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Sample records for burma mount popa

  1. Causes of blindness in rural Myanmar (Burma: Mount Popa Taung-Kalat Blindness Prevention Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Y Nemet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Arie Y Nemet1, Pinhas Nemet2, Geoff Cohn3, Gina Sutton, Gerald Sutton4, Richard Rawson41Department of Ophthalmology, Sydney Hospital and Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, Australia; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel; 3Departments of Ophthalmology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, AustraliaPurpose: This study is a review of the major causes of visual impairment (VI and severe visual impairment/blindness (SVI/BL in Mount Popa Taung-Kalat, a rural region in Myanmar (Burma.Methods: A review of our clinical records of consecutive patients attending clinics was conducted. Participants of all ages (n = 650 of the population of Mount Popa Taung-Kalat and villages in its vicinity underwent ophthalmic interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained Australian ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses. This evaluation included anterior segment examination with a slit lamp, intraocular pressure recording, and direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. VI and SVI/BL were defined by the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Results: Six hundred fifty subjects were screened, with a mean age of 49.0 ± 20.6 years (range, 1–99. One hundred five patients (16.2% were children (ages 1–18. Five hundred thirty-one eyes of the total 1,300 eyes (39.5% had VI/SVI/BL, and 40 eyes of the children (38.1% (average age 15.3 ± 13.3 had VI/SVI/BL. The leading causes of VI/SVI/BL were cataract with 288 cases (54.2%, glaucoma with 84 cases (15.8%, and corneal pathology with 78 cases (14.7%. Of all the VI/SVI/BL cases, 8.4% were preventable, 81.9% were treatable, and total of 90.5% were avoidable.Conclusions: In the current study, cataracts were the major cause of blindness and visual impairment, and most of the ophthalmic pathology causing blindness is avoidable. These results highlight the lack of basic ophthalmologist eye care and optician resources in rural regions in Myanmar

  2. Burma/Myanmar - Where Now?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burma's transition to democracy & peace process. Religin, ethnicity, economy, health, development and others subjects. illustrated, maps......Burma's transition to democracy & peace process. Religin, ethnicity, economy, health, development and others subjects. illustrated, maps...

  3. 10 medisinplanter fra Burma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Sammendrag Hensikten med denne masteroppgaven er å undersøke om tradisjonell bruk av utvalgte medisinplanter fra Burma har vitenskapelig støtte. I tillegg ble interessante studier på biologiske/farmakologiske effekter av plantene tatt med. Litteratursøket ble utført ved hjelp av databasene Medline/Ovid, Medline/Pubmed, Embase/Ovid, Chemical Abstracts/Scifinder, ISI Web of Knowledge, Biological Abstracts, Sciencedirect og Cochrane. Andre nettsider som ble brukt til å finne eventuelle sy...

  4. Internal displacement in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced. PMID:11026156

  5. Dilemmas of Burma in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Jolliffe

    2011-01-01

    Until a government of Burma is able to accept the role of non-state armed groups as providers for civilian populations and affords them legitimacy within a legal framework, sustained conflict and mass displacement remain inevitable....

  6. 10 Medisinplanter fra Burma (Myanmar)

    OpenAIRE

    Soltanpanah, Rounak

    2015-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven har som formål å foreta litteratursøk over 10 utvalgte medisinplanter fra Burma (Myanmar) som professor Arnold Nordal samlet inn i perioden 1957-1961. Hensikten med denne oppgaven er å bruke systematisk litteratursøk for å samle opplysninger om tradisjonell bruk av plantene i Burma og i andre land, undersøke hvilke vitenskapelige studier som er utført på disse plantene og om tradisjonelle bruksområder har vitenskapelig støtte. Databaser som ble benyttet for å utføre litte...

  7. Activation and polar sequestration of PopA, a c-di-GMP effector protein involved in Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Shogo; Schalch-Moser, Annina; Zumthor, Ludwig; Manfredi, Pablo; Ebbensgaard, Anna; Schirmer, Tilman; Jenal, Urs

    2014-11-01

    When Caulobacter crescentus enters S-phase the replication initiation inhibitor CtrA dynamically positions to the old cell pole to be degraded by the polar ClpXP protease. Polar delivery of CtrA requires PopA and the diguanylate cyclase PleD that positions to the same pole. Here we present evidence that PopA originated through gene duplication from its paralogue response regulator PleD and subsequent co-option as c-di-GMP effector protein. While the C-terminal catalytic domain (GGDEF) of PleD is activated by phosphorylation of the N-terminal receiver domain, functional adaptation has reversed signal transduction in PopA with the GGDEF domain adopting input function and the receiver domain serving as regulatory output. We show that the N-terminal receiver domain of PopA specifically interacts with RcdA, a component required for CtrA degradation. In contrast, the GGDEF domain serves to target PopA to the cell pole in response to c-di-GMP binding. In agreement with the divergent activation and targeting mechanisms, distinct markers sequester PleD and PopA to the old cell pole upon S-phase entry. Together these data indicate that PopA adopted a novel role as topology specificity factor to help recruit components of the CtrA degradation pathway to the protease specific old cell pole of C. crescentus.

  8. The Burma Issue in Sino-U.S. Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In January 2007, China and Russia vetoed a UN draft resolution on Burma with the result that the Burma issue has become yet another point of conflict between the U.S. and China. Although the Burma issue has been present for nearly 20 years, China and the U.S. have both successfully kept their differences under control. In the short term, it is unlikely that conflict will break out between China and U.S. over Burma. However, in the long term,there is still the possibility that the Burma issue could trigger a conflict between China and the U.S..

  9. Activation Analysis and Nuclear Research in Burma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research endeavours in the field of Nuclear Sciences in Burma appear to be concentrated in three main Institutions. These are the Chemistry and Physics Departments of the Rangoon Arts & Science University and the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). In view of possible forthcoming developments an expanded research programme, which is to be implemented on the basis of a five year plan, has been drawn up. Research topics included in this programme are predominantly of practical interest and aimed at a contribution by nuclear methods, in particular activation analysis, to the technological and industrial needs of the country

  10. 10 Medisinplanter fra Burma : En litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sammendrag Denne masteroppgaven har som formål å vurdere tilgjengelig vitenskapelig litteratur for 10 medisinplanter hentet fra et herbarium fra Burma, utarbeidet av professor Arnold Nordal i perioden 1957-1961. Det skal undersøkes om de påståtte tradisjonelle bruksområdene for de utvalgte plantene har vitenskapelig støtte, ved å sammenligne bioaktive planteforbindelser, og farmakologiske effekter med tradisjonell bruk. Andre interessante kjemiske, biologiske og toksikologiske studier er ...

  11. Fighting for Anatomy. Overview regarding two prestigious Romanian anatomists of the 20th century: Victor Papilian and Grigore T. Popa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bârsu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    During many centuries, the progress of Anatomy was based on the perseverant and laborious activities done by anatomists. Their work can be considered as a fight for Anatomy. A particular problem arouse when this fight is excessively done and it limits the ability to correctly analyze the contribution made by other scientists in the same domain. This situation was identified at different personalities who lived in the same time and were involved in the same fundamental field of research. If, theoretically, the similarities between scientists should get them closer, in order to have a better communication, the antagonisms can lead them to rivalry. Our paper exemplifies a historical case in which the personages are Victor Papilian (1888-1956) and Grigore T. Popa (1892-1948). The resemblances between these two famous Romanian anatomists from the first half of the 20th century induced an evident scientific rivalry. Papilian and Popa brought a significant contribution in anatomy. Each of them was very much appreciated by his students. It is interesting that both of them had achievements in literature. We present the reasons of their disagreement and its consequences. Paradoxically, not the contrasts, but the resemblances between their strong characters produced a sort of animosity between them. This attitude diminished in time and their successors - Ioan Albu from the Cluj Faculty of Medicine and Ion Iancu from the Jassy Faculty of Medicine - had a long lasting and successful cooperation. PMID:27151732

  12. 31 CFR 537.204 - Prohibited new investment in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited new investment in Burma... Prohibitions § 537.204 Prohibited new investment in Burma. Except as otherwise authorized, new investment, as... Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law...

  13. Results of medical examination of refugees from Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H D; Lykke, J; Hougen, H P;

    1998-01-01

    To describe exposure to human rights violations among refugees from rural Burma; to compare exposure experienced by an ethnic Burmese minority group, the Shans, with that of the rest of the study population; and to compare exposure of those who had fled Burma recently with that of refugees who had...

  14. Activation and polar sequestration of PopA, a c-di-GMP effector protein involved in Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozaki, Shogo; Schalch-Moser, Annina; Zumthor, Ludwig;

    2014-01-01

    When Caulobacter crescentus enters S-phase the replication initiation inhibitor CtrA dynamically positions to the old cell pole to be degraded by the polar ClpXP protease. Polar delivery of CtrA requires PopA and the diguanylate cyclase PleD that positions to the same pole. Here we present evidence...

  15. Esoteric Theravada Buddhism in Burma/Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Foxeus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of independence in 1948 was in many ways a watershed in Burma’s history. At this time, a variety of Buddhist movements emerged that were part not only of a ‘Burmese Buddhist revival’, in which even the government was involved, but also a general re-enchantment of Asia. In the period following World War II, projects of nation-building and further modernization were implemented in many newly independent Asian nation states. The theories of modernization adopted by the rulers had presupposed that a new, rationalized and secularized order that had set them on the path of ‘progress’ would entail a decline of religion. However, instead there was a widespread resurgence of religion, and a variety of new, eclectic religious movements emerged in Southeast Asia. In the thriving religious field of postcolonial Burma, two lay Buddhist movements associated with two different meditation techniques emerged, viz.; the insight meditation movement and the concentration meditation movement. The latter consisted of a variety of esoteric congregations combining concentration meditation with esoteric lore, and some of these were characterized by fundamentalist trends. At the same time, the supermundane form of Buddhism became increasingly influential in the entire field of religion. The aim of the present article is to discuss how this supermundane dimension has reshaped the complex religious field in Burma, with particular emphasis on the esoteric congregations; to present the Burmese form of esoteric Theravāda Buddhism, and to situate the fundamentalist trends which are present in these contexts.

  16. "IMPRÓLOGO" DE OCTAVIO PAZ: APUNTES POÉTICO-POETOLÓGICOS SOBRE LA POESÍA DE VASKO POPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Kressner

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio consiste en un análisis del poema "Imprólogo" (Árbol adentro de Octavio Paz, texto que sirvió de prólogo a la primera antología poética del poeta serbio Vasko Popa. Propongo leer "Imprólogo", texto hasta ahora no analizado críticamente, primero como práctica poética, que se va escribiendo como reflexión sobre la poesía del amigo-poeta de Paz. En segundo lugar, es una indagación en torno al valor de la negación, un ejercicio lírico que se realiza a través de la repetida negación de poder realizarse. Por último, el poema ofrece una reflexión poetológica novedosa acerca de la intertextualidad, concebida como diálogo poético ideado. De ese modo, Paz reafirma -en los terrenos nuevos de la negación, combinada con la intertextualidad- la potencia poética de apuntar, a través de las palabras, a un más allá de las palabras.This study is a close-reading of Octavio Paz' "Imprólogo" (Árbol adentro, a poem that served as prologue to thefirst anthology of poetry ofthe Serbian poet Vasko Popa. I propose to analyze the text under three aspects: first, it is a poetic practice that evolves through the examination ofthe poetry of Paz 'friend and colleague. Second, "Imprólogo " is a study of the valué ofnegation, a lyrical exercise carried out through the repeated deferral to being carried out. Thirdly the poem offers a new, poetological reflection on intertextuality, concei-ved as a poetic dialogue in suspense. Thus, Paz reqffirms -on the new terrains ofnegation combined with intertextuality- the potential of the poetic to allude, through the words, to something beyond words.

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has committed... foreign policy of the United States by the actions and policies of the Government of Burma, invoking the... abuses or to have engaged in activities facilitating public corruption in Burma. On April 30, 2008,...

  18. 31 CFR 537.412 - Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economic development projects in Burma. 537.412 Section 537.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... economic development of resources located in Burma is prohibited by § 537.204 where the company's profits are predominantly derived from the company's economic development of resources located in Burma....

  19. 31 CFR 103.186 - Special measures against Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special measures against Burma. 103.186 Section 103.186 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Law...

  20. The role of the Tatmadaw in modern day Burma: an analysis/ Zaiton bte Johari.

    OpenAIRE

    Johari, Zaiton bte.

    2000-01-01

    The Tatmadaw (Burmese Army) has dominated Burma's politics since the Japanese and British occupation of Burma until today. Its role in Burma has received international attention, especially while other countries in Southeast Asia have seen the decline of military power, the most recent that being Indonesia. The Tatmadaw seems unshaken with all the recent development affecting the military institution in Southeast Asia. This study is significant in that it attempts to understand how the Tatmad...

  1. Constructing the Indian Immigrant to Colonial Burma, 1885-1948

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumder, Rajashree

    2013-01-01

    The Indian Ocean arena has been a zone of circulation and network for people, capital and commodities since centuries. People from the Indian subcontinent had been traveling to Burma as part of this network as court priests, merchants, pilgrims, travelers and soldiers. During the early twentieth century this figure was transformed in the official discourse and popular imagination to immigrant, or a "bird of passage" that was seen as draining the wealth of an incipient Burmese nation. My disse...

  2. 78 FR 21497 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... articles of jewelry containing jadeite or rubies mined or extracted from Burma, or any other activity... jewelry containing jadeite or rubies mined or extracted from Burma or any other activity prohibited by... classifiable under chapter heading 7103 of the HTS; and the term articles of jewelry containing jadeite...

  3. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which includes responsibility for the development or exploitation of resources located in Burma, including making or attempting to make those resources accessible or available for exploitation or economic..., or minerals in the ground in Burma; or a contract to assume control of a mining operation in...

  4. 31 CFR 537.413 - Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.413 Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. 537.413 Section 537.413 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...

  5. 31 CFR 537.411 - Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.411 Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma... Burma of shares of ownership, including an equity interest, in the economic development of resources... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of shares in...

  6. China–Burma Geopolitical Relations in the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei FAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the historical role of geography in the Sino–Burmese relationship in the context of the Cold War, both before and after the Chinese–American détente and rapprochement in the 1970s. It describes Burma’s fear and distrust of China throughout the Cold War, during which it maintained a policy of neutrality and non-alignment. Burma’s geographic location, sandwiched between its giant neighbours India and China, led it to adopt a realist paradigm and pursue an independent foreign policy. Charac-terizing China’s threat to Burmese national security as “grave” during its period of revolutionary export, the article notes that Burma was cowed into deference and that it deliberately avoided antagonizing China. It also looks at the history of China’s attempts to break out of U.S. encirclement after the Korean War and its successful establishment of Burma as an important buffer state. After the U.S.–China rapprochement in 1972, however, Bur-ma’s geographical significance for Beijing declined. In this context, Burma’s closed-door policy of isolation further lessened its strategic importance for China. Since 1988, however, Burma’s strategic importance to China has been on the rise once again, as it plays a greater role as China’s land bridge to the Indian Ocean and in its energy security and expansion of trade and exports.

  7. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... level of project management, such as entry into a contract with a development project's sponsor or owner... royalties, earnings or profits of, the economic development of resources located in Burma....

  8. Contested Regimes, Aid Flows, and Refugee Flows: The Case of Burma Umkämpfte Regime, Hilfsgelder und Flüchtlingsströme: Der Fall Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Banki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial literature that critiques the role that international aid plays in lending support to oppressive and contested regimes. But few investigators have asked the inverse question: what happens when aid is withdrawn? Following government oppression in 1988, international aid to Burma decreased significantly, providing a case study enabling this question to be addressed. Using Burma as an example, this article asks: if the presence of aid has been shown to support oppressive and contested regimes, what is the impact when aid is withdrawn? The article reviews critiques of development and humanitarian aid and identifies three specific regime-reinforcing phenomena. It demonstrates that these have not diminished following the overall decrease of aid to Burma. The paper then addresses the related relationship between aid flows and refugee flows, and concludes with implications of the research. Es gibt mittlerweile eine ganze Reihe von Literatur, in der die Rolle von internationaler Hilfe zur Unterstützung von Unrechtsregimen kritisch diskutiert wird. Es gibt bislang aber nur wenige Untersuchungen, in denen die Frage anders herum gestellt wird. Was passiert, wenn Hilfsgelder zurückgehalten werden? Seit der Unterdrückung im Jahr 1988 ist die internationale Hilfe an Burma/ Myanmar deutlich zurückgegangen. Dieser Artikel fragt für das Fallbeispiel Burma: Welche Wirkungen hat es, wenn Hilfsgelder zurückgehalten werden? Der Artikel beleuchtet die Debatten zur humanitären Hilfe und Entwicklung und identifiziert drei besondere Regime stützende Effekte. Der Artikel zeigt, dass diese im Fall Burma nicht eingetreten sind, als Hilfe zurückgezogen wurde. Der Artikel diskutiert außerdem die Beziehung zwischen Hilfsgeldern und Flüchtlingsströmen und versucht, Folgerungen aus der Forschung zu entwickeln.

  9. 77 FR 47922 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Burma'' (77 FR 41243, July 13, 2012... exercise, and the construction and maintenance of sports facilities open to the Burmese public; (5) Non... activities, including, but not limited to, religious education and training, including the training...

  10. A Pilot Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for Refugee Youth from Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah Dorothy; Emmerling, Dane; Gavarkavich, Diane; Mershon, Claire-Helene; Linton, Kristin; Rubesin, Hillary; Agnew-Brune, Christine; Eng, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Art therapy is a promising form of therapy to address mental health concerns for refugee youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a pilot evaluation of an art therapy program for refugee adolescents from Burma currently living in the United States. Evaluation activities were based on the Centers for Disease Control and…

  11. 31 CFR 537.203 - Prohibited importation of products of Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Section 3(b) of the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 provides that the prohibition contained in... Prohibitions § 537.203 Prohibited importation of products of Burma. Except as otherwise authorized, and... President determines and notifies specified committees of Congress that to do so is in the national...

