in areas recently burned by wildland fires. Multiple logistic regression is conceptually similar to multiple linear regression because statistical relations between one dependent variable and several independent variables are evaluated. In logistic regression, however, the dependent variable is transformed to a binary variable (debris flow did or did not occur), and the actual probability of the debris flow occurring is statistically modeled. Data from 399 basins located within 15 wildland fires that burned during 2000-2002 in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and New Mexico were evaluated. More than 35 independent variables describing the burn severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows were delineated from National Elevation Data using a Geographic Information System (GIS). (2) Data describing the burn severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were determined for each basin. These data were then downloaded to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression. (3) Relations between the occurrence/non-occurrence of debris flows and burn severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated and several preliminary multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combination produced the most effective model. The multivariate model that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows was selected. (4) The multivariate logistic regression model was entered into a GIS, and a map showing the probability of debris flows was constructed. The most effective model incorporates the percentage of each basin with slope greater than 30 percent, percentage of land burned at medium and high burn severity

  10. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  11. Can post-wildfire Burned Area Emergency Response treatments mitigate watershed degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, D.; Ffolliott, P.; Bautista, S.; Wittenberg, L.

    2009-04-01

    Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere 350 million years ago. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools. A negative impact of prime concern in the 21st Century is desertification. This term refers to land degradation, not the immediate creation of classical deserts. It is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function and biological productivity as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects 33% of the earth's surface and over a billion people. Fire-related desertification has a number of environmental, social, and economic consequences. The two key environmental consequences are soil erosion and exotic plant invasions. Wildfires typically have exotic plant species abundances ten times that of undisturbed forests (Neary et al. 2003). Seeding has been used for many years in the USA as a prime Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatment. Until recently, this seeding contributed to exotic plant invasions since fast-growing, but non native plants seeds were used. The use of native plant seeds and sterile hybrids has reduced this problem somewhat. Erosion after wildfires documented in the USA can be in the range of Soil losses in the high end of that range definitely exceed soil loss tolerances and contribute to desertification. Soil disturbance and degradation after wildfires is a function of fire severity, and the impacts can range from the minimal to catastrophic and long-lasting. The most obvious impact is the loss of organic matter from combustion of the forest floor. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties with high-severity wildfire can produce water repellency, aggravating rainfall runoff and erosion. Since soils take long times to form (50 to 75,000 years), degradation as a result of wildfire-related erosion or soil property changes can result in severe and

  12. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss and land use change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    T. Fanin; G. R. van der Werf

    2015-01-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002–2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest co...

  13. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss, and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    T. Fanin; G. R. van der Werf

    2015-01-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002–2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Chan...

  14. Methodology for the detection of land cover changes in time series of daily satellite images. Application to burned area detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Moreno-Ruiz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a methodology for detection of observable phenomena at pixel level over time series of daily satellite images, based on using a Bayesian classifier. This methodology has been applied successfully to detect burned areas in the North American boreal forests using the LTDR dataset. The LTDR dataset represents the longest time series of global daily satellite images with 0.05° (~5 km of spatial resolution. The proposed methodology has several stages: 1 pre-processing daily images to obtain composite images of n days; 2 building of space of statistical variables or attributes to consider; 3 designing an algorithm, by selecting and filtering the training cases; 4 obtaining probability maps related to the considered thematic classes; 5 post-processing to improve the results obtained by applying multiple techniques (filters, ranges, spatial coherence, etc.. The generated results are analyzed using accuracy metrics derived from the error matrix (commission and omission errors, percentage of estimation and using scattering plots against reference data (correlation coefficient and slope of the regression line. The quality of the results obtained improves, in terms of spatial and timing accuracy, to other burned area products that use images of higher spatial resolution (500 m and 1 km, but they are only available after year 2000 as MCD45A1 and BA GEOLAND-2: the total burned area estimation for the study region for the years 2001-2011 was 28.56 millions of ha according to reference data and 12.41, 138.43 and 19.41 millions of ha for the MCD45A1, BA GEOLAND-2 and BA-LTDR burned area products, respectively.

  15. Sensitivity of spectral reflectance values to different burn and vegetation ratios: A multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleniou, Magdalini; Koutsias, Nikos

    2013-05-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the spectral properties of fire-scorched (burned) and non fire-scorched (vegetation) areas, as well as areas with different burn/vegetation ratios, using a multisource multiresolution satellite data set. A case study was undertaken following a very destructive wildfire that occurred in Parnitha, Greece, July 2007, for which we acquired satellite images from LANDSAT, ASTER, and IKONOS. Additionally, we created spatially degraded satellite data over a range of coarser resolutions using resampling techniques. The panchromatic (1 m) and multispectral component (4 m) of IKONOS were merged using the Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening method. This very high-resolution imagery served as the basis to estimate the cover percentage of burned areas, bare land and vegetation at pixel level, by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Finally, multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate each land-cover fraction as a function of surface reflectance values of the original and the spatially degraded satellite images. The main findings of our research were: (a) the Near Infrared (NIR) and Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) are the most important channels to estimate the percentage of burned area, whereas the NIR and red channels are the most important to estimate the percentage of vegetation in fire-affected areas; (b) when the bi-spectral space consists only of NIR and SWIR, then the NIR ground reflectance value plays a more significant role in estimating the percent of burned areas, and the SWIR appears to be more important in estimating the percent of vegetation; and (c) semi-burned areas comprising 45-55% burned area and 45-55% vegetation are spectrally closer to burned areas in the NIR channel, whereas those areas are spectrally closer to vegetation in the SWIR channel. These findings, at least partially, are attributed to the fact that: (i) completely burned pixels present low variance in the NIR and high variance in the

  16. Quantifying differences in biodiversity between a tropical forest area and a grassland area subject to traditional burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangendo, G.; Stein, A.; Gelens, M.; Gier, de A.; Albricht, R.

    2002-01-01

    Mosaics of natural forest and grassland tracts in sub-Saharan Africa provide differences in woody species biodiversity. These mosaics are of considerable interest as they are a major biodiversity bank. Their richness is felt to be threatened, for example by local burning. This study focuses on the i

  17. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss and land use change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-06-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the datasets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalous high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not reported by PRODES. The burned area data showed that this was predominantly related to increased fire activity occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicates that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover loss rates, we also

  18. Organic aerosols in a Brazilian agro-industrial area: Speciation and impact of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive organic characterization of atmospheric aerosols from an agro-industrial region (São Paulo State, Brazil) highly impacted by biomass burning. The organic speciation was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity, enabling the identification and quantification of 172 different organic species by GC-MS. The mass of organic compounds reached 123 μg m- 3 in an aerosol sample collected during the sugar cane harvest period compared with 0.82 μg m- 3 in the non-harvest period. The samples most impacted by biomass burning were those with the highest percentages of non-polar compounds (n-alkanes; up to 96%). However, in absolute terms, the total mass of polar compounds in such samples was greater than for samples less impacted by this activity. Retene (a marker for biomass combustion) was the most abundant of the 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified, corresponding to 14%-84%. This work shows that biomass burning was responsible for a benzo(a)pyrene equivalent index value that exceeded the recommendation of the World Health Organization. Principal component analysis indicated that agricultural biomass burning and emissions from crop processing facilities explained 42% of the variance of the data, while 37% was explained by urban emissions, 10% by vehicle emissions, and 10% by biogenic sources. This study provides insights into the emissions of a suite of organic compounds that could participate in anthropic alteration of regional cloud formation and precipitation patterns.

  19. Estimated probability of postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Whitewater-Baldy Fire burn area, southwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2012-01-01

    In May and June 2012, the Whitewater-Baldy Fire burned approximately 1,200 square kilometers (300,000 acres) of the Gila National Forest, in southwestern New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 128 basins burned by the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burned area drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of areal burned extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, modeling indicated that four basins have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence (greater than or equal to 80 percent). For the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional 14 basins are included, and for the 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional eight basins, 20 percent of the total, have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence. In addition, probability analysis along the stream segments can identify specific reaches of greatest concern for debris flows within a basin. Basins with a high probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in the west and central parts of the burned area, including tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, and Willow Creek. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from about 3,000-4,000 cubic meters (m3) to greater than 500,000 m3 for all design storms modeled. Drainage basins with estimated volumes greater than 500,000 m3 included tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Willow

  20. Mineral exploration in the area of the Fore Burn igneous complex, south-western Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    P M Allen; Cooper, D. C.; Parker, M.E.; Easterbrook, G.D.; Haslam, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Fore Burn igneous complex consists mainly of quartz-microdiorite, tonalite and feldspar porphyry forming semiconcordant or concordant bodies within early Devonian volcanic and sedimentary rocks, just north of the Southern Upland Fault, some 24 km east of Girvan. There is evidence that the complex has been folded. Several small bodies of intrusion breccia occur within both the complex and the country rock and there is a zone of monolithologic breccias along a fau...

  1. Assessing the Temporal Stability of the Accuracy of a Time Series of Burned Area Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Padilla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporal stability, defined as the change of accuracy through time, is one of the validation aspects required by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites’ Land Product Validation Subgroup. Temporal stability was evaluated for three burned area products: MCD64, Globcarbon, and fire_cci. Traditional accuracy measures, such as overall accuracy and omission and commission error ratios, were computed from reference data for seven years (2001–2007 in seven study sites, located in Angola, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Portugal, and South Africa. These accuracy measures served as the basis for the evaluation of temporal stability of each product. Nonparametric tests were constructed to assess different departures from temporal stability, specifically a monotonic trend in accuracy over time (Wilcoxon test for trend, and differences in median accuracy among years (Friedman test. When applied to the three burned area products, these tests did not detect a statistically significant temporal trend or significant differences among years, thus, based on the small sample size of seven sites, there was insufficient evidence to claim these products had temporal instability. Pairwise Wilcoxon tests comparing yearly accuracies provided a measure of the proportion of year-pairs with significant differences and these proportions of significant pairwise differences were in turn used to compare temporal stability between BA products. The proportion of year-pairs with different accuracy (at the 0.05 significance level ranged from 0% (MCD64 to 14% (fire_cci, computed from the 21 year-pairs available. In addition to the analysis of the three real burned area products, the analyses were applied to the accuracy measures computed for four hypothetical burned area products to illustrate the properties of the temporal stability analysis for different hypothetical scenarios of change in accuracy over time. The nonparametric tests were generally successful at

  2. The influence of weather and fuel type on the fuel composition of the area burned by forest fires in Ontario, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podur, Justin J; Martell, David L

    2009-07-01

    Forest fires are influenced by weather, fuels, and topography, but the relative influence of these factors may vary in different forest types. Compositional analysis can be used to assess the relative importance of fuels and weather in the boreal forest. Do forest or wild land fires burn more flammable fuels preferentially or, because most large fires burn in extreme weather conditions, do fires burn fuels in the proportions they are available despite differences in flammability? In the Canadian boreal forest, aspen (Populus tremuloides) has been found to burn in less than the proportion in which it is available. We used the province of Ontario's Provincial Fuels Database and fire records provided by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to compare the fuel composition of area burned by 594 large (>40 ha) fires that occurred in Ontario's boreal forest region, a study area some 430,000 km2 in size, between 1996 and 2006 with the fuel composition of the neighborhoods around the fires. We found that, over the range of fire weather conditions in which large fires burned and in a study area with 8% aspen, fires burn fuels in the proportions that they are available, results which are consistent with the dominance of weather in controlling large fires. PMID:19688931

  3. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 μg dm-2ṡday and briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

  4. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  5. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, open-quotes Corrective Action Strategyclose quotes (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles

  6. Gamma generalized linear model to investigate the effects of climate variables on the area burned by forest fire in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Futao Guo; Guangyu Wang; John L Innes; Xiangqing Ma; Long Sun; Haiqing Hu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a suitable model for investigating the effects of climate factors on the area burned by forest fire in the Tahe forest region, Daxing’an Mountains, in northeast China. The response variables were the area burned by lightning-caused fire, human-caused fire, and total burned area. The predictor variables were nine climate variables collected from the local weather station. Three regression models were utilized, including multiple linear regression, log-linear model (log-transformation on both response and predictor variables), and gamma-generalized linear model. The goodness-of-fit of the models were compared based on model fitting statistics such as R2, AIC, and RMSE. The results revealed that the gamma-generalized linear model was generally superior to both multiple linear regression model and log-linear model for fitting the fire data. Further, the best models were selected based on the criteria that the climate variables were statistically significant at a=0.05. The gamma best models indicated that maximum wind speed, precipitation, and days that rainfall greater than 0.1 mm had significant impacts on the area burned by the lightning-caused fire, while the mean temperature and minimum relative humidity were the main drivers of the burned area caused by human activities. Overall, the total burned area by forest fire was significantly influenced by days that rainfall greater than 0.1 mm and minimum rela-tive humidity, indicating that the moisture condition of forest stands determine the burned area by forest fire.

  7. High-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yukihiro; Kani, Koichi; Takano, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Fumihiro; Aota, Keiko; Takegawa, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tomoko; Kondo, Chika; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Azuma, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion area irradiation (SGR) on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters). Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS. PMID:25386367

  8. High-Wattage Pulsed Irradiation of Linearly Polarized Near-Infrared Light to Stellate Ganglion Area for Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome (BMS and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion area irradiation (SGR on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters. Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS.

  9. Study of slagging in and blowout of P-59 boiler furnace screens during the burning of Moscow-area coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzenko, S.I.; Vasil' ev, V.V.; Serebryanikov, N.I.; Panchenko, V.F.; Meelak, Kh.O.; Khaikin, I.B.; Perevezentsev, V.P.

    1978-03-01

    The operation of the burners of the P-59 boilers at the Ryazan GRES, burning Moscow area brown coal, is characterized by intense slagging of the LRP screens, especially in the zone of maximum heat formation, causing a particularly severe screen cleaning problem. The thermal efficiency of screen cleaning by steam blowout using OM-0.35 devices is low even with intense use (every 2 hours), which is accompanied by dangerous steam-ash erosion of the tubes. Water blowout of the LRP (lower radiative part) of the P-59 boiler with four long-range M-3A devices is rather effective. Under conditions of intense formation of deposits on the screens of the lower radiative part of P-59 boilers they cannot be brought up to an operationally clean state using known cleaning methods.

  10. Distribution Patterns of Burned Areas in the Brazilian Biomes: An Analysis Based on Satellite Data for the 2002–2010 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moreira de Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fires modify the structure of vegetation communities, the carbon and water cycles, the soil’s chemistry, and affect the climate system. Within this context, this work aimed to understand the distribution patterns of burned areas in Brazil, during the period of 2002 to 2010, taking into consideration each one of the six Brazilian biomes (Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, Pampa and Pantanal and the respective major land cover classes. Data from the MODIS MCD45A1 product (burned area, as well as thermal anomalies (MOD14 and MYD14 and precipitation (TRMM, were analyzed according to the 2002 Brazilian official land cover and land use map (PROBIO. The Brazilian savanna biome, known as Cerrado, presented the largest concentration of burned areas detected by MODIS (73%, followed by the Amazon (14%, Pantanal (6%, Atlantic Forest (4%, Caatinga (3%, and Pampa (0,06% biomes. Indeed, in the years of 2007 and 2010, 90% and 92% of Brazil’s burned areas were concentrated in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, respectively. TRMM data indicated that during these two years there was a significant influence of La Niña, causing low rainfall in the Amazon, Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Regarding the land cover classes, approximately 81% of the burned areas occurred over remnant vegetation areas. Although no unequivocal correlation can be established between burned areas and new land conversions, the conspicuous concentration of fire scars, particularly in Amazon–Cerrado transition (i.e., the Arc of Deforestation is certainly not a simple coincidence. Such patterns and trends corroborate the need of improved territorial governance, in addition to the implementation of systematic fire warning and preventive systems.

  11. Vegetation Recovery in Burned Areas of Centre Area of Yunnan%滇中地区火烧迹地植被恢复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何银忠; 王有兵; 严毅; 高晓杰; 周庆宏; 顾淑丽; 吴海玉; 李子光

    2014-01-01

    Based on an investigation of E.globulus Lab and P.armandi counmunity in burned area of Haikou Forest Farm , Central Area of Yunnan , and compared with control , research on the vegetation characteristics in different regeneration methods has been carried out .The results showed that the fire re-sistance ability of P.armandi forest was poor , little seedling was survival but large grass and shrub in burned area;Fire resistance ability and sprouting ability of E.globulus were strong, M.africana was the dominant species after the fire , and was relatively concentrated , the important value was up to 99.84%.Reflect trend of Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index in different sample plots were unani-mous, the species diversity index of E.globulus non cutting wood after fire was lowest , but was highest in P.armandi forest burned area .%对滇中地区昆明市海口林场过火3年的蓝桉林和华山松林迹地及未过火的对照林的群落进行调查分析,研究不同更新方式的植被特征。结果表明,华山松林抗火能力最差,迹地上无幼苗生存,仅有大量的草灌植物;蓝桉抗火干扰能力及萌生能力较强;过火后未伐除过火木的蓝桉林中小铁子为优势种,并且较为集中,其重要值高达99.84%;Shannon-Wiener指数和Simpson指数在各样地上的反映趋势基本一致,物种多样性指数最低的为未伐除过火木的过火蓝桉林,最高的为过火华山松林。

  12. Farmers’ Perceptions of Imperata cylindrica Infestation in a Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Area of Northern Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounthanh Keoboualapha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses farmers’ perceptions of Imperata infestation and its impact on agricultural land uses in a slash-and-burn area of Nambak District in Luang Prabang Province, northern Laos. Our study showed that slash-and-burn cultivation (SBC, which has been practiced for generations, remains the main agricultural land use system and provides an important source of food and income for farmers. Imperata, which first took root one and a half decades ago, is gradually proliferating, affecting the livelihoods of nearly 38% of households in the five target villages of this study. The positive cause-and-effect relationship among such factors as accelerated land clearing, young fallows, declining soil fertility, and land shortages—suggested to be the main cause of the Imperata infestation—has reduced not only cultivable land but also its productivity. According to the majority of farmers, the most significant problems caused by Imperata infestation are reduced crop yields, increased weeding, and reduced crop growth. To overcome the problems, farmers employ a combination of strategies—the most common being weeding, fallowing the land, applying chemicals, and exchanging labor. However, the implementation of these strategies is encumbered by many constraints, primarily lack of labor and capital, rice insufficiency, and limited land. Given the constraints and the available technologies, it will be very difficult for farmers in the study area to adopt a more permanent, diversified, and productive agricultural system, which is a high priority of government development policy in the uplands. To meet this challenge, the thrust of research and development communities working in the uplands should be on more systematic and integrated interventions that combine technological, social, economic, and political resolutions based on knowledge of the causes of Imperata infestation, the problems it creates, management strategies to cope with the infestation

  13. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR THE TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-01

    This post-closure inspection report includes the results of inspections, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for Calendar Year 2005 for nine Corrective Action Units located on the Tonopah Test Range , Nevada.

  14. Corrective action decision document second gas station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403). Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes}. The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-03 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (3 5 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service.

  15. Imperata Grassland Mapping in Northern Uplands of Lao PDR: Area, Distribution, Characteristics, and Implications for Slash-and-Burn Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaworn Onpraphai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Slash-and-burn cultivation (SBC is an important food and cash crop production system in mountainous regions of many countries in Southeast Asia. While links between unsustainable SBC and the formation of Imperata grassland (IGL have been well documented, there has been limited research on the issues with the intention of providing appropriate information to communities in Laos aiming at better use of natural resources. This paper reveals the IGL area, distribution, and characteristics in the uplands of northern Laos, and discusses the importance of IGL for upland development based on the synthesis of remotely sensed Landsat-5 TM and GIS data. We have demonstrated the potential use of geoinformation technology as a set of informatics tools that can be applied in other area studies in Laos. Nineteen land uses/land covers of 196,317 hectares in Nambak District in northern Laos were mapped with an overall accuracy of 92.1% and a kappa statistic of 91.3%. IGL achieved >90% mapping accuracy. The current IGL was estimated at about 2.5% (4,878 hectares of the district area and characterized as a “micro-grassland,” with most patch sizes being less than half a hectare. About 37% of the district area in the southeastern part was identified as the most Imperata-infested zone. The study suggests that improper SBC intensification into more permanent crop production systems is a major cause of Imperata infestation in the upland areas and that the spread of IGL can be a threat to the productivity and sustainability of traditional SBC systems and already intensified land use systems. In order to utilize land resources more effectively, government intervention is indispensable; and development efforts should initially focus on the most affected areas.

  16. Sensitivity of burned area in Europe to climate change, atmospheric CO2 levels, and demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Minchao; Knorr, Wolfgang; Thonicke, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    model. Applying a range of future projections that combine different scenarios for climate changes, enhanced CO2 concentrations, and population growth, we investigated the individual and combined effects of these drivers on the total area and regions affected by fire in the 21st century. The two models...

  17. Effect of oral olive oil on healing of 10-20% total body surface area burn wounds in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Mahtab; Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Zahra; Tolouei, Mohammad; Amiri, Zohreh

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of oral olive oil on clinical outcomes and wound healing of thermally injured patients with hospital stays. One hundred patients (mean age; 33.34±7 years) with 10-20% total body surface area, deep second degree and more burn wounds were randomized to receive either oral olive oil or sunflower oil as the oil in their diet. Patients were evaluated daily for occurrence of wound infection, sepsis and healing of the grafted skin. Also the duration of hospitalization and admission to the intensive care unit were compared in two groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the olive oil group and the control group in percent of TBSA involvement (14.28±0.53 vs. 13.02±0.48, P=0.7), albumin concentration (3.25±0.5 vs. 3.13±0.5, P=0.5) and mean calorie intake (2034±216.9 kcal vs2118±192.1 kcal, P=0.2). We found a significant difference in the duration of wound healing (7.2±0.5 vs. 8.7±0.5, P=0.04) and duration of hospitalization (7.4±0.5 vs. 8.9±0.4, P=0.05) in the olive oil group versus the control group. We did not find any difference in ICU admission, wound infection and occurrence of sepsis between two groups. This study showed that an oral diet provided with olive oil in patients with burn may accelerate wound healing and decrease the duration of hospitalization. PMID:25306088

  18. Assessment of the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago using remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2015-04-01

    The study aim was to characterize the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago considering the previous situation to wildfire in 1991 and the current one in 2013. The objectives were to: (i) compare the current and previous vegetation cover to widlfire; (ii) evaluate whether the current vegetation has recovered the previous cover to wildfire; and (iii) determine the spatial variability of vegetation recovery after 22-years since the wildfire. The study area is located in Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain. It corresponds to an area affected by a wildfire in August 8th, 1991. The burned area was equal to 8156 ha. The burn severity was spatially very high. The main geographic features of the burned area are: mountainous topography (altitudes ranging from 250 m to 1500 m; slope gradient >25%; exposure mainly southfacing); igneous (peridotites), metamorphic (gneiss) and calcareous rocks (limestones); and predominant forest land use (Pinus pinaster sp. woodlands, 10%; pinus opened forest + shrubland, 40%; shrubland, 35%; and bare soil + grassland, 15%). Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis has been applied to achieve the objectives. Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images were used: July 13th, 1991 and July 1st, 2013, for the previous wildfire situation and 22-years after, respectively. The 1990 CORINE land cover was also considered to map 1991 land uses prior the wildfire. Likewise, the Andalucía Regional Government wildfire historic records were used to select the burned area and its geographical limit. 1991 and 2013 land cover map were obtained by means of object-oriented classifications. Also, NDVI and PVI1 vegetation indexes were calculated and mapped for both years. Finally, some images transformations and kernel density images were applied to determine the most recovered areas and to map the spatial concentration of bare soil and pine cover areas in 1991 and 2013, respectively. According to the results, the combination of remote sensing and GIS analysis let

  19. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, A. J. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site; Lantow, Tiffany A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site

    2015-03-25

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2014 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 28, 2014. Maintenance was required at CAU 407. Animal burrows were backfilled and erosion repairs were performed. Vegetation monitoring was performed at CAU 407 in June 2014. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix E.

  20. D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D) Corrective Measures Study/Focused Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine alternatives which may be used to remediate the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (DBRP). An objective of this process is to provide decision makers adequate information to compare alternatives, select an appropriate remediation for the DBRP, and demonstrate the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements in the Record of Decision.

  1. Natural Radioisotopes of Pb, Bi and Po in the Atmosphere of Coal Burning Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnor Azrin Sabuti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is discussing the changes of natural radionuclides 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po in atmospheric samples (rainwater and solid fallout caused by Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz coal-fired Power Plant (SSAAPP operation. We also describe the seasonal changes of 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po to the monsoon seasons in Peninsular Malaysia. Bulk atmospheric trap was used to collect atmospheric samples for five months (7 Feb 2007 to 27 July 2007 and placed within the SSAAPP area. The natural radionuclide activity levels in the atmosphere were affected by local meteorological conditions to impact their variance over time. As a result, the natural radionulides were increased from the ambient value in atmospheric particles (solid fallout, which related to coal combustion by-product releases into atmosphere. In contrast, this was giving relatively lower or in the same magnitude from most places of radionuclides in rainwater samples. Degree of changes between 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po affected by high temperature combustions were found to be different for each nuclide due to their respective volatility. 210Po in rainwater and solid fallout were considerably low during early inter-monsoon period which mainly controlled by the rainfall pattern. On the other hand, 210Pb and 210Bi in solid fallout were recorded higher concentrations which associated to drier conditions and more particulate content in air column during southwest monsoon. The mean activity ratio of 210BiRW/210PbRW and 210PoRW/210PbRW are 0.47 ± 0.04 and 0.52 ± 0.17, respectively. Whereas for 210BiSF/210PbSF and 210PoSF/210PbSF are 0.52 ± 0.05 and 0.71 ± 0.13, respectively. Some results showed high activity ratios, reaching to 1.87 ± 0.08 for 210Bi/210Pb and 4.58 ± 0.55 for 210Po/210Pb, of which due to additional of 210Bi and 210Po excess. These ratios also indicating that 210Pb and 210Bi could potentially come from the same source, compared to 210Po which varied differently, showing evidence it came

  2. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  3. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description, Capabilities, and Analytical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, William T.; Daniels, Jeffrey; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Giles, Ken; Karr, Lynn; Kluesner, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Activity. DRI has operated these stations since that time. A third station was deployed in the period May to September 2011. The TTR is located within the northwest corner of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (280 mi2). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from Soils Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  4. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description and Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Tappen; George Nikolich; Ken Giles; David Shafer; Tammy Kluesner

    2010-05-18

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Sub-Project. The TTR is located within the boundaries of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) near the northern edge, and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (179,200 acres). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from one of the three Soil Sub-Project Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  5. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project... 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and start-up of the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project (the Project). The Project is a proposed 110- megawatt solar power...

  6. 75 FR 81307 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, Crescent Dunes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability...) for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project Environmental Impact Statement...

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns of burned area over Brazilian Cerrado from 2005 to 2015 using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; DaCamara, Carlos; Setzer, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Although Cerrado is a fire-dependent biome, current agriculture practices have significantly modified the native fire regime. Moreover, over the last decades, climate conditions, such as intensive droughts, have contributed to enhance the effects of anthropogenic activities, and consequently fire, over the region. For instance, during the 2010 extreme drought there was an increase of 100% in the number of fire pixels detected by just one polar orbiting satellite (information online at http://www.cptec.inpe.br/queimadas). A better characterization of spatial and temporal fire patterns over Cerrado is therefore crucial to uncover both climate and anthropogenic influences in this ecosystem. Additionally, information about the extent, location and time of burned areas (BA) over Cerrado is especially useful to a wide range of users, from government agencies, research groups and ecologists, to fire managers and NGOs. Instruments on-board satellites are the only available operational means to collect BA data at appropriated spatial and temporal scales and in a cost-effective way. Several global BA products derived from remote sensed information have been developed over the last years using a variety of techniques based on different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. Although presenting similar inter-annual variability, there are marked differences among the products both in magnitude and location of the area burnt. The development of regional algorithms which take into account local characteristics such as vegetation type, soil and climate is therefore an added value to the existing information. We present a monthly BA product (AQM) for Brazil based on information from MODIS 1km. The algorithm was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil and the procedure represents the first initiative of an automated method for BA monitoring using remote sensing information in the country. The product relies on an algorithm that takes advantage of the ability of MIR

  8. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols: Impact of biomass burning and secondary formation in summertime in a rural area of the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Li, Weijun; Sui, Xiao; Wen, Liang; Chi, Jianwei; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Junmei; Xu, Caihong; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-07-01

    To determine the characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in rural areas of the North China Plain, field measurements were conducted at Yucheng (YC) in the summers of 2013 and 2014. The concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols at YC exhibited clear diurnal variation, with higher concentrations in the early morning and at night and lower concentrations during the afternoon hours. The mass-balance method designed for particulate matter smaller than 2.5μm (PM2.5) was used to calculate the organic matter (OM)/organic carbon (OC) ratio. The value obtained, 2.07±0.05, was suggested as a reference to estimate organics in PM2.5 in rural areas of the North China Plain. Biomass burning was identified to be a significant source of carbonaceous aerosols; approximately half of the samples obtained at YC were affected by biomass burning during summer 2013. Case studies revealed that biomass burning accounted for up to 52.6% of the OC and 51.1% of the elemental carbon in PM2.5 samples. The organic coatings observed on sulphur-rich and potassium-rich particles indicated the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from the oxidation of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the aging of smoke released from biomass burning. Based on the evolution of the VOCs, the contribution of VOCs oxidation to SOA concentration was 3.21 and 1.07μgm(-3)ppm(-1) CO under conditions of low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and high NOx, respectively. Aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene) made the greatest contribution to SOA concentration (88.4% in low-NOx conditions and 80.6% in high-NOx conditions). The results of the study offer novel insights into the effects of biomass burning on the carbonaceous aerosols and SOA formation in polluted rural areas. PMID:27031303

  9. An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 (241Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of 241Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results

  10. An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of {sup 241}Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results.

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499, Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR). This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 499 is located on the TTR and consists of the following single Corrective Action Site (CAS) (Figure 1): CAS RG-25-001-RD24 - Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been cased by numerous small historical over fillings, spills and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of 36 years. The tank was located on the north side of Building 24-50 on the TTR approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of the Avenue 24

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2001). CAU 499 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): RG-25-001-RD24: Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site which is approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of Avenue 24. The Hydrocarbon Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been caused by numerous small historical over-fillings, spills, and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of approximately 36 years. The tank was located on the east side of Building 24-50 on the TTR.

  14. Slash and burn versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon area of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and burn agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest areas where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and burn agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and burn occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large area of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and burn agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available area, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the

  15. Burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

  16. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, A. J.

    2014-03-03

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2013 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: • CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) • CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) • CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) • CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) • CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 14, 2013. Maintenance was performed at CAU 400, CAU 424, and CAU 453. At CAU 400, animal burrows were backfilled. At CAU 424, erosion repairs were completed at Landfill Cell A3-3, subsidence was repaired at Landfill Cell A3-4, and additional lava rock was placed in high-traffic areas to mark the locations of the surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 and Landfill Cell A3-8. At CAU 453, two areas of subsidence were repaired and animal burrows were backfilled. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2013. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  17. Closure report for CAU No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This Closure Reports presents the information obtained from corrective and investigative actions performed to affirm the decision for clean closure of Corrective Action Unit No. 400 which includes the Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill, two sites used for disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and other solid waste at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Tonopah Test Range, located in south-central Nevada. The first phase, or corrective action, for clean closure was performed under the Voluntary Correction Action Work Plan for Ordnance Removal from Five Disposal Sites at the Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the VCA Work Plan. The second phase consisted of collecting verification samples under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA U No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan. Results of the two phases are summarized in this document.

  18. Data in support of environmental controls on the characteristics of mean number of forest fires and mean forest area burned (1987-2007) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu; Zhu, Zhiliang; Bu, Rencang; Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman

    2015-09-01

    Fire frequency and size are two important parameters describing fire characteristics. Exploring the spatial variation of fire characteristics and understanding the environmental controls are indispensable to fire prediction and sustainable forest landscape management. To illustrate the spatial variation of forest fire characteristics over China and to quantitatively determine the relative contribution of each of the environmental controls to this variation, forest fire characteristic data (mean number of forest fires and mean burned forest area) and environmental data (climate, land use, vegetation type and topography) at provincial level were derived. These data sets can potentially serve as a foundation for future studies relating to fire risk assessment, carbon emission by forest fires, and the impact of climate change on fire characteristics. This data article contains data related to the research article entitled "Environmental controls on the characteristics of mean number of forest fires and mean forest area burned (1987-2007) in China" by chang et al. [1]. PMID:26288802

  19. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.

    1997-02-01

    The D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (DBRP) (431-D and 431-1D) Waste Unit is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(U) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the DBRP located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina.

  20. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, Madrid et al., 2013) as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map (Figure 1) and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report (Jackson et al., 2011). The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites (Table 1). In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015

  1. Geodetic leveling data used to define historical height changes between Tonopah Junction and Las Vegas, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents geodetic leveling data for a survey route following US Highway 95 from Tonopah Junction, approximately 50 km west of Tonopah, Nevada, to Las Vegas, Nevada. The survey route passes immediately south of the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. Comparisons among the results of the several repeated levelings along this survey route provide a partial basis for evaluating contemporary crustal deformation patterns in the vicinity of the Yucca Mountain site and the relation between any such deformation and geologic structures known or suspected to have been active during Quaternary time

  2. Burn Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Koray Aydemir; Mehmet Ali Taşkaynatan

    2011-01-01

    Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The t...

  3. Epidemiological Characteristics of Burns in Wenzhou Area%温州地区烧伤患者流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如俊; 叶胜捷; 庞淑光; 张文振; 李泳焱; 章锦成

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological features of burns in Wenzhou and to develop preventive measures to reduce the incidence and mortality of burns. Methods Clinical data of 13 616 burns of our department were collected with age, gender, season of onset, burned area, cause, mortality, and cause of death analyzed. Results The morbidity ratio of male ( 9 782 ) to female ( 3 834 ) was 2. 55/1. Preschool children and young and middle aged individuals accounted for 21. 4% and 57. 4% of all patients. The causes of burns were correlated with age ( P 30% accounted for 9. 3% of all patients. The mortality rate was 0. 36%. Conclusion Preventive measures should be taken to reduce burn occurrence according to the epidemiological characteristics of burns.%目的 探讨烧伤患者流行病学特征,提出防治措施,减少烧伤的发生,降低病死率.方法 收集13 616例住院烧伤患者的临床资料,对年龄、性别、发病季节、烧伤面积、致伤原因、病死率及死亡原因进行分析.结果 烧伤患者男9 782例,女3 834例,男女比例为2.55:1.学龄前儿童和中青年患者分别占21.4%和57.4%.烧伤原因与其年龄间有关联(P<0.01);学龄前儿童和青少年患者以热液烫伤为主,分别占81.7%和41.5%;中青年和老年患者火焰烧伤分别占42.3%和44.6%.不同季节烧伤患者的构成比比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).烧伤面积≤10%者占60.7%,烧伤面积>30%者占9.3%.患者病死率为0.36%.结论 应根据烧伤患者流行病学特征,针对性采取相应的防治措施,以降低烧伤事件的发生率及病死率.

  4. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2011 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (5) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C, field notes are included in Appendix D, and photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 3 and 4, 2011. Maintenance was performed at CAU 424, CAU 453, and CAU 487. At CAU 424, two surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 could not be located during the inspection. The two monuments were located and marked with lava rock on July 13, 2011. At CAU 453, there was evidence of animal burrowing. Animal burrows were backfilled on July 13, 2011. At CAU 487, one use restriction warning sign was missing, and wording was faded on the remaining signs. A large animal burrow was also present. The signs were replaced, and the animal burrow was backfilled on July 12, 2011. As a best management practice, the use restriction warning signs at CAU 407 were replaced with standard Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order signs on July 13, 2011. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2011, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  5. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2011 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (5) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C, field notes are included in Appendix D, and photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 3 and 4, 2011. Maintenance was performed at CAU 424, CAU 453, and CAU 487. At CAU 424, two surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 could not be located during the inspection. The two monuments were located and marked with lava rock on July 13, 2011. At CAU 453, there was evidence of animal burrowing. Animal burrows were backfilled on July 13, 2011. At CAU 487, one use restriction warning sign was missing, and wording was faded on the remaining signs. A large animal burrow was also present. The signs were replaced, and the animal burrow was backfilled on July 12, 2011. As a best management practice, the use restriction warning signs at CAU 407 were replaced with standard Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order signs on July 13, 2011. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2011, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  6. Systemic Responses to Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Barış; YEĞEN, Berrak Ç.

    2004-01-01

    The major causes of death in burn patients include multiple organ failure and infection. It is important for the clinician to understand the pathophysiology of burn injury and the effects it will have on the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The local and systemic inflammatory response to thermal injury is extremely complex, resulting in both local burn tissue damage and deleterious systemic effects on all other organ systems distant from the burn area itself. Thermal injury initiates systemic infl...

  7. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  8. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoloch, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  9. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [DRI; Nikolich, George [DRI; Shadel, Craig [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Miller, Julianne J [DRI

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  10. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  11. 75 FR 54177 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... (EIS) for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, Nevada, and by this Notice is...

  12. 75 FR 72836 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... (BLM) has prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Crescent Dunes Solar...

  13. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  14. Review of Burn Research for Year 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2015-01-01

    Management of burn injuries requires treatments and interventions from many disciplines. Worldwide, burn patients suffer from physical and psychological challenges that impact their lives socially and economically. In this review, we will highlight a handful of the numerous articles published in multiple areas of burn care. The areas of burn care addressed in the article are: epidemiology; burn resuscitation, critical care, and infection; nutrition and metabolism; pain and rehabilitation; prevention and firefighter safety; psychology; and reconstruction and wounds. PMID:26204384

  15. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-06-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2007 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). In a letter from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) dated December 5, 2006, NDEP concurred with the request to reduce the frequency of post-closure inspections of CAUs at TTR to an annual frequency. This letter is included in Attachment B. Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 15-16, 2007. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in May 2007, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection at CAU 453 were backfilled on August 1, 2007. At this time, the TTR post-closure site inspections should continue as

  16. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2006 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 9, 2006, May 31, 2006, and November 15, 2006. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2006, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 400, CAU 407, CAU 426, CAU 453, and CAU 487 in 2006. During the May inspection of CAU 400, it was identified that the east and west sections of chickenwire fencing beyond the standard fencing were damaged; they were repaired in June 2006. Also in June 2006, the southeast corner fence post and one warning sign at CAU 407 were reinforced and reattached, the perimeter fencing adjacent to the gate at CAU 426 was tightened, and large animal

  17. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2007 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). In a letter from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) dated December 5, 2006, NDEP concurred with the request to reduce the frequency of post-closure inspections of CAUs at TTR to an annual frequency. This letter is included in Attachment B. Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 15-16, 2007. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in May 2007, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection at CAU 453 were backfilled on August 1, 2007. At this time, the TTR post-closure site inspections should continue as

  18. Intake of 238U and 232Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 238U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of 238U and 232Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6–15.5 and 2.0–5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of 238U and 232Th were 2.0 μg d−1 (25 mBq d−1) and 3.4 μg d−1 (14 mBq d−1) is comparable with reported range 0.5–5.0 μg d−1 and 0.15–3.5 μg d−1 respectively for the Asian population. - Highlights: ► 232Th, 238U were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). ► Study area located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition. ► Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. ► The estimated daily intake of 232Th and 238U in high rainfall area was found to be 3.4 and 2.0 μg respectively.

  19. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take steps to avoid household burns. Never leave cooking food unattended on the stove. Set your water heater’s thermostat to 120 °F or lower to prevent scalding burns. And install smoke alarms on every floor of your home. Keep yourself and your family safe from unexpected ...

  20. The role of frugivorous birds and bats in the colonization of cloud forest plant species in burned areas in western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rost, J.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The extension of montane cloud forests in western Mexico is threatened by several disturbances that limit their extension. In this study we aim to assess the contribution of birds and bats in the dispersal and colonization of cloud–forest plants in contiguous surface–burned pine forests. We sampled seed rain and sapling establishment over one year in two surface–burned sites, which differed in the size of their closest cloud forest patch. A total of 17 plant species were found, most of which were late–successional trees, shrubs and climbers. Distance influenced the seed rain of only one dispersed taxon (Solanum sp. and had no effect on the sapling distribution of this or other plants. In turn, marked differences were found between sites, with more seeds dispersed and higher sapling density in the site that was next to the larger cloud forest patch. The role of long–distance dispersers and the existence of seed banks before fire could explain the little importance of distance from seed source on seed dispersal and sapling distribution. Nevertheless, dispersal by birds and bats before or after fire facilitates the regeneration and conservation of cloud forests in disturbed areas formerly occupied by other habitats.

  1. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Shareen; Basavarajappa; Hanumanthappa

    2015-01-01

    A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1) OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the a...

  2. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OralHealth > Topics > Burning Mouth Syndrome > Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning Mouth Syndrome Main Content Key Points Symptoms Diagnosis Primary and Secondary BMS Treatment Helpful Tips Key Points Burning mouth syndrome is burning pain in the mouth that may ...

  3. Burned Area Detection in the Canadian Boreal Forest Using MODIS Imagery%加拿大北方森林火烧迹地遥感分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤慧; 刘荣高; 祝善友; 刘洋

    2013-01-01

    The boreal forest biome is one of the largest on earth, covering 17%of total land area. The major eco-systems within the boreal zone contain more than 30%of terrestrial carbon stores, thus representing a major com-ponent of the global carbon budget. Wildfires are a main disturbance factor in the Canadian boreal forests, which play an important role in boreal ecosystems. In this paper, we mapped the forest burned area in Saskatchewan and Alberta of Canada during 2004-2011, using two data sets of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiome-ter (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) imagery at 1 km resolu-tion. The MODIS global disturbance index algorithm (MGDI) was used to detect the forest burned area. It is based on the consistent radiometric relationship between annual maximum LST and the maximum EVI value that occurs after the LST during the same year at every pixel. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated by comparing the results with the MODIS MCD45A1 products and the inventory data from Forestry Bureau of Canada. The results show that the majority of fire events is captured by the MGDI techniques, and the burned ar-ea estimated by the fires pixels is better in good agreement with the inventory data than MODIS products. Com-pared with the Canadian Forestry Bureau data, the average relative error of our algorithm results is only 8.03%, while the MODIS product results is up to 70.53%. The results estimated that the average burned forest area is about 763 600 ha annually, which is about 3.36%of the total forest in this region. A mean annual burned forest is 468 300 ha for Saskatchewan and 295 300ha for Alberta respectively. The Canadian boreal forest fires show a significant interannual variation and severity, the burned scar mainly appeared in the years of 2006, 2008 and 2010-2011. Forest burned area mainly concentrated in the ecotone of the Boreal Shield, Taiga Shield, Taiga plains and the Wood Buffalo National Park

  4. Air pollution from biomass burning and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Cançado, José Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane burning and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time‐series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (μg/m3) was obtained using Handi‐vol equipment (Energética, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long‐time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1 day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the 5‐day moving average (lag1–5) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health. PMID:17435205

  5. 多源卫星遥感农作物秸秆焚烧过火区面积估算方法%Estimation method of straw burned area based on multi-source satellite remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 郑伟; 高浩; 邵佳丽; 刘诚

    2015-01-01

    秸秆焚烧过火区面积是秸秆焚烧影响评估的重要参数之一。该文针对卫星遥感秸秆焚烧过火面积估算中因作物秸秆焚烧后农田翻耕速度较快,对卫星观测频次要求高,且由于下垫面多种类型混杂,对卫星空间分辨率要求高的双重问题,提出利用风云三号气象卫星数据高观测频次和高分一号数据高空间分辨率特点,基于卫星遥感图像光谱分析和混合像元分解技术的多源卫星遥感农作物秸秆焚烧过火区面积估算方法。使用该方法对河南省驻马店市平舆县和正阳县进行了秸秆焚烧面积估算,并采用高分一号数据进行了验证,平均精度达到94%以上,说明该文提出的方法既解决了秸秆焚烧过火区监测的高时效需求问题,又保证了过火区面积估算精度。%Straw burning often occurs in June every year in Huang-Huai region of China, which results in the wasting of agricultural resources, atmospheric pollution and traffic accident. Straw-burning area is one of important factors for estimating the impact of straw burning. In China, there are many researches for monitoring straw-burning hot spots and estimating burned areas. However, there are two problems in estimating straw-burning area efficiently in Huang-Huai region: one is the mixture of multiple types of underlying surfaces in the pixel coverage with middle or lower resolution, such as FY-3/MERSI, EOS/MODIS with 250 m resolution which may contain cropland, water body, residential land and other types in one pixel; and the other is fast speed of cropland ploughing that may be only one or two days after harvest or straw burning according to the field survey, which causes the difficulty in the estimation by using land resource satellites such as TM, SPOT and HJ/CCD. So, it is difficult to use single type of satellite data for estimating the straw-burning area in Huang-Huai region. To solve this issue of time sensitivity of

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 461: Joint Test Assembly Sites and Corrective Action Unit 495: Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Smith

    1998-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan addresses the action necessary for the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit 461 (Test Area Joint Test Assembly Sites) and Corrective Action Unit 495 (Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites). The Corrective Action Units are located at the Tonopah Test Range in south central Nevada. Closure for these sites will be completed by excavating and evaluating the condition of each artillery round (if found); detonating the rounds (if necessary); excavating the impacted soil and debris; collecting verification samples; backfilling the excavations; disposing of the impacted soil and debris at an approved low-level waste repository at the Nevada Test Site

  7. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP

  8. Comparison of Near-field and Far-field Air Monitoring of Plutonium-contaminated Soils from the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Bowen; David S. Shafer

    2001-05-01

    Operation Roller Coaster, a series of nuclear material dispersal experiments, resulted in three areas (Clean Slates 1, 2, and 3) of widespread surface soil plutonium (Pu) contamination on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), located 225 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The State's Division of Environmental Protection raised concerns that dispersal of airborne Pu particles from the sites could result in undetected deposition further downwind that the background monitoring stations. Air monitoring data from different distances from the Clean Slate sites but during the same period of time were compared. From the available data, there is no indication that airborne PM10 particles are being transported to the farther distance,however, the data are statistically insufficient to conclude whether there is a difference in transport of respirable Pu particles to the closer verses the farther sites from the Clean Slate sites.

  9. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS

  10. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  11. Valoration of burned body surface; area in patients of San Vicente de Paúl University Hospital, Medellín, 2004 Evaluación de la superficie corporal quemada en pacientes del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Hoyos Franco; Nora Cecilia Jaramillo González; María Eugenia Molina Díaz; Sonia Valverde Pardo; Carolina Posso Zapata

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The estimation of the burned surface area has a huge importance for the acute management and prognosis of the burn victim It has been revised the different methods available for the assessment of the burn extent and some resuscitation basic concepts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was made based on the information took from medical records of patients from the burn unit of the San Vicente de Paul University Hospital in Medellín (Col) during 2004. The in...

  12. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR THE TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-04-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection Report provides an analysis and summary of the semi-annual inspections conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) during Calendar Year 2004. The report includes the inspection and/or repair activities completed at the following nine Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located at TTR, Nevada: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2,6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). Site inspections were conducted on July 7,2004, and November 9-10,2004. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports (CRs). The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B, with the exception of CAU 400 and CAU 423. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. In addition, post-closure inspections are not currently required at CAU 423; however, the CR is being revised to include inspection requirements. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Appendix C, the field notes are included in Appendix D, and the site photographs are included in Appendix E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2004, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F. In addition, topographic survey results of two repaired landfill cells in CAU 424 are included in Appendix G. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill, CAU 407, CAU 424, CAU 427, and CAU 487. CAU 400 repairs included mending the fence, reseeding of a flood damaged area, and

  13. Estimating Biomass Burned Areas from Multispectral Dataset Detected by Multiple-Satellite%基于多源卫星多光谱遥感数据的过火面积估算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余超; 陈良富; 李莘莘; 陶金花; 苏林

    2015-01-01

    露天生物质燃烧是重要的大气污染物排放源,导致空气质量恶化并引起气候变化。卫星遥感数据能够提供大尺度、多时相的监测信息,然而燃烧火点监测和火烧迹地监测两种方式都存在着局限性。以美国东南部地区为研究区域,通过结合卫星遥感获取的高分辨率燃烧面积数据及多时相的燃烧火点数据,建立时空匹配模型估算露天生物质燃烧过火面积。通过分析植被燃烧前后的光谱变化特征,基于高分辨率的Landsat-5 TM4波段(0.84μm)与7波段(2.22μm)数据,利用差分归一化燃烧比(dNBR:the differential normalized burn ratio)提取燃烧面积数据;而燃烧火点数据则通过分析燃烧植被的热红外光谱特征利用 MO-DIS 4与11μm 波段数据提取。结果显示,该地区燃烧面积与燃烧火点数量之间相关系数达0.63,并且二者之间的比例关系随植被类型而发生变化,林地、草地、灌木、耕地和沼泽五种植被类型对应的像元燃烧面积分别为0.69,1.27,0.86,0.72和0.94 km2。通过与美国火灾中心(national interagency fire center,NIFC)地面调查数据比对,模 型 估 算 的 美 国 东 南 部 过 火 面 积 数据 较 为 精 确,而同期的 MODIS 燃烧面积产品(MCD45)及燃烧源清单产品(global fire emissions database,GFED)遗漏了该区域大量的小面积燃烧事件。因此,本研究建立的过火面积估算模型能够提供更为精确的排放源参数信息,有利于区域空气质量模式准确地模拟露天生物质燃烧排放状况。%Biomass burning makes up an important part of both trace gases and particulate matter emissions,which can efficient-ly degrade air quality and reduce visibility,destabilize the global climate system at regional to global scales.Burned area is one of the primary parameters necessary to estimate emissions,and considered to be the

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-18

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive

  16. Calcium and ER Stress Mediate Hepatic Apoptosis after Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction post-burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis post-burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacri...

  17. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. For Calendar Year 2015, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed corrective action units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2015 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved closure reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 12, 2015. Maintenance was required at CAU 453. Cracking along the north trench was repaired. One monument is missing at CAU 424; it will be replaced in 2016. Postings at CAUs 407, 424, 453, and 487 contain contact information for TTR Security. It was noted that protocols may not be in place to ensure that the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) is notified if access is needed at these sites. NNSA/NFO is working with the U.S. Air Force and Sandia to determine whether more appropriate contact information or new protocols are warranted for each CAU. Based on these inspections, there has not been a significant change in vegetation, and vegetation monitoring was not recommended at CAU 400 or CAU 407 in 2015.

  18. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. For Calendar Year 2015, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Petrello, Jaclyn [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed corrective action units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2015 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved closure reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 12, 2015. Maintenance was required at CAU 453. Cracking along the north trench was repaired. One monument is missing at CAU 424; it will be replaced in 2016. Postings at CAUs 407, 424, 453, and 487 contain contact information for TTR Security. It was noted that protocols may not be in place to ensure that the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) is notified if access is needed at these sites. NNSA/NFO is working with the U.S. Air Force and Sandia to determine whether more appropriate contact information or new protocols are warranted for each CAU. Based on these inspections, there has not been a significant change in vegetation, and vegetation monitoring was not recommended at CAU 400 or CAU 407 in 2015.

  19. Burned Area Mapping in the North American Boreal Forest Using Terra-MODIS LTDR (2001–2011: A Comparison with the MCD45A1, MCD64A1 and BA GEOLAND-2 Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Moreno Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm based on a Bayesian network classifier was adapted to produce 10-day burned area (BA maps from the Long Term Data Record Version 3 (LTDR at a spatial resolution of 0.05° (~5 km for the North American boreal region from 2001 to 2011. The modified algorithm used the Brightness Temperature channel from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS band 31 T31 (11.03 μm instead of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR band T3 (3.75 μm. The accuracy of the BA-LTDR, the Collection 5.1 MODIS Burned Area (MCD45A1, the MODIS Collection 5.1 Direct Broadcast Monthly Burned Area (MCD64A1 and the Burned Area GEOLAND-2 (BA GEOLAND-2 products was assessed using reference data from the Alaska Fire Service (AFS and the Canadian Forest Service National Fire Database (CFSNFD. The linear regression analysis of the burned area percentages of the MCD64A1 product using 40 km × 40 km grids versus the reference data for the years from 2001 to 2011 showed an agreement of R2 = 0.84 and a slope = 0.76, while the BA-LTDR showed an agreement of R2 = 0.75 and a slope = 0.69. These results represent an improvement over the MCD45A1 product, which showed an agreement of R2 = 0.67 and a slope = 0.42. The MCD64A1, BA-LTDR and MCD45A1 products underestimated the total burned area in the study region, whereas the BA GEOLAND-2 product overestimated it by approximately five-fold, with an agreement of R2 = 0.05. Despite MCD64A1 showing the best overall results, the BA-LTDR product proved to be an alternative for mapping burned areas in the North American boreal forest region compared with the other global BA products, even those with higher spatial/spectral resolution.

  20. Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this

  1. NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2015 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.

  3. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  4. A Study of Factors involved in possible regeneration of Atlantic White Cedar in a recently burned area in the Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Historically white cedar has managed to regenerate without benefit of controlled burns and it seems that .most wild fires occur during the dry season. It was...

  5. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  6. Structural geology of the Hawthorne and Tonopah quadrangles, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, H.G.; Muller, S.W.

    1949-01-01

    The area lies in west-central Nevada near the western border of the Basin and Range province. Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks the chief subject of this report occur in isolated mountain ranges separated by stretches of Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, lacustrine deposits and alluvium. The report is concerned principally with the geology of the pre-Tertiary rocks and attempt is made to unravel the complex diastrophisni that occurred in the area during the Jurassic. 

  7. Epidemiology of major burns at the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanimé, G.; Rizkallah, N.; Said, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Burn care is one of the few areas in medicine considered both medically and surgically challenging, with burn injuries affecting people of all ages and both sexes. Between May 1992 and March 2012, 1,524 patients were admitted to the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, with an average length of stay (LOS) of 36.5 days. The most frequently encountered injuries were thermal burns, generally resulting from domestic accidents. Of our patients, 47% were from rural areas and burned body surface (BBS) w...

  8. Alcohol use and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J D; Barber, B; Engrav, L; Heimbach, D

    1991-01-01

    Charts of 108 consecutive adult patients with flame burns of 20% to 70% total body surface area were reviewed to determine the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication and the likelihood that intoxicated patients were chronic alcohol abusers, to assess morbidity and mortality in the alcoholic patient with burns, and to characterize the intervention used in postdischarge treatment of the alcoholic patient with burns who survives. Twenty-seven percent of patients were acutely intoxicated at the time of injury. Evidence for chronic alcohol abuse was apparent in 90% of intoxicated patients, compared to only 11% of nonintoxicated patients (p = 0.0001). Alcoholic patients with burns not only had an overall mortality rate three times that of nonalcoholics (p = 0.001) but also died of smaller burns (p less than 0.05). Surviving alcoholic patients with burns required significantly more intravenous antibiotics and a longer hospitalization. Social service evaluation of use of alcohol was made in 84% of the cases of surviving intoxicated burn victims. Further intervention was undertaken in two thirds of these cases, usually involving an outpatient treatment program. PMID:2050723

  9. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  10. 基于多源卫星遥感数据的森林过火区面积估算方法%Extracting Forest Burned Scar Region Area Based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟; 李亚君; 刘诚; 王萌

    2011-01-01

    森林火灾作为世界上主要自然灾害之一,严重危害森林资源,威胁人民生命财产安全,破坏自然生态环境.对森林火灾快速、准确的监测是十分重要的.森林过火面积是森林火灾最基本的描述因子,同时也是林火管理中森林火灾评估的最重要因子(易浩若等,1998;覃先林等,2008).过火区面积能反映火灾对森林植被的影响及其损失信息,评价火灾对生态环境的影响.%Forest burned scar area is an important factor for monitoring forest fire and assessing the losses. The traditional method quickly extracting burned scar area is based on satellite images with low-middle spatial resolution and cannot fully meet the need of the accuracy of assessment. This paper presents a new approach which takes advantage of high spatial resolution of CBERS/CCD and high temporal resolution of MODIS. Firstly, the vegetation coverage derived from CBERS/CCD was used to calculate NDVI with the Linear Special Mixed Model. Based on the data, the vegetation coverage data with the MODIS spatial resolution was obtained by calculating the average. Secondly, the burned scar pixels were derived by using the NDVI difference between the MODIS data before and after the forest fire. Finally the burned scar region area can be calculated based on the vegetation coverage data and the burned scar pixels. The validation, conducted in Yakeshi City in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the late of May,2006, showed that the new method enhanced the accuracy in estimating the burned scar area over the traditional one.

  11. Burns in diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical...

  12. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  13. Aetiology and Outcome of Elderly Burn Patients in Tabriz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    H. Maghsoudi; Ghaffari, A

    2009-01-01

    Background. Geriatric patients, usually defined as being 65 years of age or over, now make up about 10% of the major burn population. Main aim. To conduct a prospective study of elderly burn patients, analysing the predictive value of age, gender, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, inhalation trauma, pre-morbid conditions, and mortality. Methods. A 10-year prospective study of burn victims hospitalized in a major burn centre in Iran was conducted to analyse the association between age, pe...

  14. MORBIDITY AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN BURN PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Kraft, Robert; Nathens, Avery B.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterizing burn sizes that are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity is critical because it would allow identifying patients who might derive the greatest benefit from individualized, experimental, or innovative therapies. Although scores have been established to predict mortality, few data addressing other outcomes exist. The objective of this study was to determine burn sizes that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity after burn. Design and Patients Burn patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter prospective cohort study, Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant, with the following inclusion criteria: 0–99 years of age, admission within 96 hours after injury, and >20% total body surface area burns requiring at least one surgical intervention. Setting Six major burn centers in North America. Measurements and Main Results Burn size cutoff values were determined for mortality, burn wound infection (at least two infections), sepsis (as defined by ABA sepsis criteria), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure (DENVER2 score >3) for both children (<16 years) and adults (16–65 years). Five-hundred seventy-three patients were enrolled, of which 226 patients were children. Twenty-three patients were older than 65 years and were excluded from the cutoff analysis. In children, the cutoff burn size for mortality, sepsis, infection, and multiple organ failure was approximately 60% total body surface area burned. In adults, the cutoff for these outcomes was lower, at approximately 40% total body surface area burned. Conclusions In the modern burn care setting, adults with over 40% total body surface area burned and children with over 60% total body surface area burned are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, even in highly specialized centers. PMID:25559438

  15. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-01-01

    A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. ...

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 409 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1; TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2; and RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site. The Septic Sludge Disposal Pits are located near Bunker Two, close to Area 3, on the Tonopah Test Range. The Battery Dump Site is located at the abandoned Cactus Repeater Station on Cactus Peak. The Cactus Repeater Station was a remote, battery-powered, signal repeater station. The two Septic Sludge Disposal Pits were suspected to be used through the late 1980s as disposal sites for sludge from septic tanks located in Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern are the same for the disposal pits and include: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and radionuclides (including plutonium and depleted uranium). The Battery Dump Site consists of discarded lead-acid batteries and associated construction debris, placing the site in a Housekeeping Category and, consequently, no contaminants are expected to be encountered during the cleanup process. The corrective action the at this CAU will include collection of discarded batteries and construction debris at the Battery Dump Site for proper disposal and recycling, along with photographic documentation as the process progresses. The corrective action for the remaining CASs involves the collection of background radiological data through borings drilled at

  17. Cheiloplasty in Post-burn Deformed Lips

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeldeen, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The lip is a part of the face that is frequently affected by burn injury. Post-burn scar sequelae in this area often result in cosmetic disfigurement and psychological upsets in patients, especially young adult females. A burn destroys the aesthetic features and lines of the lip. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the face has a long history. Many local and regional flaps have been used for reconstruction of surgical or traumatic defects. Procedures to enhance the cosmetic features of the ...