  12. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  13. Spherical mirror mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jay L. (Inventor); Messick, Glenn C. (Inventor); Nardell, Carl A. (Inventor); Hendlin, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A spherical mounting assembly for mounting an optical element allows for rotational motion of an optical surface of the optical element only. In that regard, an optical surface of the optical element does not translate in any of the three perpendicular translational axes. More importantly, the assembly provides adjustment that may be independently controlled for each of the three mutually perpendicular rotational axes.

  14. Key Biodiversity Areas in the Indo-Burma Hotspot: Process, Progress and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Tordoff

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs provide geographic targets for the expansion of protected area coverage, and identify sites for urgent conservation action. Identification of KBAs in the Indo-Burma Hotspot was undertaken during 2003, for a region of analysis comprising Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma, Thailand and Vietnam, plus parts of southern China. The starting point was information on 282 Important Bird Areas identified by BirdLife International and collaborators. These data were then overlaid with point locality data on globally threatened mammals, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater fish and plants, with additional KBAs identified as required. Through this process, a total of 438 KBAs were identified, covering 258,085km2 or 11.5 percent of the region of analysis. Only 58 percent of the KBAs are wholly or partly included within protected areas, suggesting that there may be a need for further expansion of protected area networks, particularly in Myanmar and Vietnam. The criteria for KBA identification are triggered by 812 species, of which 23 are believed only to occur at a single KBA globally. The KBAs have proven to be a useful conservation priority setting tool in Indo-Burma, helping to guide investments by various donors and application of environmental safeguard policies by international financial institutions. There are fewer examples of KBAs being used to guide expansion of protected area systems in Indo-Burma. In large part, this is because the period of rapid expansion of protected areas in most hotspot countries predated the KBA identification process, and political support for further significant expansion is currently limited.

  15. Sacred Spaces of Karen Refugees and Humanitarian Aid Across the Thailand-Burma Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Horstmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I demonstrate that the Karen National Union (KNU was able to manipulate and politicise humanitarian aid in the Thailand-Burma borderland. I contend that in the context of the civil war in eastern Burma, Protestant Christianity provides a crucial vehicle for political mobilisation. The article shows that refugee camps in the Thai borderland become centres of proselytisation, and that Protestant evangelical and missionary networks open up passages across the Thai-Burmese border. The article thus considers a case where a homeland is constructed in the liminal space between two nations. Illegal emergency aid that doubles as missionary project reinforces the image of a helpless victim being vandalized by evil Burmese army. ----- Dieser Artikel zeigt auf, wie es der Karen National Union (KNU gelungen ist, die humanitäre Hilfe im Grenzgebiet zwischen Thailand und Burma für eigene Ziele zu manipulieren und zu politisieren. Ich argumentiere, dass das protestantische Christentum ein entscheidendes Vehikel zur politischen Mobilisierung im Kontext des Bürgerkriegs in Ost-Burma darstellt. Der Artikel zeigt, dass die Flüchtlingslager im thailändischen Grenzgebiet als Zentren der Missionierung dienen und dass die protestantisch-evangelikalen und missionarischen Netzwerke territoriale Korridore durch die thailändisch-burmesische Grenze öffnen. Wir sehen hier ein Fallbeispiel, wie eine imaginierte Nation in der Grenzerfahrung zweier Nationen konstruiert wird. Soforthilfe, die mit protestantischer Mission doppelt, verstärkt das Bild hilfloser Opfer, die von der burmesischen Armee vandalisiert werden.

  16. Prevalence of Anemia and Its Risk Factors Among Children 6–36 Months Old in Burma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Peng, Ying; Li, Jiayin; Yang, Titi; Liu, Zhaoyan; Lv, Yanli; Wang, Peiyu

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is a common nutritional problem, and it has a remarkably high prevalence rate in Southeast Asia. In this study, children from 6 to 36 months were investigated to determine (1) the prevalence of anemia and (2) risk factors associated with anemia. Convenience sampling was used to select three villages in three different regions in Burma. Hemoglobin and anthropometric indicators were measured for 872 children. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with ane...

  17. The susceptibility of Bandicota bengalensis from Rangoon, Burma to several anticoagulant rodenticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, J. E.; Htun, P. T.; Naing, H.

    1980-01-01

    The baseline susceptibility of the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis, from Rangoon, Burma, to five anticoagulant rodenticides was established with no-choice feeding in the laboratory. The susceptibility of lesser bandicoots to the several poisons (brodifacoum, difenacoum, diphacinone, coumatetralyl, and warfarin) was such that they were offered at a 0.001% concentration. B. bengalensis was most susceptible to brodifacoum, and in descending order, difenacoum, coumatetralyl, diphacino...

  18. [War Relief of Japanese Red Cross Nurses in the Lost Battle of Burma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to reveal changes in the relief support of the Japanese Red Cross relief units dispatched to Burma during the Second World War, from the beginning of fighting in Burma to the Japanese withdrawal. Japanese Red Cross relief units began their relief support when Japan invaded Burma in February of 1942. Counterattacks by the British, Indian and Chinese armies from December 1942 caused an increase in the number of patients. There were also many cases of malnutrition and malaria due to the extreme shortage of medical supplies as a result of the Battle of Imphal, which began in March of 1944. Bomb raids became even more intense after the battle ended in July 1944, and patients were carried into bomb shelters and caves on a daily basis. Just prior to invasion by enemy troops, they were ordered to evacuate to neighboring Thailand. Nurses from the Wakayama group hid their identity as members of the Red Cross and evacuated, with 15 out of 23 dying or being reported missing in action. PMID:27089734

  19. [War Relief of Japanese Red Cross Nurses in the Lost Battle of Burma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to reveal changes in the relief support of the Japanese Red Cross relief units dispatched to Burma during the Second World War, from the beginning of fighting in Burma to the Japanese withdrawal. Japanese Red Cross relief units began their relief support when Japan invaded Burma in February of 1942. Counterattacks by the British, Indian and Chinese armies from December 1942 caused an increase in the number of patients. There were also many cases of malnutrition and malaria due to the extreme shortage of medical supplies as a result of the Battle of Imphal, which began in March of 1944. Bomb raids became even more intense after the battle ended in July 1944, and patients were carried into bomb shelters and caves on a daily basis. Just prior to invasion by enemy troops, they were ordered to evacuate to neighboring Thailand. Nurses from the Wakayama group hid their identity as members of the Red Cross and evacuated, with 15 out of 23 dying or being reported missing in action.

  20. “Show Us Your God”: Marilla Baker Ingalls and the Power of Religious Objects in Nineteenth-Century Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kaloyanides

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the unusual evangelical work of Marilla Baker Ingalls, an American Baptist missionary to Burma from 1851–1902. By the time of her death in Burma at the age of 75, Ingalls was known as one of the most successful Baptist evangelists among Burmese Buddhists. To understand the extraordinary dynamic of Ingalls’ expanding Christian community, this essay focuses on two prominent objects at the Baptist mission: A life-sized dog statue that Ingalls kept chained at the edge of her property and a massive banyan tree covered with biblical illustrations and revered by locals as an abode of divine beings. This essay argues that these objects transformed Ingalls’ American Baptist Christianity into a kind of Burmese religion that revolved around revered objects. Through an examination of the particular shrine practices that pulled people into the Baptist mission, this essay reflects on the larger context of religious encounter, conflict, and representation in modernizing Burma.

  1. Burma/Myanmar: Challenges of a Ceasefire Accord in Karen State Burma/Myanmar: Herausforderungen eines Waffenstillstandsabkommens im Karen-Staat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Core

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Burma (Myanmar has seen some of the longest-running insurgencies in the world, which have had a devastating effect on local populations and the country as a whole. While the Karen National Union (KNU, which has fought successive Burmese governments since 1949, is in a critical phase of its life, the KNU/KNLA Peace Council (KPC is experiencing life under a ceasefire accord with the Burmese government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC. Major challenges have occurred since the ceasefire and future developments are uncertain. Like all ceasefire groups in the country, the KPC has come under immense pressure to follow the government’s “seven-step road map” to democracy, compete in the 2010 elections, and transform its troops into a border guard force under the control of the Burmese military or face disarmament. This article seeks to provide some insights into a ceasefire group, to analyse the failures and successes of the ceasefire accord, and to outline future challenges to the country. Myanmar (Burma ist bis heute Schauplatz von anhaltenden ethnischen Konflikten, welche einen erheblichen Einfluss auf lokale Bevölkerungen und das ganze Land haben. Während die Karen National Union, die seit dem Jahr 1949 gegen die burmesische Regierung kämpft, sich in einer kritischen Phase befindet, hat das KNU/KNLA Peace Council seinen eigenen Frieden mit der Militärregierung geschlossen. Seit dem Waffenstillstand haben sich erhebliche Herausforderungen aufgetan und zukünftige Entwicklungen sind ungewiss. Wie alle Waffenstillstandsgruppen im Land steht die Gruppe unter dem Druck der Regierung, dem „Sieben-Punkte-Fahrplan zur disziplinierten Demokratie“ zu folgen und damit eine politische Partei zu gründen sowie seine Truppen in eine Grenztruppe unter Kontrolle des burmesischen Militärs zu transformieren. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Einblick in eine Waffenstillstandsgruppe, analysiert die Erfolge sowie Misserfolge des

  2. Photovoltaic mounting/demounting unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    which when the mounting/demounting unit is moved along the mounting surface, causes the photovoltaic module to be mounted or demounted to the support structure; wherein the photovoltaic module comprises a carrier foil and wherein a total thickness of the photo voltaic module is below 500 muiotaeta......The present invention relates to a photovoltaic arrangement comprising a photovoltaic assembly comprising a support structure defining a mounting surface onto which a photovoltaic module is detachably mounted; and a mounting/demounting unit comprising at least one mounting/demounting apparatus...

  3. Two Versions of Buddhist Karen History of the Late British Colonial Period in Burma:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuto Ikeda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the Karen people in Burma are in fact Buddhist, in spite of their widespread image as Christian, pro-British, anti-Burman, and separatist. In the last decade of British rule, two Buddhist interpretations of Karen history—virtually the first ethnic self-assertion by the Buddhist Karens—were published along with the first Christian version. Writing in Burmese for Burmese readers, the authors of these Buddhist versions sought to prove that the Karen were a legitimate people (lumyo comparable to the Burman and Mon in the Buddhist world, with dynastic lineages of their own kingship (min reaching back into the remote past, and a group faithful to their religious order (thathana. This linkage of ethnicity=kingship=religion was presented in order to persuade skeptical readers who believed that the Karen, lacking the tradition of Buddhist min, were too primitive to constitute an authentic lumyo of the thathana world. Analysis of these texts will shed light on the social formation of Karen identity among the Buddhists from the 1920s to the 1930s. This will also lead us to consider the historical processes whereby the quasi-ethnic idioms and logic innate to the Burmese-speaking world were transformed in the face of modern and Western notions of race and nation, and consequently the mutation of Burma into an ethnically articulated society.

  4. Women of Burma Speak Out: Workshops to Deconstruct Gender-Based Violence and Build Systems of Peace and Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Kathryn L.; Khuankaew, Ouyporn

    2004-01-01

    Refugee and internally displaced women of Burma examined structural and institutional violence against women within their communities within workshop formats. Group members also discussed strategies for transforming systems supporting gender-based violence into structures of peace and gender justice. The authors describe their methodology, based…

  5. English Teaching Profiles from the British Council: Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English and the status of English language instruction is reported for Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, and Malaysia. The profile for each country contains a summary of English instruction within and outside of the educational system, teacher supply and qualifications,…

  6. Horizontally mounted solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy is collected by using a vertical deflector assembly, a stationary reflector and a horizontally mounted solar collector. The deflector assembly contains a plurality of vanes which change the direction of the solar energy to the vertical, while constantly keeping the same side of the deflector facing the sun. The vertical rays are then reflected off the stationary reflector and are then absorbed by the collector.

  7. Mount Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, California, was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale with financial support from Andrew Carnegie. In the 1920s and 1930s, working at the 2.5 m Hooker telescope, Edwin Hubble made two of the most important discoveries in the history of astronomy: first, that `nebulae' are actually island universes—galaxies—each with bil...

  8. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen

  9. Tractor Mounted Inclined Lifts

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet provides design details for an inclined tractor lift designed specifically for placing a disabled client on the driver's seat of a Kubota L3400 tractor with a front-end loader. This design, however, can easily be altered to match similar utility tractors in the 30-75 hp range. The lift has an electric motor driven lead screw (or ball screw) as actuator to take the lift seat up and down on two inclined rails mounted in front of the rear tire on the side where steps are located.

  10. Geochemical loading of suspended sediment carried by large monsoonal rivers in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. A.; Tipper, E.; Bird, M. I.; Oo, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Irrawaddy and Salween rivers of Burma drain the most rapidly exhuming region in the Himalayas, the eastern syntaxis zone. These monsoonal rivers have catchment areas of 0.413 x 106 km2 and 0.272 x 106 km2, respectively, and approximately 95% of the Irrawaddy catchment lies within Burma, while the catchment of the Salween flows through China, Thailand and Burma. They are long rivers (~2000 and ~2800 km) which have steep and narrow bedrock gorges along much of their length, and different amounts of floodplain in their lower reaches. These rivers have been less studied than other large Asian systems because of political instability in Burma and restricted access. Based on available historical data, and field work in 2005-2008, Robinson et al. (2007) estimated that the Irrawaddy is likely to be the 3rd largest river globally in terms of sediment load and when the Irrawaddy and Salween estimated fluxes are combined, they together contribute 4.6 Mt/yr of particulate organic carbon (POC) and an additional 1.1Mt/yr of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the ocean. When estimated yields of total organic carbon are calculated, the Irrawaddy-Salween system ranks alongside the Amazon as one of the largest yields of organic carbon, and is higher than the yield for the Ganges-Brahmaptura (Bird et al., 2008). Here we present preliminary geochemical data for water and sediment from the Irrawaddy and Salween rivers, and demonstrate the variability in elemental concentrations of water between the rivers and the summer and winter monsoon seasons, and differences in suspended sediment geochemistry as a function of water depth. The variability and magnitude of weathering products carried by such significant systems need to be quantified in order to understand their contribution to global element cycling (Tipper et al., 2006) and sedimentary depocentres. Our data highlight that further study of the geochemistry of such large rivers will significantly improve our understanding of the

  11. The Whole Story of Britain's Policies on Burma during the Pacific War%太平洋战争期间英国对缅甸政策出台始末

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何跃

    2005-01-01

    In the early period of the Pacific War, the British colonists in the Far East Asia were driven out of Burma. In order to return to Burma after the war, the British government was unwilling to express its attitude toward Burmese future. Although studies and plans had been done on Burmese development after the war within the British Conservative Party, yet they were all denied by Churchill, who later had to work out an explicit policy towards Burma after the counter attack against the Japanese fascists began. Britain worked out a white book, which reflected its dilemma. On the one hand, its government was unwilling to retreat from Burma and on the other, it could not find a better way to control Burma. So this paper argues that the above reasons are the essential cause for Burma to seek independence from the British Commonwealth.

  12. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action. PMID:27089733

  13. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action.

  14. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  15. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change. PMID:25530498

  16. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change.

  17. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yuichi; Dudgeon, David; Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi; Utsugi, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world's largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10-20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased-particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately pressing for

  18. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world’s largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10–20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased—particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately

  19. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yuichi; Dudgeon, David; Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi; Utsugi, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world's largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10-20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased-particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately pressing for

  20. Resilient mounting systems in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, R.; Tukker, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The basic elements of resilient mounting systems are described and various measures for quantifying the effect of such systems defined. Using electrical analogue circuits, the calculation of these measures is illustrated. With special reference to resilient mounting systems in buildings, under speci

  1. Mount Rainier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  2. The susceptibility of Bandicota bengalensis from Rangoon, Burma to several anticoagulant rodenticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J E; Htun, P T; Naing, H

    1980-02-01

    The baseline susceptibility of the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis, from Rangoon, Burma, to five anticoagulant rodenticides was established with no-choice feeding in the laboratory. The susceptibility of lesser bandicoots to the several poisons (brodifacoum, difenacoum, diphacinone, coumatetralyl, and warfarin) was such that they were offered at a 0.001% concentration. B. bengalensis was most susceptible to brodifacoum, and in descending order, difenacoum, coumatetralyl, diphacinone and warfarin. In comparison with Rattus norvegicus on warfarin at 0.005%, B. bengalensis proved more susceptible. Feeding tests at 0.005% concentration indicated that a 1-day feeding on brodifacoum and difenacoum would result in complete mortality, whereas coumatetralyl and warfarin would require 4 days feeding to a 100% kill. Brodifacoum and difenacoum are recommended at 0.002-0.005% bait concentrations and coumatetralyl at 0.005--0.01% concentrations for the control of B. bengalensis in the field in Rangoon. The use of any anticoagulant material in rat control should be alternated with acute toxicants to retard the possible development of anticoagulant resistance. PMID:6444311

  3. Fast Picometer Mirror Mount Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a 6DOF controllable mirror mount with high dynamic range and fast tip/tilt capability for space based applications. It will enable the...