  18. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  19. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  20. The Correlation Between the Burning Features, the Burning Agent and Motivation in Burn Victims Attending Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran During 2009: letter to Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning is one of the commonest causes of death. Due to the high rate of death among burn victims epidemiological investigation of burning, burning agents and the relevant motivations can be of great preventive value.1 In this cross-sectional study all the hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital at Tehran city in the year 2009 were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 17 software. Out of the 1548 hospitalized patients for burn, 1134 (73.3% left hospital in good conditions, 47 (3% left in relatively good conditions, 289 (18.7% died and 78 (5% persons left the Hospital satisfactorily on their own volition. About two-thirds of the patients were men. The mean age of the burn victims was 27.9±18.3 years, 16% of them being 5 years old or younger. The highest percentage of burn area was 30% of the total body surface which was seen in 20 to 30-year old patients. 58.7% of burns had been caused by fire. 94% of the burns had happened accidentally, 5% by suicidal and 1% by homicidal acts. The highest percentage of burn was observed in patients in whom the burn agent was fire. Six (4% persons had first degree, 820 (53% persons had second degree and 722 (46.6% had third degree burns. In patients who had committed suicide third degree burns were higher than second degree burns (7.7% vs. 2%. 24.4% of women and 16.6% of men died due to the burns. The rate of death in patients less than 50 years of age was 18% but the figure increased to 24% in those above 50. A burn area less than or more than 10% was, respectively correlated with 2.1% and 22.1% of deaths. 34.8% of the patients with third degree burns and 4.6% of those with second and first degree burns died. 58.3% of the suicidal patient died due to the severity of the burns relative to 16.7% due to other causes. 89 (5.7% patients had respiratory tract burns and the death rate was 58.4% among these patients while the death rate was 16.2% in patients without

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision No.:0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted uranium

  2. Effect of 15 N-urea rates on the rates on the accumulation of nitrogen by the sugarcane-plant in cane field renovation areas picked with and without burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this work was the evaluation of the nitrogen accumulated in the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), the contribution and the recovery of the fertilizer by the culture, both calculated by the isotopic technique . The experiment was conducted in 220-liter vase and in a open atmosphere. A randomized block design was performed with 2x4-factorial treatment arrangements with three replications. The factors were: 1) differentiated addition of two amounts of cultural wastes to the soil, equivalent to 13.2 and 19.5 t ha -1 of dry material, simulating cane-field renovation conditions in areas picked with or without burning (CQ and SQ); 2) four N-urea rates (10.082% in 15 N-atoms), equivalent to 0; 30; 60; 90 kg ha -1 . The analysis of variance of the results showed that there were no significant differences between CQ and SQ treatments. Out of the total accumulated N in the plant, an average of 20.55% was stored in the stalks; 19% in the apexes; 27% in the root system, and 33% in dry leaves. Therefore, around 80% of the nitrogen would remain in the area after the harvest without burning, which represents 40% more in relationship with the areas with burning. The accumulation of N in the root system was 70% higher in the larger rate in relation to the zero rate, being this amount a potential N source for the following cycle. Out of the total accumulated nitrogen 7 and 16% originated from the fertilizer, in function of the N-urea rates, with the use efficiency by the culture equivalent to 54%, regardless of the treatment

  3. A clarion to recommit and reaffirm burn rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Reginald L; Hedman, Travis L; Quick, Charles D; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Renz, Evan M; Chapman, Ted T; Dewey, William S; Dougherty, Mary E; Esselman, Peter C; Forbes-Duchart, Lisa; Franzen, Beth J; Hunter, Hope; Kowalske, Karen; Moore, Merilyn L; Nakamura, Dana Y; Nedelec, Bernedette; Niszczak, Jon; Parry, Ingrid; Serghiou, Michael; Ward, R Scott; Holcomb, John B; Wolf, Steven E

    2008-01-01

    Burn rehabilitation has been a part of burn care and treatment for many years. Yet, despite of its longevity, the rehabilitation outcome of patients with severe burns is less than optimal and appears to have leveled off. Patient survival from burn injury is at an all-time high. Burn rehabilitation must progress to the point where physical outcomes parallel survival statistics in terms of improved patient well-being. This position article is a treatise on burn rehabilitation and the state of burn rehabilitation patient outcomes. It describes burn rehabilitation interventions in brief and why a need is felt to bring this issue to the forefront. The article discusses areas for change and the challenges facing burn rehabilitation. Finally, the relegation and acceptance of this responsibility are addressed. PMID:18388581

  4. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Treating and Preventing Burns Page Content Article Body Burns ... home, out of children’s reach, and away from heat or ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your ...

  5. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and tend to be more severe and cover a larger portion of the body than other scald burns. 9 10 11 A survey found that only 8 percent of adults felt ...

  6. Predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months post-burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondronikola, Maria; Meyer, Walter J.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Ojeda, Sylvia; Huddleston, Joanna; Stevens, Pamela; Børsheim, Elisabet; Suman, Oscar E.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injury is a dramatic event with acute and chronic consequences including insulin resistance. However, factors associated with insulin resistance have not been previously investigated. Purpose To identify factors associated with long-term insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Methods The study sample consisted of 61 pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months after the burn injury, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. To assess insulin resistance, we calculated the area under the curve for glucose and insulin. The diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association were used to define individuals with impaired glucose metabolism. Additional data collected include body composition, anthropometric measurements, burn characteristics and demographic information. The data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Approximately 12% of the patients met the criteria for impaired glucose metabolism. After adjusting for possible confounders, burn size, age and percent body fat were associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for all). Time post-burn and lean mass were inversely associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for both). Similarly, older age predicted higher insulin area under the curve. Conclusion A significant proportion of pediatric injury survivors suffer from glucose abnormalities 24–36 months post-burn. Burn size, time post-burn, age, lean mass and adiposity are significant predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Clinical evaluation and screening for abnormal glucose metabolism should be emphasized in patients with large burns, older age and survivors with high body fat. PMID:24918945

  7. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  8. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  9. 红池坝炼山后生态恢复过程中群落特征研究%Community characteristics in Hongchiba area of Wuxi County during ecological restoration after controlled burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丙辉; 郝云庆; 李旭光; 韩晨霞; 陈昌沛; 郑国词

    2004-01-01

    This paper studied the species composition and the structure and species diversity of communities in Hongchiba area of Wuxi County after controlled burning and aerial-sowing afforestation. The results showed that after buming and afforestation, pure Pinus armandii forest was not developed, but various mixed needle board-leaved forests which comprised P. armandii and native board-leaved trees grew. Various native species contributed to the communities with great species diversity. Shannon-Wiener index was 2.305~3.145, ecological dominance was 0.063~0.151, and evenness was 0.600~0.749. The natural regeneration of P. armandii population was very poor, and there was a trend that P. armandii would be gradually replaced by other native board-leaved trees. It was demonstrated that P. armandii should not be taken as a unique afforesr tree, and controlled burning was not a favorite ecological measure in subtropical area. Native trees should play more important roles in the process of ecological restoration.

  10. From Cholera to Burns: A Role for Oral Rehydration Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, S. M.; Green, W.B.; Asuku, M.E.; M. Feldman; Makam, R.; Noppenberger, D; Price, L A; Prosciak, M.; van Loon, I.N.

    2011-01-01

    According to the practice guidelines of the American Burn Association on burn shock resuscitation, intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is the standard of care for the replacement of fluid and electrolyte losses in burn injury of ≥20% of the total body surface area. However, in mass burn casualties, IV fluid resuscitation may be delayed or unavailable. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), which has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of dehydration in epidemics of cholera, could be an alt...

  11. Status of endangered and threatened plant species on Tonopah Test Range: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six species under consideration by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) for endangered or threatened status were found on or near the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in southern central Nevada. Based on recognized threats to these species, their overall distribution, rarity, and other factors, status recommendations were prepared for Sandia Corporation. In addition, ten species that occur in the vicinity of TTR, and which may yet be found on TTR, are discussed in brief. Each species is discussed in relation to distribution, rarity, taxonomy, habitat requirements, endangerment, assessment of status, and proposed protection and monitoring needs. Construction activities and off-road vehicle travel are the most prominent man-caused threats to species on TTR; habitat destruction by trampling and over-grazing by feral horses and non-permit cattle significantly modifies habitats of certain species. We recommend two kinds of protective measures. First is the planning of activities so that habitats, particularly the suggested protected habitats, are not disturbed. Second, and directed to the same end, off-road traffic should be curtailed in the regions of the proposed protected habitats

  12. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  13. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b)

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave D. Madsen

    1998-08-08

    This closure report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range,approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol) (DOE, 1996). The remedial alternative proposed Nevada Division of Environmental Protection proposed the capping method. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the ar ea of the trenches, constructing/planning a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a post-closure monitoring plan. Closure activities for CAU 426 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan as documented in this Closure Report.

  15. 辽沈地区486例化学烧伤患者流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of 486 patients with chemical burns in Shenyang area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金录; 甄玉文

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogenic and clinical characteristics of chemical burns in Shenyang area in recent years, so as to provide reference for its prevention and treatment. Methods Fourteen fire brigate hospitals in Shenyang area was involved in our research. All in-hospital patients with burns from January 2004 to December 2013 was investigated and retrospectively ana-lyzed including the general condition,injury cause,body site of wound,injury-causing chemicals and clinical treatment. The data of age distribution and onset time of injury were processed with chi-square test. Results Among the 486 patients with chemical burns, male was 314 cases(64. 6%)and female was 172 cases(35. 4%). The age of the patients ranged from 7 to 62 years with a mean age of 36. 4 years old. The total wounded area was 1%-44%(12% ± 31%)TBSA and with the three degree area 0-24%(7. 4% ± 11. 3%)TBSA. There was no statistically significant in the number of patients with chemical burns in different years. The chemical burns mainly occurred in the months of June,July and August. The main injury-causing chemicals were acid,alkali,pitch and hot multiple chemical liquid. Among them,the acid accounted for the 53%(258 patients),the alkali for 28%(136 patients)and other chemicals for 19%(92 patients). Most of the injury occurred in the working place(82%,398 patients)and others occurred in the living place(13%,64 patients),and man-made injury(3%,14 patients). The main wound positions of the chemical burns on the body were the face and neck regions and hands,where often uncovered. Of the 486 chemical burned patients,234 times of different operations like skin graft and skin flap transplantation was performed on 176 patients. Conclusion The number of patients with chemical burns accounted for an even proportion of the total burned patients(19. 2%) in recent years. The patients mainly injured while working.%目的:了解本地区近10年化学烧伤发病特点及临床治疗情况,为做

  16. The use of wood burning cook stove in rural areas of Piaui-Brazil: a case study; O uso do fogao a lenha no semi-arido piauiense: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Albemerc Moura de; Martins, Gilberto; Trigoso, Federico B. Morante [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas

    2008-07-01

    The use of wood burning cook stoves is an ancient practice, still used nowadays, mainly in the rural areas of the developing countries. Despite its widespread use by millions of people around of the world, little attention has being paid to its study. In Piaui this reality is not different, since thousands of locals use this equipment as their main instrument for the preparation of their meals. The present article has the objective to study the use of wood stove in rural areas of Piaui. A questionnaire has been applied to ten homes in two villages, which permitted to obtain the main characteristics of the equipment used as well as the habits and wood consumption patterns. (author)

  17. Burn wound coverage and burn wound closure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konigová, R.; Matoušková, Eva; Brož, L.

    2000. s. 9. [International Symposium and Course on Burns and Fire Desaster Management. Jerusalem Meeting /3./. 13.02.2000-16.02.2000, Jerusalem] R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ4368 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2014 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  20. Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414

  1. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

  2. Perineal Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh AEmmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Perineal burns are not common in childhood but when they occur, they can produce severe complications. Conservative management by open wound care and topical agents is effective in most cases. However, in deep burns and when control of infection proves problematic, diverting colostomy may be necessary to control infection and achieve wound healing and graft take. Burns wound excision and skin grafting may be required in such cases. Contractures of various forms may develop and require plastic...

  3. Burn-Center Quality Improvement: Are Burn Outcomes Dependent On Admitting Facilities and Is There a Volume-Outcome “Sweet-Spot”?

    OpenAIRE

    Hranjec, Tjasa; TURRENTINE, FLORENCE E.; STUKENBORG, GEORGE; Young, Jeffrey S; Sawyer, Robert G.; Calland, James F

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors of mortality in burn patients such as inhalation injury, patient age, and percent of total body surface area (%TBSA) burned have been identified in previous publications. However, little is known about the variability of mortality outcomes between burn centers and whether the admitting facilities or facility volumes can be recognized as predictors of mortality. De-identified data from 87,665 acute burn observations obtained from the National Burn Repository between 2003 and 2007 ...

  4. Etiology of Burn Injuries Among 0-6 Aged Children in One University Hospital Burn Unit, Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Akansel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background; Children whose verbal communications are not fully developed are the ones at risk for burn injuries. Causes of burn injuries vary among different age groups and scald injuries are the common cause of burn injuries among children. The majority of burns result from contact with thermal agents such as flame, hot surfaces, or hot liquids.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine etiologic factors of the burn injured children Methods: Data were collected for burn injured children treated in Uludag University Medical Hospital Burn Unit between January 2001 – December 2008. Patients’ demographic variables, etiology of burn injury, TBSA(total body surface area, degree of the burn injury, duration of hospitalization was detected from medical records of the hospitalized patients.Results: The mean age of the children was 2.5±1.5 (median=2. Although 4.6 % of burned patients were under one year of age, most of the children (67.8% were between 1-3 years. All of the patients were burned as a result of accident and house environment was the place where the burn incident occurred. Burn injuries occurredmostly during summer (29.9% and spring (28.7%. Scald injuries (75.3% were mostly seen burn injury types all among other burn injuries.Conclusions: Lack of supervision and observation are usually the most common causes of burn injuries in children. Statistical differences were found among age groups according to their burn etiology (p<0.05. An effect of TBSA on patient survival was statistically significant (p<0.000 and also statistically significant results were seen among age groups according to their TBSA’s (p<0.005.

  5. Cost-efficacy of cultured epidermal autografts in massive pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Wolf, SE; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of cultured epidermal autografts (CEA) for closure of burn wounds in pediatric burn patients with full-thickness burns of more than 90% total body surface area. Summary Background Data Paucity of donor sites in massive burns makes the use of expanded skin of paramoun

  6. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries. PMID:27211360

  7. RECOVER - An Automated Burned Area Emergency Response Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Management of Savanna Ecosystems in the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Gill, R.; Haskett, G.; Gardner, T.

    2013-12-01

    In partnership with the Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Idaho Department of Lands (IDL), we are building and evaluating the RECOVER decision support system. RECOVER - which stands for Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery - is an automatically deployable, context-aware decision support system for savanna wildfires that brings together in a single application the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making and long-term ecosystem monitoring. RECOVER uses state-of-the-art cloud-based data management technologies to improve performance, reduce cost, and provide site-specific flexibility for each fire. The RECOVER Server uses Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) data grid technology deployed in the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). The RECOVER Client is an Adobe Flex web map application that is able to provide a suite of convenient GIS analytical capabilities. In a typical use scenario, the RECOVER Server is provided a wildfire name and geospatial extent. The Server then automatically gathers Earth observational data and other relevant products from various geographically distributed data sources. The Server creates a database in the cloud where all relevant information about the wildfire is stored. This information is made available to the RECOVER Client and ultimately to fire managers through their choice of web browser. The Server refreshes the data throughout the burn and subsequent recovery period (3-5 years) with each refresh requiring two minutes to complete. Since remediation plans must be completed within 14 days of a fire's containment, RECOVER has the potential to significantly improve the decision-making process. RECOVER adds an important new dimension to post-fire decision-making by focusing on ecosystem rehabilitation in semiarid savannas. A novel aspect of RECOVER's approach involves the use of soil moisture estimates, which are an important but difficult

  8. Estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented pertinent to the contamination of vegetation by plutonium and other radionuclides in aged fallout areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The standing biomass of vegetation estimated by nondestructive dimensional methods varied from about 200 to 600 g/m2 for the different fallout areas. Estimated inventories of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, and 235U in plants and their biological effects are discussed

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, June 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-06-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located near Area 3 on the TTR approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 409 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site; CAS TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1); CAS TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2). This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 409. The CADD/CR have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed in November 2000. Analysis of the data generated from these investigation activities indicates preliminary action levels were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, TCLP semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (except arsenic), TCLP RCRA metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, isotopic uranium, and gamma-emitting radionuclides (except thorium-234) for any of the soil samples collected. Concentrations of arsenic were detected above the preliminary action level in all samples; however, the concentrations are considered representative of ambient conditions at the site. Thorium-234 was tentatively identified in one sample; however, the concentration is considered no greater than background. The NNSA/NV's final determination is that CAU 409 shows no evidence

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1997-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

  11. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The...

  12. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  13. Intake of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Gothankar, S; Iongwai, P S; Kharbuli, B; War, S A; Puranik, V D

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides ²³²Th, ²³⁸U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6-15.5 and 2.0-5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th were 2.0 μg d⁻¹ (25 mBq d⁻¹) and 3.4 μg d⁻¹ (14 mBq d⁻¹) is comparable with reported range 0.5-5.0 μg d⁻¹ and 0.15-3.5 μg d⁻¹ respectively for the Asian population. PMID:22036151

  14. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  15. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons. PMID:27088728

  16. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  17. Treatment of burn injuries with keratinocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Institute for Cell and Tissue Replacement (DIZG) provides burned patients with skin and amnion for a temporary wound closure. Severely burned patients (>60% BSA for adults, >40% BSA for children) were supplied with autologous and allogenic grafts from cultured keratinocytes. The keratinocyte culture is done under GMP-conditions using the method of Rheinwald and Green. The 3T3 fibroblasts were irradiated with 60 Gy and used as feeder cells to produce keratinocyte sheets within 3 weeks. In this time up to 6.000 cm are available. The sheets were harvested by detachment with dispase (1,2 U/ml), fixed to gauze and transported to the hospital. The DIZG has a 3 years experience in the treatment of burns with keratinocyte sheets. The sheets were transplanted to patients in different hospitals, the total transplanted area is about 30.000 cm. This paper describes the experiences with ten severely burned patients treated with keratinocyte sheet

  18. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  19. Prescribed Burning Plan for 1985 : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1985 prescribed burning plan for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Treatment Area #3 is the area consisting of the fresh water marsh inside the...

  20. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : FY 1989 Prescribed Burning Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area to be burned is the Stage Island Pool, a freshwater impoundment of approximately 100 acres. The area has a large amount of edge interspersed with several...

  1. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  2. A Burning Question

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ As heaping piles of garbage grow in cities and communities across China,a divide has formed over two possible solutions to this smelly problem: Should excessive mounds of trash be burned,or should it be buried?

  3. Advances in burn treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoda, LU; Vogt, PM

    2006-01-01

    The German-speaking burn specialist, organized in the DAV (Deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Verbrennungsmedizin) held their yearly meeting in 2004 in Rottach-Egern, Bavaria. Participants from Switzerland, Germany and Austria found a high standing, very well organized and thorough program summoned by the host, Dr. Guido Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck, Munich. The topics consisted of reconstructive surgery, skin substitutes and replacement, advances in burn medicine over the last 10 years and bu...

  4. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Jimson; Rajesh, E.; R Jayasri Krupaa; M. Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and met...

  5. Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories/NM, Tonopah Test Range environs, 1994-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deola, Regina Anne; Oldewage, Hans D.; Herrera, Heidi M.; Miller, Mark Laverne

    2006-05-01

    From 1994 through 2005, the Environmental Management Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), NV, has collected soil samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for the purpose of determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at TTR. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory of metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were increasing or decreasing trends which indicated that further investigation may be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Management Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

  6. A Partnership in Burn Care Education - Nepal and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar, D.; Tonkin, C.; T. Baker; Goodwin-Walters, A.; Wood, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes some of the issues related to an education partnership which has been developed over the last four years between the Royal Perth Hospital Burn Team in Australia and the Bir Hospital Burn Team in Kathmandu, Nepal. The paper provides an insight into the preparation and collaboration required from both teams and describes some practical ideas to assist those who may be considering educating others in a developing burn service outside their catchment area.

  7. Banco de sementes de plantas daninhas e sua correlação com a flora estabelecida no agroecossistema cana-crua Weed seedbank and its correlation with the established flora in no-burn sugarcane area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kuva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da composição específica do banco de sementes de plantas daninhas e a sua correlação com a flora estabelecida são importantes para nortear o manejo a ser adotado e a escolha dos herbicidas. A colheita mecanizada de cana-de-açúcar acarretou mudanças significativas na composição da flora infestante, quando proporcionou a manutenção de uma camada de palha, reduziu a movimentação do solo e dispensou a prática da queimada. Foram realizados levantamentos do banco de sementes e da flora de plantas daninhas que se estabeleceu em 28 talhões colhidos mecanicamente, sem queima prévia da palha. Com base nos dados de banco de sementes, efetuaram-se estudos fitossociológicos e de correlação entre a composição do banco de sementes e a flora emergida. As principais espécies presentes no banco de sementes foram as pertencentes à classe das dicotiledôneas anuais, com destaque para Amaranthus spp. e diversas espécies de Euphorbiaceae e Convolvulaceae. As sementes de gramíneas tradicionais da cultura tiveram pouca participação. O banco de sementes apresentou correlação não-significativa com a flora emergente, independentemente da época de colheita do talhão, da metodologia de quantificação do banco de sementes e das espécies de plantas daninhas.To set suitable weed management programs, one the most important parameters is knowing the specific composition of the seedbank and its correlation with the established flora. Such information is fundamental to guide the control strategy to be adopted and the herbicide choices. Mechanical harvest of no-burn sugar-cane maintaining a layer of straw on the soil surface promoted important changes in weed seed germination and seedling survival. Lack of soil mobilization and the lack of sugarcane burning are two additional factors influencing weed flora composition and population densities. Field sampling was conducted in twenty-eight no-burn sugarcane areas to evaluate (i

  8. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

  9. Influence of educational status, burn area and coping behaviors on the complication of psychological disorders in severely burned patients%教育程度与烧伤面积及应对行为对重度烧伤患者并发心理障碍的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程华; 李孝建; 曹雯娟; 陈丽映; 张志; 刘志河; 易先锋; 赖文

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss how the educational status,burn area and coping behaviors influence the psychological disorders in severely burned patients.Methods Sixty-four severely burned patients hospitalized in Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital,Guangdong Provincial Work Injury Rehabilitation Center,and Guangdong General Hospital were enrolled with cluster random sampling method.Data of their demography and situation of burns were collected.Then their coping behavior,psychological disorders including anxiety,depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) plus its core symptoms of flashback,avoidance,and hypervigilance were assessed by medical coping modes questionnaire,self-rating anxiety scale (SAS),self-rating depression scale (SDS),PTSD checklist-civilian version (PCL-C) respectively.Correlation was analyzed between demography,burn area,coping behavior and psychological disorders.The predictive powers of educational status,burn area and coping behaviors on the psychological disorders were analyzed.The qualitative variables were assigned values.Data were processed with t test,Spearman rank correlation analysis,and multiple linear regression analysis.Results (1) The patients scored (19.0 ± 3.4) points in confrontation coping behavior,which showed no statistically significant difference from the domestic norm score (19.5 ±3.8) points (t =-1.13,P >0.05).The patients scored (16.6 ±2.4) and (11.0 ±2.2) points in avoidance and resignation coping behaviors,which were significantly higher than the domestic norm score (14.4 ± 3.0),(8.8 ± 3.2) points (with t values respectively 7.06 and 7.76,P values both below 0.01).The patients' standard score of SAS,SDS,PCL-C were (50 ± 11),(54 ± 11),and (38 ± 12)points.Respectively 89.1% (57/64),60.9% (39/64),46.9% (30/64) of the patients showed anxiety,depression,and PTSD symptoms.(2) Four independent variables:age,gender,marital status,and time after burns,were correlated with the psychological disorders,but the

  10. Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

  11. Transdermal fluid loss in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The skin protects against fluid and electrolyte loss. Burn injury does affect skin integrity and protection against fluid loss is lost. Thus, a systemic dehydration can be provoked by underestimation of fluid loss through burn wounds. Purpose: We wanted to quantify transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds. Method: Retrospective study. 40 patients admitted to a specialized burn unit were analyzed and separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Means of daily infusion-diuresis-ratio (IDR and the relationship to totally burned surface area (TBSA were analyzed. Results: In Group A 25 patients with a mean age of 47±18 years, a mean TBSA of 23±11%, and a mean abbreviated burned severity index (ABSI score of 6.9±2.1 were summarized. In Group B 15 patients with a mean age of 47±22 years, a mean TBSA of 30±13%, and a mean ABSI score of 8.1±1.7 were included. Statistical analysis of the period from day 3 to day 6 showed a significant higher daily IDR-amount in Group A (Group A vs. Group B: 786±1029 ml vs. –181±1021 ml; p<0.001 and for daily IDR-TBSA-ratio (Group A vs. Group B: 40±41 ml/% vs. –4±36 ml/%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is a systemic relevant transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds after severe burn injury. Serum sodium concentration can be used to calculate need of fluid resuscitation for fluid maintenance. There is a need of an established fluid removal strategy to avoid water and electrolyte imbalances.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nickel and vanadium in air dust from Bahrein (Persian Gulf): Measurements and Puff model calculations for this area during the burning of the oil wells in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Kuwait's oil wells were at fire in 1991, air particulate matter (inhalable fraction) was sampled in Bahrain (soot clouds were over that region at that time) and analysed for PAHs, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V). Also in that period Puff-model calculations were carried out to forecast the dispersion of the combustion products and the impact on the environment in the Persian Gulf region. Based on the outcome of the model calculations and the analytical findings the major conclusions are that: (a) the PAH contamination level of the air particulate matter is equal or below that found for rural areas in the Netherlands and on average one order of magnitude below the findings of the model calculations; (b) there is no link between the air particulate matter content and the PAH contamination measured. The benzo(a)pyrene fraction of the PAH contamination is 10-14% which is surprisingly constant; (c) the strongly significant correlation between the Ni- and V-content both mutually and with respect to the air particulate matter content strongly suggests a common origin i.e. the burning oil wells in Kuwait; (d) the air particulate matter content measured is one up to two orders of magnitudes over the findings of the model calculations; (e) the emission factors applied in the Puff-model calculations, most probably, insufficiently match the combustion conditions of oil wells at fire. 6 figs., 3 tabs.,

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 487: Thunderwell Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, January 2001); TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 487, Thunderwell Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 487 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS), RG 26-001-RGRV, Thunderwell Site. The site is located in the northwest portion of the TTR, Nevada, approximately five miles northwest of the Area 3 Control Point and closest to the Cactus Flats broad basin. Historically, Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico used CAU 487 in the early to mid-1960s for a series of high explosive tests detonated at the bottom of large cylindrical steel tubes. Historical photographs indicate that debris from these tests and subsequent operations may have been scattered and buried throughout the site. A March 2000 walk-over survey and a July 2000 geophysical survey indicated evidence of buried and surface debris in dirt mounds and areas throughout the site; however, a radiological drive-over survey also performed in July 2000 indicated that no radiological hazards were identified at this site. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to resolve the problem statement identified during the Data Quality Objectives process that detonation activities at this CAU site may have resulted in the release of contaminants of concern into the surface/subsurface soil including total volatile and total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, radionuclides, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and high explosives. Therefore, the scope of corrective action field investigation will involve excavation, drilling, and extensive soil sampling and analysis activities to determine the extent (if any) of both the lateral and vertical contamination and whether

  14. Burn wound: Pathophysiology and its management by herbal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In human body, wound healing is a normal biological phenomenon. Burns may be acute or chronic depending upon the source and its time of exposure. Burn wounds may be superficial, partial or full thickness wounds. When skin comes in contact with higher temperature, protein denaturation takes place due to which the plasma membrane integrity is lost. When skin is burned, a number of inflammatory mediators and releasing agents such as histamine, nitric oxide, oxygen free radicals, eicosanoid products, tumor necrosis factors, and interleukins etc., are released at the site. For wound healing mechanism, the keratinocytes has to move from uninjured site to the burned area. For deeper burns this process takes a long time. By some unknown mechanisms, burn wounds may convert from one form to another form. So burn wound depth must be accurately measured before starting the treatment to prevent the complications. Burns can be induced in experimental animals by using different models. Many treatments such as herbal drugs, topical agents, gene therapy, volume therapy, and rehabilitation can be employed. This review article mainly deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of burn wound healing. Some burn wound healing plants with their chemical constituents, plant part used, uses and animal models are described here.

  15. Epidemiologic study of scald burns in victims in Tehran burn hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Damages caused by scald burns are common and can cause severe complications and death. The purpose of this study was to define risk groups and then methods of prevention and treatment is designed to fit. Methods: Data for this retrospective study of hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran from 2007-2011 were compiled. Data including age, sex, cause of burn, and degree of burn and ultimate fate of the victims were collected from scald burns. Burns caused by boiling water and hot food (Scald , in two age groups : 12 and under 12 years ( children and more than 12 years ( adults were compared in terms of statistics . Results: A total of 1150 patients consisting of males (57.9% and females (42.1% were studied. The most common age was 1 year old and 50% of patients were under 3 years of age. 87.9% burned with boiling water and 12.1% had experienced burns with hot food. Incentive to burn was 0.3% cross burning and 99.7% incident. A maximum number of burns in children 12 years and younger males (42.1% and a minimum number in men over 12 years (15.7% were observed. Mean percentage of burns was 11% in over 12 years group and 30.9% in 12 and under 12 years group. The average hospital stay was 11.4 days and the mortality rate was 4.8%. The final status of the patients was as fallows: full recovery 904 cases (78.6%, partial recovery 134 (11.7%, clearance with personal consent 41 (3.6%, death 55 (4.8% and 16 cases (3.1% were among other reasons. Conclusion: In general it can be said, scald burns incidence in individuals aged 12 and younger were more than the older ones and the mean of burns was lower in individuals with over 12 years old. There was a sexual preference for males under 12 years. Mortality rate in the two groups has not any statistically significant difference. There was no statistically significant association between sex and mortality rate. Some of our findings are depending on cultural, social and economic

  16. [Risk factors for development of hypomagnesemia in the burned patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Vega, Héctor César; Romero-Aviña, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Salgado, Jorge Eduardo; Silva-Díaz, Teresita; Ramos-Durón, Luis Ernesto; Carrera-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2004-01-01

    Electrolyte abnormalities are common in the severely burned patient. There is little information with regard to the frequency and magnitude of hypomagnesemia, as well as on risk factors for this condition. We performed an observational, retrospective analysis of 35 burned patients treated at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service at the Hospital Central Sur PEMEX, Mexico City. We determined serum magnesium behavior and divided patients into two groups: the first included 11 patients with burns and hypomagnesemia, and the second, 24 patients with burns but without hypomagnesemia. Risk factor identification was performed. We found patient at risk was the one with more than 40% of 2nd or 3rd degree total burned body area, in day 4 or 10 after the burn, and with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or both, and without intravenous (i.v.) supplementation of magnesium. The best way to prevent or avoid major complications is to identify the high-risk patient, or to diagnose earlier. PMID:15633562

  17. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  18. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  19. BURN SIZE AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Williams, Felicia N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient survival following severe burn injury is largely determined by burn size. Modern developments in burn care have tremendously improved survival and outcomes. However, no large analysis on outcomes in pediatric burn patients with current treatment regimen exists. This study was designed to identify the burn size presently associated with significant increases in morbidity and mortality in pediatric burn patients. Methods Single center prospective observational cohort study utilizing the clinical data of severely burned pediatric patients admitted between 1998 and 2009. This study included 952 severely burned pediatric patients with burns over at least 30% of their total body surface area (TBSA). Patients were stratified by burn size in 10% increments, ranging from 30 to 100%, with a secondary assignment made according to the outcome of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test, χ2 test, logistic regression and ROC analysis, as appropriate, with significance set at p<0.05. Findings All groups were comparable in age (age in years: 30–39: 6.1±5.1, 40–49: 7.1±5.2, 50–59: 7.6±5.1, 60–69: 7.2±5.1, 70–79: 8.3±5.9, 80–89: 8.4±5.6, 90–100: 9.6±5.4), and gender distribution (male: 30–39: 68%, 40–49: 64%, 50–59: 65%, 60–69: 59%, 70–79: 71%, 80–89: 62%, 90–100: 82%). Mortality (30–39: 3%, 40–49: 3%, 50–59: 7%, 60–69: 16%, 70–79: 22%, 80–89: 35%, 90–100: 55%), multi-organ failure (30–39: 6%, 40–49: 6%, 50–59: 12%, 60–69: 27%, 70–79: 29%, 80–89: 44%, 90–100: 45%), and sepsis (30–39: 2%, 40–49: 5%, 50–59: 6%, 60–69: 15%, 70–79: 13%, 80–89: 22%, 90–100: 26%), increased significantly (p<0.001) among the groups and at a threshold of 62% TBSA. Comparison of patients with burns larger than 62% with those smaller showed significant differences in inflammatory (Cytokines), acute phase (CRP) and hypermetabolic responses (REE

  20. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup Çil; Hamza Yıldız; Özlem Karabudak Abuaf

    2012-01-01

    Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7)

  1. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  2. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  3. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  4. Management of acute burns and burn shock resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faldmo, L; Kravitz, M

    1993-05-01

    Initial management of minor and moderate, uncomplicated burn injury focuses on wound management and patient comfort. Initial management of patients with major burn injury requires airway support, fluid resuscitation for burn shock, treatment for associated trauma and preexisting medical conditions, management of adynamic ileus, and initial wound treatment. Fluid resuscitation, based on assessment of the extent and depth of burn injury, requires administration of intravenous fluids using resuscitation formula guidelines for the initial 24 hours after injury. Inhalation injury complicates flame burns and increases morbidity and mortality. Electrical injury places patients at risk for cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria. Circumferential full-thickness burns to extremities compromise circulation and require escharotomy or fasciotomy. Circumferential torso burns compromise air exchange and cardiac return. Loss of skin function places patients at risk for hypothermia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and systemic sepsis. The first 24 hours after burn injury require aggressive medical management to assure survival and minimize complications. PMID:8489882

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted

  6. [Inherit enterprising spirit of burn discipline and meet the new challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y H

    2016-01-01

    Burn is a common trauma in peace time and war. Burn care was not designated as a specific discipline but a subspecialty of general surgery in China until the 1950s. In 1958, along with the development of metallurgical industry in China, the number of burn patients was increased remarkably, followed by establishment of modern burn departments. A steel worker sustaining a burn injury with size of 89% total burn surface area (TBSA) and full-thickness wound size of 23% TBSA was successfully cured by burn experts of Shanghai Guangci Hospital (renamed Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to the School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiao Tong University). This was considered as a miracle in the history of burn treatment in the world. Thenceforth a number of burn patients with size over 80% TBSA were saved in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Xi'an, and other cities. However, with rapid advances in burn treatment, it was soon recognized that one should fully grasp the science of the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. To fulfill these demands, specialists devoted themselves to the study of basic problems, and they made significant and valuable contributions to the knowledge concerning basic problems in burn injury, followed by significant improvements in burn care. In the meantime, Chinese Burn Association and Chinese Journal of Burns were inaugurated. An overall strategy for treatment of severe burn patients with Chinese characteristics was established. However, it is also important to inherit traditional ideologies, namely"morality, diligence, excellence, and creativity". PMID:27426063

  7. Control of a burning tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, R.E.; Mandrekas, J.; Stacey, W.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report is a review of the literature relevant to the control of the thermonuclear burn in a tokamak plasma. Some basic tokamak phenomena are reviewed, and then control by modulation of auxiliary heating and fueling is discussed. Other possible control methods such as magnetic ripple, plasma compression, and impurity injection as well as more recent proposed methods such as divertor biasing and L- to H-mode transition are also reviewed. The applications of modern control theory to the tokamak burn control problem are presented. The control results are summarized and areas of further research are identified.

  8. Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents. After a severe burn, the injured person is weakened by a risk of infection and a general inflammation. The necrotic tissues have to be removed because they are toxic for the organism. The injured person also needs to be covered by a cutaneous envelope, which has to be done by a treatment centre for burned people. The different techniques are the following: - auto grafts on limited burned areas; - cutaneous substitutes to cover temporary extended burned areas. Among them: natural substitutes like xenografts (pork skin, sheep skin,..) or allografts (human skin), - treated natural substitutes which only maintain the extracellular matrix. Artificial skins belong to this category and allow the development of high quality scars, - cell cultures in the laboratory: multiplying the individual cells and grafting them onto the patient. This technique is not common but allows one to heal severely injured patients. X-ray burns are still a problem. Their characteristics are analysed: intensive, permanent, antalgic resistant pain. They are difficult to compare with heat burns. In spite of a small number of known cases, we can give some comments and guidance on radio necrosis cures: the importance of the patients comfort, of ending the pain, of preventing infection, and nutritional balance. At the level of epidermic inflammation and phlyctena (skin blisters), the treatment may be completed by the use of growth factors. At the level of necrosis, after a temporary cover, an auto graft can be considered only if a healthy basis is guaranteed. The use of cellular cultures in order to obtain harmonious growth factors can be argued. (author)

  9. Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani1, Hemmat Maghsoudi2, Mohsen Soudmand-Niri3, Fatemeh Ranjbar4, Hossein Mashadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, Statistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health and Nutrition, 2Department of Surgery, 3School of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5National Public Health Management Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: A burn injury can be a traumatic experience with tremendous social, physical, and psychological consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and predictors of PTSD Checklist score initially and 3 months after injury in burns victims admitted to the Sina Burn Center in north-west Iran.Methods: This prospective study examined adult patients aged 16–65 years with unintentional burns. The PTSD Checklist was used to screen for PTSD.Results: Flame burns constituted 49.4% of all burns. Mean PTSD score was 23.8 ± 14.7 early in the hospitalization period and increased to 24.2 ± 14.3, 3 months after the burn injury. Twenty percent of victims 2 weeks into treatment had a positive PTSD screening test, and this figure increased to 31.5% after 3 months. The likelihood of developing a positive PTSD screening test increased significantly after 3 months (P < 0.01. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors independently predicting PTSD score were found to be age, gender, and percentage of total body surface area burned.Conclusion: PTSD was a problem in the population studied and should be managed appropriately after hospital admission due to burn injury. Male gender, younger age, and higher total body surface area burned may predict a higher PTSD score after burn injury. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, burn injury, predictors, Iran

  10. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up. PMID:26811412

  11. Burning clean and green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new style of oil burner has been developed for use on exploration platforms offshore. The design improves oil combustion through enhanced air induction, producing stable flames in the clean burn region which do not generate smoke and oil fallout. Successful tests have led to it now being ready for commercial exploitation. (UK)

  12. Accumulative eschar after burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fushun

    2016-02-01

    Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb-bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:26862412

  13. Accumulative eschar after burn

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Fushun

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb‐bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome.

  14. Evaluation of vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture applied to soil fertilization in sugar cane areas harvested lacking sugar cane trash without prior burning: losses of NH3 by volatilization and 15 N recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aimed to evaluate the losses of NH3 by volatization, from the vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture and urea solution applied to the soil. The N dose applied for both sources was 80 Kg ha-1, with the volume of vinasse and urea solution applied to the surface being 200 and 100 m3, respectively. The nitrogen sources were applied to soil covered or not by sugarcane trash. A semi-opened static collector device was used to evaluate the ammonia volatization. The isotopic technique with 15 N was used to quantify the N recovered in the soil from the nitrogen sources applied in microplots. These microplots consisted of 96 mm-diameter PVC cylinders which were buried in the soil at 200 mm. The results show that the volatization of ammonia from the vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture, applied to the soil covered or not by sugarcane trash, ranged from 5 to 7% of the N applied. These results were similar to those observed in the treatment where urea solution was applied to the soil lacking sugarcane trash, but lower when compared to the urea applied to the soil covered with trash confirmed the volatization results, with the least 15 N recovery (57%) being obtained in this treatment. In the other treatments, i.e. urea applied to soil lacking sugarcane trash; aqua annonia/vinasse mixture applied to soil covered or not with sugarcane trash, the mean recovery of 15 N were 60.2; 70.6 and 74.2 % respectively. These results support the recommendation of the use of a fluid mixture for nitrogen fertilization in ratoon cane areas after the mechanized sugarcane harvest without prior burning. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Cost analysis of a major burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofts, J A

    1991-11-27

    A retrospective review was undertaken of 26 patients admitted to Middlemore Hospital between January 1986 to July 1989 with burns totalling more than 30% of total body surface area. An attempt was made to estimate the total cost of successful inpatient management of a major burn using known and assumed values. The new schedule of interboard hospital charges was also employed for greater accuracy. The 20 survivors had a mean initial hospital stay of 68.7 days at a cost of between $37,077 and $40,702 (1989 values) and $46,069 (1991 values). This latter figure equates to an average cost of $647 per patient per day or, alternatively, $927 per % burn. Suggestions to reduce costs and improve treatment include: earlier excision and grafting; the establishment of a regional skin bank and keratinocyte culture facility to aid wound closure; and guidelines on antibiotic prescribing. PMID:1745459

  16. Back Bay Wilderness burning support

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum concerning prescribed burns between members of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It states that burning should be supported...

  17. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, B.; Winter, U.J.; Mahrle, G.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers.

  18. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  19. [Burn injuries and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmu, Raimo; Vuola, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Currently a large proportion of patients with severe burn injuries survive. This gives increasing challenges also for psychological recovery after the trauma. More than half of burn patients have mental disorders already before the burn injury but also patients who previously had no mental disorders may suffer from them. Some of the hospitalize burn patients have injuries due to suicidal attempts. Only a small proportion of burn patients receive appropriate psychiatric care although psychosocial interventions specifically planned for burn victims exist. More frequent screening of symtoms of mental disorders and psychiatric consultation, also after acute care in hospital, could lead to better management of post-burn psychiatric care as well as better management of the burn treatment and rehabilitation itself. PMID:27089616

  20. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns. PMID:24468505

  1. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the incidence of hypernatremia and survival in 40 patients with a totally burned surface area (TBSA >10%. Age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were analyzed. Patients were separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Results: Hypernatremia occurred on day 5±1.4. No significant difference for age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were calculated. In Group A all patients survived, while 3 of the hypernatremic patient in Group B died during ICU-stay (Odds-ratio = 1.25; 95% CI 0.971–1.61; p=0.046. Conclusion: Burned patients with an in-hospital acquired hypernatremia have an increased mortality risk. In case of a hypernatremic state early intervention is obligatory. There is a need of a fluid removal strategy in severely burned patient to avoid water imbalance.

  2. Friction Burns: Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A; Raibagkar, S.C.; Vora, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    This epidemiological study deals with 60 patients with friction burns between January 2004 and January 2006. The age group most affected was that between 21 and 30 years, with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of friction burns (56 patients), and the lower limb was the most frequently affected part of the body. Patient management was performed according to the degree of the burn injury. It is suggested that most friction burn injuries are neglected on admissio...

  3. Amniotic membrane for burn trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amniotic membranes are derived from human placentae at birth. They have two layers mainly the amniotic and the chorionic surfaces which are separated by a thin layer of connective tissues. The two layers are separated during procurement, the placenta and the chorionic side are discarded and the amnion membranes are then further processed. Amnion membranes are normally procured from placentae which are normally free of infections, i.e; the mothers are antenatally screened for sexually transmitted diseases or AlDs related diseases. Intrapartum the mother should not be having chorioamnionitis or jaundice. Sometimes the amniotic membranes are acquired from fresh elective caeserian sections. After processing, the amniotic membranes are packed in two layers of polypropylene and radiated with cobalt 60 at a dose of about 25 kGy. The amniotic membranes are clinically used to cover burn surfaces especially effective for superficial or partial thickness burns. The thin membranes adhered well to the trauma areas and peeled off automatically by the second week. No change of dressing were necessary during these times because of the close adherence, there were less chance of external contamination or infections of these wounds. Due to their flexibility they are very useful to cover difference contours of the human body for example the face, body, elbows or knees. However our experience revealed that amniotic membranes are not useful for third degree bums because the membranes dissolves by the enzymes present in the wounds

  4. Determination of PM10 and its ion composition emitted from biomass burning in the chamber for estimation of open burning emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillapapiromsuk, Sopittaporn; Chantara, Somporn; Tengjaroenkul, Urai; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Prapamontol, Tippawan

    2013-11-01

    Biomass samples including agricultural waste (rice straw and maize residue) and forest leaf litter were collected from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand for the burning experiment in the self-designed stainless steel chamber to simulate the emissions of PM10. The burning of leaf litter emitted the highest PM10 (1.52±0.65 g kg(-1)). The PM10-bound ions emitted from the burning of rice straw and maize residue showed the same trend, which was K(+)>Cl(-)>SO4(2-)>NH4(+)>NO3(-). However, the emissions from maize residue burning were ~1.5-2.0 times higher than those from the rice straw burning. The ion content emitted from leaf litter burning was almost the same for all ion species. Noticeably, K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations were ~2-4 times lower than those emitted from agricultural waste burning. It can be deduced that K(+) and Cl(-) were highly emitted from agricultural waste burning due to the use of fertilizer and herbicides in the field, respectively. Based on emission values obtained from the chamber, the pollutant emission rate from open burning was calculated. Burned areas in Chiang Mai Province were 3510 and 866 km(2) in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Forest burning was 71-88%, while agricultural land burning accounted for 12-29% (rice field: crop field=1:3) of total burned area. Therefore, emissions of PM10 from open burning in Chiang Mai were 3051 ton (2010) and 705 ton (2011). Major ions emitted from agricultural waste burning were found to be K(+) and Cl(-), while those from forest burning were SO4(2-) and K(+). PMID:23891258

  5. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N

    2009-01-01

    Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently...

  6. The Effect of Ketoconazole on Post-Burn Inflammation, Hypermetabolism and Clinical Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Williams, Felicia N.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Rodriguez, Noe A.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Arny Ferrando; Norbury, William B.; Oscar E Suman; Robert Kraft; Branski, Ludwik K.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Herndon, David N

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypercortisolemia has been suggested as a primary hormonal mediator of whole-body catabolism following severe burn injury. Ketoconazole, an anti-fungal agent, inhibits cortisol synthesis. We, therefore, studied the effect of ketoconazole on post-burn cortisol levels and the hyper-catabolic response in a prospective randomized trial (block randomization 2:1). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty-five severely burned pediatric patients with >30% total body surface area (TBSA) burns...

  7. Clinical characteristics and treatment of burn wound sepsis in extensive burn patients: successful experience with eight cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴家科; 盛志勇; 杨红明

    2000-01-01

    Eight burn wound sepsis patients, in which 6 cases were diagnosed as MODS and two as septic shock, were treated consecutively in our hospital from September 1997 to October 1998. The plasma concentration of IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and LPS were assayed before and after surgical intervention, as well as when the patients' vital signs became stable. The results showed: ①The patients' conditions abruptly deteriorated when the burn wound sepsis emerged;②The major cause related to burn wound sepsis was extensive burn injuries, with large areas of deep burn remaining open; ③Although wound swabs taken on admission revealed the presence of colonization by many pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was one of the most frequent bacteria isolated from the subeschar tissue; ④The plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, TNF and LPS before surgical intervention were significantly higher than that after surgical intervention (P<0.05) ;⑤The lowest level of the inflammatory mediators was observed when the patients' conditions became stable, as compared with before surgical intervention (P<0. 001).These findings suggest that the clinical characteristics of burn wound sepsis are abrupt deterioration of the general condition and prominent septic symptoms, often complicated by MODS. The main cause of burn wound sepsis is the presence of a large area of open deep burn wounds, which should be excised and covered early. LPS and pro-inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathogenesis of burn wound sepsis. Although success in treating these patients is the result of appropriate application of multiple treatments, early, aggressive and thorough surgical excision of invasive burn infectious tissue and closure of wound play a crucial role in the successful treatment of patients complicated by burn wound sepsis. Other treatments are adjuvant but also important.

  8. Burns and beauty nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  9. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    The Anastenaria are Orthodox Christians in Northern Greece who observe a unique annual ritual cycle focused on two festivals, dedicated to Saint Constantine and Saint Helen. The festivals involve processions, music, dancing, animal sacrifices, and culminate in an electrifying fire-walking ritual....... Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context of the...... Greek fire-walking rituals. As a cognitive ethnography, the book aims to identify the social, psychological and neurobiological factors which may be involved and to explore the role of emotional and physiological arousal in the performance of such ritual. A study of participation, experience and meaning...

  10. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  11. Burns and beauty nails

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Bélanger; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. T...

  12. Burns: Treatment and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Burns can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft t...

  13. Technology of straw burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the example of application of straw as fuel for a power plant with capacity of 1 MW, which is reconstructed from an old coal power plant. The article shows the advantages of straw as a source of energy, analyses the physical and chemical characteristics and temperature parameters, typical for straw. Moreover it indicates the specific circumstances of the straw burning processes. The paper focuses also on preparation and storing of straw for public use and in the energy sector. Comparing with fossil fuel, straw is a low-caloric natural source, whose energy value reached to 14-19 MJ/kg. This value depends partly on the kind of straw and its water or moisture content (MC). To the basic characteristics of energy aspects belong: - energy or heating value (HV) MJ/kg (in LPG it is MJ/ m3); - burning temperature; - melting point - temperature of ash; - weight kg/m3; - density; - Energy density MWh /m3; - Energy potential GJ/t; - Size-homogeneity of straw; - Water or Moisture Content (MC). The above mentioned characteristics have an influence on technical parameters of straw-burning boiler. These parameters define conditions process of straw preparation. (author)

  14. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, oversees TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2002. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  15. Calendar year 2003 : annual site enviromental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2004-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2003. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2003) and DOE Order 231.1 Chg 2., Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  16. Calendar year 2007 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agogino, Karen [Department of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States). National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); Sanchez, Rebecca [Sandia Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-09-30

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Offi ce (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Washington Group International subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2007. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Site Offi ce (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting Manual (DOE 2007).

  17. Burn-Center Quality Improvement: Are Burn Outcomes Dependent On Admitting Facilities and Is There a Volume-Outcome “Sweet-Spot”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRANJEC, TJASA; TURRENTINE, FLORENCE E.; STUKENBORG, GEORGE; YOUNG, JEFFREY S.; SAWYER, ROBERT G.; CALLAND, JAMES F.

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors of mortality in burn patients such as inhalation injury, patient age, and percent of total body surface area (%TBSA) burned have been identified in previous publications. However, little is known about the variability of mortality outcomes between burn centers and whether the admitting facilities or facility volumes can be recognized as predictors of mortality. De-identified data from 87,665 acute burn observations obtained from the National Burn Repository between 2003 and 2007 were used to estimate a multivariable logistic regression model that could predict patient mortality with reference to the admitting burn facility/facility volume, adjusted for differences in age, inhalation injury, %TBSA burned, and an additional factor, percent full thickness burn (%FTB). As previously reported, all three covariates (%TBSA burned, inhalation injury, and age) were found to be highly statistically significant risk factors of mortality in burn patients (P value < 0.0001). The additional variable, %FTB, was also found to be a statistically significant determinant, although it did not greatly improve the multivariable model. The treatment/admitting facility was found to be an independent mortality predictor, with certain hospitals having increased odds of death and others showing a protective effect (decreased odds ratio). Hospitals with high burn volumes had the highest risk of mortality. Mortality outcomes of patients with similar risk factors (%TBSA burned, inhalation injury, age, and %FTB) are significantly affected by the treating facility and their admission volumes. PMID:22546129

  18. Investigation of status in coal-burning fluorosis areas in Luoyang city of Henan in 2006%2006年河南省洛阳市燃煤污染型氟中毒病区现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付书霞; 杨芳丽; 康建山; 马娟; 乔玉朋; 姚巧玲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution status of coal-burning fluorosis (endemic fluorosis) areas in Luoyang and to provide scientifc evidence for making strategies in prevention and control. Methods In 2006, a household per village was chosen to carry the general survey so as of disease condition, living habits and housing structure among 941 coal-burning pollution fluorine sickness natural villages in Yanshi, Mengjin, Xin'an, Luanchuan counties and Geely area which were under the jurisdiction of Luoyang. In the general survey, the sampled village having a population of more than 500 person was considered as a major survey village, and water fluoride, 8 - 12 year-old child fluorine spot on tooth and the urinary fluoride were surveyed. Water fluoride and the child urinary fluoride determination used the fluoride ion selective electrode method, and the children's dental fluorosis used Dean method. Results The endemic fluorosis of Luoyang existed 742 in endemic fluomsis villages, compared with history, a decrease of 199 in number. Ninety-six point seven per cent( 142 543/147 419) of the households were consuming smoke-free coal. Households using intact kitchens accounted for 93.6%( 137 919/147 419). Of which 63.0%(86 889/137 919) of kitchens were mixed up with bedrooms. Total 125 060 people were using coal- fired furnace for heating, of which 87.8%(109 802/125 060) had smoke-free facilities, 12.2%(15 258/125 060) had none. Among 52 endemic villages with population of more than 500 people surveyed, a total of 183 water samples were collected, 2 had water fluoride exceeding 1.0 rag/L, the highest water fluoride being 1.04 rag/L, averaging 0.39 mg/L Sixteen villages had a prevalence rate of dental fluorosis for children less than 30.00%, accounting for 30.8% (16/52), 36 endemic villages the prevalence of dental fluorosis detection rate of more than 30.00%, accounting for 69.2%(36/52). Twenty-thrce villages had a dental fluorosis index greater than 0.6, severe dental

  19. Calcium and ER stress mediate hepatic apoptosis after burn injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N.; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction after burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis after burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacrificed at various time‐points. Liver was either perfused to isolate primary rat hepatocytes, which were used for in vitro calcium imaging, or liver was harvested and processed for immunohistology, transmission electron microscopy, mitochondrial isolation, mass spectroscopy or Western blotting to determine the hepatic response to burn injury in vivo. We found that thermal injury leads to severely depleted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores and consequent elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Burn‐induced ER calcium depletion caused depressed hepatocyte responsiveness to signalling molecules that regulate hepatic homeostasis, such as vasopressin and the purinergic agonist ATP. In vivo, thermal injury resulted in activation of the ER stress response and major alterations in mitochondrial structure and function – effects which may be mediated by increased calcium release by inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors. Our results reveal that thermal injury leads to dramatic hepatic disturbances in calcium homeostasis and resultant ER stress leading to mitochondrial abnormalities contributing to hepatic dysfunction and apoptosis after burn injury. PMID:20141609

  20. [I Am an Occupational Therapist. I Will Accompany You Through the Process of Burn Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Sung

    2016-02-01

    Burn injuries nearly always occur by accident. Burn injuries that cover large areas of the body typically cause hypertrophic scarring and joint contractures that affect the ability of the burn patient to handle normal activities of daily living. Occupational therapists begin the related interventions as early as possible, and patients require rehabilitation continuously until scar maturation. The present article provides an overview of the approach that occupational therapists should take in treating burn patients. Key elements of this approach include creating a burn rehabilitation program and helping patients achieve independence in their activities of daily living by applying individual assistive devices. The goal of this program is to allow burn patients to return to the workplace and to a normal life. We hope that this article makes more specialists aware of the proper approach to occupational therapy for burn patients and reduces the incidence of post-burn-injury sequelae. PMID:26813062

  1. Frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mouse bone marrow induced by combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In order to detect if any analysis of frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMPCE) in mouse bone marrow was possible to diagnose combined radiation-burn injuries. Methods: By using the index of fMPCE, the investigation was carried out in the conditions of burn injury alone, radiation injury alone and combined radiation-burn injury. Results: The fMPCE induced by 10% and 20% body surface area (BSA) burns were not significantly increased at 24h compared with untreated groups. The fMPCE induced by combined radiation-burn injury significantly lower than those by radiation alone, and the fMPCE in the 20% BSA combined radiation-burn injury groups were lower than those in 10% BSA groups. Conclusion: These results indicate that radiation combined burns have an effect to reduce the fMPCE induced by radiation injury. The reason may be due to the frequency of increase of PCE after burn injury

  2. Radiological and Environmental Monitoring at the Clean Slate I and III Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, With Emphasis on the Implications for Off-site Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vic [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]) implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in the dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero (GZ). Three tests—Clean Slate I, II, and III—were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat. The fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. The Desert Research Institute (DRI) installed two monitoring stations in 2008, Station 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Center (ROC) and Station 401 at Clean Slate III. Station 402 was installed at Clean Slate I in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The monitoring activity was implemented to determine if radionuclide contamination in the soil at the Clean Slate sites was being transported beyond the contamination area boundaries. Some of the data collected also permits comparison of radiological exposure at the TTR monitoring stations to conditions observed at Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations around the NTTR. Annual average gross alpha values from the TTR monitoring stations are higher than values from the surrounding CEMP stations. Annual average gross beta values from the TTR monitoring stations are generally lower than values observed for the surrounding CEMP stations. This may be due to use of sample filters with larger pore space because when glass-fiber filters began to be used at TTR Station 400, gross beta values increased. Gamma spectroscopy typically identified only naturally

  3. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  4. Valoration of burned body surface; area in patients of San Vicente de Paúl University Hospital, Medellín, 2004 Evaluación de la superficie corporal quemada en pacientes del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Hoyos Franco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The estimation of the burned surface area has a huge importance for the acute management and prognosis of the burn victim It has been revised the different methods available for the assessment of the burn extent and some resuscitation basic concepts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was made based on the information took from medical records of patients from the burn unit of the San Vicente de Paul University Hospital in Medellín (Col during 2004. The initial diagnosis of the burn extension made by the remittent clinician was compared with the ones made by experience clinicians at the emergency room and by the plastic surgeon at the Burn Unit. The results obtained were processed with the package Statistic 6.0 (Stafsoft Inc and it was considered significant a p value < 0.05. The variables are presented as absolute values and with their respective percentages. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were 329 attended patients. 60% of them had mistaken or incomplete diagnosis, and 39.3% of the diagnosis made at our emergency room were incomplete or incorrect. We found more frequently overestimation than underestimation of the burn surface area. In most of the cases mistakes were made that modified the burn category (mild, moderate, and severe. It is necessary to improve basic knowledge about burn care in the inexperience clinicians. INTRODUCCIÓN: la evaluación de la superficie corporal quemada tiene gran importancia para el tratamiento inicial y el pronóstico del paciente quemado. Se revisan los diferentes métodos para evaluar la superficie corporal quemada y algunos conceptos básicos de reanimación. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal a partir de las historias clínicas de los pacientes quemados hospitalizados en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl (HUSVP de Medellín durante el año 2004. Se compararon los diagnósticos de extensión quemada emitidos

  5. An Epidemiologic Survey on Burns in Yazd from 2008 till 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Delbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Burns are injuries which may require long hospitalization and may result in important impairment and disability. Burn injuries are still common especially in developing countries. Assessment of the epidemiology of burns is very important for introduction of preventive methods. This study was conducted in Yazd to assess and describe the epidemiology of burns including its main causes, and its demographics. In a prospective study during a 1 year period, we assessed the epidemiology of burns in Shahid Sadoughi Burns hospital in Yazd. During this period, 1947 injured patients referred to this hospital. Data were gathered using a questionnaire about demographics and the properties of the burn injury. Burns were more frequent among men than women. A significant number of patients were children. 8.8% of patients needed hospitalization. Thermal burns were much more common than other types. Scalds were the most common cause of burn, and hands were the body region most commonly affected. Mean total body surface area burned (TBSA was 6.16% (±9.93. This study showed a high incidence of burn injuries at home and in the workplace. The burns were mostly preventive and many of them can be prevented by education.