  4. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  5. Paysages de l’hybridité en Birmanie Landscapes of Hybridity in Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Robinne

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Du fait de la dimension composite, hétérogène, de tout paysage social, une nécessaire cohérence d’ensemble se dessine. À la croisée de populations d’origines diverses produisant une diversité sociale et linguistique aussi complexe qu’instable, la région de Nyaung-Shwé dans l’État Shan de Birmanie est fondamentalement structurée par l’évolution concomitante de la cérémonie processionnelle de cinq images de Bouddha et par le cycle économique de « cinq jours un marché ». L’articulation de ces deux sphères économiques et religieuses non seulement contribue à organiser les déplacements des biens et des personnes de part et d’autre du lac Inlé ; elle génère également une suprématie politique du paysage social au profit de ceux qui contrôlent – au moins symboliquement – leur évolution. Cet exemple pourrait être étendu à d’autres paysages sociaux où le bouddhisme opère comme fédérateur commun (comme dans la région de Thibaw, on le verra, où le christianisme pluriel est indissociable des revendications ethniques, et finalement partout où j’ai été conduit à faire des enquêtes de terrain en Birmanie, dans des régions reculées comme en milieu urbain. Dans tous les cas, la problématique consistant à mettre de côté, au moins dans un premier temps, l’habituel surdéterminant ethnique – voire même interethnique –, c’est-à-dire à centrer l’analyse sur les carrefours transethniques plutôt que sur les frontières culturelles et territoriales, une telle problématique contribuerait à démontrer la dynamique inclusive de tout paysage social et l’intérêt à prendre l’hybridité pour objet d’étude.Despite the composite dimensions of any social landscape, a necesserary social coherence has to be produced. At the crossroad of peoples of multiple origins producing a complex and unstable social and linguistic diversity, the Nyaung Shwe township in the Shan State of Burma

  6. Assessment of multifaceted environmental issues and model development of an Indo-Burma hotspot region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The present article provides a multifaceted critical research review on environmental issues intimately related with the socio-economy of North East India (NE), a part of Indo-Burma hotspot. Further, the article addresses the issue of sustainable development of NE India through diverse ecological practices inextricably linked with traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). The biodiversity of NE India comprises endemic floral diversity, particularly medicinal plants of importance to pharmaceutical industry, and unique faunal diversity. Nevertheless, it is very unfortunate that this great land of biodiversity is least explored taxonomically as well as biotechnologically, probably due to geographical and political constraints. Different anthropogenic and socio-economic factors have perturbed the pristine ecology of this region, leading to environmental degradation. Also, the practice of unregulated shifting cultivation (jhooming), bamboo flowering, biological invasions and anthropogenic perturbations to biodiversity exacerbate the gloomy situation. Instead of a plethora of policies, the TEK of NE people may be integrated with modern scientific knowledge in order to conserve the environment which is the strong pillar for socio-economic sector here. The aforesaid approach can be practiced in NE India through the broad implementation and extension of agroforestry practices. Further, case studies on Apatanis, ethnomedicinal plants use by indigenous tribal groups and sacred forests are particularly relevant in the context of conservation of environmental health in totality while addressing the socioeconomic impact as well. In context with the prevailing scenarios in this region, we developed an eco-sustainable model for natural resource management through agroforestry practices in order to uplift the social as well as environmental framework.

  7. Characterization of the Burma Road Rubble Pit at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Burma Road Rubble Pit (BRRP) is located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The BRRP unit consists of two unlined earthen pits dug into surficial soil and filled with various waste materials. It was used from 1973--1983 for the disposal of dry inert rubble such as metal, concrete, lumber, poles, light fixtures, and glass. No record of the disposal of hazardous substances at the BRRP has been found. In 1983, the BRRP was closed by covering it with soil. In September 1988, a Ground Penetrating Radar survey detected three disturbed areas of soil near the BRRP, and a detailed and combined RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation was conducted from November 1993 to February 1994 to determine whether hazardous substances were present in the subsurface, to evaluate the nature and extent of contamination, and to evaluate the risks posed to the SRS facility due to activities conducted at the BRRP site. Metals, semi-volatile organic compounds, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides and one pesticide (Aldrin) were detected in soil and groundwater samples collected from seventeen BRRP locations. A baseline risk assessment (BRA) was performed quantitatively to evaluate whether chemical and radionuclide concentrations detected in soil and groundwater at the BRRP posed an unacceptable threat to human health and the environment. The exposure scenarios identifiable for the BRRP were for environmental researchers, future residential and occupational land use. The total site noncancer hazard indices were below unity, and cancer risk levels were below 1.0E-06 for the existing and future case environmental researcher scenario. The future case residential and occupational scenarios showed total hazard and risk levels which exceeded US EPA criterion values relative to groundwater scenarios. For the most part, the total carcinogenic risks were within the 1.0E-04 to 1.0E-06 risk range. Only the future adult residential scenario was associated with risks exceeding 1.0E-04

  8. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  9. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  10. Snakes, Ladders, and Information about Sexually Transmitted Infections: Evaluation of a Peer Educator Training on the Thailand-Burma Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeon, Jillian; Hkum, Jessica; Hsue, Saw Nanda; Walsh, Meredith; Foster, Angel M

    2016-03-31

    The longstanding conflict and civil strife in Burma has had significant consequences on the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of ethnic minority groups, including adolescents. The Adolescent Reproductive Health Zone in Chiang Mai, Thailand promotes adolescent SRH rights and access to services by having peer educators travel to their hometowns in Burma and lead intensive youth-focused trainings on a variety of topics and issues. In order to evaluate the impact of an intensive three-day workshop dedicated to improving knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among peer educators through didactic, experiential, and skill-building exercises, we administered a pre-, post-, and longitudinal assessment. All 13 participants completed both the pre-test and post-test; 11 of 13 participants (85%) completed the longitudinal evaluation administered three months after the training. Our results indicate that both individual and aggregate STI knowledge increased from baseline and that this knowledge was retained. Moreover, the training increased participants' confidence in their outreach abilities, informed changes in the curricular modules, and led to the implementation of new teaching and learning techniques, especially the incorporation of games and activities. Our findings showcase a successful initiative and suggest similar adolescent peer health educator programs could be undertaken in this protracted crisis and conflict setting.

  11. Earthquakes and slip rate of the southern Sagaing fault: insights from an offset ancient fort wall, lower Burma (Myanmar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Aung, Thura; Min, Soe; Khaing, Saw Ngwe; Tun, Soe Thura

    2011-04-01

    Field investigations of an ancient fortress wall in southern Myanmar reveal an offset of ˜6 m across the Sagaing fault, the major right-lateral fault between the Sunda and Burma plates. The fault slip rate implied by offset of this 16th-century fortress is between 11 and 18 cm yr-1. A palaeoseismological excavation within the fortress reveals at least two major fault ruptures since its construction. The slip rate we obtained is comparable to geodetic and geological estimates farther north, but is only 50 per cent of the spreading rate (38 mm yr-1) at the Andaman Sea spreading centre. This disparity suggests that other structures may be accommodating deformation within the Burma Plate. We propose two fault-slip scenarios to explain the earthquake-rupture history of the southern Sagaing fault. Using both small offset features along the fault trace and historical records, we speculate that the southern Sagaing fault exhibits a uniform-fault-slip behaviour and that one section of the fault could generate a M7+ earthquake within the next few decades.

  12. Mounting power cables on SOLEIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The power couplers are mounted on the SOLEIL cryomodule in a clean room. The cryomodule will allow superconducting technology to be used at SOLEIL, the French national synchrotron facility. This work is carried out as part of a collaboration between CERN and CEA Saclay, the French National Atomic Energy Commission.

  13. 1992 Mount Spurr, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following 39 years of inactivity, Crater Peak vent on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano burst into eruption at 7:04 a.m. Alaska daylight time (ADT) on June 27,...

  14. [Water cults on Soratte Mount].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Mount Soratte is a limestone ridge that rises on a lonely plateau of Pliocene tuff on the right of the Tiber, about forty kilometers North of Rome. Studies related to human settlements during prehistory in this territory have been sporadic and occasional. The first evidence of prehistoric cults on mount Soratte has been found in the early Fifties when ajar, dating back to Neolithic times, was discovered in the cave of the Meri. The jar was placed in a position to be always filled of water and indicates the existence of ancient practices of worship linked to groundwater. In the Middle Ages, although caves became a step towards the Hell, dripping caves were often associated with the magical-religious and therapeutic aspects of water linked to fertility in the popular imagination. In the cave church of the Saint Romana, on the eastern slope of Mount Soratte close to Meri, there is a small marble basin near the altar and the water drips from the rock above it. This water is taken out for devotion and drunk by mothers who did not get milk from their breasts. Recently, the water of the Saint Romana would have drained as a result of an act of sacrilege, albeit unintentionally, as reported in a oral testimony. Overall, the territory of Mount Soratte is characterized by a sharp and clear karst. This causes the water, that collects on the inside, coming out in many springs all around the valley. This water is collected to supply fountains used years ago by farmers and livestock and nowadays may represent a cultural space of social life with the aim to build a strong link with the territory and a new awareness of the past and history of the countryside around Mount Soratte. PMID:23057207

  15. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  16. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX05RR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean from 2007-05-07 to 2007-06-14 (NCEI Accession 0155654)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155654 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX05RR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal...

  17. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1117 in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal and others from 2011-12-15 to 2012-01-05 (NCEI Accession 0138170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0138170 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1117 in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal...

  18. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  19. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Low

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods: A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings: Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion: Despite the chronic conflict in

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Hydraulic Engine Mounts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Shanzhong; Marshall McNea

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic engine mounts are widely used in automotive powertrains for vibration isolation.A lumped mechanical parameter model is a traditional approach to model and simulate such mounts.This paper presents a dynamical model of a passive hydraulic engine mount with a double-chamber,an inertia track,a decoupler,and a plunger.The model is developed based on analogy between electrical systems and mechanical-hydraulic systems.The model is established to capture both low and high frequency dynatmic behaviors of the hydraulic mount.The model will be further used to find the approximate pulse responses of the mounts in terms of the force transmission and top chamber pressure.The close form solution from the simplifiod linear model may provide some insight into the highly nonlinear behavior of the mounts.Based on the model,computer simulation has been carried out to study dynamic performance of the hydraulic mount.

  1. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulder, Leslie J.; Frey, deceased, Gary A.; Nielsen, Engward W.; Ridler, Kenneth J.

    1997-01-01

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion.

  2. Liver transplantation at Mount Sinai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Schluger, L; Florman, S S; Gondolesi, G; Emre, S; Sheiner, P A; Fishbein, T M; Schwartz, M E; Miller, C M

    2000-01-01

    Nearly 2000 liver transplants have been performed over the past 12 years at Mount Sinai, with a recent exponential growth in living donor surgeries. Living-donor liver transplantation has emerged as an important option for our patients with end-stage liver disease. We are only beginning to recognize fully the advantages that 'scheduled' liver transplantation can offer. In this era of severe cadaver organ shortages, living donation offers patients the option of liver replacement in a timely fashion, before life-threatening complications of hepatic failure and/or carcinoma progression prohibit transplantation. The next era of transplantation at Mount Sinai will bring significant increases in the number of transplants performed with living donors, with projections of over 50% of the total transplants each year expected to involve living donations. We are committed to offering this option while recognizing that donor safety remains paramount and cannot be overemphasized. Proper donor and recipient selection, as well as surgical experience are imperative to success with this technically demanding procedure. Recurrent disease after transplantation, particularly with hepatitis C, remains a challenge clinically. Further investigations into the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of recurrent hepatitis C need to be addressed. Living donor transplantation could be an important option for these patients and would allow timely transplantation and the potential for improved survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:11512318

  3. Dalian’s Mounted Policewomen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    IN the summer of 1996, the first group of mounted policewomen came into being at the coastal city of Dalian,in northern China. The cavalrywomen patrol the streets on the backs of tall horses. bringing a new sense of safety and security to Dalian. Dalian sits on the Liaodong peninsula. This summer resort features long beaches, green folliage and sprawling lawns. Since 1988. the annual Dalian International Fashion Festival. with its thriving clothing industry and colorful cultural background, has attracted many businessmen and tourists from around the world. To welcome the Eighth Dalian International Fashion Festival and satisfy the needs of Dalian’s economic and cultural development, the Dalian City Public Security Bureau selected six policewomen to form a group of cavalrywomen.

  4. Notes on Reading Rare Books about the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma%滇缅抗战稀见文献知见录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许新民

    2015-01-01

    中国远征军出动对日作战的中缅印战场,既是抗日战争正面战场的重要组成部分,又是世界反法西斯战争亚洲-太平洋战场即东方战线主战场之一。滇缅抗战胜利对世界反法西斯战争取得全面胜利作出了举世瞩目的贡献,是世界反法西斯战争重大战果。中国远征军是滇缅抗战的主力军。笔者就所知所见的稀见滇缅抗战文献单行本逐一概说,共计介绍中美盟国中英文文献十二种和中译日方文献两种,以丰富世界反法西斯战争史和中国抗战史研究史料。%The Chinese Expeditionary Army (CEA) was dispatched from China inland to the west of Yunnan province, Burma, and India for fighting against the Japanese invaders during the Second World War. Not only the battle field which CEA had once experienced and bled was an important component of the frontier battlefields during the period of Anti-Japanese War in China, but also it was one of the oriental main battle fields, the Asia-Pacific, in the International Anti-Fascist War. The victory of the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma had made a remarkable contribution towards the finally overall success of the International Anti-Fascism War. CEA was the main force of the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma, which had achieved splendid results on the battle field in West Yunnan and North Burma. The essay is written down to introduce the rare books about the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma, which is made of twelve volumes written in Chinese or English, and other two volumes in Japanese. Surely it is worthy of studying for the history of the International Anti-Fascism War and the Anti-Japanese War in China.

  5. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  6. Surface mount technology terms and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Zarrow, Phil

    1997-01-01

    In today's fast-paced world of technology, keeping up with new terms and concepts can be quite a challenge. Surface Mount Technology Terms and Concepts is an invaluable reference containing over 1000 terms and definitions used in the SMT field. Each term is followed by a paragraph or two explaining the meaning and how it fits into the surface mount industry. The easy lookup and concise explanations make it ideal for those starting out in the field as well as professionals already involved in surface mount design and assembly.Glossary of over 1000 surface mount technology terms

  7. A redescription of the monotypic felt scale insect genus Pedroniopsis Green (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Eriococcidae) from India and Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Chris J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Here we redescribe the felt scale genus Pedroniopsis Green and its type species Pedroniopsis beesoni Green for the first time since it was described 90 years ago. We consider that the genus belongs to the family Eriococcidae as presently understood but realise that the family may not be monophyletic. The species was collected in crevices and pits on the bark of Shorea robusta (Dipterocarpaceae) from Odisha State, India, which is its only known locality in India. We also record the species from Burma (Myanmar) for the first time living in galls on Dipterocarpus tuberculatus (Dipterocarpaceae) and, therefore, the species may have a wider distribution but has not been observed because of its cryptic habit. The adult females of the genus and species have some unusual features such as truncate-conical marginal and dorsal setae that are mostly bifid at the tip. We suggest that the genus may be similar in some respects to the genus Sangicoccus Reyne known from farther east in southern Asia.

  8. Investigation on the biotrophic interaction of Ustilago esculenta on Zizania latifolia found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Robinson C; Goyari, Sailendra; Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika D; Handique, Pratap J; Talukdar, Narayan C

    2016-09-01

    Ustilago esculenta is a uniquely flavored biotrophic smut fungus that forms a smut gall on the top internodal region of Zizania latifolia, a perennial wild rice found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The smut gall is an edible vegetable locally called "kambong" in Manipur, India. The life cycle of the fungus was studied in vitro and its biotrophism was observed during different stages of the plant growth starting from the bud stage to decaying stage using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy. The size of the smut gall and the number of internodes below the apical smut gall varied significantly (P < 0.05). Examination of various parts of infected plants using culture methods, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction revealed that Ustilago esculenta colonized Zizania latifolia in a non-systemic manner. Spores and fragmented hyphae of U. esculenta were present in the rhizome of infected plant throughout the year, but shoot interiors were without any fungal structures from April until September. The smut region of infected plants in early September to December were heavily sporulated with fragmented hyphae, while the nodal regions of infected plants had no spores and fragmented hyphae. Hyphae and spores were also absent in the internodes and membranes aboveground up to smut region of infected plants but were present in the old rhizomes. PMID:27334294

  9. My Unforgettable Trip to Mount Lu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹萌

    2007-01-01

    <正>Last summer holiday, my parents and I went to the City of Jiujiang,Jiangxi Province, which is famous for Mount Lu. We went there partly because my uncle and aunt work there, partly because we are attracted by the mount.

  10. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount... exploratory uranium drilling on the Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District. There are two areas... Drilling Team Lead, Cibola National Forest, 2113 Osuna Road, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87113. Comments can...

  11. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  12. Modeling of Wind Turbine Gearbox Mounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten K. Ebbesen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper three bushing models are evaluated to find a best practice in modeling the mounting of wind turbine gearboxes. Parameter identification on measurements has been used to determine the bushing parameters for dynamic simulation of a gearbox including main shaft. The stiffness of the main components of the gearbox has been calculated. The torsional stiffness of the main shaft, gearbox and the mounting of the gearbox are of same order of magnitude, and eigenfrequency analysis clearly reveals that the stiffness of the gearbox mounting is of importance when modeling full wind turbine drivetrains.

  13. Health and human rights in Chin State, Western Burma: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sollom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%-94.1% reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  14. Mount Pinatubo, Philippines: June 1991 Eruptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mount Pinatubo is an andesitic island arc volcano, located on the southern Luzon Island, Philippines. Prior to 1991 it had been dormant for more than 635 years. On...

  15. Strain Gauges Mounted To Retain Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Barry L.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon-based semiconductor strain gauges mounted in such way they retain original calibration for several years instead of few months. Improvement effected by bonding gauges to ceramic substrates with glasses instead of epoxies as adhesives.

  16. 1980 Mount Saint Helens, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake occurred at 15 32 UT, only seconds before the explosion that began the eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano. This eruption and blast blew off the top...

  17. A rapid method of ferromanganese nodule mounting

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, R.

    GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF INDIA Vol. 36. Aug. 1990. pp. 173 to 174 A Rapid Method of Ferromanganese Nodule Mounting S. MUKHOPADHYAYl AND R. BANERJEE2 1 Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700032 2 National Institute of Oceanography.... Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 Abstract. A rapid method of sample preparation for ferromanganese nodules andcrusts mounting is presented here. by using laminated polyester resin. cobalt napthanate and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide. With- this technique vacuum...

  18. Mount Sinai Hospital's journey into TQM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, T; Mapa, J; Droppo, L

    1994-01-01

    Toronto's Mount Sinai Hospital commenced its total quality management journey in the late 1980s as a complement to its extensive experience in quality assurance. This article focuses on Phase I--the process of setting up teams. This phase includes project nomination and selection; team membership selection and education; and the quality improvement process. The authors share the lessons they learned during the course of the journey and present the directions that TQM at Mount Sinai will take in the future.

  19. The AMiBA Hexapod Telescope Mount

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Patrick M.; Kesteven, Michael; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Jiang, Homin; Lin, Kai-Yang; Umetsu, Keiichi; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Jung; Ibanez-Romano, Fabiola; Chereau, Guillaume; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Pausch, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    AMiBA is the largest hexapod astronomical telescope in current operation. We present a description of this novel hexapod mount with its main mechanical components -- the support cone, universal joints, jack screws, and platform -- and outline the control system with the pointing model and the operating modes that are supported. The AMiBA hexapod mount performance is verified based on optical pointing tests and platform photogrammetry measurements. The photogrammetry results show that the defo...

  20. 中缅边境蚊虫调查研究%A survey for mosquito at the border between China and Burma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓龙; 孙肖红; 曹晓梅; 李亚平; 和志宏; 房健慧; 王静

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查中缅边境3个口岸蚊虫种群数量及构成.方法 灯诱法.结果 在中缅边境3个采样点共采集19种蚊虫,其中三带喙库蚊是优势种群,致倦库蚊、棕头库蚊和中华按蚊数量较多.结论 中缅边境蚊种丰富,优势度较高的三带喙库蚊为流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)的媒介,联合开展中缅边境蚊虫和蚊传疾病的监测是双方共同控制传染病传入传出的关键.%Objective To investigate mosquitoes species at the border between China and Burma. Methods Lamp trapping was conducted. Results 19 species of mosquito were collected in three ports. Culex tritaeniorhyn-chus was predominant species. Conclusion Culex tritaeniorhynchus is the vector of Japanese encephalitis, so survey for mosquito and mosquito-bome disease is required at the sino-Burma border.

  1. Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on Ramree Island, the western coast of Myanmar (Burma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Shen, Chuang-Chou; Thura Tun, Soe

    2014-05-01

    Myanmar is located at the convergent boundary between the Indian-Australian and the Eurasian plates. Offshore western Myanmar, the Indian-Australian plate subducts northeastward underneath the Burma micro-plate along the northernmost part of the Sunda megathrust. Wide-spread marine terraces with numerous uplifted corals are evident for the active deformation along the coast of western Myanmar. The 1762 Arakan earthquake, the last major seismic event along this plate boundary belt, has been proposed to result from slip on upper-plate splay faults, in addition to rupture of the megathrust. Some previous studies also proposed that the interval between large earthquakes in this area is about 900 years from the ages of the marine terraces, but the seismic activity of upper-plate splay faults remains unclear. From the ages of multiple steps of uplifted coral microatolls, we have identified several previous earthquake events that are likely produced by the upper-plate splay faults. Near the small village of Leik-Ka-Maw at the northwestern corner of the Ramree Island, western Myanmar, we found three groups of uplifted coral colonies with different elevations on the wave-cut platform. U-Th ages of the corals indicate that the second group of corals was killed by co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. A lower group of corals suggests that there was at least one event after the 1762 earthquake, probably in 1848 according to Myanmar's recorded history. This event has not been reported previously elsewhere, thus it may represent a minor, local event that occurred entirely on a splay fault. Geomorphic evidence for such a local structure is also present near the central western Ramree coast. Detailed topographic survey revealed that the uplifted marine terrace gets higher oceanward. This deformation pattern is likely produced by an east-dipping reverse fault not too far offshore the coastline there. Since most previous studies focused on megathrust earthquakes, the

  2. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia;

    in the measurement of wind turbine power performance, wind resource assessment and for providing purposeful in-field comparisons between different sensors, e.g. lidar anemometers. With the proposed method, direction dependent errors can be extracted and the mast flow distortion effect on the wind measurements......In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...

  3. SEISMIC ACTIVITY OF MOUNT EREBUS IN 1987

    OpenAIRE

    カミヌマ, カツタダ; ムラカミ, カツミ; Katsutada, Kaminuma; Katsumi, MURAKAMI

    1989-01-01

    In 1987,five seismic stations were operated in the summit area and on the flanks of Mount Erebus (77°37′S, 167°09′E, 3794m) and one station at the summit of Mount Terror in Ross Island, Antarctica. Two stations (TRC and E1) in the summit area out of five were operated well throughout the year. Therefore the hypocenters of only 48 earthquakes were determined using the seismic phase readings at five stations in 1987. The earthquakes are localized around the summit region. The averaged daily cou...

  4. Mount St. Elias : Inszenierungen des Dokumentarischen

    OpenAIRE

    Giesen, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Mit Mount St. Elias. Die längste Skiabfahrt der Welt. ist Mitte November ein Ski- und Bergfilm in den deutschen Kinos angelaufen, der schon jetzt als einer der meistgesehenen Dokumentarfilme der österreichischen Kinogeschichte gilt. Auch in Deutschland wurde der Film als Bergfilm angekündigt, der neue Maßstäbe setze. Dieser Kommentar beschäftigt sich mit den dramaturgischen Bausteinen des Erfolgs von Mount St. Elias und legt besonderes Augenmerk auf die Inszenierungsstrategien des ,Dokumentar...

  5. CADICAM Design of Trunnion Mount (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul D. Basu

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided manufacturing (CAM of a 3-D trunnion mount located on the intercasing housing of a gas turbine engine is described. The mount carries load and thrust, hence stress-concentrating locations, like sharp edges and corners must be avoided. A program involving CAD, CAM and post-processing CAD surfaces for tool paths has been developed. Preliminary machining of a scrap aluminum piece that verified the program is described. This method is applicable to a wide variety of proprietary packages.

  6. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H.

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  7. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  8. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion, ...

  9. PC board mount corrosion sensitive sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alex L.; Casias, Adrian L.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Laguna, George R.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention relates to surface mount structures including a capacitive element or a resistive element, where the element has a property that is responsive to an environmental condition. In particular examples, the structure can be optionally coupled to a printed circuit board. Other apparatuses, surface mountable structures, and methods of use are described herein.

  10. APPLICATION OF MOUNTING FRAMES IN SPECIAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz SZCZĘŚNIAK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design solutions and fastening mounting frames in special vehicles. Special Vehicles is an interesting and growing market in the production of heavy vehicles. Due to the nature of the use of these vehicles of their design solutions require constant change and adaptation, which opens up the possibility of a utilitarian research

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-21 (NODC Accession 0115589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115589 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea,...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-23 (NODC Accession 0115009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115009 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of...

  13. Meteorological observations on Mount Everest in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Aihong; Qin Dahe; Ren Jiawen; Qin Xiang; Xiao Cunde; Hou Shugui; Kang Shichang; Yang Xingguo; Jiang Youyan

    2007-01-01

    Mount Everest, the highest point on the Earth is often referred to as the earth's third pole as such the place is relatively inaccessible and little is known about its meteorology. In April 2005, an automatic weather station was installed at the mountain's North Col (6523 ma. S. L. ). According to the observational 10-minute mean and daily records, the meteorological characteristics were analyzed.All the meteorological elements displayed obvious diurnal variations during May 1 to July 22, 2005. The monthly variation of daily meteorological elements on Mount Everest coincided with that on Dingri, the closest routine meteorological station, with the high correlation coefficients of 0. 928, 0. 877, 0. 682, 0. 755, 0. 826 and 0. 676 ( n = 83, p < 0. 001) for mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, relative humidity, pressure and wind speed, respectively. Furthermore, the vertical mean gradient of temperature was above 0.6℃/100 m, especially for the daily maximum temperature. Most weather events on Mount Everest prominently appeared on the same day as those on Dingri, especially those from daily mean pressure, temperature and relative humidity with the cross-correlation coefficients of 0. 673, 0. 485 and 0. 487 ( n = 83, p < 0. 001 ), respectively. Some other weather events on Mount Everest lagged one-day behind those on Dingri. Furthermore, forecasting of the weather events on Mount Everest from pressure on Dingri was more reliable than those from the other meteorological elements. The conclusions are much important for research on meteorology and climate changes in the region.

  14. Information Extraction and Interpretation Analysis of Mineral Potential Targets Based on ETM+ Data and GIS technology: A Case Study of Copper and Gold Mineralization in Burma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralization-alteration and structure information extraction plays important roles in mineral resource prospecting and assessment using remote sensing data and the Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. Choosing copper and gold mines in Burma as example, the authors adopt band ratio, threshold segmentation and principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the hydroxyl alteration information using ETM+ remote sensing images. Digital elevation model (DEM) (30m spatial resolution) and ETM+ data was used to extract linear and circular faults that are associated with copper and gold mineralization. Combining geological data and the above information, the weights of evidence method and the C-A fractal model was used to integrate and identify the ore-forming favourable zones in this area. Research results show that the high grade potential targets are located with the known copper and gold deposits, and the integrated information can be used to the next exploration for the mineral resource decision-making

  15. Reflow Soldering of Surface Mount Electronic Components in a Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    We present a basic tutorial for implementing surface mount technology in lab-built scientific instruments. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using surface mount chips. We also describe methods for the development and prototyping of surface mount circuitry in home-built electronics. The method of soldering surface mount components in a common toaster oven is described. We provide advice from our own experience in developing this technology, and argue that surface mount technology is often preferable to using leaded components when building large circuits, and is essential if the desired component characteristics are only available in surface mount packages.

  16. The Geologic Story of Mount Rainier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Ice-clad Mount Rainier, towering over the landscape of western Washington, ranks with Fuji-yama in Japan, Popocatepeti in Mexico, and Vesuvius in Italy among the great volcanoes of the world. At Mount Rainier, as at other inactive volcanoes, the ever-present possibility of renewed eruptions gives viewers a sense of anticipation, excitement, and apprehension not equaled by most other mountains. Even so, many of us cannot imagine the cataclysmic scale of the eruptions that were responsible for building the giant cone which now stands in silence. We accept the volcano as if it had always been there, and we appreciate only the beauty of its stark expanses of rock and ice, its flower-strewn alpine meadows, and its bordering evergreen forests. Mount Rainier owes its scenic beauty to many features. The broad cone spreads out on top of a major mountain range - the Cascades. The volcano rises about 7,000 feet above its 7,000-foot foundation, and stands in solitary splendor - the highest peak in the entire Cascade Range. Its rocky ice-mantled slopes above timberline contrast with the dense green forests and give Mount Rainier the appearance of an arctic island in a temperate sea, an island so large that you can see its full size and shape only from the air. The mountain is highly photogenic because of the contrasts it offers among bare rock, snowfields, blue sky, and the incomparable flower fields that color its lower slopes, shadows cast by the multitude of cliffs, ridges, canyons, and pinnacles change constantly from sunrise to sunset, endlessly varying the texture and mood of the mountain. The face of the mountain also varies from day to day as its broad snowfields melt during the summer. The melting of these frozen reservoirs makes Mount Rainier a natural resource in a practical as well as in an esthetic sense, for it ensures steady flows of water for hydroelectric power in the region, regardless of season. Seen from the Puget Sound country to the west, Mount Rainier has

  17. The AMiBA Hexapod Telescope Mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Patrick M.; Kesteven, Michael; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Jiang, Homin; Lin, Kai-Yang; Umetsu, Keiichi; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Jung; Ibañez-Romano, Fabiola; Chereau, Guillaume; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Pausch, Konrad; Willmeroth, Klaus; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Han, Chih-Chiang; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wei, Ta-Shun; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chiueh, Tzihong; Lancaster, Katy; Lo, Kwok Yung; Martin, Robert N.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Patt, Ferdinand; Romeo, Bob

    2009-04-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is the largest hexapod astronomical telescope in current operation. We present a description of this novel hexapod mount with its main mechanical components—the support cone, universal joints, jack screws, and platform—and outline the control system with the pointing model and the operating modes that are supported. The AMiBA hexapod mount performance is verified based on optical pointing tests and platform photogrammetry measurements. The photogrammetry results show that the deformations in the inner part of the platform are less than 120 μm rms. This is negligible for optical pointing corrections, radio alignment, and radio phase errors for the currently operational seven-element compact configuration. The optical pointing error in azimuth and elevation is successively reduced by a series of corrections to about 0farcm 4 rms which meets our goal for the seven-element target specifications.

  18. The AMiBA Hexapod Telescope Mount

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Patrick M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Jiang, Homin; Lin, Kai-Yang; Umetsu, Keiichi; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Jung; Ibanez-Romano, Fabiola; Chereau, Guillaume; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T P; Pausch, Konrad; Willmeroth, Klaus; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Han, Chih-Chiang; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Liu, Guo-Chin; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Wei, Ta-Shun; Birkinshaw, Mark; Lancaster, Katy; Lo, Kwok Yung; Martin, Robert N; Molnar, Sandor M; Patt, Ferdinand; Romeo, Bob

    2009-01-01

    AMiBA is the largest hexapod astronomical telescope in current operation. We present a description of this novel hexapod mount with its main mechanical components -- the support cone, universal joints, jack screws, and platform -- and outline the control system with the pointing model and the operating modes that are supported. The AMiBA hexapod mount performance is verified based on optical pointing tests and platform photogrammetry measurements. The photogrammetry results show that the deformations in the inner part of the platform are less than 120 micron rms. This is negligible for optical pointing corrections, radio alignment and radio phase errors for the currently operational 7-element compact configuration. The optical pointing error in azimuth and elevation is successively reduced by a series of corrections to about 0.4 arcmin rms which meets our goal for the 7-element target specifications.

  19. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles

    2016-02-02

    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  20. Cantilever mounted resilient pad gas bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsion, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A gas-lubricated bearing is described, employing at least one pad mounted on a rectangular cantilever beam to produce a lubricating wedge between the face of the pad and a moving surface. The load-carrying and stiffness characteristics of the pad are related to the dimensions and modulus of elasticity of the beam. The bearing is applicable to a wide variety of types of hydrodynamic bearings.

  1. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  2. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  3. Customer Satisfaction Level in Mount Sherpa Restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is the key to every successful business in the sense of profit motive, as well as in the long run. It is the desire of every business to be able to understand their customers’ need. Many businesses, especially related with the service industry, carry out different surveys and conduct research in order to know what their customers really want. This research was carried out to measure the customer satisfaction level in Mount Sherpa restaurant. The results and findings ...

  4. Disruptive advancement in precision lens mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Doucet, Michel; Côté, Patrice; Gauvin, Jonny; Anctil, Geneviève

    2015-09-01

    Threaded rings are used to fix lenses in a large portion of opto-mechanical assemblies. This is the case for the low cost drop-in approach in which the lenses are dropped into cavities cut into a barrel and clamped with threaded rings. The walls of a cavity are generally used to constrain the lateral and axial position of the lens within the cavity. In general, the drop-in approach is low cost but imposes fundamental limitations especially on the optical performances. On the other hand, active alignment methods provide a high level of centering accuracy but increase the cost of the optical assembly. This paper first presents a review of the most common lens mounting techniques used to secure and center lenses in optical systems. Advantages and disadvantages of each mounting technique are discussed in terms of precision and cost. Then, the different contributors which affect the centering of a lens when using the drop-in approach, such as the threaded ring, friction, and manufacturing errors, are detailed. Finally, a patent pending lens mounting technique developed at INO that alleviates the drawbacks of the drop-in and the active alignment approaches is introduced. This innovative auto-centering method requires a very low assembly time, does not need tight manufacturing tolerances and offers a very high level of centering accuracy, usually less than 5 μm. Centering test results performed on real optical assemblies are also presented.

  5. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeloew-Marsden, P.; Pedersen, Troels F.; Gottschall, J.; Vesth, A.; Paulsen, R.W.U.; Courtney, M.S.

    2010-08-15

    In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted with booms at the same height but pointing in 60 deg. different directions. In the examined case of a 1.9 m wide equilateral triangular lattice tower with booms protruding 4.1 m at 80 m height the measurement errors are observed to reach up to +- 2 %. Errors of this magnitude are severely problematic in the measurement of wind turbine power performance, wind resource assessment and for providing purposeful in-field comparisons between different sensors, e.g. lidar anemometers. With the proposed method, direction dependent errors can be extracted and the mast flow distortion effect on the wind measurements corrected to an uncertainty estimated to better than 0.5%. This level of uncertainty is probably acceptable for the above mentioned applications. (author)

  6. 30 Cool Facts about Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, Carolyn; Liz, Westby; Faust, Lisa; Frenzen, Peter; Bennett, Jeanne; Clynne, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Commemorating the 30th anniversary of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens 1-During the past 4,000 years, Mount St. Helens has erupted more frequently than any other volcano in the Cascade Range. 2-Most of Mount St. Helens is younger than 3,000 years old (younger than the pyramids of Egypt). 3-Some Native American names that refer to smoke at the volcano include- Lawala Clough, Low-We- Lat-Klah, Low-We-Not- Thlat, Loowit, Loo-wit, Loo-wit Lat-kla, and Louwala-Clough. 4-3,600 years ago-Native Americans abandoned hunting grounds devastated by an enormous eruption four times larger than the May 18, 1980 eruption. 5-1792-Captain George Vancouver named the volcano for Britain's ambassador to Spain, Alleyne Fitzherbert, also known as Baron St. Helens. 6-1975-U.S. Geological Survey geologists forecasted that Mount St. Helens would erupt again, 'possibly before the end of the century.' 7-March 20, 1980-A magnitude 4.2 earthquake signaled the reawakening of the volcano after 123 years. 8-Spring 1980-Rising magma pushed the volcano's north flank outward 5 feet per day. 9-Morning of May 18, 1980- The largest terrestrial landslide in recorded history reduced the summit by 1,300 feet and triggered a lateral blast. 10-Within 3 minutes, the lateral blast, traveling at more than 300 miles per hour, blew down and scorched 230 square miles of forest. 11-Within 15 minutes, a vertical plume of volcanic ash rose over 80,000 feet. 12-Afternoon of May 18, 1980-The dense ash cloud turned daylight into darkness in eastern Washington, causing streetlights to turn on in Yakima and Ritzville. 13-The volcanic ash cloud drifted east across the United States in 3 days and encircled Earth in 15 days. 14-Lahars (volcanic mudflows) filled rivers with rocks, sand, and mud, damaging 27 bridges and 200 homes and forcing 31 ships to remain in ports upstream. 15-The May 18, 1980 eruption was the most economically destructive volcanic event in U.S. history. 16-Small plants and trees beneath winter snow

  7. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  8. Star tracker for the Apollo telescope mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The star tracker for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Skylab vehicle and mission. The functions of the star tracker are presented, as well as descriptions of the optical-mechanical assembly (OMA) and the star tracker electronics (STE). Also included are the electronic and mechanical specifications, interface and operational requirements, support equipment and test requirements, and occultation information. Laboratory functional tests, environmental qualification tests, and life tests have provided a high confidence factor in the performance of the star tracker in the laboratory and on the Skylab mission.