  6. Tokamak burn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research of the fusion plasma thermal instability and its control is reviewed. General models of the thermonuclear plasma are developed. Techniques of stability analysis commonly employed in burn control research are discussed. Methods for controlling the plasma against the thermal instability are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications to tokamak confinement concepts. Additional research which extends the results of previous research is suggested. Issues specific to the development of control strategies for mid-term engineering test reactors are identified and addressed. 100 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Explosive hydrogen burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although an impressive quantity of work has been devoted to understanding nucleosynthesis during explosive hydrogen burning, much work remain to be done. Reactions which occur in novae, x-ray bursts, and supernovae are discussed. Much attention is given to the reactions of hot CNO cycles and of reactions in the rp-process. The many reactions described in this review are not all of the reactions which may be of interest to nuclear physicists, although the rates of those reactions not discussed are essentially unknown. 123 refs., 9 figs

  8. Complicated Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David T

    2016-10-01

    More than 4 decades after the creation of the Brooke and Parkland formulas, burn practitioners still argue about which formula is the best. So it is no surprise that there is no consensus about how to resuscitate a thermally injured patient with a significant comorbidity such as heart failure or cirrhosis or how to resuscitate a patient after an electrical or inhalation injury or a patient whose resuscitation is complicated by renal failure. All of these scenarios share a common theme in that the standard rule book does not apply. All will require highly individualized resuscitations. PMID:27600129

  9. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  10. Characteristics of 985 pediatric burn patients in the south of Liaoning province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Zhai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury due to burns is a serious and common, but preventable, occurrence in children. To analyze the characteristics of pediatric burns in the south of Liaoning province of China, a retrospective review was conducted of information, including general characteristics, demographics, etiology of burns, anatomical areas burned, and severity of injuries, obtained from medical records of pediatric burn patients admitted to the Burn Center of Anshan Hospital of the First Hospital of China Medical University from 2002 to 2011. Differences between age-groups and cause and severity of injuries were examined using Cochran-Mantel-Haenzsel ­(C-M-H statistic or chi-square (χ2 analyses where appropriate. A total of 985 pediatric burn cases were included, with only one death. The maximal burn area recorded was 80% and the maximal third-degree burn area was 45%. The majority of burns (637/985, 64.67% were moderate second-degree wounds, encompassing 5-14% of the total body surface area. The infant age-group (<3 years old had the largest representation (622/985, 63.15%, with more males than females affected. Most of the injuries occurred at home in children living in the local region. Scalding accounted for 89.85% (885/985 of all injuries, with a decreasing incidence with age, whereas injuries due to flames and from electrical sources markedly increased with age. Only a minority of guardians (244/985, 24.77% had burn prevention knowledge, and none of them knew how to provide first-aid treatment for burn injuries. These results indicate that the majority of pediatric burns occur in children less than 3 years of age from scalds received while at home. As a large proportion of these cases occurred in rural areas, programs emphasizing burn prevention and treatment knowledge should therefore be made more available to these families.

  11. Pyoderma gangrenosum in burned patient: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Obradović-Tomašev Milana; Jovanović Mladen; Popović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, chronic, destructive, ulcerating skin disease of uncertain etiology. It develops most frequently in patients between 25-45 years of age and affects both sexes equally. Case report. We present a case of pyoderma gangrenosum in a young female patient who sustained a burn injury of 40% total body surface area. She underwent four operations. She developed a wound infection and urinary infection during her hospital s...

  12. Prognosis and treatment of burns.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, R; Heimbach, D

    1996-01-01

    Survival rates for burn patients in general have improved markedly over the past several decades. The development of topical antibiotic therapy for burn wounds, the institution of the practice of early excision and grafting, and major advances in intensive care management have all contributed to this success. In this review we address these 3 important advances in the modern treatment of burn injuries and provide a brief historical overview of these accomplishments and others, emphasizing spe...

  13. Topical agents in burn care

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injure...

  14. Animal Models in Burn Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the...

  15. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    OpenAIRE

    Procter Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns...

  16. Accuracy of real time radiography burning rate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Bisola

    The design of a solid propellant rocket motor requires the determination of a propellant's burning-rate and its dependency upon environmental parameters. The requirement that the burning-rate be physically measured, establishes the need for methods and equipment to obtain such data. A literature review reveals that no measurement has provided the desired burning rate accuracy. In the current study, flash x-ray modeling and digitized film-density data were employed to predict motor-port area to length ratio. The pre-fired port-areas and base burning rate were within 2.5% and 1.2% of their known values, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the method, a continuous x-ray and a solid propellant rocket motor model (Plexiglas cylinder) were used. The solid propellant motor model was translated laterally through a real-time radiography system at different speeds simulating different burning rates. X-ray images were captured and the burning-rate was then determined. The measured burning rate was within 1.65% of the known values.

  17. Adult burn survivors' personal experiences of rehabilitation: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, R; Wilson, A; Abu-Qamar, M Z; McLean, L

    2014-02-01

    Burn rehabilitation is a lengthy process associated with physical and psychosocial problems. As a critical area in burn care, the aim was to systematically synthesise the literature focussing on personal perceptions and experiences of adult burn survivors' rehabilitation and to identify factors that influence their rehabilitation. Studies were identified through an electronic search using the databases: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, PsycINFO and Trove of peer reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 limited to English-language research with search terms developed to reflect burn rehabilitation. From the 378 papers identified, 14 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, there were 184 participants conducted in eight different countries. The reported mean age was 41 years with a mean total body surface area (TBSA) burn of 34% and the length of stay ranging from one day to 68 months. Significant factors identified as influential in burn rehabilitation were the impact of support, coping and acceptance, the importance of work, physical changes and limitations. This review suggests there is a necessity for appropriate knowledge and education based programmes for burn survivors with consideration given to the timing and delivery of education to facilitate the rehabilitation journey. PMID:24050979

  18. Otostegia persica extraction on healing process of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ganjali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.

  19. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  20. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  1. 基于高分一号影像光谱指数识别火烧迹地的决策树方法%Decision Tree Method for Burned Area Identification Based on the Spectral Index of GF-1 WFV Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖笑锋; 覃先林; 尹凌宇; 陈小中; 钟祥清

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the technique to be needed for rapidly and accurately identifying the burn-ed area by forest fires,following the catastrophic fires by the vegetation index CART decision tree methods using the wide coverage image of GF-1(GF-1 WFV).They were compared between the maximum likeli-hood classification of supervised and unsupervised classification(ISODATA),within burned area indexes, to improve the accuracy of the burned area,shaded vegetation index,global environment monitoring in-dex,improved shadows and bare commission or omission burned phenomenon.The results showed that the decision tree classification method based on CART algorithms for burned area identification has signifi-cantly improved the overall accuracy by 4.38% compared with the maximum likelihood method;Kappa coefficient increased by 0.1024.GF-1 satellite imagery for unsupervised classification(ISODATA)identi-fies the burned area poorly,the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient are low,the map making accuracy and user accuracy have not reached 1%.%森林火灾发生后,为及时、准确地掌握森林受灾情况,利用高分一号卫星(GF -1)16m 宽幅影像各波段反射率信息,结合计算的归一化植被指数(NDVI)、过火区识别指数(BAI)、阴影植被指数(SVI)、归一化差异水体指数(NDWI)和全球环境监测指数(GEMI)等5种光谱指数,构建森林火烧迹地识别决策树模型(CART);在选取的研究区对该模型方法进行验证,并与最大似然监督分类法和非监督分类(ISODATA)方法所得到的结果精度进行了对比分析,结果表明:采用基于 CART 模型的决策树方法对火烧迹地识别结果精度较最大似然法总体分类精度提高了4.38%,Kappa 系数提高了0.1024,制图精度提高了14.96%,用户精度提高了8.50%;而采用ISODATA 方法识别的火烧迹地的总体精度和 Kappa 系数都较低,制图精度

  2. The development of clean-burning, noncatalytic manufactured fireplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern for the air quality of this country in general and the Western states in particular has brought sharp focus from regulators on the emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) from all wood-burning appliances. This concern was a driving force which led to the development of a clean-burning fireplace. Many Western areas have begun to limit installation of wood-burning appliances in new construction. Some jurisdictions allow only Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified appliances. Currently no federal test methods or standards exist for fireplaces so the Manufactured Fireplace Industry, through the Hearth Products Association (HPA), set about to develop suitable test methods and standards for manufactured fireplaces

  3. Minocycline Inhibits Alkali Burn-Induced Corneal Neovascularization in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ou Xiao; Zhao-lian Xie; Bin-wu Lin; Xiao-fang Yin; Rong-biao Pi; Shi-you Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of minocycline on alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV). A total of 105 mice treated with alkali burns were randomly divided into three groups to receive intraperitoneal injections of either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or minocycline twice a day (60 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The area of CNV and corneal epithelial defects was measured on day 4, 7, 10, and14 after alkali burns. On day 14, a histopathol...

  4. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from these fires indicates that 6 x 1013 g C of gas phase hydrocarbons and 8 x 1014 g CO may be released annually from biomass burning. These emissions contribute significantly to the global budgets of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

  5. 2008年重庆市燃煤型氟中毒病区环境氟调查分析%Analysis of environmental fluoride of the coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 肖邦忠; 晏维; 周倩如; 张洁; 王正虹; 赵舰; 郭小琳; 罗兴建

    2009-01-01

    Objective To find out the distribution pattern of environmental fluoride in the coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas to provide scientific evidence for establishing prevention and remedial measures in Chongqing. Methods According to historical data in Chongqing In 2008, 4 endemic villages(Lingyun and Lizi Villages of Wushan County, and Taiping and Daqing Villages of Pengshui County) and 2 non-endemic villages (ShuangLou and XianLong Villages of Yongchuan County) were investigated. Dental fluorosis of children in 8 to 12 year old and residents over 16 years of age for clinical skeletal fluorosis were examined in four endemic villages. Five households from each of 6 villages were taken, where 500 g of coal, mixed clay with coal, mixed coal of soil, coal cinder, soil were sampled; 15 people were taken in each village, each household gathering 500 g of corn, rice, potatoes, vegetables, grain and vegetable, 100 g of dried pepper and 250 ml of drinking water were sampled from 15 families of each village. Household drinking water samples were collected 1, each 250 ml. For those having tea-drinking habit, each household was collected 50 g of tea and 600 ml of drinking tea, the amount of fluoride were determined. Indoor and outdoor air was collected and measured in 5 households in each village. Results The detected rate of dental fluorosis of children in endemic areas was 74.65% (736/986). The detected rate of skeletal fluorosis of adult was 7.20%(736/986). The average fluoride content of coal, mixed clay with coal, mixed coal of soil, cinder coal, soil in the endemic villages was (310.56±209.46), (360.51±224.96), (293.62±65.15), (186.59±133.66), (497.54±294.70)mg/kg. The average fluoride content in non-endemic villages was (48.68±10.62), (275.66±62.69), (152.20±34.43), (209.14±188.66),269.98±58.21)mg/kg. The fluoride content level of endemic villages was significantly higher than that of non-endemic villages(t=7.67,31.54,5.82, 5.82, all P0.05]. The amount of

  6. Prosthodontist contribution in treating post-burn hypertrophic facial scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabhan T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hypertrophic scars is common following healing of the burn wound, particularly in children. The face is one of the areas of the body most frequently affected by burns. Scar formation as a result of burn wounds leads to contraction of the formed granulation tissue, which causes both aesthetic and functional impairment for the patient. Scarring has major psychological and physical repercussions. Scarring on the face and visible regions of the body can be very distressing for the patient. Prevention of scars involves early and continuous use of a compressive orthesis. However, their efficacy is often limited to the facial region because of the contours of this area of body. This paper describes a clinical case of post-burn hypertrophic scars treated with silicone gel sheeting applied with pressure under custom made auto-polymerizing resin stent.

  7. Bacteremia in burned patients admitted to Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Saleh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in burn wards is infection, and it is the major reason of death in burn injuries. There are several reasons that make burn victims predisposed to infection. The current study aimed to investigate the role of different factors that have an effect on bacteremia occurrence in burn patients and factors which are relevant to mortality in these patients. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study conducted in a 1 year period in Sina Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, and 81 burn were included. We collected patients’ data about their age, body weight, cause of burn, lesion color, place and percentage of burn by getting history and studying of their files. Then we documented all interventions. Blood tests and cultures and colonies criteria were recorded. Results: In this study, 39 patients were male (48.1%, and 42 was female (51.9%. Mean age was 32.06 ± 17.46 years. In patients without bacteremia, 57 patients did not need catheterization (89.1%, however in patients with bacteremia 9 patients demanded catheter insertion (52.9%. In patients with bacteremia 12 patients survived (70.9%, however in the without bacteremia group 56 patients survived (92.2%. Then, the relationship between type of burn, wound infection and bacterial species investigated, (P = 0.650, P = 0.210 and P = 0.110 respectively. Conclusion: We concluded, invasive interventions increased bacteremia susceptibility in our studied burned patients. Mortality rate is directly related to bacteremia prevalence and increased by extent of burn area in these patients. The three most frequent microbial agents responsible for bacteremia were Pseudomona aeruginosa, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Full thickness burn caused by exposure to giant hogweed: delayed presentation, histological features and surgical management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2012-02-01

    We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with a full thickness chemical burn on his right pretibial area due to phytophotodermatitis (PPD) following contact with giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum). Although cutaneous burns due to plants are a well-established cause of chemical burn, previous reports described partial thickness burns that healed with conservative measures. This patient presented to our unit two weeks after the initial injury with an established full thickness burn. Debridement and split thickness skin grafting was required. We presented the histological features of the debrided skin specimen and discussed potential factors leading to this unexpected full thickness injury.

  9. Nutrition in the severely burned child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J R

    1981-01-01

    Adequate nutrition in the severely burned child often determines the morbidity and mortality and its supervision demands a high priority in the management of the burn injury. A disciplined, detailed programme is required, but this is often neglected. The hypermetabolism experienced in the severe burn may require a calorie intake up to 2 1/2 times normal, and in the growing child, with extra requirements, a negative balance can easily eventuate if careful management is not instituted. A daily metabolic plan provides firstly, the basic calories and protein per kilogram depending on age as for a normal child and, secondly additional requirements depending on the surface area of the burn. With such a programme the weakness of treating all children, whatever their age, on the same formula related only to surface area burn, is overcome. Parenteral nutrition is commenced as soon as the shock phase has been controlled and is continued until enteral intake by gastric tube is sufficient to cover the requirements. Such tube feeding requires the selection of an isotonic liquid diet so as so limit the possibility of diarrhoea. Isocal (Mead Johnson) has been found generally acceptable. Gradually as the patient recovers, oral intake is introduced and the child returns home on a normal nutritional diet, expectantly without weight loss and even with some weight gain, which befits any normal child under treatment for some months. Preburn nutrition, disease and infection, hyperthermia, hypothermia, evaporative water loss, active exercise, psychological well being, social state, early skin cover and limitation of stress are important aspects affecting metabolism and require careful supervision and management. The limitation of metabolism is as important as increasing the caloric intake and this is exemplified at the time of operation, which should be as nonstressful as possible. Every two weeks an adjusted assessment is made of the burned area still to be grafted and the caloric

  10. Incendios en bosques de Araucaria araucana y consideraciones ecológicas al madereo de aprovechamiento en áreas recientemente quemadas Wildfire in Araucaria araucana forests and ecological considerations about salvage logging in areas recently burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURO E GONZÁLEZ

    2007-06-01

    Araucarian region, climate and humans have influenced historical fire regimes over many centuries. In the summer of 2002 widespread, severe fires burned in Chilean Araucaria forests and became the center of much interest among politicians, scientists and the general public. The 2002 fires focused attention on the importance of understanding the causes and effects of such severe events in the forest ecosystems. Major wildfires generate large quantities of dead and downed trees, and promote the development of other structural attributes known as biological legacies that play critical roles in ecosystem recovery after such events. The potential for severe fire, either of natural or human origin, create pressures to either replace native forests with plantations of fast-growing exotic trees or to conduct salvage logging. Salvage harvesting can impede or alter the trajectory of recovery of affected areas, and it potentially may decrease forest regeneration and have detrimental impacts on key ecological processes. Forest policy and management decisions should be informed by a better understanding of the past occurrence of fire and its role in shaping the modern Araucaria forest ecosystem. Particularly, in the context of the exceptional ecological and cultural value of these ecosystems, managers should consider policies that effectively secure and are consistent with the restoration of the key attributes and processes of Araucaria forest ecosystems

  11. Psychiatric History and Adaptation in Burn Injured Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dyster-Aas, Johan

    2006-01-01

    The intertwined relationship between physical and psychological problems is a topic of much interest in the rehabilitation of severely injured patients, e.g. after a burn. The present study aims at gaining further knowledge concerning the impact of psychological factors and psychiatric morbidity on short and long-term adaptation after burn injury. Outcome was assessed for three main areas: pruritus, return to work and psychiatric health. Three separate samples of previous or current adult pat...

  12. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  13. Solar burn reactivation induced by methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Kelli J

    2010-04-01

    Solar burn reactivation, a rare and idiosyncratic drug reaction, has been reported with the use of a variety of drugs. This reaction is believed to be the result of exposure to ultraviolet light during the subsiding phase of an acute inflammatory reaction. It affects areas of the body that have been previously sunburned. We describe a 16-year-old girl who was receiving treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and experienced a second-degree solar burn reactivation reaction to methotrexate. The patient had a mild sunburn on her face and shoulders the day she went to the oncology clinic for her interim maintenance chemotherapy with vincristine 1.5 mg/m(2)/dose and methotrexate 100 mg/m(2)/dose. Three days later, she returned to the clinic with a 2-day history of fever (solar burn reactivation reaction. She was admitted to the children's hospital and treated with sodium bicarbonate, acetaminophen with codeine, ondansetron, and silvadene cream. On hospital day 3, the patient's methotrexate level decreased to less than 0.1 mM. The sunburn continued to heal, and after a 14-day hospital stay, complicated by a streptococcal infection, grade 3 mucositis, bacteremia, and mild gastritis and duodenitis, the patient recovered and was discharged. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6) between the patient's solar burn reactivation and methotrexate. Although methotrexate-induced solar burn reactivation is rare, clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse reaction and consider delaying administration of methotrexate by 5-7 days if a patient reports ultraviolet-related erythema in the past 2-4 days or presents with a notable sunburn. PMID:20334462

  14. In-situ burning of Orimulsion : small scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the feasibility of burning Orimulsion. In-situ burning has always been a viable method for cleaning oil spills on water because it can effectively reduce the amount of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of recovered oil. Orimulsion, however, behaves very differently from conventional oil when it is spilled because of its composition of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. In-situ burning of this surfactant-stablized oil-in-water emulsion has never been seriously considered because of the perception that Orimulsion could not be ignited, and if it could, ignition would not be sustained. In this study, burn tests were conducted on 3 scales in a Cleveland Open Cup apparatus of 5 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm diameters. Larger scale burns were conducted in specially built pans. All tests were conducted on salt water which caused the bitumen to separate from the water. The objective was to determine if sufficient vapours could be generated to ignite the Orimulsion. The study also measured if a sustained flame would result in successful combustion. Both objectives were successfully accomplished. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the Orimulsion in the specially designed pan for large scale combustion. Quantitative removal of Orimulsion was achieved in all cases, but in some burns it was necessary to re-ignite the Orimulsion. It was noted that when Orimulsion burns, some trapped water droplets in the bitumen explode with enough force to extinguish a small flame. This did not occur on large-scale burns. It was concluded that the potential for successful in-situ burning increases with size. It was determined that approximately 1 mm in thickness of diesel fuel is needed to ignite a burn. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Slash-and-burn farmers: villains or victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, T

    1990-01-01

    Slash and burn farmers in southeast Asia are blamed for deforestation and are considered backward or ignorant. Efforts have been made by agricultural development experts to urge farmers to switch to fixed field methods. Slash and burn methods are used in upland areas with steep slopes, low soil fertility, and unpredictable natural hazards in order to allow survival in an environment made difficult for cultivation by other methods. Slash and burn farmers may be stable or migratory and use rotational or pioneering methods. Rotational methods involve clearing and burning a new plot every year, and then allowing regeneration of forest for 10-20 years. When population density is 40/square km, this method does not degrade the environment. Pioneering involves clearance of primary forest, cultivation for several years until soil fertility is destroyed, and then replacement with low productivity "imperata cylindrica grass." Pioneering tends to cause long-term environmental degradation. Humid tropic soils tend toward infertility, and in many areas of southeast Asia the soils are nutrient-poor and acidic. Ash from burning also reduces soil acidity. In northeast Thailand, 454 kg of calcium are released from burning one hectare of mature forest. The advantages are affordable natural fertilization and freedom from technical experts and imported spare parts. Frequent rotation also helps to expand the crops and provide disease protection. Population densities, competition for scarce resources, and social and economic pressures make the slash and burn technique inappropriate. As yet unavailable alternative farming techniques are needed which take advantage of slash and burn benefits. Slash and burn farmers are victims of deforestation even though they may appear to be the villains. PMID:12283382

  16. Burn Depth Estimation Using Thermal Excitation and Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1998-12-17

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5{degrees} Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  17. Fuel burning and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission of soot particles and other air pollution indoors constitutes a considerable health hazard for a major part of the population in many developing countries, one of them being China. In these countries problems relating to poverty are the most important risk factors, undernourishment being the dominating reason. Number four on the list of the most serious health hazards is indoor air pollution caused by burning of coal and biomass in the households. Very high levels of soot particles occur indoors because of incomplete combustion in old-fashioned stoves and by use of low quality fuel such as sticks and twigs and straw and other waste from agriculture. This leads to an increase in a series of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. It has been pointed out in recent years that emissions due to incomplete combustion of coal and biomass can contribute considerably to climate changes

  18. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  19. 美宝创疡贴治疗高海拔地区小面积Ⅱ度烧伤临床体会%Clinical Experience of Treating Small-area Ⅱ Degree Burns with MEBO Wound & Ulcer Dressing in High Altitude Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊新海; 蒋建纲

    2012-01-01

      Objective To analyze retrospectively the clinical efficacy of MEBO Wound & Ulcer Dressing in the treatment of small-area Ⅱ degree burn in high altitude regions. Methods The clinical data of a total of 120 Ⅱ degree burned patients with a TBSA < 5% at different locations treated with MEBO Wound & Ulcer Dressing were summarized ret-rospectively to analyze the clinical efficacy of MEBO Dressing in treating small-area Ⅱ degree burns in high altitude regions. Results After the treatment of MEBO Wound & Ulcer Dressing, the superficial Ⅱ degree burns healed in 5 ~ 10 days, and the deep Ⅱ degree burns healed in 12 ~ 18days. The healed skin was smooth and even without scar hyperplasia, and the appearance and function were very good, so the efficacy was satisfying. Conclusion MEBO Wound & Ulcer Dressing is easy and convenient to be adopted and should be promoted widely in clinic in that it results in less pain and is effective in countering infection and shortening the healing time as well as realizing good healing effects.%  目的回顾性分析美宝创疡贴在高海拔地区治疗小面积Ⅱ度烧伤创面的临床疗效。方法对120例采用美宝创疡贴治疗的不同部位面积小于5% TBSA 的Ⅱ度烧伤患者的临床资料进行回顾性总结,分析美宝创疡贴换药治疗高海拔地区小面积Ⅱ度烧伤的临床疗效。结果120例烧伤患者创面经美宝创疡贴换药治疗后,浅Ⅱ度烧伤创面5 d ~10 d 愈合,深Ⅱ度烧伤创面12 d ~18 d 愈合,愈合后皮肤平整,无瘢痕增生,外观及功能良好,效果满意。结论本疗法痛苦小,抗感染能力强,愈合时间短,愈后效果满意,方法简便实用,适宜临床广泛推广应用。

  20. Post-Closure Strategy for Use-Restricted Sites on the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Test and Training Range, and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, A. J. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-03-26

    The purpose of this Post-Closure Strategy is to provide a consistent methodology for continual evaluation of post-closure requirements for use-restricted areas on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to consolidate, modify, or streamline the program. In addition, this document stipulates the creation of a single consolidated Post-Closure Plan that will detail the current post-closure requirements for all active use restrictions (URs) and outlines its implementation and subsequent revision. This strategy will ensure effective management and control of the post-closure sites. There are currently over 200 URs located on the NNSS, NTTR, and TTR. Post-closure requirements were initially established in the Closure Report for each site. In some cases, changes to the post-closure requirements have been implemented through addenda, errata sheets, records of technical change, or letters. Post-closure requirements have been collected from these multiple sources and consolidated into several formats, such as summaries and databases. This structure increases the possibility of inconsistencies and uncertainty. As more URs are established and the post-closure program is expanded, the need for a comprehensive approach for managing the program will increase. Not only should the current requirements be obtainable from a single source that supersedes all previous requirements, but the strategy for modifying the requirements should be standardized. This will enable more effective management of the program into the future. This strategy document and the subsequent comprehensive plan are to be implemented under the assumption that the NNSS and outlying sites will be under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration for the foreseeable future. This strategy was also developed assuming that regulatory control of the sites remains static. The comprehensive plan is not

  1. Post-Closure Strategy for Use-Restricted Sites on the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Test and Training Range, and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Post-Closure Strategy is to provide a consistent methodology for continual evaluation of post-closure requirements for use-restricted areas on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to consolidate, modify, or streamline the program. In addition, this document stipulates the creation of a single consolidated Post-Closure Plan that will detail the current post-closure requirements for all active use restrictions (URs) and outlines its implementation and subsequent revision. This strategy will ensure effective management and control of the post-closure sites. There are currently over 200 URs located on the NNSS, NTTR, and TTR. Post-closure requirements were initially established in the Closure Report for each site. In some cases, changes to the post-closure requirements have been implemented through addenda, errata sheets, records of technical change, or letters. Post-closure requirements have been collected from these multiple sources and consolidated into several formats, such as summaries and databases. This structure increases the possibility of inconsistencies and uncertainty. As more URs are established and the post-closure program is expanded, the need for a comprehensive approach for managing the program will increase. Not only should the current requirements be obtainable from a single source that supersedes all previous requirements, but the strategy for modifying the requirements should be standardized. This will enable more effective management of the program into the future. This strategy document and the subsequent comprehensive plan are to be implemented under the assumption that the NNSS and outlying sites will be under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration for the foreseeable future. This strategy was also developed assuming that regulatory control of the sites remains static. The comprehensive plan is not

  2. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    2009-02-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the modification of the UR for CAS TA-03-001-TARC Roller Coaster Lagoons. This UR was established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and was based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This reevaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to modify the UR for CAS TA-03

  3. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: • CAS TA-03-001-TARC Roller Coaster Lagoons • CAS TA-21-001-TARC Roller Coaster N. Disposal Trench These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The

  4. Best available control measures for prescribed burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 190 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) as amended in 1990 requires the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue guidance on Best Available Control Measures (BACM) of PM10 (particulate matter with a nominal aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers) from urban fugitive dust, residential wood combustion, and prescribed silvicultural and agricultural burning (prescribed burning). The purpose of this guidance is to assist states (especially, but not exclusively, those with PM10 nonattainment areas which have been classified as serious) in developing a control measure for these three source categories. This guidance is to be issued no later than May 15, 1992 as required under the CAA. The guidance will be issued in the form of a policy guidance generic to all three BACM and in the form of Technical Information Documents (TIDs) for each of the three source categories. The policy guidance will provide the analytical approach for determining BACM and the TID will provide the technical information. The purpose of this paper is to present some insight from the forthcoming TID on what BACM might entail for prescribed burning in a serious PM10 nonattainment area

  5. Changes in Fat Distribution in Children Following Severe Burn Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pavankumar; Sallam, Hanaa S.; Ali, Arham; Chandalia, Manisha; Suman, Oscar; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Children with severe cutaneous burn injury show persistent metabolic abnormalities, including inflammation and insulin resistance. Such abnormalities could potentially increase their future risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This could be related to changes in body composition and fat distribution. Methods: We studied body composition, fat distribution, and inflammatory cytokines changes in children with severe burn injury up to 6 months from discharge. Sixty-two boys and 35 girls (burn ≥30% of total body surface area) were included. Results: We found a decrease in total body fat and subcutaneous peripheral fat at 6 months (6% and 2%, respectively; P<0.05 each). An inverse correlation between the decrease in peripheral fat content at 6 months and the extent of burn injury (r=−041, P=0.02) was also observed. In addition, there was a 12% increase in serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.01 vs. discharge) and 9% decrease in serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) (P<0.0001 vs. discharge) over 6 months after burn. Conclusion: Severe burn injury in children is associated with changes in body fat content and distribution up to 6 months from hospital discharge. These changes, accompanied by persisting systemic inflammation, could possibly mediate the observed persistence of insulin resistance, predisposing burn patients to the development of T2DM and CVD. PMID:25211297

  6. Ameliorative property of Teucrium polium on second degree burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Roya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditionally, burn wound healing activities have been claimed for Teucrium polium. Teucrium polium possesses antioxidant and inflammatory activities and seems to ameliorate burn wound healing. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Teucrium polium on burn healing in Balb/C mice. Materials and Methods: In this preclinical experimental study 56 mice were randomly designated into 4 equal groups. Burn wounds were made using a hot plate with a surface area of 1.5 cm2. Animals were treated with Teucrium 2%, Silver sulfadiazine or Vaseline 2 times per day for 21 days. The forth group received no treatment. Results: The percentage of burn wounds healing and total time required for complete healing were evaluated and compared in different groups. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Conclusion: Teucrium extract accelerated the burn wound healing more rapidly than control groups (p<0.01. Teucrium polium is effective on burn wounds healing and might be beneficial in these groups of patients.

  7. An idiosyncratic history of burn scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Jane A

    2015-03-01

    The history of burn scars can best be found in military medical history. The care of wounded soldiers documented in the Illiad reflected the trauma of the weapons of war, arrow, spear, sword, and ax. The introduction of gunpowder in the 14th century, increasingly sophisticated explosives, and in modern times, petroleum-driven vehicles, including airplanes, created a new subset of wounds requiring attention and post-survival scars challenging the quality of survival. This article selects from among a myriad of examples of modern military treatments as they relate to those survivors. Larrey, with Napolean's Grand Army, Sir Harold Gilles during and following World War I, and the Boston area preparation and response to the Cocoanut Grove Fire in 1942 are the principle topics examined. Recent modern interventions, related to the survival of horrific blast and burn injuries, with modern wound care and scar manipulation techniques provide context to the current ability to modify healing and scars. PMID:25922950

  8. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  9. [Integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child with extremely severe burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongming; Zhang, Jiaping; Chen, Jian; Song, Huapei; Liu, Qiushi; Fan, Xin; Peng, Yizhi; Wu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    This article reports the successful experience of integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child suffering from 91% TBSA flame burn injury (with 60% TBSA full-thickness injury, 30% TBSA deep partial-thickness injury, and 1% TBSA superficial partial-thickness injury), severe inhalation injury, severe burn shock, stress ulcer, gastrointestinal bleeding and atelectasis of the right upper lung. The patient was given effective fluid infusion against shock, treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding, and other effective supportive treatment for functions of various organs after being admitted to our burn ward. When vital signs became stable at 30 hours post injury, bedside rehabilitation was begun. On post injury day (PID) 4, escharectomy was performed for both lower limbs, followed by microskin grafting and allogeneic skin covering. On PID 10, invasive infection of multi-drug resistant bacteria was found with accompanied high fever, and at the same time allograft began to disintegrate, with dissolution of large area of eschar, leading to a raw surface reaching 86% TBSA. Following debridement, dressing, application of compound polymyxin B ointment, temporary covering of wounds with porcine acellular dermal matrix, adjustment of antibiotics, patient's condition was finally stabilized. From PID 28 on, split-thickness skin grafting was conducted 7 times, and the raw surface of 75% TBSA involving the upper and lower limbs and trunk was successfully covered. At the same time, our rehabilitation team launched comprehensive rehabilitation measures comprising active exercise, occupational therapy, prevention of scar formation, organ function training and psychological intervention. Finally, the patient was able to walk unaided and fed herself when the wounds were almost entirely healed in 3 months after injury. Oriented forwards functional rehabilitation, strong cooperation between team members, and synchronous effective implementation of burn treatment and

  10. Burns injury in children: Is antibiotic prophylaxis recommended?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is the most frequent complication in burn patients. There is a lack of guidelines on the use of systemic antibiotics in children to prevent this complication. Patients and Methods: A prospective study is carried out on 80 patients to evaluate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the control of infections. Results: The mean age was 34 months (9 months to 8 years. There was a male predominance with sex ratio of 1.66. The mean burn surface size burn was 26.5% with total burn surface area ranging from 5% to 33%, respectively. According to American Burn Association 37% (30/80 were severe burns with second and third degree burns >10% of the total surface body area in children aged <10 years old. Scalds represented 76.2% (61/80 of the burns. Burns by hot oil were 11 cases (13.7%, while 8 cases (10% were flame burns. The random distribution of the groups was as follow: Group A (amoxicilline + clavulanic acid = 25 cases, Group B (oxacilline = 20 cases and Group C (no antibiotics = 35 cases. Total infection rate was 20% (16/80, distributed as follow: 8 cases (50% in Group C, 5 cases (31.2% in Group A and 3 cases in Group B (18.7%. Infection rate in each individual group was: 22.9% (8 cases/35 in Group C, 20% (5 cases/25 in Group A and 15% (3 cases/20 in Group B (P = 0.7. They were distributed as follow: Septicaemia 12 cases/16 (75%, wound infection 4 cases/16 (25%. Bacteria isolated were with a decreasing order: Staphylococcus aureus (36.3%, Pseudomonas (27.2%, Escherichia coli (18.1%, Klebsiella (9% and Enterobacteria (9%. There is a tendency to a delayed cicatrisation (P = 0.07 in case of hot oil burns (65.18 ± 120 days than by flame (54.33 ± 19.8 days than by hot water (29.55 ± 26.2 days. Otherwise no toxic shock syndrome was recorded in this study. Conclusion: It is concluded that adequate and careful nursing of burn wounds seems to be sufficient to prevent complications and to obtain cicatrisation. Antibiotics are

  11. Burn prevention mechanisms and outcomes: pitfalls, failures and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Costagliola, Michel; Hayek, Shady N

    2009-03-01

    Burns are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide and are among the most devastating of all injuries, with outcomes spanning the spectrum from physical impairments and disabilities to emotional and mental consequences. Management of burns and their sequelae even in well-equipped, modern burn units of advanced affluent societies remains demanding and extremely costly. Undoubtedly, in most low and middle income countries (LMICs) with limited resources and inaccessibility to sophisticated skills and technologies, the same standard of care is obviously not possible. Unfortunately, over 90% of fatal fire-related burns occur in developing or LMICs with South-East Asia alone accounting for over half of these fire-related deaths. If burn prevention is an essential part of any integrated burn management protocol anywhere, focusing on burn prevention in LMICs rather than treatment cannot be over-emphasized where it remains the major and probably the only available way of reducing the current state of morbidity and mortality. Like other injury mechanisms, the prevention of burns requires adequate knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics and associated risk factors, it is hence important to define clearly, the social, cultural and economic factors, which contribute to burn causation. While much has been accomplished in the areas of primary and secondary prevention of fires and burns in many developed or high-income countries (HICs) such as the United States due to sustained research on the epidemiology and risk factors, the same cannot be said for many LMICs. Many health authorities, agencies, corporations and even medical personnel in LMICs consider injury prevention to have a much lower priority than disease prevention for understandable reasons. Consequently, burns prevention programmes fail to receive the government funding that they deserve. Prevention programmes need to be executed with patience, persistence, and precision, targeting high

  12. Desert tortoise use of burned habitat in the Eastern Mojave desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Karla K.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; DeFalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Modlin, Andrew T.; Medica, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires burned 24,254 ha of critical habitat designated for the recovery of the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in southern Nevada during 2005. The proliferation of non-native annual grasses has increased wildfire frequency and extent in recent decades and continues to accelerate the conversion of tortoise habitat across the Mojave Desert. Immediate changes to vegetation are expected to reduce quality of critical habitat, yet whether tortoises will use burned and recovering habitat differently from intact unburned habitat is unknown. We compared movement patterns, home-range size, behavior, microhabitat use, reproduction, and survival for adult desert tortoises located in, and adjacent to, burned habitat to understand how tortoises respond to recovering burned habitat. Approximately 45% of home ranges in the post-fire environment contained burned habitat, and numerous observations (n = 12,223) corroborated tortoise use of both habitat types (52% unburned, 48% burned). Tortoises moved progressively deeper into burned habitat during the first 5 years following the fire, frequently foraging in burned habitats that had abundant annual plants, and returning to adjacent unburned habitat for cover provided by intact perennial vegetation. However, by years 6 and 7, the live cover of the short-lived herbaceous perennial desert globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua) that typically re-colonizes burned areas declined, resulting in a contraction of tortoise movements from the burned areas. Health and egg production were similar between burned and unburned areas indicating that tortoises were able to acquire necessary resources using both areas. This study documents that adult Mojave desert tortoises continue to use habitat burned once by wildfire. Thus, continued management of this burned habitat may contribute toward the recovery of the species in the face of many sources of habitat loss.

  13. Thermal injury induces impaired function in polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes and reduced control of burn wound infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, H.; Moser, C.; Jensen, P. O.;

    2009-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6% third-degree burn...... infected burn wound. Furthermore, the oxidative burst and the phagocytic capacity of the PMNs were reduced in the group of mice with burn wound. Using this novel mouse model of thermal injury a decline of peripheral leucocytes was observed, whereas the increased local inflammatory response at the site of...... injury was induced in mice with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. The mice were allocated into five groups: control, shave, burn, infection and burn infection group. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of...

  14. Burn therapist contributions to the American Burn Association and the Journal of Burn Care and Research: a 45th anniversary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Reginald

    2014-01-01

    The year 2013 marked the 45th anniversary of American Burn Association (ABA) annual meetings. At this significant juncture, a review of contributions of its members is appropriate to celebrate this milestone. Since the first ABA annual meeting and the initiation of the Journal of Burn Care and Research (JBCR), burn therapists, including both occupational and physical therapists, have grown to become integral members of the ABA, and their contributions among all members are highlighted. A systematic manual review of both ABA annual meeting proceedings and the JBCR was performed. The contributions of burn therapists to the ABA as a whole were classified, cataloged, and hand counted. Areas included: 1) quantifying ABA abstract and JBCR articles on authorship and subject matter, 2) representation on ABA committees; 3) participation in special activities; and 4) other recognitions. Burn therapists comprise 9.7% of ABA members overall. During the course of the first 44 ABA meetings, 8381 abstracts have been presented. Of this number, 634 (7.6%) have been delivered by burn therapists as lead authors. Through the end of 2011, no less than 3207 publications by all disciplines have appeared in JBCR. The vast majority of articles have been written by physicians, followed by doctorate-trained professionals. One hundred-forty therapists have 249 publications (7.8%) to their credit. For both abstracts and articles, the top three subject matter topics have been: scarring, splints and casts, and outcomes. Numerous burn therapists have served as faculty and moderators at ABA annual meetings and on ABA committees including JBCR. Burn therapists have made significant contributions to the JBCR and in support of the ABA and its annual meetings over the past 45 years from the clinical, scientific, and Association perspectives. PMID:24823340

  15. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  16. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  17. Butane Hash Oil Burns Associated with Marijuana Liberalization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cameron; Slim, Jessica; Flaten, Hanna K; Lindberg, Gordon; Arek, Wiktor; Monte, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Butane hash oil (BHO), also known as "amber," "dab," "glass," "honey," "shatter," or "wax," is a potent marijuana concentrate, containing up to 90 % tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). BHO is easily manufactured using highly volatile butane as a solvent. Our objective was to characterize hydrocarbon burns associated with BHO manufacture in Colorado. This was a cross-sectional study utilizing the National Burn Repository to capture all hydrocarbon burns reported to the local burn center from January 1st, 2008, through August 31st, 2014. We abstracted demographic and clinical variables from medical records for patients admitted for hydrocarbon burns associated with butane hash oil extraction. Twenty-nine cases of BHO burns were admitted to the local burn center during the study period. Zero cases presented prior to medical liberalization, 19 (61.3 %) during medical liberalization (Oct 2009-Dec 2013), and 12 (38.7 %) in 2014 since legalization. The majority of cases were Caucasian (72.4 %) males (89.7 %). Median age was 26 (range 15-58). The median total-body-surface-area (TBSA) burn size was 10 % (TBSA range 1-90 %). Median length of hospital admission was 10 days. Six required intubation for airway protection (21 %). Nineteen required skin grafting, eight wound care only, one required surgical fracture repair, and one required surgical debridement. Hydrocarbon burns associated with hash oil production have increased since the liberalization of marijuana policy in Colorado. A combination of public health messaging, standardization of manufacturing processes, and worker safety regulations are needed to decrease the risks associated with BHO production. PMID:26289652

  18. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  19. In-situ burning of oil spills: Review and research properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ burning of oil spills has been tried over the past thirty years but has never been fully-accepted as an oil-spill cleanup option - largely because of the lack of understanding of the combustion products and the principles governing the combustibility of oil-on-water. Extensive research is currently underway to understand the many facets of burning oil. A consortium of over 15 agencies in the United States and Canada have joined forces to study burning and to conduct large scale experiments. This effort will result in data which should lead to broader acceptance of in-situ burning as an acceptable spill countermeasures alternative. Burning has distinct advantages over other counter-measures. First and foremost, it offers the potential to rapidly remove large quantities of oil. In-situ burning has the potential to remove as much oil in one day as several mechanical devices could in one month. Application of in-situ burning could prevent a large amount of shoreline contamination and damage to biota by removing oil before it spreads and moves to other areas. Secondly, in-situ burning requires minimal equipment and much less labor than any other technique. It can be applied in areas where other methods cannot be used because of distances and lack of infra-structure. Thirdly, burning of oil is a final solution compared to mechanical recovery. When oil is recovered mechanically it still has to be transported, stored and disposed of. Fourth and finally, burning may be the only option available in certain situations. Oil amongst ice and on ice are examples of situations where practical alternatives to burning do not exist. There are disadvantages to burning. The first and most visible disadvantage is the large black smoke plume that burning oil produces. The second disadvantage is that the oil must be a minimum thickness to burn

  20. Improvement of survival in patients with extensive burns involving the perineum with use of a faecal management system

    OpenAIRE

    Farroha, A.; Frew, Q.; Philp, B.; Dziewulski, P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of faecal management systems in improving survival of patients with extensive burns involving the perineum. All adults with burns of more than 30% total body surface area (TBSA) who were actively treated in our regional burn service between December 2008 and July 2012 were reviewed and compared to an historical cohort of 18 adult patients with similar injury involving the perineum, treated in our regional burn service between 1999 and 2...

  1. E P I DEMIOLOGY OF PAEDIATRIC BURNS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangpreet Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burn injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. These are the third most common injury causing death in children, following motor vehicle accidents and drowning accidents. AIM: To study the Epidemiological parameters for assessment of morbidity & mortality rate in pediatric burns and to form effective preventive strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was done at the Department of Surgery, PIMS, Jalandhar. Total 50 patients (n=50 up to age of 12 years, were included in the study retrospectively. Data regarding age, sex, demographic distribution, seasonal variation, Total body surface area (TBSA involved, type and place of burn injury, parent’s occupation, family size and mortality rate were noted and analysed. RESULT S: Total 50 patients (n =50 of which 32 were males and 18 females were included in the study. Mean age of burn injuries was 3.6 years. Scalds burns were the most common cause of burns followed by thermal burns. It involved mostly upper limbs (67%, anterio r trunk (56%, lower limbs (53%, face (4%, and posterior trunk including buttocks (16% . The time lapse from injury to presentation to hospital ranged from 1 hour to 3 weeks. Total body surface area burnt was ranged from 2 – 60%. Mean hospital duration was 12 . 4 days. Complications ranged from wound sepsis in 11 patients (22%, contractures of fingers in 3 patients ( 6 % and hypertrophic scarring in 8 patients (16% . After healing of wounds, patients were advised pressure garments and oil massage and night splint age regularly for six months. CONCLUSION: Children constitute a vulnerable group of burns. Most injuries occur in the home setting where effective control measures can be adopted. Advances have also made in resuscitation, intensive care, antimicrobi als, vascular access, nutritional support, and skin banking. Splintage, physiotherapy, massage and pressure garments also help in reducing the morbidity and overall long term burden over

  2. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  3. U.S. Burning Plasma Organization Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: (1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; (2) activation of the advisory Council; (3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; (4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; (5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  4. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  5. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs .At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  6. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan Çizmeci; Samet Vasfi Kuvat

    2011-01-01

    Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are generea...

  7. DIFFERENTIATING PERIMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  8. The effect of obesity on adverse outcomes and metabolism in pediatric burn patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Williams, Felicia N.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis Obesity influences metabolism and increases the incidence of clinical complications and worsens outcomes in pediatric burn patients. Design Retrospective, single-center study. Subjects Five hundred ninety-two severely burned pediatric patients who had burns covering more than 30% of the total body surface area and who were treated between 2001 and 2008 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into ≥ 85th percentile (n = 277) and normal (n = 315) weight groups based on bod...

  9. An assessment of acute kidney injury with modified RIFLE criteria in pediatric patients with severe burns

    OpenAIRE

    Palmieri, Tina; Lavrentieva, Athina; Greenhalgh, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective To apply the modified pediatric RIFLE criteria for severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) to pediatric burn ICU patients and to evaluate the overall incidence of AKI, risk factors for AKI and influence of AKI on outcome. Design Retrospective, descriptive cohort study. Setting 10-bed burn PICU facility. Patients All consecutive patients with a burn injury of 10% or more of total body surface area percentage (TBSA, %) admitted during a 2 year period. Measurements and results Data of 12...

  10. An assessment of acute kidney injury with modified RIFLE criteria in pediatric patients with severe burns

    OpenAIRE

    Palmieri, Tina; Lavrentieva, Athina; Greenhalgh, David

    2009-01-01

    To apply the modified pediatric RIFLE criteria for severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) to pediatric burn ICU patients and to evaluate the overall incidence of AKI, risk factors for AKI and influence of AKI on outcome. Retrospective, descriptive cohort study. 10-bed burn PICU facility. All consecutive patients with a burn injury of 10% or more of total body surface area percentage (TBSA, %) admitted during a 2 year period. Data of 123 patients were studied. The incidence of AKI w...

  11. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-12-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-21-003-TANL; 09-21-001-TA09; TA-19-002-TAB2; TA-21-002-TAAL; and 03-19-001. The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU. The corrective action alternative recommended for CAU 410 is Clean Closure; therefore, no corrective action or corrective action plan is required. No use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU because the investigation showed no evidence of remaining soil contamination or remaining debris/waste upon completion of all investigation activities.

  13. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  14. Impact of trash burning on air quality in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzic, A; Wiedinmyer, C; Salcedo, D; Jimenez, J L

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution experienced by expanding urban areas is responsible for serious health effects and death for millions of people every year. Trash burning is a common disposal method in poor areas, yet it is uncontrolled in many countries, and its contribution to air pollution is unclear due to uncertainties in its emissions. Here we develop a new trash burning emission inventory for Mexico City based on inverse socioeconomic levels and recently measured emission factors, and apply a chemistry-transport model to analyze the effects on pollutant concentrations. Trash burning is estimated to emit 25 tons of primary organic aerosols (POA) per day, which is comparable to fossil fuel POA emissions in Mexico City, and causes an increase in average organic aerosol concentrations of ∼0.3 μg m(-3) downtown and up to 2 μg m(-3) in highly populated suburbs near the sources of emission. An evaluation using submicrometer antimony suggests that our emission estimates are reasonable. Mitigation of trash burning could reduce the levels of organic aerosols by 2-40% and those of PM(2.5) by 1-15% over the metropolitan area. The trash burning contributions to carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds were found to be very small (organic aerosols are also very small. PMID:22458823

  15. A Survey of Suicide by Burning in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhredin Taghaddosinejad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify the characteristics of completed suicide by burning in Tehran. A retrospective analysis of data obtained from Tehran's Legal Medicine Organization and judiciary system over 5-years (from 2002 to 2006. During the 5 years, 374 decedents (64.2% female and 35.8% male were diagnosed as suicide by self-burning, and the annual incidence rate was 0.9 per 100,000 general population-years. The most at risk group was young females. Sixty-five decedents (17.4% had died at the scene of incidents. The location at the time of attempted suicide in all female victims and 75.4% of male decedents was home. Sixty-one percent of decedents were married and 26.2% of them had no education. Most victims were residents of suburban areas. The annual incidence rate of self-burning suicide in Tehran was found to be lower than other Iran's geographic areas, although it was higher than developed countries. Self-burning was more frequent in females than in males and was noted mainly in young age groups' residents of suburban areas with low level of education. These characteristics suggest that social factors are the main drive leading to an unacceptably high rate of suicide by self-burning among women in Tehran.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark; Gallo, Patricia

    2016-04-21

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 413 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. CAU 413 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-02CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 413 are the result of the atmospheric deposition of contamination from the 1963 CSII test. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 413 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 17, 2015, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 413. The CAI will include radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, collection and analyses of soil samples, and assessment of investigation results. The collection of soil samples will be accomplished using both probabilistic and judgmental sampling approaches. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of DQO decisions, the releases at CAU 413 have been divided into seven study groups.

  17. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. Area source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon mon...

  18. In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P.; Bennett, David B.; Bajwa, Neha; Barnett, Kelli S.; Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2012-04-01

    A reflective, pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system was used to acquire high-resolution (d10-90/ λ~1.925) images of deep, partial thickness burns in a live rat. The rat's abdomen was burned with a brass brand heated to ~220°C and pressed against the skin with contact pressure for ~10 sec. The burn injury was imaged beneath a Mylar window every 15 to 30 min for up to 7 h. Initial images display an increase in local water concentration of the burned skin as evidenced by a marked increase in THz reflectivity, and this likely correlates to the post-injury inflammatory response. After ~1 h the area of increased reflectivity consolidated to the region of skin that had direct contact with the brand. Additionally, a low reflecting ring of tissue could be observed surrounding the highly reflective burned tissue. We hypothesize that these regions of increased and decreased reflectivity correlate to the zones of coagulation and stasis that are the classic foundation of burn wound histopathology. While further investigations are necessary to confirm this hypothesis, if true, it likely represents the first in vivo THz images of these pathologic zones and may represent a significant step forward in clinical application of THz technology.

  19. Treatment and follow-up results of children with electrical burn who observed in burn intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Aliosmanoğlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical burns are infrequent relative to other injuries, but they are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess management and follow-up results of pediatric patients’ who observed in intensive care unit and also review the precautions for preventing electrical burns.Materials and methods: Totally 22 patients aged under 17 years who were observed in the burn intensive care unit of Şanlıurfa Education and Research Hospital during the period between July 2009-October 2010. Cases were investigated retrospectively. The patients’ age, gender, total burn surface area, length of stay in hospital, musculo-skeletal system complication, cardiovascular system complication, kidney damage and attempts were recorded.Results: Of the 22 cases, 19 (86.3% were male and 3 (13.7% were female. The mean age of the patients was 11.5 years. In 10 (45.4% children burns were occurred in workplace and working area and 12 (54.6% were occurred in the home environment. Depth of burns were third degree in 10 (45.4% children and second degree in 12 (54.6%. The mean percentage of burn surface area was 25.9%. The mean length of stay in hospital was 17 days. Debridement and grafting were performed to 12 (54.6% cases and 10 (45.4% children were treated with dressings. No patient had increased creatinine kinase levels, oliguria, myoglobuinuria and arrhythmia. The mean hospitalization time was 17 days.Conclusion: Nearly half of patients underwent debridement plus grafting. None of our patients developed renal failure other severe system dysfunction.

  20. Effect of topical silver sulfadiazine on plasma copper, zinc and silver concentrations in a burn rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, R.; Boosalis, M.; McClain, C.; Becker, W.; Watiwat, S. (Army Inst. of Surgery Research, Ft. Sam Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-03-15

    One percent silver sulfadiazine cream (AgSD) is routinely used as a topical agent to prevent wound infection in burned patients. This report describes the effect of such topical therapy on plasma copper, silver and zinc concentrations in burned rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats received full thickness burns of 30% of the total body surface and were maintained for seven days on Purina Rat Chow and deionized water ad libitum. Twelve sham burned animals were similarly maintained. The wounds in six burned and a similar area in six sham burned animals were treated daily with 3 gms of AgSD, beginning on the day of injury. Blood was drawn on the seventh postburn day and analyzed for plasma copper, silver and zinc, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Silver absorption was associated with decreased plasma copper concentration in both burned and sham burned animals. Zinc concentrations did not differ significantly.

  1. Burn severity estimation using GeoEye imagery, object-based image analysis (OBIA), and Composite Burn Index (CBI) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragozi, E.; Gitas, Ioannis Z.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Minakou, C.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fires greatly influence the stability and functions of the forest ecosystems. The ever increasing need for accurate and detailed information regarding post-fire effects (burn severity) has led to several studies on the matter. In this study the combined use of Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite data (GeoEye), Objectbased image analysis (OBIA) and Composite Burn Index (CBI) measurements in estimating burn severity, at two different time points (2011 and 2012) is assessed. The accuracy of the produced maps was assessed and changes in burn severity between the two dates were detected using the post classification comparison approach. It was found that the produced burn severity map for 2011 was approximately 10% more accurate than that of 2012. This was mainly attributed to the increased heterogeneity of the study area in the second year, which led to an increased number of mixed class objects and consequently made it more difficult to spectrally discriminate between the severity classes. Following the post-classification analysis, the severity class changes were mainly attributed to the trees' ability to survive severe fire damage and sprout new leaves. Moreover, the results of the study suggest that when classifying CBI-based burn severity using VHR imagery it would be preferable to use images captured soon after the fire.

  2. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guanying; Ye, Lan; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Xuguo; Li, Yaonan; Jiang, Duyin

    2016-03-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep‑degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (P<0.01). Through microarray analysis of the cytokines present in ADM and DDBDM, it was determined that the DDBDM did not produce excessive levels of harmful burn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep‑degree burns. PMID:26846279

  3. Clinical and demographic features of pediatric burns in the eastern provinces of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yıldız

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to perform a retrospective analysis of the causes of burns observed in children in the eastern provinces of Turkey. Method In this study, patients were studied retrospectively with regard to their age, sex, cause of burns, seasonal variations, social and economic factors, length of hospital stay, burned body surface area, medical history, site of injury, and mortality. Results A total of 125 patients undergoing inpatient treatment were male, (53.2% and 110 were female (46.8%. The most common causes of burns in patients treated on an inpatient basis were scald burns (65.5% and tandir burns (15.7%. The mean total body surface area of all the patients was 12.17+9.86%. When the patients were grouped according to tandir, cauldron, and others burn causes, a significant difference was seen between the in burn percentages caused by tandir and cauldron burns and other causes (p Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.4%. Of the 235 patients, 61 were treated in operating rooms. During the 24-month period of the study, 2 of the 235 patients died (0.85%. Conclusion Pediatric burns in the eastern part of Turkey are different from those in other parts of Turkey, as well as in other countries. Due to the lifestyle of the region, tandir and cauldron burns, which cause extensive burn areas and high morbidity, are frequently seen in children. Therefore, precautions and educational programs related to the use of tandirs and cauldrons are needed in this region.

  4. In situ radiological surveying at the Double Tracks site, Nellis Air Force Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the Double Tracks site on the Nellis Air Force Range just east of Goldfield, Nevada, during the periods of April 10-13 and June 5-9, 1995. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This site includes the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The main purpose of the first expedition was to assess several new techniques for characterizing sites with dispersed plutonium. The two purposes of the second expedition were to characterize the distribution of transuranic contamination (primarily plutonium) at the site by measuring the gamma rays from americium-241 and to assess the performance of the two new detector platforms. Both of the new platforms performed well, and the characterization of the americium-241 activity at the site was completed. Several plots compare these ground-based system measurements and the 1993 aerial data. The agreement is good considering the systems are characterized and calibrated through independent means. During the April expedition, several methods for measuring the depth distribution of americium-241 in the field were conducted as a way of quickly and reliably obtaining depth profiles without the need to wait for laboratory analysis. Two of the methods were not very effective, but the results of the third method appear very promising

  5. Observation on effects of artificial dermis for repair of large area burn wounds of hand%采用人工真皮修复大面积烧伤早期手部创面的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季一发; 章静; 朱峰; 陈赟; 贺立新

    2011-01-01

    To observe the clinical effect of artificial dcrmis on early repair of burn wounds of hand. Methods:Thirty-eight burn patients who were admitted to the Youanmcn Hospital from January 2009 to September 2010 were randomly divided into two groups with 19 cases in each group. The artificial dcrmis group received early repair operation with artificial dcrmis coverage first and then split-thickness autologous skin grafting after 2 weeks. The control group received early excision of eschar, auto-microskin and allogcnic skin grafting, and autologous skin graft at the later stage. Patients in both groups were treated with dressing change, anti-infection therapy, nutrition and organ function support etc. After operation, and rehabilitation exercises were given after wound healed. Patients were followcd-up for 0. 5-1 year to compare the function of hand and contraction of the wound between the two groups. Results:The wounds were healed in 38 hands of 19 cases in artificial dcrmis group 3 weeks after the operation. The follow-up observation showed that the healing was satisfactory, and the function of extension and making fist was good, with better elasticity of composite skin, with mild scarring and lighter colorization of skin. In the control group, 1 patient died of severe infection and multiple organ failure 2 weeks after admission, the wounds of 36 hands of 18 patients healed 1 month after the operation. Follow-up observation showed that there was contracturc in different levels of the scars, mctacarpophalangcal joint dorsiflcxion deformity, webbed fingers scar, and limitation of functional activity. Conclusions;The artificial dcrmis can effectively cover the wound in cases with lack of auto-skin in the early stage of burn, and it is a better coverage material in repairing the hand surface in order to lessen scar formation of the wound in the early stage of an extensive burn.%目的:观察早期应用人工真皮修复大面积烧伤患者手

  6. OPTIMIZED FLUID MANAGEMENT IMPROVES OUTCOMES OF PEDIATRIC BURN PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Leonard, Katrina R; Jeschke, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major determinants for survival of severely burned patients is appropriate fluid resuscitation. At present, fluid resuscitation is calculated based on bodyweight or body surface area, burn size, and urinary output. However, recent evidence suggests that fluid calculation is inadequate and that over- and under-resuscitation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that optimizing fluid administration during the critical initial phase using a transcardiopulmonary thermo-dilution monitoring device (PiCCO) would have beneficial effects on the outcome of burned patients. Methods A cohort of seventy-six severely burned pediatric patients with burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA) who received adjusted fluid resuscitation using the PiCCO (P) system were compared to 76 conventionally monitored patients (C). Clinical hemodynamic measurements, organ function (DENVER2 score), and biomarkers were recorded prospectively for the first 20 days after burn injury. Results Both cohorts were similar in demographic and injury characteristics. Patients in the PiCCO group received significantly less fluids (p<0.05) with similar urinary output, resulting in a significantly lower positive fluid balance (p<0.05). The central venous pressure (CVP) in the P group was maintained in a more controlled range (p<0.05), associated with a significantly lower heart rate and significantly lower incidence of cardiac and renal failure, p<0.05. Conclusions Fluid resuscitation guided by transcardiopulmonary thermo-dilution during hospitalization represents an effective adjunct and is associated with beneficial effects on post-burn morbidity. PMID:22703982

  7. Agricultural Burning in the Southeastern United States Detected by MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Justice, C. O.; Korontzi, S.

    2005-12-01

    The southeastern United States, including the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia, has a high occurrence of fire activity as detected by MODIS. The spatio-temporal analysis of the 1 km MODIS TERRA Active Fire Product (MOD 14) from 2001 to 2004 shows that agricultural burning in the southeastern United States accounts for an average of 16 percent of annual fire activity. In addition, the southeastern region contributes an average of 33 percent of all agricultural burning in the contiguous United States. Crop types that most likely burn in the southeast include rice, winter wheat, sugarcane, soybean and cotton. Much of the agricultural burning occurs in June and from October to January and is related to the harvest of winter wheat and rice in the spring and the harvest of sugarcane, soybean and cotton in the fall and winter. The results show that cropland burning is spatially dependent on crop type and temporally dependent on management practices (planting/harvesting). Three states represent more than 75 percent of all agricultural burning in the southeast: Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana. A 250 m MODIS land cover map cover was created for these three states using a decision tree classification. Compared to the MODIS 1 km Land Cover Dataset (MOD 12) (Friedl et al., 2002), the 250m classified images contain on average 50 percent more cropland area and improve the estimation of cropland area based on validation from ground control sites of croplands. Results from the decision tree classification for each state suggest that in 2004 agricultural burning contributed 73 percent, 54 percent, and 33 percent of total fires for Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, respectively.