  9. Adhesive mounting device for small objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as laser fusion target spheres or microelectronic components is described. It consists of a glass stalk drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing. The streamer may be formed about a carbon fibre or may be free-standing. (author)

  10. Design concepts for the EST mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Süss, Martin; Fischer, David

    2012-09-01

    The EST has unique an optical layout, with an on-axis Gregorian tube system and the altitude axis behind the M1 mirror unit - a great challenge for the mount designer in regard of balancing. Three different structural design concepts and various alternatives for the bearing and drive systems were investigated. Hydrostatic bearings with direct drives are compared with roller bearings and geared drives. The influence of available bearing and drive technology were investigated by FE calculations, dynamic analysis and end-to-end simulations. The finally recommended design concept is based on large-diameter segmented roller bearings and so-called pinion motors in both axes.

  11. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...... is a viable technique for positioning the manipulator and present a pruning technique for managing the growth of the roadmap. We discuss results from simulations and from applications at the shipyard, where a similar planner has now been implemented for production....

  12. Next-generation head-mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, James P., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) have been utilized by the military for various applications since the 1980's. In the 1990's, this technology migrated to the consumer market. Most of these early systems suffered the major drawback that they were "look-at" versus "see through" systems, which prevented the user from seeing their environment. This reduced the utility of the devices and could potentially lead to safety issues. This presentation discusses the optical design of a novel see-through High Definition display device with a 40 degree field of view.

  13. Habitat changes: Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, M.R.; Keigley, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, a rest-rotation grazing system was established on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area (MHWMA) in southwest Montana. The area is a mixture of wet and dry meadow types, grass/shrublands, and forest. Prior to implementing the grazing system, photo-monitoring points were established on the MHWMA at locations were cattle concentrate were grazing. The area consists of a three pasture rest-rotation system incorporating 20,000 acres. Photo essays revealed changes in riparian, lowland, and upland sites within the grazing system. In addition, gross changes in the amount of willow present were documented.

  14. The taxonomical aspect of Argostemma Wall. (Rubiaceae-Rubioidae in Mount Gede-Pangrango, Mount Halimun, and Mount Salak based on morphological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSIANI PURBANINGSIH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative character and reproductive at Argostemma from Mount Gede-Pangrango, Mount Halimun, and Mount Salak have been used for the identification of 101 herbarium specimens from Herbarium Bogoriense and new specimens from field. Identifying of herbarium specimens based morphology character on Argostemma hybrid group by previous author still identified as Argostemma montanum. Ovary at Argostemma consist of 2-3 celled, ovary 2 celled is found at A. montanum and A. borragineum, while the ovary of A. uniflorum account of 3 celled. Amount of flower do not range from 3-6, but between 1-8. Study on Argostemma morphology also can be concluded that in Mount Gede-Pangrango, Mount Halimun, and Mount Salak there are 3 Argostemma species, that is A. montanum Blume ex DC, A. borragineum Blume ex DC, and A. uniflorum Blume ex DC. Spreading of Argostemma vertically in Mount Gede-Pangrango, Mount Halimun, and Mount Salak range from 560-2,600 m above sea level. with spreading center 1,000-2,000 m above sea level.

  15. Impact of community-based maternal health workers on coverage of essential maternal health interventions among internally displaced communities in eastern Burma: the MOM project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to essential maternal and reproductive health care is poor throughout Burma, but is particularly lacking among internally displaced communities in the eastern border regions. In such settings, innovative strategies for accessing vulnerable populations and delivering basic public health interventions are urgently needed. METHODS: Four ethnic health organizations from the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions collaborated on a pilot project between 2005 and 2008 to examine the feasibility of an innovative three-tiered network of community-based providers for delivery of maternal health interventions in the complex emergency setting of eastern Burma. Two-stage cluster-sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y conducted before and after program implementation enabled evaluation of changes in coverage of essential antenatal care interventions, attendance at birth by those trained to manage complications, postnatal care, and family planning services. RESULTS: Among 2,889 and 2,442 women of reproductive age in 2006 and 2008, respectively, population characteristics (age, marital status, ethnic distribution, literacy were similar. Compared to baseline, women whose most recent pregnancy occurred during the implementation period were substantially more likely to receive antenatal care (71.8% versus 39.3%, prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-2.04] and specific interventions such as urine testing (42.4% versus 15.7%, PRR = 2.69 [95% CI 2.69-3.54], malaria screening (55.9% versus 21.9%, PRR = 2.88 [95% CI 2.15-3.85], and deworming (58.2% versus 4.1%, PRR = 14.18 [95% CI 10.76-18.71]. Postnatal care visits within 7 d doubled. Use of modern methods to avoid pregnancy increased from 23.9% to 45.0% (PRR = 1.88 [95% CI 1.63-2.17], and unmet need for contraception was reduced from 61.7% to 40.5%, a relative reduction of 35% (95% CI 28%-40%. Attendance at birth by those trained to

  16. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahn Mahn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. Methods A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. Results One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Conclusions Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during

  17. Phylogeny and taxonomical investigation of Trichoderma spp. from Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hot spot region with special reference to Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Th; Devi, S Indira; Sharma, K Chandradev; Kennedy, K

    2015-01-01

    Towards assessing the genetic diversity and occurrence of Trichoderma species from the Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, a total of 193 Trichoderma strains were isolated from cultivated soils of nine different districts of Manipur comprising 4 different agroclimatic zones. The isolates were grouped based on the morphological characteristics. ITS-RFLP of the rDNA region using three restriction digestion enzymes: Mob1, Taq1, and Hinf1, showed interspecific variations among 65 isolates of Trichoderma. Based on ITS sequence data, a total of 22 different types of representative Trichoderma species were reported and phylogenetic analysis showed 4 well-separated main clades in which T. harzianum was found to be the most prevalent spp. among all the Trichoderma spp. Combined molecular and phenotypic data leads to the development of a taxonomy of all the 22 different Trichoderma spp., which was reported for the first time from this unique region. All these species were found to produce different extrolites and enzymes responsible for the biocontrol activities against the harmful fungal phytopathogens that hamper in food production. This potential indigenous Trichoderma spp. can be targeted for the development of suitable bioformulation against soil and seedborne pathogens in sustainable agricultural practice.

  18. Robotized Surface Mounting of Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using permanent magnets on a rotor can both simplify the design and increase the efficiency of electric machines compared to using electromagnets. A drawback, however, is the lack of existing automated assembly methods for large machines. This paper presents and motivates a method for robotized surface mounting of permanent magnets on electric machine rotors. The translator of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator is used as an example of a rotor. The robot cell layout, equipment design and assembly process are presented and validated through computer simulations and experiments with prototype equipment. A comparison with manual assembly indicates substantial cost savings and an improved work environment. By using the flexibility of industrial robots and a scalable equipment design, it is possible for this assembly method to be adjusted for other rotor geometries and sizes. Finally, there is a discussion on the work that remains to be done on improving and integrating the robot cell into a production line.

  19. Foot mounted inertial system for pedestrian navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses algorithmic concepts, design and testing of a system based on a low-cost MEMS-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) and high-sensitivity global positioning system (HSGPS) receivers for seamless personal navigation in a GPS signal degraded environment. The system developed here is mounted on a pedestrian shoe/foot and uses measurements based on the dynamics experienced by the inertial sensors on the user's foot. The IMU measurements are processed through a conventional inertial navigation system (INS) algorithm and are then integrated with HSGPS receiver measurements and dynamics derived constraint measurements using a tightly coupled integration strategy. The ability of INS to bridge the navigation solution is evaluated through field tests conducted indoors and in severely signal degraded forest environments. The specific focus is on evaluating system performance under challenging GPS conditions

  20. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2010-12-28

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  1. Accurate Telescope Mount Positioning with MEMS Accelerometers

    CERN Document Server

    Mészáros, László; Pál, András; Csépány, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages and challenges of applying microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (MEMS accelerometers) in order to attain precise, accurate and stateless positioning of telescope mounts. This provides a completely independent method from other forms of electronic, optical, mechanical or magnetic feedback or real-time astrometry. Our goal is to reach the sub-arcminute range which is well smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. Here we present how this sub-arcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors and we also detail how our procedures can be extended in order to attain even finer measurements. In addition, our paper discusses how can a complete system design be implemented in order to be a part of a telescope control system.

  2. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, John Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus for mounting a photovoltaic (PV) module on a surface, including a support with an upper surface, a lower surface, tabs, one or more openings, and a clip comprising an arm and a notch, where the apparatus resists wind forces and seismic forces and creates a grounding electrical bond between the PV module, support, and clip. The invention further includes a method for installing PV modules on a surface that includes arranging supports in rows along an X axis and in columns along a Y axis on a surface such that in each row the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the longest side of a PV module and in each column the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the shortest side of a PV module.

  3. Optimization of Classical Hydraulic Engine Mounts Based on RMS Method

    OpenAIRE

    Christopherson, J.; G. Nakhaie Jazar

    2005-01-01

    Based on RMS averaging of the frequency response functions of the absolute acceleration and relative displacement transmissibility, optimal parameters describing the hydraulic engine mount are determined to explain the internal mount geometry. More specifically, it is shown that a line of minima exists to define a relationship between the absolute acceleration and relative displacement transmissibility of a sprung mass using a hydraulic mount as a means of suspension. This line of minima is u...

  4. Virtual sine arm kinematic mount system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel kinematic mount system for a vertical focusing mirror of the soft x-ray spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source is described. The system contains three points in a horizontal plane. Each point consists of two horizontal linear precision stages, a spherical ball bearing, and a vertical precision stage. The horizontal linear stages are aligned orthogonally and are conjoined by a spherical ball bearing, supported by the vertical linear stage at each point. The position of each confined horizontal stage is controlled by a motorized micrometer head by spring-loading the flat tip of the micrometer head onto a tooling ball fixing on the carriage of the stage. A virtual sine arm is formed by tilting the upstream horizontal stage down and the two downstream horizontal stages up by a small angle. The fine pitch motion is achieved by adjusting the upstream stage. This supporting structure is extremely steady due to a relatively large span across the supporting points and yields extremely high resolution on the pitch motion. With a one degree tilt and a microstepping motor, the authors achieved a 0.4 nanoradian resolution on the mirror pitch motion

  5. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO2) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO in any condition of the fetus.

  6. Nd:YAG breech mounted laser igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Christopher R.; Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.; Gadson, Robert L.; Leone, Joseph; Fay, Josiah W.; Boyd, Kevin

    2005-09-01

    Nd:YAG lasers have been successfully used to demonstrate laser ignition of howitzer propellant charges including bag, stick, and the Modular Artillery Charge System (MACS). Breech Mount Laser Ignition Systems (BMLIS) have been designed, installed and tested on many artillery systems, including the US Army's M109A6 Paladin, M198, M777 Light Weight, Crusader, and Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon (NLOS-C). The NLOS-C incorporates advanced weapon technologies, to include a BMLIS. United Defense's Armament Systems Division has recently designed and built a NLOS-C System Demonstrator that uses a BMLIS that incorporates Kigre's patented square pulse technology. NLOS-C is one of the weapon systems being developed for use with the US Army's "systems of systems" Future Combat System (FCS), Manned Ground Vehicles (MGV) program, and is currently undergoing development testing at Yuma Proving Grounds. In this paper we discuss many technical aspects of an artillery laser ignition system and present BMLIS test data obtained from actual gun firings conducted with a number of different US Army howitzer platforms.

  7. An Analysis of the Conflicts between Burman and Karen during Japanese Occupation in Burma%缅甸日据时期“缅克冲突”探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵梅

    2015-01-01

    During Japanese occupation in Burma,there are many complicated reasons which caused the conflicts between Burman and Karen,including a history full of conflicts between Burman and Karen,the British policy‘Divide and Rule',and Japanese adding fuel to the fire based on their interest. In addition,the two nations took different resolutions when facing conflicts,which also resulted in widely divergent consequences. Karen people usu-ally took violent confrontation and peaceful talking;however,the leaders of Burma were too random and not patient enough to deal with conflicts,which sowed the seeds of the Karen Rebellion in the early years of Burma.%缅甸日据时期,缅族、克伦族发生多次冲突,其原因除缅族、克伦族历史传统因素外,还有历史上英国“分而治之”政策留下的“后遗症”,以及日本侵略者出于自身利益的推波助澜。两族在冲突解决上也截然不一。克伦族对冲突采取“暴力对抗”与“和平谈判”两种不同的解决方式,分别导致了大相径庭的结果。缅族领导对冲突处理不够细致、深入,为建国初期克伦族叛乱埋下了伏笔。

  8. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  9. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  10. The alpine flora of Mount Wilhelm (New Guinea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1958-01-01

    The flora of the higher mountains of New Guinea has been the object of several extensive collecting trips in the past forty years. Until quite recently, however, a serious gap in our knowledge was the very scanty information available from the area between Mount Wilhelmina in the West and Mount Sara

  11. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... gauge for a boiler or a main steam line may be examined and checked for accuracy by the marine inspector... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments....

  12. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of subaerial lava flows of Barren Island volcano and the deep crust beneath the Andaman Island Arc, Burma Microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Pande, Kanchan; Bhutani, Rajneesh

    2015-06-01

    Little was known about the nature and origin of the deep crust beneath the Andaman Island Arc in spite of the fact that it formed part of the highly active Indonesian volcanic arc system, one of the important continental crust forming regions in Southeast Asia. This arc, formed as a result of subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Microplate (a sliver of the Eurasian Plate), contains only one active subaerial magmatic center, Barren Island volcano, whose evolutional timeline had remained uncertain. In this work, we present results of the first successful attempt to date crustal xenoliths and their host lava flows from the island, by incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar method, in an attempt to understand the evolutionary histories of the volcano and its basement. Based on concordant plateau and isochron ages, we establish that the oldest subaerial lava flows of the volcano are 1.58 ± 0.04 (2σ) Ma, and some of the plagioclase xenocrysts have been derived from crustal rocks of 106 ± 3 (2σ) Ma. Mineralogy (anorthite + Cr-rich diopside + minor olivine) and isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr 7.0) of xenoliths not only indicate their derivation from a lower (oceanic) crustal olivine gabbro but also suggest a genetic relationship between the arc crust and the ophiolitic basement of the Andaman accretionary prism. We speculate that the basements of the forearc and volcanic arc of the Andaman subduction zone belong to a single continuous unit that was once attached to the western margin of the Eurasian Plate.

  13. Adapting to social and political transitions - the influence of history on health policy formation in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John; Annear, Peter; Ahmed, Shakil; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2014-04-01

    The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma) has a long and complex history characterized by internal conflict and tense international relations. Post-independence, the health sector has gradually evolved, but with health service development and indicators lagging well behind regional expectations. In recent years, the country has initiated political reforms and a reorientation of development policy towards social sector investment. In this study, from a systems and historical perspective, we used publicly available data sources and grey literature to describe and analyze links between health policy and history from the post-independence period up until 2012. Three major periods are discernable in post war health system development and political history in Myanmar. The first post-independence period was associated with the development of the primary health care system extending up to the 1988 political events. The second period is from 1988 to 2005, when the country launched a free market economic model and was arguably experiencing its highest levels of international isolation as well as very low levels of national health investment. The third period (2005-2012) represents the first attempts at health reform and recovery, linked to emerging trends in national political reform and international politics. Based on the most recent period of macro-political reform, the central state is set to transition from a direct implementer of a command and control management system, towards stewardship of a significantly more complex and decentralized administrative order. Historical analysis demonstrates the extent to which these periodic shifts in the macro-political and economic order acts to reset the parameters for health policy making. This case demonstrates important lessons for other countries in transition by highlighting the extent to which analysis of political history can be instructive for determination of more feasible boundaries for future health policy action.

  14. A Web-based Virtual Reality Simulation of Mounting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mounting machine is the most critical equipment in the SMT (Surface Mounted Technology, the production efficiency of which affects the entire assembly line's productivity dramatically, and can be the bottleneck of the assembly line if poorly designed. In order to enhance the VM(Virtual Manufacturing of mounting simulation for PCB(Printed Circuit Board circuit modular, the virtual reality simulation of web-based mounting machine is written in Java Applet as controlling core and VRML(Virtual Reality Modeling Language scenes as 3D displaying platform. This system is data driven and manufacturing oriented. System can dynamically generate 3D static mounting scene and interactively observe the dynamic process from all angles. Simulation results prove that the system has a high fidelity which brings good practical significance to manufacturing analysis and optimization for process design. It offers a new thought for establishing a practical PCB circuit modular VM system in unit production.

  15. Diversity of tree communities in Mount Patuha region, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAENAL MUTAQIEN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Junaedi DI, Mutaqien Z (2010 Diversity of tree communities in Mount Patuha region, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 75-81. Tree vegetation analysis was conducted in three locations of Mount Patuha region, i.e. Cimanggu Recreational Park, Mount Masigit Protected Forest, and Patengan Natural Reserve. Similarity of tree communities in those three areas was analyzed. Quadrant method was used to collect vegetation data. Morisita Similarity index was applied to measure the similarity of tree communities within three areas. The three areas were dominated by Castanopsis javanica A. DC., Lithocarpus pallidus (Blume Rehder and Schima wallichii Choisy. The similarity tree communities were concluded from relatively high value of Similarity Index between three areas. Cimanggu RP, Mount Masigit and Patengan NR had high diversity of tree species. The existence of the forest in those three areas was needed to be sustained. The tree communities data was useful for further considerations of conservation area management around Mount Patuha.