  8. Treatment strategies for mass burn casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Jia-ke; SHENG Zhi-yong; YANG Hong-ming; HAO Dai-feng; SHEN Chuan-an; JIA Xiao-ming; LI Feng; JING Sa; LI Li-gen; SONG Hui-feng; JIA Chi-yu; TUO Xiao-ye; SUN Tian-jun; HU Quan

    2009-01-01

    Background Mass burn casualties are always a great challenge to a medical team because a large number of seriously injured patients were sent in within a short time. Usually a high mortality is impending. Experiences gained from successful treatment of the victims may be useful in guiding the care of mass casualties in an armed conflict.Methods Thirty-five burn victims in a single batch, being transferred nonstop by air and highway from a distant province,were admitted 48 hours post-injury. All patients were male with a mean age of (22.4±8.7) years. The burn extent ranged from 4% to 75% ((13.6±12.9)%) total body surface area. Among them, thirty-two patients were complicated by moderate and severe inhalation injury, and tracheostomy had been performed in 15 patients. Decompression incisions of burn eschar on extremities were done in 17 cases before transportation. All the thirty-five patients arrived at the destination smoothly via 4-hour airlift and road transportation. Among them, twenty-five patients were in critical condition.Results These thirty-five patients were evacuated 6 hours from the scene of the injury, and they were transferred to a local hospital for primary emergency care. The patients were in very poor condition when admitted to our hospital because of the severe injury with delayed and inadequate treatment. Examination of these patients at admission showed that one patient was suffering from sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Dysfunction of the heart, lung, liver,kidney, and coagulation were all found in the patients. Forty-eight operations were performed in the 23 patients during one month together with comprehensive treatment, and the function of various organs was ameliorated after appropriate treatment. All the 35 patients survived.Conclusions A well-organized team consisting of several cooperative groups with specified duties is very important. As a whole, the treatment protocol should be individualized, basing on the extent of

  9. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  10. A numerical study of Li-SF6 wick combustion - Forced and mixed convective burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaso, R. C.; Chen, L.-D.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study is conducted to study Li-SF6 wick diffusion flames under mixed convective burning conditions at a pressure of 0.01 MPa. Both planar and cylindrical wicks are considered. The model is based on a conserved scalar approach. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of particular parameters on the burning rate and heat transfer. The flat-plate solution yields a fuel mass burning rate per unit surface area following the x exp -1/2 dependence of the classical similarity solution, where x is the streamwise distance. Cylindrical wick geometries yield enhanced burning rates over planar wicks. For the case of mixed convective burning, the burning rate results approach either the forced or natural convective burning limits as ambient streamwise velocity is changed. Critical Richardson numbers specifying these burning limits are determined for a given condition. Reducing gravity results in a lower burning rate because the influence of natural convection is diminished. Under reduced gravity of 1/1000 of the sea-level value, mixed convective burning nearly resembles forced convection.

  11. Waste: energy to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinerated, transformed into fuel or a gas, waste is a versatile source of energy. It is as once a problem and a resource that is increasingly the focus of green policies. According to the 2009 World Waste Survey, between 3.4 and 4 billion tons of waste are produced each year worldwide. Leading the pack is China, with 300 million tons produced in 2005, followed closely by the United States, with 238 million tons. But the United States wins the per capita count with 760 kg of waste produced per year per inhabitant; Australia comes in second. In Europe, 500 kg of waste is produced per capita per year for a total of 2 billion tons generated annually, and a growth rate of 10% in ten years' time. Between 2/3 and 3/4 of these waste materials are sorted, and a portion of them is recycled. The rest is either carted away to a dumping ground, or incinerated. But this waste is primarily domestic, and still contains energy, energy that can be recovered. The added bonus is two-fold: an additional source of energy is created by transforming waste, called waste-to- wheel or waste-to-energy (WTE), and the decomposition of organic waste does not give off GHGs. Two ways are known today to transform wastes into energy: the thermal process, where heat is extracted from the waste (and sometimes converted into electricity), and the non-thermal process, which comprises collecting energy in a chemical form (biogas, biofuel). Both technologies depend on the type of waste to be treated: plastic materials, household refuse, fermentable elements, sludge residue from sewage treatment plants, agricultural waste, forestry industry waste, etc. The thermal process is by far the most widely employed. 74% of waste is incinerated in Japan, and around 30 to 55% in most European countries. The second process does not burn waste and is better suited to wet and organic matter, i.e., to waste that contains quantities of biomass: fermentable waste, sludge, agricultural waste and the gas given off at

  12. Intercomparison of Near-Real-Time Biomass Burning Emissions Estimates Constrained by Satellite Fire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compare biomass burning emissions estimates from four different techniques that use satellite based fire products to determine area burned over regional to global domains. Three of the techniques use active fire detections from polar-orbiting MODIS sensors and one uses detec...

  13. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn, turbocha

  14. Application of remote sensing to understanding fire regimes and biomass burning emissions of the tropical Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Anderson, L.O.; Malhi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the tropical Andes, there have been very few systematic studies aimed at understanding the biomass burning dynamics in the area. This paper seeks to advance on our understanding of burning regimes in this region, with the first detailed and comprehensive assessment of fire occurrence and the deri

  15. Emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds from open crop burning in Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, H.; Kudo, S.; Pan, X.; Inomata, S.; Saito, S.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) at Rudong, a rural area of Central East China in June 2010. During the campaign we identified several plumes originated from open biomass burning by the simultaneous enhancements of carbon monoxide and acetonitrile. Based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, the contribution of biomass burning was in the range from 60 to 80% for the plumes. We found that oxygenated VOCs were predominant for these events. The emission ratios of OVOCs to CO for open crop burnings derived in this work were found to be high. Combined with the updated CO emissions of 12.7 Tg per year from crop burning, we estimated OVOC emissions from crop burning can be about 1.2 Tg per year, accounting for substantial amount of VOCs emitted from crop burning.

  16. Helium processing for deuterium/helium burns in ITER's physics phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements for vacuum pumping and fuel processing for deuterium/helium (D/3He) burns in the physics operating phase for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were assessed. These burns are expected to have low fusion power (100 MW), short burn times (≤30 s), limited operation (2000 shots), and a fractional burn ∼0.3%. For the physics phase, the fuel processing system will include several units to separate deuterium and helium (activated charcoal bed, SAES getter and a Pd/Ag diffuser), as well as an isotopic separation system to separate 3He and 4He. The needed vacuum system's cryosorption surface area may be as large as 10 m2 if the burn time is ∼200 s, the fractional burn is 100 MW. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  17. Helium processing for deuterium/helium burns in ITER's physics phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for vacuum pumping and fuel processing for deuterium/helium (D/{sup 3}He) burns in the physics operating phase for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were assessed. These burns are expected to have low fusion power (100 MW), short burn times ({le}30 s), limited operation (2000 shots), and a fractional burn {approximately}0.3%. For the physics phase, the fuel processing system will include several units to separate deuterium and helium (activated charcoal bed, SAES getter and a Pd/Ag diffuser), as well as an isotopic separation system to separate {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He. The needed vacuum system's cryosorption surface area may be as large as 10 m{sup 2} if the burn time is {approximately}200 s, the fractional burn is <0.3%, or the fusion power is >100 MW. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Fire hazard after prescribed burning in a gorse shrubland: implications for fuel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Eva; Guijarro, Mercedes; Hernando, Carmen; Madrigal, Javier; Díez, Carmen

    2011-03-01

    Prescribed burning is commonly used to prevent accumulation of biomass in fire-prone shrubland in NW Spain. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the efficacy of the technique in reducing fire hazard in these ecosystems. Fire hazard in burned shrubland areas will depend on the initial capacity of woody vegetation to recover and on the fine ground fuels existing after fire. To explore the effect that time since burning has on fire hazard, experimental tests were performed with two fuel complexes (fine ground fuels and regenerated shrubs) resulting from previous prescribed burnings conducted in a gorse shrubland (Ulex europaeus L.) one, three and five years earlier. A point-ignition source was used in burning experiments to assess ignition and initial propagation success separately for each fuel complex. The effect of wind speed was also studied for shrub fuels, and several flammability parameters were measured. Results showed that both ignition and initial propagation success of fine ground fuels mainly depended on fuel depth and were independent of time since burning, although flammability parameters indicated higher fire hazard three years after burning. In contrast, time since burning increased ignition and initial propagation success of regenerated shrub fuels, as well as the flammability parameters assessed, but wind speed had no significant effect. The combination of results of fire hazard for fine ground fuels and regenerated shrubs according to the variation in relative coverage of each fuel type after prescribed burning enabled an assessment of integrated fire hazard in treated areas. The present results suggest that prescribed burning is a very effective technique to reduce fire hazard in the study area, but that fire hazard will be significantly increased by the third year after burning. These results are valuable for fire prevention and fuel management planning in gorse shrubland areas. PMID:21112688

  19. Advanced tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new reduced size ITER-RC superconducting tokamak concept is proposed with the goals of studying burn physics either in an inductively driven standard tokamak (ST) mode of operation, or in a quasi-steady state advanced tokamak (AT) mode sustained by non-inductive means. This is achieved by reducing the radiation shield thickness protecting the superconducting magnet by 0.34 m relative to ITER and limiting the burn mode of operation to pulse lengths as allowed by the TF coil warming up to the current sharing temperature. High gain (Q≅10) burn physics studies in a reversed shear equilibrium, sustained by RF and NB current drive techniques, may be obtained. (author)

  20. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Maxwell; Stacey, Weston

    2013-10-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamaks, especially those used as a neutron source for fusion-fission hybrid reactors, such as the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept. At Georgia Tech, we are developing a new burning plasma dynamics code to investigate passive safety mechanisms that could prevent power excursions in tokamak reactors. This code solves the coupled set of balance equations governing burning plasmas in conjunction with a two-point SOL-divertor model. Predictions have been benchmarked against data from DIII-D. We are examining several potential negative feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instabilities, iii) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement resulting from ripples in the toroidal field, iv) modifications to the radial current profile, v) ``divertor choking'' and vi) Type 1 ELMs.

  1. Successful treatment of invasive burn wound infection with sepsis in patients with major burns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of invasive bum wound infection with sepsis in patients with major burns and to summarize the successful expenences in the treatment of such patients. Methods Eight patients with major bums, complicated by invesive bum wound infection and sepsis were consecutively admitted to our hospital from September 1997 to October 1998. Among them, 6 patients developed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and 2 developed septic shock. The plasma concentrations of IL-6,IL-8,TNFα and lypopolysaccharibe (LPS) were assayed before and after surgical intervention, as well as when the patient' s vital signs became stable. Results The patients' conditions usually deterieorated abruptly when extensive invasive bum wound infection emerged. While multi-microbial infection was usually found, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant bactena isolated from the subeschar tissue. The plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and LPS before surgical intervention wore significantly higher than those after surgical intervention (P<0.05).The lowest levels of the inflammatory mediators were abserved when the patients'conditions became stable,and the values were significantly lower than those before surgical intervention ( P<0.001). Conclusion Since the main cause of burn wound sepsis is the presence of a large area of infected bum wound, they should be excised and covered as early as possible. LPS and pro-inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathogenesis of burn sepsis. Athough favorable results should be attributed to compmhessive treatment, we believe that early, aggressive and thorough surgical excision of infected burn wounds, followed by sound and complete coverage of the area, play a crucial role.

  2. Epidemiology of severe burn injuries in a Tertiary Burn Centre in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Barzelighi, H.; Alaghehbandan, R.; Motevallian, A.; Alinejad, F.; Soleimanzadeh-Moghadam, S.; Sattari, M.; A R Lari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized burn patients in a tertiary burn centre in Tehran, Iran. A hospital-based cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with burn injuries was conducted in Motahari Burn and Reconstruction Center in Tehran from August to December 2010. Medical records of all hospitalized burn patients were reviewed and pertinent information was captured. A total of 135 patients with severe burns requiring hospitalizat...

  3. Forest edge burning in the Brazilian Amazon promoted by escaping fires from managed pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Crespo, Ana; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Boit, Alice; Cardoso, Manoel; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    Understanding to what extent different land uses influence fire occurrence in the Amazonian forest is particularly relevant for its conservation. We evaluate the relationship between forest fires and different anthropogenic activities linked to a variety of land uses in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. We combine the new high-resolution (30 m) TerraClass land use database with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer burned area data for 2008 and the extreme dry year of 2010. Excluding the non-forest class, most of the burned area was found in pastures, primary and secondary forests, and agricultural lands across all three states, while only around 1% of the total was located in deforested areas. The trend in burned area did not follow the declining deforestation rates from 2001 to 2010, and the spatial overlap between deforested and burned areas was only 8% on average. This supports the claim of deforestation being disconnected from burning since 2005. Forest degradation showed an even lower correlation with burned area. We found that fires used in managing pastoral and agricultural lands that escape into the neighboring forests largely contribute to forest fires. Such escaping fires are responsible for up to 52% of the burned forest edges adjacent to burned pastures and up to 22% of the burned forest edges adjacent to burned agricultural fields, respectively. Our findings call for the development of control and monitoring plans to prevent fires from escaping from managed lands into forests to support effective land use and ecosystem management.

  4. 9例大面积烧伤合并吸入性气道损伤患者下呼吸道感染的预防与控制%The prevention and control of lower respiratory tract infection in 9 cases of patients with large area burn combined inhalation injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小玥; 穆晓苏; 徐晓莉; 黄慧敏; 方红梅; 尹湘毅; 李亚楠; 尹诺

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨9例大面积烧伤合并吸入性气道损伤患者下呼吸道感染的预防与控制措施。方法调查9例大面积烧伤合并吸入性损伤患者的下呼吸道分泌物培养的病原菌细菌谱及耐药情况。结果共检出下呼吸道病原菌2种,共38株,其中鲍曼不动杆菌37株,占97.36%(37/38);嗜麦芽假单胞菌1株,占2.64%(1/38)。鲍曼不动杆菌耐药率达到75.59%,对替加环素、米诺环素敏感性90%以上。经过严格实施感染预防与控制,合理使用抗菌药物等综合措施后取得了良好的疗效,鲍曼不动杆菌检出率明显下降。结论本文患者的下呼吸道病原菌以鲍曼不动杆菌最常见,虽然鲍曼不动杆菌感染率及耐药率高,但可以通过有效的消毒隔离、严格的下呼吸道医院感染预防措施及合理应用抗菌药物等方法,使鲍曼不动杆菌的检出率明显下降。%Objective To prevent and reduce lower respiratory tract infection in the batch of patients with large area burn combined inhalation injury. Methods 9 cases of large area burn with inhalation injury patients were investigated of bacterial spectrum and drug resistance of lower respiratory tract secretion. Results In the survey, we detected a total of 38 strains of 2 kinds of the lower respiratory tract pathogen, including 37 strains of acinetobacter baumannii accounting for 97. 36% and 1 strain of eosinophilic malt pseudomonas accounting for 2.64%. Acinetobacter baumannii antibiotic resistant rate rised up to 75.59%. The sensitive rate of tigecy⁃cline and minocycline rised significantly (>90%) . After strict infection control, reasonable use of antibiotics and other comprehensive measures, we have obtained a good curative effect. The detection rate of acinetobacter baumannii declined obviously. Conclusion In large area burn with inhalation injury patients, acinetobacter baumannii is the most common in lower respiratory tract

  5. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 oC and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by increasing

  6. The effect of wind, ice and waves on the in-situ burning of emulsions and aged oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of small- and meso-scale in-situ burning tests was conducted on Spitsbergen to define the limitations and burn effectiveness of in-situ burning of water-in-oil emulsions in terms of water content, degree of evaporation, and film thickness; and to study how the presence of ice, waves, and wind affect in-situ burning. The tests were conducted in basins cut into the ice on a fjord. The size of the basins ranged from 4 to 300 m2. The largest basin was fitted with a wavemaker. Evaporated water-free oil was found to be easily ignited and to burn with high efficiency. The burn efficiency was not affected by waves. Highly evaporated oil with 25% water was hard to ignite with gelled gasoline. In the presence of waves, it was not possible to ignite a 12.5% stable water-in-oil emulsion. The presence of waves reduced the burn efficiency for emulsion with a low water content. The main problem with in-situ burning of emulsions is flame spreading; emulsions require a large initial burn area for the burn to be self-sustaining. Small ice floes and slush did not influence burn efficiency in a negative way. In-situ burning could not be accomplished in wind speeds above 10 m/s. 2 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Perceptions of Prescribed Burning in a Local Forest Community in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tina; Oliveras, Immaculada

    2006-11-01

    The general perceptions of prescribed burning were elicited from forest users for an area that has been subject to this form of land management for at least 20 years. The largest group consisted of local residents living in and around the Wombat State Forest with two smaller groups of students from a nearby university campus and local professional land managers. A questionnaire was given to each participant in order to explore how the forest was used, to determine the level of knowledge of burning in the targeted forest and Victoria and the perception of the appearance, effectiveness of protection, and accessibility to the forest after prescribed burning. Generally all groups had similar responses with community members having stronger views on the effectiveness and practicalities of prescribed burning, whereas students were more neutral in their opinions. All participants claimed knowledge of prescribed burning activities within Victoria, but fewer had experience of planned fires in the Wombat State Forest. All groups agreed that areas that had not been recently burned had a better appearance than those that had, but this result may have included a range of value judgments. Land managers had a greater understanding of the ecological importance of season and timing of burning; however, some students and community members were equally knowledgeable. Prescribed burning did not impede access to the forest, nor did smoke from prescribed burns pose any great problem. The majority of the participants felt that the amount of prescribed burning done in the forest was adequate for engendering a feeling of protection to life and property, yet many were still suspicious of this management practice. These initial findings indicate several areas in which further research would be useful including the efficacy of education programs for community members and improved communication of burn plans by land managers.

  8. Intensive Insulin Therapy in Severely Burned Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Kraft, Robert; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mlcak, Ron; Lee, Jong O.; Herndon, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in severely burned patients, and glycemic control appears essential to improve clinical outcomes. However, to date no prospective randomized study exists that determines whether intensive insulin therapy is associated with improved post-burn morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To determine whether intensive insulin therapy is associated with improved post-burn morbidity. Methods: A total of 239 severely burned pediatric patients with burns over greater than 30% of their total body surface area were randomized (block randomization 1:3) to intensive insulin treatment (n = 60) or control (n = 179). Measurements and Main Results: Demographics, clinical outcomes, sepsis, glucose metabolism, organ function, and inflammatory, acute-phase, and hypermetabolic responses were determined. Demographics were similar in both groups. Intensive insulin treatment significantly decreased the incidence of infections and sepsis compared with controls (P < 0.05). Furthermore, intensive insulin therapy improved organ function as indicated by improved serum markers, DENVER2 scores, and ultrasound (P < 0.05). Intensive insulin therapy alleviated post-burn insulin resistance and the vast catabolic response of the body (P < 0.05). Intensive insulin treatment dampened inflammatory and acute-phase responses by deceasing IL-6 and acute-phase proteins compared with controls (P < 0.05). Mortality was 4% in the intensive insulin therapy group and 11% in the control group (P = 0.14). Conclusions: In this prospective randomized clinical trial, we showed that intensive insulin therapy improves post-burn morbidity. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00673309). PMID:20395554

  9. To Burn or not to Burn: Making the Burning of Chocolate Hills of Bohol, Philippines Carbon Neutral

    OpenAIRE

    Nathaniel T. Bantayan; Margaret M Calderon; Flocencia B. Pulhin; Canesio D. Predo; Rose Ann C. Baruga

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current management regime of burning vis-à-vis burning with carbon offsets for the Chocolate Hills Natural Monument (CHNM) in Bohol, Philippines. The current scheme of burning to maintain the grass-covered (tree-less) and brown hills to sustain tourist arrivals is seen as environmentally unsound and inconsistent with existing environmental laws. The study estimated the carbon loss from burning and compared the carbon loss value with the tourism income ...

  10. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Rollins, M.; Ohlen, D.; Key, C.H.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Shi, H.

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  11. Chorioretinal burn: body temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiance thresholds for chorioretinal damage in rhesus monkeys vary linearly with core temperatures between 34 and 390C. Damage results from the combined thermal effects of retinal irradiation and the body temperature. Visible damage is calculated to occur at a tissue temperature of 42.50C. Fever increases the retina's susceptibility to burns from the sun, lasers, and other radiant energy sources

  12. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. PMID:20510518

  13. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients. PMID:22360959

  14. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  15. Burning mouth syndrome: Present perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Parajuli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of obvious visible mucosal lesions. Patient presenting with the burning mouth sensation or pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice which poses a challenge to the treating clinician. Its exact etiology remains unknown which probably has multifactorial origin. It often affects middle or old age women and it may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Objective: To review the current concepts regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Methods and methodology: A literature review was conducted on PubMed/Medline and Google scholar about the burning mouth syndrome and the representative articles were selected and reviewed. Conclusion: There is no universal consensus regarding diagnosis, etiology and treatment of BMS. BMS is a diagnosis of exclusion which probably has multifactorial origin. Various pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments are available but it is difficult to achieve curative treatment so reassurance is of great importance while treating the patients. Combination of cognitive behavioral therapy, alpha lipoic acid and/or clonazepam has shown promising results.

  16. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  17. Treatment of acute deep burns in lower extremities of the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Babur M. Shakirov

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the different surgical treatments in 154 elderly patients with acute deep burns of lower extremities admitted in Burn Department of RSCUMA.Methods:Skin grafts in extensive burns were performed in 32 patients for the purpose of achieving early closure of the burn area. In 116 patients with burn surface area of 6-25 %, skin grafting was performed on the granulating wound when the wound was ready for accepting skin graft. In these 19 cases, a stamp graft procedure was used in 12 patients and Mowlen-Jackson method of skin grafting in 7 cases.Results:Analysis of the nearest results showed that 28 out of 154 patients came back to the hospital for new surgery due to loss of ability of normal movement of their extremities.Conclusions:Careful patient selection and timing of surgery will help to avoid any adverse effect on patient outcome.

  18. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  19. Comparison of Two Types of Gels in Improving Burn Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimzadeh Golnar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Kefir are natural probiotic compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, which were tested in experimental burn injury. Kefir gels were prepared from an extract of continuously cultured kefir in Man, Rogosa and Sharpe Broth medium for 48 and 96 h. Their extracts were used for evaluation of antibacterial effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in standard sample (ATCC 27853 and samples taken from patients with burns. The antibacterial effect of different kefir extract was assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. The density of bacteria and percentage of organic acids (lactic and acetic acids were also determined. Materials and Methods: Similar burn injuries were made on dorsal skin surface of 40 rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each. The base gel, silver sulfadiazine ointment, kefir 48 h gel, kefir 96 h gel were applied twice daily. Burn wound area was measured at baseline, 1 and 2 weeks. Results: Results indicated that by increasing the time of fermentation, concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased in orders of: Kefir 48 h < kefir 96 h, the end of the 2nd week the percentage of wound size were lowest in order of kefir 96 h gel < kefir grains 48 h gel < silver sulfadiazine 1% < untreated and based gel groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the kefir gel therapy was an effective therapeutic approach to improve outcomes after severe burn when compared with conventional silver sulfadiazine treatment.

  20. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shohei Ohgi; Shouzhi Gu

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Sc...

  1. Clinical profile of burn injured patients

    OpenAIRE

    Efstathiou, Flora; Svardagalou, Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Burn injury is a severe systemic disease with social implications. Aim: The recording of patient’s clinical profile with burn injury worldwide and in Greece, the outcome and impact of the injury on the patient’s mental health and social, professional and family life. Methods: There were collected surveys and reports concerned burn victims, men and women, teenagers and adults of all types and severities of burns in the world and in Greece. The inf...

  2. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. Fahimi; H. Hajimehdipoor; Abdollahi, M.; S.A. Mortazavi

    2015-01-01

    Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended trea...

  3. THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO SEVERE BURN INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Chinkes, David L; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela; Suman, Oscar E; Norbury, William B; Branski, Ludwik K; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To improve clinical outcome and to determine new treatment options, we studied the pathophysiologic response postburn in a large prospective, single center, clinical trial. Summary Background Data A severe burn injury leads to marked hypermetabolism and catabolism, which are associated with morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiology and the correlations between humoral changes and organ function have not been well delineated. Methods Two hundred forty-two severely burned pediatric patients [>30% total body surface area (TBSA)], who received no anabolic drugs, were enrolled in this study. Demographics, clinical data, serum hormones, serum cytokine expression profile, organ function, hypermetabolism, muscle protein synthesis, incidence of wound infection sepsis, and body composition were obtained throughout acute hospital course. Results Average age was 8 ± 0.2 years, and average burn size was 56 ± 1% TBSA with 43 ± 1% third-degree TBSA. All patients were markedly hypermetabolic throughout acute hospital stay and had significant muscle protein loss as demonstrated by a negative muscle protein net balance (−0.05% ± 0.007 nmol/100 mL leg/min) and loss of lean body mass (LBM) (−4.1% ± 1.9%); P < 0.05. Patients lost 3% ± 1% of their bone mineral content (BMC) and 2 ± 1% of their bone mineral density (BMD). Serum proteome analysis demonstrated profound alterations immediately postburn, which remained abnormal throughout acute hospital stay; P < 0.05. Cardiac function was compromised immediately after burn and remained abnormal up to discharge; P < 0.05. Insulin resistance appeared during the first week postburn and persisted until discharge. Patients were hyperinflammatory with marked changes in IL-8, MCP-1, and IL-6, which were associated with 2.5 ± 0.2 infections and 17% sepsis. Conclusions In this large prospective clinical trial, we delineated the complexity of the postburn pathophysiologic response and conclude that the postburn

  4. Serum albumin level as a risk factor for mortality in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Alejandra Aguayo-Becerra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hypoalbuminemia is a common clinical deficiency in burn patients and is associated with complications related to increased extravascular fluid, including edema, abnormal healing, and susceptibility to sepsis. Some prognostic scales do not include biochemical parameters, whereas others consider them together with comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether serum albumin can predict mortality in burn patients. METHODS: We studied burn patients ≥16 years of age who had complete clinical documentation, including the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index, serum albumin, globulin, and lipids. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed to determine the cut-off level of albumin that predicts mortality. RESULTS: In our analysis of 486 patients, we found that mortality was higher for burns caused by flame (p = 0.000, full-thickness burns (p = 0.004, inhalation injuries (p = 0.000, burns affecting >30% of the body surface area (p = 0.001, and burns associated with infection (p = 0.008. Protein and lipid levels were lower in the patients who died (p80%, with 84% sensitivity and 83% specificity. At admission, the albumin level could be used as a sensitive and specific marker of burn severity and an indicator of mortality.

  5. Early Enteral Nutrition for Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Samuel P.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to burn injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support.

  6. Aggregation of erythrocytes in burn disease

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Grigory Y; Egorihina, Marpha N

    2011-01-01

    The manuscript describes experiments designed to examine factors that influence erythrocytes aggregation within the blood of burn patients. Results showed that the rate and degree of erythrocytes aggregation increased significantly in burn patients, and what is especially unfavorable for microcirculation, erythrocytes disaggregation decreased. We show that normalization of blood plasma contents completely restores erythrocytes aggregation and disaggregation of burn patients. The rate and degr...

  7. Wheat straw burning and its associated impacts on Beijing air quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LingJun; WANG Ying; ZHANG Qiang; LI JinXiang; YANG XiaoGuang; JIN Jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on MODIS images, large-scale flow field charts and environmental monitoring data, we thoroughly analyzed the spatial distribution of wheat straw burning in North China, with focus on its environmental impacts on the air quality of Beijing and pollution transport paths. And we anatomized changes of air quality in Beijing under the impacts of pollution generated by wheat straw burning around. The results indicate that: (1) The North China Plain, a winter-wheat growing area, is the main source of pollutants induced by wheat straw burning in Beijing. The direction of south-west is the dominant heavy pollution transport path. (2) Impacts of wheat straw burning on air quality are mainly manifested by significantly increasing CO concentration. (3) Precursors of O3 generated by wheat straw burning, combining with favorable meteorological conditions, can induce increasing O3 concentration greatly. NO concentration will be greatly increased due to decreasing O3 concentration at night.(4) Atmospheric particles, especially the fine ones, from wheat straw burning exert considerable influence on Beijing air quality. (5) Different contributions of wheat straw burning to pollutants are identified.Ratios of PM10/SO2, CO/SO2, etc., can be applied to indicate pollution extent of wheat straw burning.High ratios of PM10/SO2 and CO/SO2 show that the air quality was heavily impacted by wheat straw burning and these ratios can be employed as indicators of contribution of wheat straw burning to the degradation of Beijing air quality. (6) Randomness of wheat straw burning activities renders random outbreak of air pollution of this type. Regional and extensive wheat straw burning activities can cause serious air pollution event.

  8. Wheat straw burning and its associated impacts on Beijing air quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on MODIS images, large-scale flow field charts and environmental monitoring data, we thor- oughly analyzed the spatial distribution of wheat straw burning in North China, with focus on its envi- ronmental impacts on the air quality of Beijing and pollution transport paths. And we anatomized changes of air quality in Beijing under the impacts of pollution generated by wheat straw burning around. The results indicate that: (1) The North China Plain, a winter-wheat growing area, is the main source of pollutants induced by wheat straw burning in Beijing. The direction of south-west is the dominant heavy pollution transport path. (2) Impacts of wheat straw burning on air quality are mainly manifested by significantly increasing CO concentration. (3) Precursors of O3 generated by wheat straw burning, combining with favorable meteorological conditions, can induce increasing O3 concentration greatly. NO concentration will be greatly increased due to decreasing O3 concentration at night. (4) Atmospheric particles, especially the fine ones, from wheat straw burning exert considerable influ- ence on Beijing air quality. (5) Different contributions of wheat straw burning to pollutants are identified. Ratios of PM10/SO2, CO/SO2, etc., can be applied to indicate pollution extent of wheat straw burning. High ratios of PM10/SO2 and CO/SO2 show that the air quality was heavily impacted by wheat straw burning and these ratios can be employed as indicators of contribution of wheat straw burning to the degradation of Beijing air quality. (6) Randomness of wheat straw burning activities renders random outbreak of air pollution of this type. Regional and extensive wheat straw burning activities can cause serious air pollution event.

  9. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  10. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  11. Fuel treatments and landform modify landscape patterns of burn severity in an extreme fire event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Susan J; Kennedy, Maureen C

    2014-04-01

    Under a rapidly warming climate, a critical management issue in semiarid forests of western North America is how to increase forest resilience to wildfire. We evaluated relationships between fuel reduction treatments and burn severity in the 2006 Tripod Complex fires, which burned over 70,000 ha of mixed-conifer forests in the North Cascades range of Washington State and involved 387 past harvest and fuel treatment units. A secondary objective was to investigate other drivers of burn severity including landform, weather, vegetation characteristics, and a recent mountain pine beetle outbreak. We used sequential autoregression (SAR) to evaluate drivers of burn severity, represented by the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio index, in two study areas that are centered on early progressions of the wildfire complex. Significant predictor variables include treatment type, landform (elevation), fire weather (minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature), and vegetation characteristics, including canopy closure, cover type, and mountain pine beetle attack. Recent mountain pine beetle damage was a statistically significant predictor variable with red and mixed classes of beetle attack associated with higher burn severity. Treatment age and size were only weakly correlated with burn severity and may be partly explained by the lack of treatments older than 30 years and the low rates of fuel succession in these semiarid forests. Even during extreme weather, fuel conditions and landform strongly influenced patterns of burn severity. Fuel treatments that included recent prescribed burning of surface fuels were particularly effective at mitigating burn severity. Although surface and canopy fuel treatments are unlikely to substantially reduce the area burned in regional fire years, recent research, including this study, suggests that they can be an effective management strategy for increasing forest landscape resilience to wildfires. PMID:24834742

  12. Prescribed Burning Plan for FY 1988 : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1988 prescribed burning plan for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Treatment #1 is the area consisting of the fresh water marsh inside the Stage...

  13. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  14. Independent Predictive Factors of Hospitalization in a North-West Burn Center of Iran; an Epidemiologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Shams Vahdati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A high grade burn is one of the most devastating injuries with several medical, social, economic, and psychological effects. These injuries are the most common cause of accidental deaths after traffic injuries in both the developed and developing countries. Therefore this research was aimed to determine demographic characteristics of patients with burn injury admitted to the emergency department and identify predictive factors of hospitalization. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study, which is done in 20 March up to 20 September 2011 in emergency department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Patients’ information including demographic characteristic, cause of burn, place of accident, anatomical areas burned, grading and percent of burning and disposition were gathered and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 statistical software. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used for recognition of independent predictive factors of hospitalization in burned patients. Results: One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled (54.4% female. The average age of those was 20.47±13.5 years. The prevalence of burn was significantly higher in ages under 20 years (p<0.001. Lower limb (37.5%, head and neck (21.25% and upper limb (17.5% were three frequent site of burn. The most common cause of burns was boiling water scalding (34.4%. Home related burn was significantly higher than other place (p<0.001. The most frequent percent of burn was <5% (46.25%. Finally 50 (31.25% cases hospitalized. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age under 20 years old (p=0.02 female gender (p=0.02, burning site (p=0.002, cause (p=0.005, place (p<0.001, grade (p<0.001, and percent (p<0.001 was related to disposition of patients. Stepwise multiple logistic regression showed female gender (OR=3.52; 95% CI: 1.57-7.88; p=0.002, work related burning (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.26-2.52; p=0.001, and burning over 5 percent (OR=2.15; 95% CI: 1.35-3.41; p=0.001 as

  15. A five-century sedimentary geochronology of biomass burning in Nicaragua and Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the extensive use of fire as an agricultural agent in Central America today, little is known of its history of biomass burning or agriculture. As an indicator of the burning practices on the adjacent land, a sedimentary record of carbonized particles sheds light on the trends in frequency and areal extent of biomass burning. This research focuses on a sediment core recovered from an anoxic site in the Pacific Ocean adjacent to the Central American Isthmus and reports a five-century record of charcoal deposition. The research illustrates that biomass burning has been an important ecological factor in the Pacific watershed of Central America at least during the past five centuries. Fluxes of charcoal have generally decreased toward the present suggesting a reduction in the charcoal source function. Perhaps, five centuries ago, the frequency of biomass burning was greater than it is today, larger areas were burned, or biomass per unit area of burned grassland was greater. The major type of biomass burned throughout this five-century period has been grass, as opposed to woods, indicating that any major deforestation of the Pacific watershed of Central America occurred prior to the Conquest

  16. A novel device to create consistent deep dermal burns in a porcine model

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Seema; Chan, Queenie; Bertinetti, Monique; Harvey, John G; Hei, Erik R La; Holland, Andrew JA

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate a novel device to create a consistent and reproducible deep partial thickness burn in a porcine model. A thermostatically controlled, heated aluminium disc device was fashioned by the Biomedical Department of our institution. Contact burns were made on the flank of two Great White pigs by applying the device heated to 92°C at intervals of 5, 10, 15 and 20 seconds to four separate test areas area of skin. Biopsies for histological analysis of burn depth were...

  17. A clinico-epidemiologic study of 892 patients with burn injuries at a tertiary care hospital in Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To analyze the causes, demographic and socio-cultural aspects, and the magnitude of burn injuries prospectively and to evaluate the outcome of treatment of patients admitted to burns ICU of tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods : A total of 892 burn patients admitted over a period of 6 years from January 2002 to December 2007 at tertiary care hospital in Punjab, India, were analyzed. Results : 54% patients were males. A majority of the patients, 704(79%, were in the age group of 15-45 years. Six hundred and thirty-four patients (72% sustained flame burns, while 17% and 7% sustained electrical and scald burns, respectively. A total of 470(53% patients sustained major two to three degree flame burns involving more than 45% of total body surface area (TBSA. The mortality rate was 40%, i.e. 357 patients died of burns and its related problems, in our study. Six hundred and thirty-nine patients (72% sustained burns in closed space of which 331 patients (52% sustained burns in kitchen. Seven hundred and seventy-nine patients sustained accidental burns. Burn victims were mainly Hindus and Sikhs. The mean hospital stay varied depending upon the percentage of burns. On an average, a patient with >45% TBSA burns received 15 whole blood transfusions. Split skin grafting was done in 416 patients. Most common complication encountered during their hospital stay was wound infection which was seen in 671 patients, followed by ARDS in 221 patients. The most common organisms causing wound infection were Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Conclusion : Developing country like India need an aggressive public education program so that people become more literate about various etiological factors causing burns and means of preventing them. Also needed are burn care hospitals which are easily accessible and affordable.

  18. ANTISEPTIC AND HEALING EFFECTS OF TURMERIC OINTMENT ON LOCAL APPLICATION IN SUPERFICIAL BURN

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    An ethanol extract of turmeric in Vaseline base after proper sterilization was applied topically along with Vaseline gauze (Jelonet) in 228 patients of superficial burns over small area and compared against the control group with applications of Vaseline gauze (Jalonet) alone on another area/patch of the same patients. On 3rd day itself the superficial burn wound were found chemically clean and healthy without any apparent infection in significantly greater number of cases (52%) in test group...

  19. Prescribed burning experiences in Italy: an integrated approach to prevent forest fires

    OpenAIRE

    Ascoli D; Catalanotti A; Valese E; Cabiddu S; Delogu G; Driussi M; Esposito A; Leone V; Lovreglio R; Marchi E; Mazzoleni S; Rutigliano FA; Strumia S; Bovio G

    2012-01-01

    Prescribed burning is used in many geographical areas for multiple and integrated objectives (wildfire prevention, habitat conservation, grazing management). In Europe the collaboration between researchers and fire professionals has brought to implement this technique over increasing areas (~104 ha year-1), effectively and efficiently. In Italy prescribed burning has not been much studied and it is rarely applied. A new interest is recently rising. Some Regions particularly threatened by wild...

  20. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new

  1. Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

    1983-06-01

    A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

  2. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  3. Epidemiology of paediatric burns in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Montevalian, A.; Motabar, A.R.; Safari, R.; Parvas, M.S.; Vasigh, M.

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary burn care centre (the Motahari Burn Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of burn injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical burns in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most burns occurred in the summer, probably due to older children’s increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries t...

  4. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  5. Burns related to sunbed use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S J; Slattery, M A; Drew, P J

    2010-09-01

    The quest for a year round tan has led to an increase in the use of artificial tanning devices, namely sunbeds. There has been much debate in the press recently regarding the dangers of sunbed use and calls for tighter regulation of the industry, particularly the licensing of unmanned tanning salons. The dangers of sunbed use have long been recognised and the body of evidence linking sunbed use to skin malignancy is growing, in fact this month the Lancet published a review from the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying UV emitting tanning devices as carcinogenic to humans. At the Welsh Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery we noticed a rise in the number of patients presenting with burns related to sunbed use and present our data surrounding this injury over the last 6 years. PMID:20171016

  6. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  7. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a significant source of atmospheric gases, biomass burning must be addressed as a major environmental problem. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing and conversion, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The editor discusses the history of biomass burning and provides an overview of the individual chapters

  8. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Radioactive implications from coal burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignites burning in the Greek Coal Power Plants (CPP) contain naturally occurring radionuclides mainly arising from the uranium series. Radium-226 concentrations in lignites burning in the three Coal Power Plants of the 3.02 GW energy centre, the greatest in Greece (Valley of Ptolemais, North Greece), varied from about 30 to 132 Bq kg-1 (average 65.5 Bq kg-1. About 1.3 % of 226 Ra is discharged to the environment in particulate form - fly ash - by the stacks of thermal power stations, burning coal at a rate 14.3 Mt (GH y)-1. The collective effective dose equivalent (EDE) commitment to the population 44400 living in the region of these plants, due to inhalation was estimated to be 0.13 man Sv y-1, that is an order of magnitude higher than that recommended for such a population. Doses from inhaled radon and radon progeny might cause an excess of 3-7 cancer deaths this year. (author)

  10. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Çizmeci

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are genereally adequate for first-degree burns. However, topical antibacterial agents are usually required for second to third-degree wounds. Standart treatment for the open wound without epithelization is autologous skin grafting. In cases where more than 50% of the skin surface in affected, autologus donor skin may not be enough. For these cases, epidermal cell culture in vitro may be used. Mesenchymal stem cell applications which have immunosupressive effects should be utilized in cases where cells need to be prepared as allografts. (Journal of the Turkish Society intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 51-4

  11. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field investigations have now demonstrated that the effective, sustained combustion of spilled oil on water requires that the oil being burned be at least 2-3 mm thick. This requires a properly manipulated fire containment boom to keep the spilled oil thick enough to support combustion. There are numerous situations where controlled in-situ burning of spilled oil can be carried out quickly, safely, and effectively. Some of the more significant burn experiences, the basics of controlled burning, and several different spill scenarios in which burning could be used as an effective response technique are presented. These scenarios include offshore exploration and production operations, marine pipeline accidents, tanker accidents, and spills into rivers and streams. Environmental constraints on in-situ burning are discussed. Nomograms are included which can be used to calculate the boom capacities and burn rates. 15 refs., 10 figs

  12. [Burns care following a nuclear incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T

    2010-09-30

    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries. PMID:21991218

  13. Epidemiology and Outcome of Chemical Burn Patients Admitted in Burn Unit of JNMC Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India: A 5-year Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Md Sohaib; Ahmad, Imran; Khurram, M. Fahud; Kanungo, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical variable of chemical burns, and their outcomes to prevent or reduce the frequency and morbidity of such injuries. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on all the patients with chemical burns admitted at author's center between November 2008 and December 2013. All the patients were evaluated in terms of age, sex, total body surface area, etiology, treatment given, morbidity, mo...

  14. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  15. Heterogeneity in fire severity within early season and late season prescribed burns in a mixed-conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, E.E.; Keeley, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural heterogeneity in forests of the Sierra Nevada was historically produced through variation in fire regimes and local environmental factors. The amount of heterogeneity that prescription burning can achieve might now be more limited owing to high fuel loads and increased fuel continuity. Topography, woody fuel loading, and vegetative composition were quantified in plots within replicated early and late season burn units. Two indices of fire severity were evaluated in the same plots after the burns. Scorch height ranged from 2.8 to 25.4 m in early season plots and 3.1 to 38.5 m in late season plots, whereas percentage of ground surface burned ranged from 24 to 96% in early season plots and from 47 to 100% in late season plots. Scorch height was greatest in areas with steeper slopes, higher basal area of live trees, high percentage of basal area composed of pine, and more small woody fuel. Percentage of area burned was greatest in areas with less bare ground and rock cover (more fuel continuity), steeper slopes, and units burned in the fall (lower fuel moisture). Thus topographic and biotic factors still contribute to the abundant heterogeneity in fire severity with prescribed burning, even under the current high fuel loading conditions. Burning areas with high fuel loads in early season when fuels are moister may lead to patterns of heterogeneity in fire effects that more closely approximate the expected patchiness of historical fires.

  16. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products

  17. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  18. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration (SAFER) plan for corrective action unit 412: clean slate I plutonium dispersion (TTR) tonopah test range, Nevada, revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412. CAU 412 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-01CS, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1997 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 412 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 412 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information and determine whether the CAU 412 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU.The following summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 412:• Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information.• If no COCs are present, establish clean closure as the corrective action. • If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions will be evaluated with the stakeholders (NDEP, USAF).• Confirm the preferred closure option is sufficient to protect human health and the environment.

  19. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit[CAW 426]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-226. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C

  20. Chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.

    2013-10-15

    the Helsinki Metropolitan Area in the cold season. Especially in the residential areas local wood combustion emissions were occasionally substantial. A notable contribution of particles originating from wood combustion was detected both at suburban and urban areas caused by emissions that were distributed regionally or they were long-range transported. In addition to the wood combustion emissions, transported smokes from open-land fires in Russia and the Baltic countries affected the air quality in Helsinki in the warm season. Source-specific tracer compounds were used in the thesis for identifying the biomass burning source of fine particles. The most used tracer compounds were anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan) that originate specifically in the pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, the main components of plant biomass. In summary, the sampling and analytical methods needed for the online chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning were developed in order to provide precise and prompt high-time-resolution information on biomass burning emissions. The results and the implications of this thesis provide new information on the concentrations and sources of fine particles in the boreal region. (orig.)

  1. Effect of comprehensive rehabilitation nursing measures on quality of life and satis-faction of patients with large area burn%综合康复护理措施对大面积烧伤患者的生活质量及护理满意度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of comprehensive rehabilitation nursing measures on quality of life and satisfaction of pa -tients with large area burn .Methods A total of 60 patients with large area burn were enrolled and divided into observation group given comprehensive rehabilitation nursing and control group given routine nursing.Then nursing satisfaction , quality of life and social function were compared.Results Nursing satisfaction of observation group was better than that of control group , self realization , health responsibili-ty, exercise, nutrition, interpersonal relationships , coping scores were higher than those of the control group .Social function defect scores such as occupation and work, marriage, parenting, social withdrawal, outside social activities, family activities, family function, personal understanding of life , interest and concern , responsibility and planning etc .were lower than those of the control group.Conclusions Com-prehensive rehabilitation nursing measures is ideal nursing method in patients with large area burn for it can improve nursing satisfaction and quality of life , enhance the ability to participate in social activities.%目的:研究综合康复护理措施对大面积烧伤患者的生活质量及护理满意度的影响。方法将大面积烧伤患者60例纳入研究对象,根据康复期护理方法不同分为给予常规护理的对照组和给予综合康复护理措施的观察组,比较两组患者的护理满意度、生活质量以及社会职能。结果观察组患者的护理满意度优于对照组,自我实现、健康责任、运动、营养、人际关系、应对压力评分均高于对照组,职业和工作、婚姻职能、父母职能、社会退缩性、家庭外社会活动、家庭内活动、家庭职能、个人生活理解、对外界的兴趣和关心、责任心和计划性等社会功能缺陷评分均低于对照组( P<0.05、0.001)。结论综合康复护理措施有

  2. Life threatening deep scald burns in a neonate: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Y Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic burns in neonate are rare in literature. Neonates are high risk for burns because of their thin and fragile skin, fluid overload or dehydration as the fluid balance range is small and immature immune system leading to septicaemia. Neonates are not small adults, owing to their different physiological response makes the management of neonates challenging as the clinical signs are different from the adults and the resuscitation protocols or end points are also different. We present a case of 11 days old neonate, who sustained 51% scald burns when the hot water bag being used by her mother accidentally burst, the youngest reported case of domestic scald burns with such high percentage. The baby was managed by fluid resuscitation, antibiotics, dressings, ventilatory support for septicaemia and subsequently homograft application. The neonate was discharged with completely healed areas after 35 days of burns and is on regular follow up and no complications have been observed.

  3. Life threatening deep scald burns in a neonate: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vijay Y; Mishra, Susant; Menon, Pramod A; Nanavati, Nidhish

    2013-01-01

    Domestic burns in neonate are rare in literature. Neonates are high risk for burns because of their thin and fragile skin, fluid overload or dehydration as the fluid balance range is small and immature immune system leading to septicaemia. Neonates are not small adults, owing to their different physiological response makes the management of neonates challenging as the clinical signs are different from the adults and the resuscitation protocols or end points are also different. We present a case of 11 days old neonate, who sustained 51% scald burns when the hot water bag being used by her mother accidentally burst, the youngest reported case of domestic scald burns with such high percentage. The baby was managed by fluid resuscitation, antibiotics, dressings, ventilatory support for septicaemia and subsequently homograft application. The neonate was discharged with completely healed areas after 35 days of burns and is on regular follow up and no complications have been observed. PMID:23960320

  4. Ambient air quality during wheat and rice crop stubble burning episodes in Patiala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Susheel K.; Singh, Nirankar; Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Gupta, Prabhat K.

    Open crop stubble burning events were observed in and around Patiala city, India. A ground level study was deliberated to analyze the contribution of wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and rice ( Oriza sativa) crop stubble burning practices on concentration levels of aerosol, SO 2 and NO 2 in ambient air at five different sites in and around Patiala city covering agricultural, commercial and residential areas. Aerosols were collected on GMF/A and QMF/A (Whatman) sheets for a 24 h period throughout the year in 2007. Simultaneously, sampling of SO 2 and NO 2 was conducted and results obtained during stubble burning periods were compared to the non-stubble burning periods. Results clearly pointed out a distinct increase in aerosol, SO 2 and NO 2 levels during the crop stubble burning periods.

  5. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, D T; Roberts, A H; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W A; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G

    1985-01-01

    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have they should not be sent to regional burns units, where they would take up beds that could be used for patients with treatable burns. All districts should ensure that their plans for accidents in which burns injuries predominate are adequate. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3929974

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of low-level laser in improving the symptoms of burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Bakhshani, Nour-Mohammad; Rasti, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is common conditions that affects menopause women, patients suffer from sever burning sensation. Up to now there is no definitive treatment for this disease. Present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser (LLL) in improving the symptoms of burning mouth syndrome. Material and Methods Twenty patients with BMS were enrolled in this study; they were divided in two groups randomly. In the laser group, in each patient, 10 areas on t...

  7. Sodium butyrate protects against severe burn-induced remote acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Liang

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1 sham group, sham burn treatment; 2 burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution for resuscitation; 3 burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  8. Impact of Isolated Burns on Major Organs: A Large Animal Model Characterized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, David M; McIntyre, Matthew K; Baker, Bryan A; Rizzo, Julie A; Brown, Ammon; Natesan, Shanmugasundaram; Chung, Kevin K; Christy, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Severe burn results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). Currently, large-animal models of burn-induced SIRS/MOD mostly use secondary insults resulting in a paucity of knowledge on the effect of burn alone on different organ systems. The objective of the current study was to develop and characterize a large animal model of burn-induced SIRS over the course of 2 weeks. Yorkshire swine (n = 16) were randomized to sham controls (n = 4) or 40% total body surface area contact burns (n = 6 at 2 and 14 days post-burn). Blood chemistry and complete blood count analyses were performed at baseline and post-burn days 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 14. Upon euthanasia, tissue samples were taken for histopathology. Burns were found to be full thickness and did not re-epithelialize. SIRS was evidenced by increased body temperature, respiration rate, pulse, and white blood cell count for the duration of the experiment. Both acute liver injury and acute kidney injury were induced as determined biochemically and histologically. Histology also revealed atelectasis of the lungs which was associated with increased myeloperoxidase activity. Intestinal structure as well as enterocyte homeostasis was also disrupted. All of these organ abnormalities recovered to varying degrees by 14 days post-burn. We report a unique reproducible large animal model of burn-induced SIRS that can be tailored to specific organ systems for investigation into potential immunomodulatory interventions that prevent organ failure or promote organ recovery after burn injury. PMID:27380531

  9. Effect of fasting on the metabolic response of liver to experimental burn injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet A Orman

    Full Text Available Liver metabolism is altered after systemic injuries such as burns and trauma. These changes have been elucidated in rat models of experimental burn injury where the liver was isolated and perfused ex vivo. Because these studies were performed in fasted animals to deplete glycogen stores, thus simplifying quantification of gluconeogenesis, these observations reflect the combined impact of fasting and injury on liver metabolism. Herein we asked whether the metabolic response to experimental burn injury is different in fed vs. fasted animals. Rats were subjected to a cutaneous burn covering 20% of the total body surface area, or to similar procedures without administering the burn, hence a sham-burn. Half of the animals in the burn and sham-burn groups were fasted starting on postburn day 3, and the others allowed to continue ad libitum. On postburn day 4, livers were isolated and perfused for 1 hour in physiological medium supplemented with 10% hematocrit red blood cells. The uptake/release rates of major carbon and nitrogen sources, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured during the perfusion and the data fed into a mass balance model to estimate intracellular fluxes. The data show that in fed animals, injury increased glucose output mainly from glycogen breakdown and minimally impacted amino acid metabolism. In fasted animals, injury did not increase glucose output but increased urea production and the uptake of several amino acids, namely glutamine, arginine, glycine, and methionine. Furthermore, sham-burn animals responded to fasting by triggering gluconeogenesis from lactate; however, in burned animals the preferred gluconeogenic substrate was amino acids. Taken together, these results suggest that the fed state prevents the burn-induced increase in hepatic amino acid utilization for gluconeogenesis. The role of glycogen stores and means to increase and/or maintain internal sources of glucose to prevent increased hepatic amino acid

  10. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have young children, use safety latches in your home When cooking, keep pot handles turned toward the rear of the stove, and never leave pans unattended. Do not leave hot cups of coffee on tables or counter edges. Do not carry hot liquids or food near your child or while holding your child. ...

  11. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Answers page . Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Learn More Highlight Body Other NIGMS Fact Sheets Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on April 06, 2016 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  12. Citation classics in the burn literature during the past 55 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jason J; Chung, Kevin K; King, Booker T; Jones, John A; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Baer, David G; Renz, Evan M; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Orman, Jean A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the 100 most cited, peer-reviewed burn-related articles over the past half century. Burn care presents ongoing challenges to both U.S. civilian and military healthcare personnel. Improvements in burn survival and quality of life are the result of advances in burn research. The Web of Science (including Science Citation Index) was searched for the most cited articles related to burn care, published from 1955 to the present. The most cited article was "Permanent coverage of large burn wounds with autologous cultured human epithelium," by G.G. Gallico et al, New England Journal of Medicine, 1984 (711 citations). Between the 1970s and the 1990s, there was a near doubling of the number of highly cited publications with each subsequent decade. A total of 85% of the articles were on the topics of pathophysiology (37%), wounds, tissue, or dressings (31%), or organ failure/sepsis (17%). B.A. Pruitt Jr. (2320 citations), D.N. Herndon (1972 citations), and A.D. Mason Jr. (1435 citations) were the most cited authors. This study identified some of the most important contributions to burn research and the areas of greatest scientific interest to the specialty during the past five decades, and highlights key research that has contributed to the evolution of modern burn care. PMID:23799479

  13. Opioid Analgesics and Depressive Symptoms in Burn Patients: What Is the Real Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Narei; Jung, Myung Hun; Kim, Jee Wook; Chun, Wook; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Kee, Baik Seok; Lee, Boung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Major burn injuries are strongly associated with both psychological trauma and severe pain, and opioids are the mainstay analgesics for the treatment of severe burn pain. The objectives of this study are to find the complex relationship between opioid dose, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the acute management of pain in burn patients. Methods The symptoms of depression and PTSD were assessed in 43 burn patients immediately following wound stabilization and 2 weeks after the initial evaluation. Results Total opioid doses and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) scores obtained during the second evaluation were positively but weakly correlated after controlling for age and total burn surface area (R=0.33, p=0.03). Moreover, pain management with opioids was significantly more common in burn patients with low Clinician Administered PTSD Scale scores (evaluation 1) and high HAMD scores (evaluation 2) (F=6.66, p=0.001). Conclusion High opioid dose following acute burn trauma might have correlation with depressive symptoms. Monitoring of depressive symptoms may be important following acute burn trauma and consequent opioids pain management, particularly when PTSD symptoms appear minimal during the early stabilization of patients. PMID:27489384

  14. Efficacy of silver sulfadiazine phonophoresis on wound healing in acute burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Ghada Said Mohammed

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of SSD phonophoresis approaches (continuous and pulsed modes on the rate of healing following acute burn injury . forty female patients with second degree burn in thrir anterior aspect of the dominant foream were divided randomly into ...... phonophoresis might be valuable for enhance acute burn healing and the pulsed SSD phonophoresis is more effective for accelerating the acute burn wound healing......The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of SSD phonophoresis approaches (continuous and pulsed modes on the rate of healing following acute burn injury . forty female patients with second degree burn in thrir anterior aspect of the dominant foream were divided randomly into...... frequency of 1 MHz , and intensity of 1 W/cm2 . the parameters investigated inclding 1.burn surface area measured by tracing the burn wound parameters , and 2.determination of glycosaminoglycan in urine by using cetylpyridinuin chloride turbidity method . both parameters are measured 24 hours post...

  15. Incidence of cardiac events in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, David G; Hoestje, Sara M; Korentager, Richard A

    2003-06-01

    Given the increased level of adrenergic stimulation in burn patients, it would be expected that they would experience an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and other cardiac events. We performed a retrospective chart review of 56 acute burn patients matched by age, length of hospital stay, and sex to 56 trauma patients, all of whom had been continuously monitored electrocardiographically. Burn and trauma patients were similar in injury severity, admission laboratory values, and prior history of cardiopulmonary diseases. Arrhythmias were noted in 34% of burn patients and 28% of trauma patients. One myocardial infarction and six deaths occurred in burn patients. No myocardial infarctions or deaths were observed in trauma patients. A past history of cardiopulmonary disease increased the risk of myocardial infarction or death by 6.6 times. Cardiac arrhythmias and other events are relatively infrequent and benign in burn patients and are similar to those experienced by other patients with acute injuries. PMID:12781616

  16. How to manage a minor burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Conwy, Gabrielle

    2016-07-20

    Rationale and key points This article outlines the technique for dressing a minor burn. The nurse should be aware of national burn care referral guidance, and have the knowledge and skills to establish the severity and extent of a burn. The nurse should also be able to determine whether referral to a regional specialist centre is required. » The extent and severity of a burn determines its ongoing management. » The burn wound requires regular evaluation, since its appearance and management needs can change over time. » Competence in general wound care is essential for nurses undertaking this procedure. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: » The classification of burn depth and guidelines for specialist referral. » How you think this article will change your practice. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27440365

  17. [Electrical burns in children. 3 years of case histories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneira, E; Serafim, Z; Duarte, R; Leal, M J

    1996-01-01

    The Burn Unit of Dona Estefânia Hospital admitted a total of 454 patients from January 1992 to January 1995, 24 of these patients suffered from electric shock. Of these 24 patients 3 suffered burns in the mouth, 15 in one or both hands and 6 multiple burns. In 19 patients the burns were up to 1%. A description is made of 5 cases, male children between the ages of 9 and 13 years, which were deemed severe. The incidents occurred outdoors with different voltages and in activities considered of ludic or experimental nature: two on the roof of a house, two with railway cables and one with an electrical cable in a port zone. The burnt areas vary between 4% and 70%, all of them 2nd and 3rd degree, with hospitalization lasting from 36 to 116 days. In addition to early and coordinated medical and rehabilitative treatment, according to individual needs, a description is also made of the cutaneous sequelae (deforming cicatrices, bridles), neurologic and psychologic sequelae, with emphasis on a patient who underwent amputation of the lower left leg and 4th and 5th ranges of the right foot. It was concluded that measures should be taken in education and legislation to prevent these accidents. Relevance is given to the need for a multidisciplinary team and specialized center for the treatment of these patients. PMID:9254529

  18. Nutritional, immunological and microbiological profiles of burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASAA Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a lesion on an organic tissue resultant from direct or indirect action of heat on the organism. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional, immunological and microbiological status of burn patients at the Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2007. Eight patients, aged more than 18 years and injured up to 24 hours, were evaluated at the moment of hospitalization and seven days later. All victims were males with a mean age of 38 years. On average, 17.5% of their body surfaces were burned and 50% of the patients were eutrophic. There were significant alterations in levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and albumin due to increased endothelial permeability, direct destruction of proteins in the heat-affected area and blood loss from lesions or debridement. At a second moment, cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α had augmented significantly, with IL-6 presenting elevated levels in relation to controls at the first moment. Microbiological analysis showed that 100% of the samples collected at hospital admission were negative and after one week Staphylococcus aureus was found in all cultures. Therefore, a burn patient may be considered immunosuppressed and these results indicate significant nutritional, immunological and microbiological alterations that can interfere in his recovery.

  19. Integra artificial skin dermal regeneration templates in burn scar surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integra artificial skin is a porous matrix used as a permanent dermal replacement. Developed in the 1970's, it has been used successfully in the treatment of acute bums requiring full or deep partial thickness skin replacement. Three patients with burn scars received Integra Artificial Skin to resurface various areas of burn scars and also contractures. The first was a 24-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a forearm/elbow/wrist defect. The second was a 28-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a neck contracture. The third was a 44 year-old woman who had two pieces to correct severe burn contractures/ scars of her hands. The results of these three patients, probably the first time Integra was used for bum scar and contracture revision, indicate that there is a place for Integra in Burn Scar surgery. However, the basic principle of its application must be adhered to. These include excision to remove the complete scar, recreation of original size of skin defect and meticulous application of the Artificial Skin and its care post-operatively. Details of its application will be highlighted

  20. Method of quantitative bacterial count in burn wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a technique for conducting Quantitative bacteriology in burn wounds, which is a very important tool in the management of burn wound sepsis. Technique was used in 21 patients with burn wound injury. Biopsy for the bacteriology was taken with the help of punch forceps. Then it was directly put into sterilized pre weighed homogenizer bag containing 1ml normal saline. This bag was re-weighed. Weight of the tissue was obtained and bag was homogenized in homogenizer (Stomacher Lab Blender-80). Four fold dilutions were made of homogenate specimen. From each dilution tube, 0.01 ml was then inoculated on blood agar plates, incubated for 24 hours and number of colonies counted by formula. Four specimens were taken each day and repeated on alternate days for up to 6 days. Out of twenty one patients there were 10 male and 11 female with mean age of 25.95 years. Total body surface area burnt was from 9-41%. Bacterial counts obtained varied from 1.45-8.89. Quantitative bacteriology is simple by the above method and should be employed in every public and private sector burn center. (author)