  16. Geological, petrogical and geochemical characteristics of granitoid rocks in Burma: with special reference to the associated WSn mineralization and their tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Khin

    The granitoid rocks in Burma extend over a distance of 1450 km from Putao, Kachin State in the north, through Mogok, Kyaukse, Yamethin and Pyinmana in the Mandalay Division, to Tavoy and Mergui areas, Tenasserim Division, in the south. The Burmese granitoids can be subdivided into three N-S trending, major belts viz. western granitoid belt, central graniotoid belt and eastern granitoid belt. The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene western belt granitoids are characterized by high-level intrusions associated with porphyry Cu(Au) related, younger volcanics; these plutonic and volcanic rocks are thought to have been emplaced as a magmatic-volcanic arc (inner magmatic-volcanic arc) above an east-dipping, but westwardly migrating, subduction zone related to the prolonged plate convergence which occurred during Upper Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The central granitoid belt is characterized by mesozonal, Mostly Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene plutons associated with abundant pegmalites and aplites, numerous vein-type W-Sn deposits and rare co-magmatic volcanics. The country rocks are structurally deformed, metamorphic rocks of greenschist to upper amphibolite facies ranging in age as early as Upper Precambrian to Upper Paleozoic and locally of fossiliferous, metaclastic rocks (Mid Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous). Available K/Ar radiometric data indicate significant and possibly widespread thermal disturbances in the central granitoid belt during the Tertiary (mostly Miocence). In this study, the distribution, lithological, textural and structural characteristics of the central belt granitoids are reviewed, and their mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical features are presented. A brief description of W-Sn ore veins associated with these granitoid plutons is also reported. Present geological, petrological and geochemical evidences demonstrate that the W-Sn related, central belt granitoids are mostly granodiorite and granite which are commonly transformed into granitoid gneisses

  17. BRYOPHYTES OF MOUNT PATUHA, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBBERT GRADSTEIN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available GRADSTEIN, R.    et al. 2010. Bryophytes of Mount Patuha, West  Java,  Indonesia.  Reinwardtia  13(2:  107–123. This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  two–day  survey  of  the  bryophyte  flora of Mt.  Patuha  and  its  surroundings  near Bandung, West Java, carried out in the framework of the 5th regional training course on bryophyte and lichen diversity and conservation organized by SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, in July 2009. A total of 159 bryophyte species were identi-fied,  including 98 mosses, 60  liverworts, and 1 hornwort, representing almost 1/6 of the  total bryophyte flora of Java. Three moss species, Bryohumbertia subcomosa (Dix. J.–P. Frahm, Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. and F. polypodioidesHedw., and one liverwort, Lejeunea pectinella Mizut., are new additions to the Javanese flora. The bryophyte diversity of Mt. Patuha is well representative of the Malesian flora and is rich in uncommon species. However, the relatively poor representation of shade epiphytes and commonness of sun epiphytes and generalists reflect disturbance of the forest by anthropogenic activities. Careful attention should be given  to conservation of  the  remaining natural  forest  in order  to prevent further losses of the rich bryophyte diversity of the area.

  18. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  19. Freeform correction polishing for optics with semi-kinematic mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Peng, Wei-Jei; Yu, Zong-Ru; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Ming-Ying; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2015-10-01

    Several mounting configurations could be applied to opto-mechanical design for achieving high precise optical system. The retaining ring mounting is simple and cost effective. However, it would deform the optics due to its unpredictable over-constraint forces. The retaining ring can be modified to three small contact areas becoming a semi-kinematic mounting. The semi-kinematic mounting can give a fully constrained in lens assembly and avoid the unpredictable surface deformation. However, there would be still a deformation due to self-weight in large optics especially in vertical setup applications. The self-weight deformation with a semi-kinematic mounting is a stable, repeatable and predictable combination of power and trefoil aberrations. This predictable deformation can be pre-compensated onto the design surface and be corrected by using CNC polisher. Thus it is a freeform surface before mounting to the lens cell. In this study, the freeform correction polishing is demonstrated in a Φ150 lens with semi-kinematic mounting. The clear aperture of the lens is Φ143 mm. We utilize ANSYS simulation software to analyze the lens deformation due to selfweight deformation with semi-kinematic mounting. The simulation results of the self-weight deformation are compared with the measurement results of the assembled lens cell using QED aspheric stitching interferometer (ASI). Then, a freeform surface of a lens with semi-kinematic mounting due to self-weight deformation is verified. This deformation would be corrected by using QED Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF® ) Q-flex 300 polishing machine. The final surface form error of the assembled lens cell after MRF figuring is 0.042 λ in peak to valley (PV).

  20. Stereo Pair, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.This stereoscopic view combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the

  1. Surface-Mount Rotor Motion Sensing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...

  2. A Surface-Mounted Rotor State Sensing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...

  3. Eruption of Mount St. Helens, May 18, 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens was the most destructive in the history of the United States. Mt. Saint Helens is located in southwest Washington in...

  4. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS... this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting...

  5. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  6. Application of Evolutionary Computation in Automotive Powertrain Mount Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anab Akanda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine mount tuning is a multi-disciplinary exercise since it affects Idle-shake, Road-shake and power-train noise response. Engine inertia is often used as a tuned absorber for controlling suspension resonance related road-shake issues. Last but not least, vehicle ride and handling may also be affected by mount tuning. In this work, Torque-Roll-Axis (TRA decoupling of the rigid powertrain was used as a starting point for mount tuning. Nodal point of flexible powertrain bending was used to define the envelop for transmission mount locations. The frequency corresponding to the decoupled roll mode of the rigid powertrain was then adjusted for idle-shake and road-shake response management.

  7. View of CCTV camera mounted on aft payload bay bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    View of the closed circuit television (CCTV) camera mounted on aft payload bay bulkhead on the starboard side of the space shuttle near the orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods.

  8. Mounting technique for pressure transducers minimizes measurement interferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, R. N.; Taylor, C. E.; Balmer, C. E.; Hwang, C.

    1975-01-01

    Miniaturized transducers are fabricated from commercially available four-arm semiconductor gages; transducers are connected as bridge circuit and mounted on internal face of small diaphragm. Jacket made of conductive plastic may be needed to avoid buildup or static charges.

  9. Vibration isolation of automotive vehicle engine using periodic mounting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, S.

    2005-05-01

    Customer awareness and sensitivity to noise and vibration levels have been raised through increasing television advertisement, in which the vehicle noise and vibration performance is used as the main market differentiation. This awareness has caused the transportation industry to regard noise and vibration as important criteria for improving market shares. One industry that tends to be in the forefront of the technology to reduce the levels of noise and vibration is the automobile industry. Hence, it is of practical interest to reduce the vibrations induced structural responses. The automotive vehicle engine is the main source of mechanical vibrations of automobiles. The engine is vulnerable to the dynamic action caused by engine disturbance force in various speed ranges. The vibrations of the automotive vehicle engines may cause structural failure, malfunction of other parts, or discomfort to passengers because of high level noise and vibrations. The mounts of the engines act as the transmission paths of the vibrations transmitted from the excitation sources to the body of the vehicle and passengers. Therefore, proper design and control of these mounts are essential to the attenuation of the vibration of platform structures. To improve vibration resistant capacities of engine mounting systems, vibration control techniques may be used. For instance, some passive and semi-active dissipation devices may be installed at mounts to enhance vibration energy absorbing capacity. In the proposed study, a radically different concept is presented whereby periodic mounts are considered because these mounts exhibit unique dynamic characteristics that make them act as mechanical filters for wave propagation. As a result, waves can propagate along the periodic mounts only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is completely blocked within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The experimental arrangements, including the design of

  10. Data to the bryoflora of Mount Kenya, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Chuah-Petiot, Min S.

    1995-01-01

    194 species of bryophytes, belonging to 61 families are reported from Mount Kenya, of which 38 species are new for Mount Kenya and 30 records are new for the whole country, marked by * and ** respectively. The montane forests between 1600 and 3300m. asl., contain the greatest diversity of life forms and species. This is due to the abundant rainfall providing adequate humidity at relatively low temperature and altitude, coupled with frequent cloud cover. All vegetation belts above the montane ...

  11. Economic Impact of Ecotourism in Mount Cameroon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Njumba, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Ecotourism activities are growing in popularity around the world and generating considerable financial effects to the local population. The definitions of this phenomenon are still evolving, but generally include references to travel to natural areas and local conservation benefits. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic impact of this business to the youths and the local communities in the Mount Cameroon region under a Non Governmental Organization (NGO) called Mount Cameroon...

  12. Mosquito Communities in Boarder Areas between China and Burma%云南中缅边境蚊科昆虫群落的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 郑重; 董言德; 赵彤言

    2011-01-01

    The mosquito populations were investigated by trap lamps and larva collection in GaoLi village and virgin forests around the village in boarder areas between China and Burma. The results showed that a total of 3305 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 13 species were collected from the populated area, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia and Armigeres, among these mosquitoes, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. sinensis were the dominant species; While in the virgin forests, a total of 200 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 21 species were sampled, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Toxorhynchites and Uanotaenia, Ae. albopictus and Cx. mimeticus were the dominant species. The population structure was imbalanced at populated areas, and the diversity index of mosquito communities is lower at forests than that is residential area, which might attribute to environmental changes.%为调查和了解云南省瑞丽市中缅边境蚊虫多样性状况,应用灯诱法和采集幼虫法对瑞丽市中缅边境上高丽村和周边方圆4 km原始森林内的蚊虫的优势种组成、蚊虫群落结构的集中性指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数进行分析.结果显示,在居民区共采获蚊虫3 305只,共5属13种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属Aedes、库蚊属Culex、按蚊属Anopheles、曼蚊属Mansonia和阿蚊属Armigeres.其中优势种蚊虫为三带喙库蚊和中华按蚊.在非居民区共采或蚊虫200只,共5属21种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属、库蚊属、按蚊属、巨蚊属Toxorhynchites和蓝带蚊属Uanotaenia.其中优势种蚊虫为白纹伊蚊、拟态库蚊.由于自然环境的破坏,居民区优势集中度过高,群落结构不均匀,非居民区多样性较差,群落内物种的均匀度也偏低.

  13. New active machine tool drive mounting on the frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švéda J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new active mounting of the machine tool drives. The commonly used machine tools are at this time mainly equipped with fix-mounting of the feed drives. This structure causes full transmission of the force shocks to the machine bed and thereby restricts the dynamic properties of the motion axis and the whole machine. The spring-mounting of the feed drives is one of the possibilities how to partially suppress the vibrations. The force that reacts to the machine tool bed is transformed thereby the vibrations are lightly reduced. Unfortunately the transformation is not fully controlled. The new active mounting of the machine tool drives allows to fully control the force behaviour that react to the machine body. Thereby the number of excited frequencies on the machine tool bed is significantly reduced. The active variant of the feed drive mounting is characterized by the synergistic cooperation between two series-connected actuators (“motor on motor”. The paper briefly describes design, control techniques and optimization of the feed drives with the new active mounting conception.

  14. Application of Tuned Vibration Absorbers in Fluid Mounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalali Mashayekhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce the fuel consumption of vehicles leads to having lighter chassis’ with lighter engines yet maintaining engine power. These new design requirements are in contrast with the vibration isolation requirements. To keep the vehicles light yet provide good cabin noise and vibration isolation, requires a new vibration isolation technology. Fluid mounts have been used in the aerospace and the automotive industry to provide cabin noise and vibration reduction for years. With the use of passive fluid mounts, the highest cabin noise and vibration reduction is achieved at a frequency called “Notch Frequency”. But typical passive fluid mounts have only one notch frequency. So the best cabin noise and vibration reduction is only achievable at one frequency. In this paper, a new fluid mount design in combination with a tuned vibration absorber is proposed. Bond graph modelling technique is used to model the new fluid mount design. The physical model and simulation results are presented. The effect of the natural frequency of the TVA on the dynamic stiffness of the fluid mount is studied.

  15. OPTIMUM DESIGN AND NON-LINEAR MODEL OF POWERPLANT HYDRAULIC MOUNT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Wenku; Min Haitao; Dang Zhaolong

    2003-01-01

    6-DOF non-linear mechanics model of powerplant hydraulic mount system is established. Optimum design of the powerplant hydraulic mount system is made with the hydraulic mount parameters as variables and with uncoupling of energy, rational disposition of nature frequency and minimum of reactive force at mount's location as objective functions. And based on the optimum design, software named ODPHMS (optimum design of powerplant hydraulic mount system) used in powerplant mount system optimum design is developed.

  16. Airborne Magnetic and Electromagnetic Data map Rock Alteration and Water Content at Mount Adams, Mount Baker and Mount Rainier, Washington: Implications for Lahar Hazards and Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C. A.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Horton, R.; Breit, G.; John, D.

    2007-12-01

    High resolution helicopter-borne magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) data flown over the rugged, ice-covered, highly magnetic and mostly resistive volcanoes of Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount Baker, along with rock property measurements, reveal the distribution of alteration, water and hydrothermal fluids that are essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards and understanding hydrothermal systems. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken stratovolcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-traveled, destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly reduces the magnetization and resistivity of volcanic rock resulting in clear recognition of altered rock by helicopter magnetic and EM measurements. Magnetic and EM data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses of hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region, in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit, and in much of the central cone of Mount Baker. We identify the Sunset Amphitheater region and steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams as likely sources for future debris flows. In addition, the EM data identified water-saturated rocks in the upper 100-200 m of the three volcanoes. The water-saturated zone could extend deeper, but is beyond the detection limits of the EM data. Water in hydrothermal fluids reacts with the volcanic rock to produce clay minerals. The formation of clay minerals and presence of free water reduces the effective stress, thereby increasing the potential for slope failure, and acts, with entrained melting ice, as a lubricant to transform debris avalanches into lahars. Therefore, knowing the distribution of water is also important for hazard assessments. Finally, modeling requires extremely low

  17. 缅北地区华裔青少年中华民族认同的现状分析%Analysis on the National Identity of Chinese Teenagers in North Burma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国强

    2012-01-01

    缅北地区是中华文化圈、东南亚文化圈、南亚文化圈交流交融多元文化并存的立体文化生态区,生活于此的华裔青少年一代对中华民族的认知、评价、情感和行为成分上的认同感究竟有多高。经抽样调查研究发现,缅北地区华裔青少年普遍认为中华民族是一个伟大的民族,为中华民族的传统历史感到骄傲,对中国人有一种亲切感,觉得自己的将来与中华民族的将来休戚相关。相关部门应利用这一有效时机积极增进缅北地区华裔青少年中华民族认同感,并制定积极的侨务政策,大力推进该地区的侨务工作,以加强我国边疆稳定与和谐发展。%North Burma is in an area of a stereo ecological culture within the intersection of Chinese culture circle,Southeastern culture circle,and the Southern culture circle.How much do the Chinese teenagers know the legend,history,typical custom of Chinese in this area? How about the identity for the cognition,evaluation,emotion,and behavior of Chinese nationality? The investigation found that the Chinese teenagers in North Burma take Chinese as a great nation,and get proud of the traditional history of China,considering that their futures have close relation to Chinese nation.The institutions concerned should grasp the effective time to enhance the Chinese national identity of the teenagers in North Burma,making active policy for the oversea Chinese affairs,carrying the oversea Chinese affairs forward,which help to strengthen the stability and harmonious border development of China.

  18. A Case for Plane-Strain during the Development of the Indo-Burma Fold-Thrust Belt in Tripura and Mizoram, Northeast India (23-24°N; 91-93°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betka, P. M.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Indo-Burma fold-thrust belt (FTB) in northeast India and Myanmar records shortening of a forearc prism resulting from ongoing collision of the Burma microplate and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. A >5 km thick succession of deep water, deltaic and tidal as well as fluvial deposits that span the Oligocene to present were deformed to form a ~400 km wide FTB between 91.5-96°E longitude. India-Eurasia convergence across the Indo-Burma region trends northeast and is highly oblique to the northerly structural trend of the FTB. According to geodetic data, 21 mm/yr of dextral shear and 18 mm/yr of approximately east-west shortening must be accommodated within the FTB between the active thrust front in Bangladesh (90.5°E) and the Sagaing Fault in Myanmar (96°E). This paper presents new surface geologic data collected along a ~250 km transect that crosses 15 anticline-syncline pairs between the cities of Argatala (~91.2°E) and Champhai (93.3°E), the part of FTB exposing syn-Himalayan sediment, to determine the degree of noncoaxial shear that is accommodated internally within the belt. Results indicate that the majority of the folds are upright or asymmetric horizontal folds that are either concentric or have a narrow hinge (chevron folds) and form open—closed interlimb angles which generally tighten from the foreland toward the hinterland. A cylindrical best fit describes the data well and shows dominantly east-west shortening with a horizontal north-trending regional fold axis (005/01 ± 2°). Shortening was partly accommodated by flexural slip. Flexural slip-lineations (n=32) are subperpendicular to the regional fold axis. In some locations the limbs of folds are breached by thrust faults that dip either east or west and strike north. Incremental strain axes calculated from the flexural-slip surfaces and thrust faults (n=61) indicate horizontal west-trending shortening (279/03 ± 8°) and vertical extension that is kinematically compatible with folding. Altogether

  19. Rare and endangered plants in Mount Jinggangshan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of rare, endangered, and protected plant species is of importance in assessing the status of local biodiversity and the environment as well as developing strategies for nature conservation and management. The abundance and distribution of rare and endangered plants in the Mount Jinggangshan region were investigated as well as the community characteristics of important woody species. The resultsdemonstrate that rare and endangered species have high conservation value and significant importance in systematics and biogeography. This area contains two endangered bryophyte species and 199 species of vascular plants. Among them, 50 species are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened species, 160 species in the China Species Red List, 49 species in the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (First Batch, and 90 species in the Appendices of CITES. The variety and abundance of rare and endangered species in this area are equivalent to those for Mount Emei and higher than those for Mount Wuyi and MountTaibai. Many perfectly preserved communities, covering a large area, exist in the Mount Jinggangshan vicinity, and are dominated by rare and endangered species, such as Abies beshanzuensis var. ziyuanensis,Corylus chinensis, Pseudotaxus chienii, Taxus wallichiana var. mairei, Fokienia hodginsii, Amentotaxus argotaenia, Phoebe bournei, Pieris japonica, Rhododendron jinggangshanicum, etc. The communities where some important rare and endangered plants occur are described in detail and suggestions are made for their protection.

  20. Characterization of mirror mount prototypes for RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Piedigrossi, D; Wertelaers, Piet; Wicht, P

    2001-01-01

    The requirement for a high precision mirror positioning inside RICH detectors (LHCb, COMPASS) assumes that every mirror is fixed on the mechanical support structure by means of a fine adjustable mount. This has to fulfil strict mechanical criteria. Otherwise the adjustment process could be time-consuming, difficult and in some cases even impossible. The situation is complicated by the fact that apart from the adjustment precision requirements, only a small amount of material (representing a low fraction of radiation length) can be used in the mount design. In this article, the results from our measurements on the mechanical characteristics of mount prototypes developed in the TA2 group, INFN and TU in Torino and TU in Prague are presented.

  1. Linear and/or curvilinear rail mount system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jackie D. (Inventor); Harris, Lawanna L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    One or more linear and/or curvilinear mounting rails are coupled to a structure. Each mounting rail defines a channel and at least one cartridge assembly is engaged in the channel. Each cartridge assembly includes a housing that slides within the channel. The housing defines a curvilinearly-shaped recess longitudinally aligned with the channel when the housing is in engagement therewith. The cartridge assembly also includes a cleat fitted in the recess for sliding engagement therealong. The cleat can be coupled to a fastener that passes through the mounting rail and the housing when the housing is so-engaged in the channel. The cleat is positioned in the recess by a position of the fastener.

  2. Air Distribution in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Heby, Thomas; Moeller-Jensen, Bertil

    2006-01-01

    manikins, each sitting at a desk, two pc's and two desk lamps producing a total heat load of 480 W. The design of the air distribution system is in all five cases based on flow elements from the diffuser, a maximum velocity assumption and a critical vertical temperature gradient in the room....... The characteristics of the air distribution systems are addressed by analysing the acceptable conditions for the supply flow rate and the temperature difference for the different systems. The paper shows that an air distribution system with ceiling-mounted air terminal units is able to generate comfortable velocity...... and temperature conditions at the same and at slightly higher loads as can be obtained by a vertical ventilation system, a mixing ventilation system with wall-mounted diffuser and a displacement ventilation system with a low velocity wall-mounted diffuser. The comparison is extended by considering both the local...

  3. Effect of structural flexibility on the design of vibration-isolating mounts for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous analyses of the design of vibration-isolating mounts for a rear-mounted engine to decouple linear and rotational oscillations are extended to take into account flexibility of the engine-mount structure. Equations and curves are presented to allow the design of mount systems and to illustrate the results for a range of design conditions.

  4. Improved resolution by mounting of tissue sections for laser microdissection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M.C.R.F. van; Rombout, P.D.M.; Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Ruiter, D.J.; Bernsen, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laser microbeam microdissection has greatly facilitated the procurement of specific cell populations from tissue sections. However, the fact that a coverslip is not used means that the morphology of the tissue sections is often poor. AIMS: To develop a mounting method that greatly improv

  5. 49 CFR 571.212 - Standard No. 212; Windshield mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.212 Standard No. 212; Windshield mounting. S1. Scope. This standard... of the windshield glazing material and preventing the ejection of occupants from the vehicle. S3... removable windshields. S4. Definition. Passive restraint system means a system meeting the occupant...

  6. Nozzle Mounting Method Optimization Based on Robot Kinematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyue; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain; Deng, Sihao

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the application of industrial robots in thermal spray is gaining more and more importance. A desired coating quality depends on factors such as a balanced robot performance, a uniform scanning trajectory and stable parameters (e.g. nozzle speed, scanning step, spray angle, standoff distance). These factors also affect the mass and heat transfer as well as the coating formation. Thus, the kinematic optimization of all these aspects plays a key role in order to obtain an optimal coating quality. In this study, the robot performance was optimized from the aspect of nozzle mounting on the robot. An optimized nozzle mounting for a type F4 nozzle was designed, based on the conventional mounting method from the point of view of robot kinematics validated on a virtual robot. Robot kinematic parameters were obtained from the simulation by offline programming software and analyzed by statistical methods. The energy consumptions of different nozzle mounting methods were also compared. The results showed that it was possible to reasonably assign the amount of robot motion to each axis during the process, so achieving a constant nozzle speed. Thus, it is possible optimize robot performance and to economize robot energy.

  7. Nozzle Mounting Method Optimization Based on Robot Kinematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyue; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain; Deng, Sihao

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, the application of industrial robots in thermal spray is gaining more and more importance. A desired coating quality depends on factors such as a balanced robot performance, a uniform scanning trajectory and stable parameters (e.g. nozzle speed, scanning step, spray angle, standoff distance). These factors also affect the mass and heat transfer as well as the coating formation. Thus, the kinematic optimization of all these aspects plays a key role in order to obtain an optimal coating quality. In this study, the robot performance was optimized from the aspect of nozzle mounting on the robot. An optimized nozzle mounting for a type F4 nozzle was designed, based on the conventional mounting method from the point of view of robot kinematics validated on a virtual robot. Robot kinematic parameters were obtained from the simulation by offline programming software and analyzed by statistical methods. The energy consumptions of different nozzle mounting methods were also compared. The results showed that it was possible to reasonably assign the amount of robot motion to each axis during the process, so achieving a constant nozzle speed. Thus, it is possible optimize robot performance and to economize robot energy.

  8. Design of a three-component wall-mounted balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Allen E.; Gonzalez, Hugo A.

    1990-01-01

    The design and evaluation of a three-component, wall-mounted pyramidal balance for a small wind tunnel is discussed. The balance was designed to measure lift, drag, pitching moment, and angle of attack. The specific design of each component and mathematical models used to design the balance are covered. Balance evaluation consisted of calibration, tare, and interaction analysis.

  9. Exhibition of Historical Photos of Jewish People Mounted in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Jointly sponsored by the Tianjin Municipal People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(TMPAFFC) and the Israeli Embassy in China,an exhibition of historical photos of Jewish people was mounted in Tianjin on December 13,2006.

  10. Astrophotography on the go using short exposures with light mounts

    CERN Document Server

    Ashley, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    No longer are heavy, sturdy, expensive mounts and tripods required to photograph deep space. With today's advances in technology, all that is required is an entry-DSLR and an entry level GoTo telescope. Here is all of the information needed to start photographing the night sky without buying expensive tracking mounts. By using multiple short exposures and combining them with mostly ‘freeware’ computer programs, the effect of image rotation can be minimized to a point where it is undetectable in normal astrophotography, even for a deep-sky object such as a galaxy or nebula. All the processes, techniques, and equipment needed to use inexpensive, lightweight altazimuth and equatorial mounts and very short exposures photography to image deep space objects are explained, step-by-step, in full detail, supported by clear, easy to understand graphics and photographs.   Currently available lightweight mounts and tripods are identified and examined from an economic versus capability perspective to help users deter...

  11. Suspended Decoupler: A New Design of Hydraulic Engine Mount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopherson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the density mismatch between the decoupler and surrounding fluid, the decoupler of all hydraulic engine mounts (HEM might float, sink, or stick to the cage bounds, assuming static conditions. The problem appears in the transient response of a bottomed-up floating decoupler hydraulic engine mount. To overcome the bottomed-up problem, a suspended decoupler design for improved decoupler control is introduced. The new design does not noticeably affect the mechanism's steady-state behavior, but improves start-up and transient response. Additionally, the decoupler mechanism is incorporated into a smaller, lighter, yet more tunable and hence more effective hydraulic mount design. The steady-state response of a dimensionless model of the mount is examined utilizing the averaging perturbation method applied to a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It is shown that the frequency responses of the floating and suspended decoupled designs are similar and functional. To have a more realistic modeling, utilizing nonlinear finite elements in conjunction with a lumped parameter modeling approach, we evaluate the nonlinear resorting characteristics of the components and implement them in the equations of motion.

  12. Rollin' in Style!: Students Design Bike Mounted Skateboard Racks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the increasing popularity of skateboarding, the author has found a project that teaches design and manufacturing concepts--and, of equal importance, really gets his students motivated. He challenges them to design and build a skateboard rack that mounts easily on a bicycle. The project benefits students by teaching creativity, the…

  13. Active hard mount vibration isolation for precision equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjepkema, D.

    2012-01-01

    Floor vibrations and acoustic excitation may limit the performance of precision equipment, that is used for example to produce computer chips or to make images of very tiny structures. Therefore, it is common to mount a vibration isolator in the suspension of such equipment to isolate it from these

  14. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Nye, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    Mount Spurr volcano is an ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano complex located in the north-central Cook Inlet region about 100 kilometers west of Anchorage, Alaska. Mount Spurr volcano consists of a breached stratovolcano, a lava dome at the summit of Mount Spurr, and Crater Peak vent, a small stratocone on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano. Historical eruptions of Crater Peak occurred in 1953 and 1992. These eruptions were relatively small but explosive, and they dispersed volcanic ash over areas of interior, south-central, and southeastern Alaska. Individual ash clouds produced by the 1992 eruption drifted east, north, and south. Within a few days of the eruption, the south-moving ash cloud was detected over the North Atlantic. Pyroclastic flows that descended the south flank of Crater Peak during both historical eruptions initiated volcanic-debris flows or lahars that formed temporary debris dams across the Chakachatna River, the principal drainage south of Crater Peak. Prehistoric eruptions of Crater Peak and Mount Spurr generated clouds of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. A flank collapse on the southeast side of Mount Spurr generated a large debris avalanche that flowed about 20 kilometers beyond the volcano into the Chakachatna River valley. The debris-avalanche deposit probably formed a large, temporary debris dam across the Chakachatna River. The distribution and thickness of volcanic-ash deposits from Mount Spurr volcano in the Cook Inlet region indicate that volcanic-ash clouds from most prehistoric eruptions were as voluminous as those produced by the 1953 and 1992 eruptions. Clouds of volcanic ash emitted from the active vent, Crater Peak, would be a major hazard to all aircraft using Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport and other local airports and, depending on wind direction, could drift a considerable distance beyond the volcano. Ash fall from future eruptions could disrupt many

  15. Virtual display design using waveguide hologram in conical mounting configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhanjun; Li, Wenqiang; Zhou, Yongjun; Kang, Mingwu; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2011-09-01

    An improved virtual display is proposed by using a waveguide holographic configuration with two total internal reflection holographic gratings in conical mounting and two volume hologram in classical mounting recorded on a single transparent planar waveguide. Using this compact configuration, efficiency can be dramatically improved and assembly is easy to be realized. The main principle and the method of intensity uniformity control are present in the paper. The analysis and simulation results are also explained. The virtual display system design shows good optical performance with 25 deg. field of view, a large pupil about 43 mm, little distortion less than 1%, and low aberration. The configuration can be used to a portable or wearable display.

  16. Ground mounted photovoltaic installations. Guide for an impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legally, an impact study must be performed for ground mounted photovoltaic installations with a power greater than 250 kW. This guide is aimed at helping the actors of the photovoltaic sector to perform impact studies. After the description of the characteristics of a photovoltaic installation (principles, technical characteristics of a ground mounted installation, impact of photovoltaic systems on climate) and a presentation of the legal framework (European commitments, Grenelle de l'Environnement, applicable procedures), this report present the objectives and approach of an impact study, describes how the environment is taken into account from the early stages of a project, how the impact study is to be prepared. The last part describes the different components of the impact study: legal content, project description, analysis of the site initial status and environment, analysis of the project effects, rationale for the choice of the project

  17. Apparatus for mounting photovoltaic power generating systems on buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Miles C.

    2009-08-18

    Rectangular photovoltaic (PV) modules are mounted on a building roof by mounting stands that are distributed in rows and columns. Each stand comprises a base plate and first and second different height brackets attached to opposite ends of the base plate. Each first and second bracket comprises two module-support members. One end of each module is pivotally attached to and supported by a first module-support member of a first bracket and a second module-support member of another first bracket. At its other end each module rests on but is connected by flexible tethers to module-support members of two different second brackets. The tethers are sized to allow the modules to pivot up away from the module-support members on which they rest to a substantially horizontal position in response to wind uplift forces.

  18. Effects of volcanism on the glaciers of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugman, M. M.; Post, A.

    The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens May 18, 1980, removed 2.9 sq/km of glacier snow and ice including a large part of Shoestring Forsyth, Wishbone, Ape, Nelson, and all of Loowit and Leschi Glaciers. Minor eruptions and bulging of the volcano from March 27 to May 17 shattered glaciers which were on the deforming rock and deposited ash on other glaciers. Thick ash layers persisted after the May 18 eruption through the summer on most of the remaining snow and ice, and protected winter snow from melting on Swift and Dryer Glaciers. Melting and recrystallization of snow and ice surviving on Mount St. Helens could cause and lubricate mud flows and generate outburst floods.

  19. Payload isolation and stabilization by a Suspended Experiment Mount (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Wayne L.; Desanctis, Carmine E.; Nicaise, Placide D.; Schultz, David N.

    1992-01-01

    Many Space Shuttle and Space Station payloads can benefit from isolation from crew or attitude control system disturbances. Preliminary studies have been performed for a Suspended Experiment Mount (SEM) system that will provide isolation from accelerations and stabilize the viewing direction of a payload. The concept consists of a flexible suspension system and payload-mounted control moment gyros. The suspension system, which is rigidly locked for ascent and descent, isolates the payload from high frequency disturbances. The control moment gyros stabilize the payload orientation. The SEM will be useful for payloads that require a lower-g environment than a manned vehicle can provide, such as materials processing, and for payloads that require stabilization of pointing direction, but not large angle slewing, such as nadir-viewing earth observation or solar viewing payloads.

  20. Automated organization production and mounting of glass curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kalyuzhnyuk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available At present the automation of organizational design and organizational preparation of building production is based mainly on the outdated methods. Solution of this requires the development of effective methods of technical regulation and construction scheduling. Authors use methods of technical regulation and scheduling, previously obtained in structural-functional modeling theory, for production and mounting of glass curtain walls. The article shows the application of these standards in determining the time of producing series of glass facade elements for particular building sites, as well as in the synchronized scheduling production and mounting of these structures. Authors claim that suggested methods can be used for organizational design and organizational preparation of any other construction processes. Received data can be used to create databases of organization standards of labor and time inputs for production.

  1. Fluorescent visualization of macromolecules in Drosophila whole mounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ricardo Guelerman Pinheiro; Machado, Luciana Claudia Herculano; Moda, Livia Maria Rosatto

    2010-01-01

    The ability to determine the expression dynamics of individual genes "in situ" by visualizing the precise spatial and temporal distribution of their products in whole mounts by histochemical and immunocytochemical reactions has revolutionized our understanding of cellular processes. Drosophila developmental genetics was one of the fields that benefited most from these technologies, and a variety of fluorescent methods were specifically designed for investigating the localization of developmentally important proteins and cell markers during embryonic and post embryonic stages of this model organism. In this chapter we present detailed protocols for fluorescence immunocytochemistry of whole mount embryos, imaginal discs, pupal retinas, and salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as methods for fluorescent visualization of specific subcellular structures in these tissues. PMID:20012830

  2. Fluorescent visualization of macromolecules in Drosophila whole mounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ricardo Guelerman Pinheiro; Machado, Luciana Claudia Herculano; Moda, Livia Maria Rosatto

    2010-01-01

    The ability to determine the expression dynamics of individual genes "in situ" by visualizing the precise spatial and temporal distribution of their products in whole mounts by histochemical and immunocytochemical reactions has revolutionized our understanding of cellular processes. Drosophila developmental genetics was one of the fields that benefited most from these technologies, and a variety of fluorescent methods were specifically designed for investigating the localization of developmentally important proteins and cell markers during embryonic and post embryonic stages of this model organism. In this chapter we present detailed protocols for fluorescence immunocytochemistry of whole mount embryos, imaginal discs, pupal retinas, and salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as methods for fluorescent visualization of specific subcellular structures in these tissues.

  3. Righteousness and identity formation in the Sermon on the Mount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Righteousness is an important term in the first gospel and has a significant concentration in the Sermon on the Mount. The argument in this article is that the first gospel has a community building function. Matthew intentionally uses the word ‘righteousness’ in the Sermon on the Mount as an instrument to define the identity of his community. Though righteousness can be used in a soteriological sense, it is argued that Matthew mainly uses it in an ethical sense. By righteousness Matthew refers to the proper behavioural norms and attitudes for his community. Commitment to Jesus forms the central focus of the community’s identity. Their discipleship is demonstrated by doing the will of God as defined and interpreted by Jesus. Doing the will of God in such a manner is what Matthew regards as the distinguishing mark of this community. Thus they would surpass the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees.

  4. On the Debossing, Annealing and Mounting of Bells

    Science.gov (United States)

    PERRIN, R.; SWALLOWE, G. M.; CHARNLEY, T.; MARSHALL, C.

    1999-10-01

    Changes in the frequencies of the musical partials of various types of bells following debossing dismounting/mounting and annealing/quench annealing are reported. Debossing, dismounting and quench annealing lead to frequency drops, while mounting gives rises. Annealing can lead to frequency increases or decreases depending upon the maximum temperature employed and the initial residual stress. Qualitative explanations of these phenomena are given in terms of changes in crown stiffness, internal stress and alloy phase structure. These are supported by the results of X-ray diffraction measurements. Although the effects are all small they can be large enough to be detected by a reasonably musical car. This, together with the fact that the effects cannot be controlled, gives a plausible explanation of why modern bellfounders use vertical lathes for tuning, even with small carillon bells, and do not anneal bells when trying to control warble.

  5. The Six Sigma initiative at Mount Sinai Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Lean Six Sigma, in various forms, has been used widely in many Fortune 500 companies. Motorola, General Electric, Sony, American Express, and Bechtel all use Six Sigma to improve quality and performance. While the impact of this methodology has been documented extensively by the press in manufacturing and transactional settings, less evidence is available regarding its utility in health care environments. Mount Sinai Medical Center initiated a Six Sigma program in 2000 to determine its applicability and value in a large academic medical center. This article discusses Mount Sinai Medical Center's experience adapting this methodology to improve both patient care and business processes and outcomes. We present an overview of Six Sigma, and offer examples of projects undertaken using this data-driven approach to performance improvement. Lastly, the article provides insights and lessons learned regarding this organization-wide experience.

  6. H2O diffusion in Mount Changbai peralkaline rhyolitic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Xu, Z.; Wang, H.; Behrens, H.

    2008-05-01

    For quantitative modeling of bubble growth and volcanic eruption dynamics, it is necessary to know H2O diffusivity in the melt. Mount Changbai Volcano at the border of China and North Korea has produced explosive peralkaline rhyolitic eruptions, including a 30-km3 eruption with an age of 1 ky (Horn and Schmincke, 2000). H2O diffusivity is expected to be greater in a peralkaline rhyolitic melt than a calc-alkaline rhyolitic melt. We have experimentally investigated H2O diffusion in Mount Changbai peralkaline rhyolite. Because phenocryst-free glass is not available from Mount Changbai eruption products, the starting materials (nominally dry and hydrous) are synthesized. The diffusion couple technique, with one half dry and the other half wet, is adopted. Three high- temperature experiments have been carried out at 500 MPa and one at 1500 MPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. After the experiment, the sample is prepared into a doubly-polished section of about 0.2 mm thickness, which is analyzed by a Perkin-Elmer FTIR microscope. The data are fit following the procedures of Zhang and Behrens (2000) and Ni and Zhang (2008). Preliminary data show that H2O diffusivity in peralkaline rhyolitic melt is greater than that in calc-alkaline rhyolitic melt (Zhang and Behrens, 2000), as expected. The exact difference depends on temperature and pressure, and the ratio of diffusivity in the peralkaline rhyolitic melt to that in the calc-alkaline rhyolitic melt ranges from 1 to 3. More experiments will be conducted on this melt to provide the basic data for specific modeling of bubble growth and volcanic eruption dynamics in past and future Mount Changbai eruptions and other peralkaline rhyolitic eruptions. References: Horn S and Schmincke H U (2000) Bull. Volcanol., 61, 537. Ni H and Zhang Y (2008) Chem. Geol., doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.01.011. Zhang Y and Behrens H (2000) Chem. Geol., 169, 243.

  7. Tonal noise production from a wall-mounted finite airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Danielle J.; Doolan, Con J.

    2016-02-01

    This study is concerned with the flow-induced noise of a smooth wall-mounted finite airfoil with flat ended tip and natural boundary layer transition. Far-field noise measurements have been taken at a single observer location and with a microphone array in the Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel for a wall-mounted finite airfoil with aspect ratios of L / C = 1 - 3, at a range of Reynolds numbers (ReC = 7.9 ×105 - 1.6 ×106, based on chord) and geometric angles of attack (α = 0 - 6 °). At these Reynolds numbers, the wall-mounted finite airfoil produces a broadband noise contribution with a number of discrete equispaced tones at non-zero angles of attack. Spectral data are also presented for the noise produced due to three-dimensional vortex flow near the airfoil tip and wall junction to show the contributions of these flow features to airfoil noise generation. Tonal noise production is linked to the presence of a transitional flow state to the trailing edge and an accompanying region of mildly separated flow on the pressure surface. The separated flow region and tonal noise source location shift along the airfoil trailing edge towards the free-end region with increasing geometric angle of attack due to the influence of the tip flow field over the airfoil span. Tonal envelopes defining the operating conditions for tonal noise production from a wall-mounted finite airfoil are derived and show that the domain of tonal noise production differs significantly from that of a two-dimensional airfoil. Tonal noise production shifts to lower Reynolds numbers and higher geometric angles of attack as airfoil aspect ratio is reduced.

  8. An Agar Mount for Observation of Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Timothy Walston and Jeff Hardin Adapted from [*Imaging in Developmental Biology*](http://www.cshlpress.com/link/imagingdevbiop.htm) (ed. Sharpe and Wong). CSHL Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA, 2011 (in press). ### INTRODUCTION The *Caenorhabditis elegans* embryo is particularly amenable to microscopy and embryological studies because of its short developmental time, transparent shell, and nonpigmented cells. The agar mount described in this protocol is an easy way to ...

  9. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry L.; Topolewski, John

    1989-05-23

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probed includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe.

  10. Dynamic design of automotive systems: Engine mounts and structural joints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Singh

    2000-06-01

    Dynamic design and vibro-acoustic modelling issues for automotive structures are illustrated via two case studies. The first case examines the role performance of passive and adaptive hydraulic engine mounts. In the second, the importance of welded joints and adhesives in vehicle bodies and chassis structures is highlighted via generic 'T' and 'L' beams assemblies. In each case, analytical and experimental results are presented. Unresolved research issues are briefly discussed.

  11. REVIEW: Possibilities of Mount Lawu to be a National Park

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2001-01-01

    National Park is an area of natural conservation that having indigenous ecosystem managed with zonation system and can be utilized for education, research, crop development and recreation. This concept seems still to be the most suitable technique for biodiversity conservation, and can be applied in Indonesia, where the high biodiversity richness taken place. Mount Lawu and surrounding areas are ideal location to be developed in to National Park. This is due to all criteria needed such as: th...

  12. Baseplate for two-stage cranial mounting of BMI connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorland, Angus J. C.; Velliste, Meel

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Intracortical electrode arrays provide the best spatial and temporal resolution signals for brain-machine interfaces. Wireless technologies are being developed to handle this information capacity, but currently the only means to deliver neural information from the implant to a signal processing unit is by a physical connection starting at a skull-mounted connector. The failure rate of the attachment of these connectors is significant. In this study we report an improvement to the traditional connectors. Approach. We have designed and applied an intermediary mounting plate that incorporates several features that provide better, more stable fixation to the skull: (1) wide legs allowing distribution of loading forces and distancing the intracranial screws from the skin interface, (2) a thin shelf to allow early osseointegration, (3) a concave interior to accommodate the curvature of the cranium, and (4) two-stage fixation process providing time for osseointegration prior to the application of loading forces from the connector. Main results. Six baseplates, over four design iterations, have now been tested in three non-human primates. The baseplates are associated with a substantially lower attachment failure rate. Significance. Our baseplate design improves on the current skull-mounted connectors, leading to better outcomes for subjects and fewer catastrophic failure events that can terminate resource intensive intracortical recording experiments.

  13. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for buried object detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Wiltsey, George

    1997-08-01

    Software neural nets hosted on a parallel processor can analyze input from an IR imager to evaluate the likelihood of a buried object. However, it is only recently that low weight, staring LWIR sensors have become available in uncooled formats at sensitivities that provide enough information for useful man-portable helmet mounted applications. The images from the IR are presented to a human user through a see-through display after processing and highlighting by a neural net housed in a fanny-pack. This paper describes the phenomenology of buried object detection in the infrared, the neural net based image processing, the helmet mounted IR sensor and the ergonomics of mounting a sensor to head gear. The maturing and commercialization of uncooled focal plane arrays and high density electronics enables lightweight, low cost, small camera packages that can be integrated with hard hats and military helmets. The head gear described has a noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 50 milliKelvin, consumes less than 10 watts and weighs about 1.5 kilograms.

  14. Local Sabahans’ Satisfaction with Level of Access to Mount Kinabalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidder Christy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the local Sabahans’ satisfaction with the level of access to Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Specifically, it examines the number of complaints by local Sabahans regarding access and their perception of changes in accessibility to the mountain. Interviews with Sabah Parks and Sutera Sanctuary Lodges were conducted and questionnaires were distributed to local residents to collect data. The results show that there were intense complaints regarding the climbing cost and extensive waiting time to secure a confirmed booking at the outset of price increases. However, the researchers could not locate any recently published complaints. Respondents who have previously climbed Mount Kinabalu perceive the mountain to be less accessible for local Sabahans now due to a less affordable cost and a longer waiting time. Those who have not climbed Mount Kinabalu also think the climbing cost has become less affordable for local Sabahans, but they do not perceive that to be causing the mountain less accessible for local Sabahans.

  15. Development of a Vehicle-Mounted Crop Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Zhen-jiang; SUN Hong; LI Min-zan; ZHANG Feng; LI Xiu-hua

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor plant chlorophyll content in real-time, a new vehicle-mounted detection system was developed to measure crop canopy spectral characteristics. It was designed to work as a wireless sensor network with one control unit and one measuring unit. The control unit included a personal digital assistant (PDA) device with a ZigBee wireless network coordinator. As the coordinator of the whole wireless network, the control unit was used to receive, display and store all the data sent from sensor nodes. The measuring unit consisted of several optical sensor nodes. All the sensor nodes were mounted on an on-board mechanical structure so that the measuring unit could collect the canopy spectral data while moving. Each sensor node contained four optical channels to measure the light radiation at the wavebands of 550, 650, 766, and 850 nm. The calibration tests veriifed a good performance in terms of the wireless transmission ability and the sensor measurement precision. Both stationary and moving ifeld experiments were also conducted in a winter wheat experimental ifeld. There was a high correlation between chlorophyll content and vegetation index, and several estimation models of the chlorophyll content were established. The highest R2 of the estimation models was 0.718. The results showed that the vehicle-mounted crop detection system has potential for ifeld application.

  16. MR- and ER-Based Semiactive Engine Mounts: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Elahinia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid propulsion technologies, including hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid, equip vehicles with nonconventional power sources (in addition to the internal combustion engine to provide higher fuel efficiency. However, these technologies tend to lead to higher levels of noise, vibration, and harshness in the vehicles, mainly due to the switching between the multiple power sources involved. In addition, the shocks and vibrations associated with the power sources switching may occur over a wide range of frequencies. It has been proven that passive vibration isolators (e.g., elastomeric and hydraulic mounts are unable to mitigate or totally isolate such shocks and vibrations. Active mounts, while effective, are more complex, require significant power to operate, and can lead to system instabilities. Semiactive vibration isolators have been shown to be as effective as active mounts while being less complex and requiring less power to operate. This paper presents a review of novel semiactive shock and vibration isolators developed using magnetorheological and electrorheological fluids. These fluids change their yield stress in response to an externally applied magnetic and electric field, respectively. As a result, these fluids allow one to transform a passive hydraulic vibration isolator into a semiactive device.

  17. An exploration of active hard mount vibration isolation for precision equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Poel, van der, E.

    2010-01-01

    Vibrations due to environmental disturbances can cause a loss of accuracy in high-precision equipment. To reduce the vibration levels, the equipment is commonly mounted on soft mounts. However, the soft mount's low support stiffness may introduce difficulties in the response to direct disturbances and with the equipment levelling. In this thesis, an alternative vibration isolation concept is investigated, which uses stiff supports (hard mounts). The increased support stiffness circumvents the...

  18. Some recent studies on spatial perception in Helmet-Mounted Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Paillé, Damien; Neveu, Pascaline; Philippe, Matthieu; Buffat, Stéphane; Prablanc, Claude; Plantier, Justin; Roumes, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    One challenging human factors issue in Helmet-Mounted Displays is the alteration of perceived distance. Distances judgments in virtual environments and Helmet-Mounted Displays are generally underestimated compared to the real world. Indeed, visual stimulation in Helmet-Mounted Displays presents some discrepancy with natural visual stimulation. After a brief review of the literature pertaining to the representation of space in Helmet-Mounted Displays, we explore two potential factors for the a...

  19. An exploration of active hard mount vibration isolation for precision equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der Gerrit Wijnand

    2010-01-01

    Vibrations due to environmental disturbances can cause a loss of accuracy in high-precision equipment. To reduce the vibration levels, the equipment is commonly mounted on soft mounts. However, the soft mount's low support stiffness may introduce difficulties in the response to direct disturbances a

  20. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mounts, and other flight structure. 23.865 Section 23.865 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure located in designated fire zones, or in adjacent areas that would be subjected to the effects...

  1. Climatological analysis of precipitation patterns over Mount Baldo (Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, G.; Zardi, D.; de Franceschi, M.

    2010-09-01

    The mountain range of Mount Baldo is an elongated chain in the southern Prealps. Bounded on the western side by Lake Garda, and on the eastern side by the parallel-running deep furrow of the River Adige Valley, the whole Mount Baldo range stretches in the direction southwest-northeast for about 40 km, from the southern highlands of Caprino Veronese up to the elevated saddle joining the surroundings of Rovereto (in the Adige Valley) to the plain of Nago-Torbole (northern shore of Lake Garda). Mount Baldo displays for most of its length a sharp and uninterrupted crest ridge, mostly running over 2000 m MSL. Its surface covers a variety of altitudinal ranges, from 65 m MSL at the mountain feet, along the Lake Garda shores, to 2,218 m MSL at its highest peak (Cima Valdritta). Furthermore the particular layout of being the southernmost alpine headland, projecting as a balcony over the Po Plain, makes it exposed to the climatic influence of the larger Mediterranean basin. All of these factors concurred to develop a remarkable variety of local microclimates, geographical characters and ecosystems. In particular Mount Baldo is well known for its varied flora, whence it has been named, since 16th century, Hortus Europae (Europe Garden). Precipitation is one of the key factors characterising the peculiar local climates of Mount Baldo. Various precipitation features can be produced by a variety of processes, including both orographic uplift of moist air advected by synoptic systems, and evaporation and up-slope advection of moist air from Lake Garda or from the Po Plain. Furthermore these effects may variously develop, and even combine, under different meteorological scenarios. In the present contribution the preliminary results are shown from a research work aiming at retrieving, collecting in a homogeneous dataset and analysing data from 18 weather stations disseminated on Mount Baldo, in order to produce a climatological analysis of precipitation in the area. The whole

  2. Note: Computer controlled rotation mount for large diameter optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rakonjac, Ana; Deb, Amita B; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2012-01-01

    We describe the construction of a motorized optical rotation mount with a 40 mm clear aperture. The device is used to remotely control the power of large diameter laser beams for a magneto-optical trap (MOT). A piezo-electric ultrasonic motor on a printed circuit board (PCB) provides rotation with a precision better than 0.03 deg and allows for a very compact design. The rotation unit is controlled from a computer via serial communication, making integration into most software control platforms straightforward.

  3. Square Van Atta reflector with conducting mounting flame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Dragø

    1970-01-01

    by transmission lines of equal electrical length. The dipoles are placed in a plane which is parallel to the conducting plate when this is present. In the theory, each pair of antenna elements with the interconnecting transmission line is represented by an equivalent circuit. The mutual impedance between......A theoretical and numerical analysis of square Van Atta reflectors has been carried out with or without a conducting plate, used for mounting of the antenna elements. The Van Atta reflector investigated has antenna elements which are parallel half-wave dipoles interconnected in pairs...

  4. Development of the top mounted in-core instrumentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Jeoung, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    In this study, the design concept for a top mounted ICI system and its support structure are developed which provides the installation of a ICI system through the penetration on the top of reactor vessel closure head. The ICI support structure is consist of ICI guide tube, CEA-ESA(CEA Extension Shaft Assembly) guide tube, pressurizer heater support structure, and various support grids. This support structure provides a safe path of ICI assembly and it shall be installed between reactor vessel closure head and the top surface of upper guide structure.

  5. GPI Mount Scopus--a variant of glucosephosphate isomerase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, O; Shalev, R S; Forman, L; Beutler, E

    1993-10-01

    Glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an unusual cause of hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. The disease, inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder, is most often manifested by symptoms and signs of chronic hemolysis, ameliorated by splenectomy. We recently diagnosed GPI deficiency in a 23-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish man who displayed the typical clinical course of this disorder. The biophysical characteristics of the GPI variant are slow electrophoretic mobility, presence of only one of the two bands normally present, and extreme thermolability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of GPI deficiency in a patient of Jewish descent, and we propose to designate this enzyme variant "GPI Mount Scopus".

  6. Diversion of lava during the 1983 eruption of Mount Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, J.P.; Romano, R.

    1985-01-01

    Mankind's first known attempt to divert a lava flow was in 1669, when a flow from Mount Etna volcano threatened the Sicilian city of Catania. This attempt was largely unsuccessful, in part due to opposition by citizens of another town, Paterno. Attempts to divert lava flows from Mauna Loa Volcano on the island of Hawaii by aerial bombing were made in 1935 and 1942, with no signifcant effects. Earthen bariers were hurriedly constructed in attempts to divert flows from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii in 1955 and 1960, again with little success.

  7. The misalignment angle in vessel-mounted ADCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Osinski

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of the misalignment angle and the consequences if it occurs is given. It is shown that because of gyrocompass errors, the misalignment angle error a has to be computed for each cruise. A simple method of calibrating the acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP mounted on a vessel has been devised by fitting the cosinusoidal function. This is a post-processing method, suitable for calibrating previously collected data. Nevertheless, because of ADCP's constructional peculiarities, the procedure must be repeated for each cruise.

  8. Geochemical Precursors to Volcanic Activity at Mount St. Helens, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlo, Kim; Blundy, Jon; Turner, Simon; Cashman, Kathy; Hawkesworth, Chris; Black, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    The importance of the interplay between degassing and crystallization before and after the eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 is well established. Here, we show that degassing occurred over a period of decades to days before eruptions and that the manner of degassing, as deduced from geochemical signatures within the magma, was characteristic of the eruptive style. Trace element (lithium) and short-lived radioactive isotope (lead-210 and radium-226) data show that ascending magma stalled within the conduit, leading to the accumulation of volatiles and the formation of lead-210 excesses, which signals the presence of degassing magma at depth.

  9. Active Engine Mounting Control Algorithm Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadly Jashi Darsivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of neural network as a controller to isolate engine vibration in an active engine mounting system. It has been shown that the NARMA-L2 neurocontroller has the ability to reject disturbances from a plant. The disturbance is assumed to be both impulse and sinusoidal disturbances that are induced by the engine. The performance of the neural network controller is compared with conventional PD and PID controllers tuned using Ziegler-Nichols. From the result simulated the neural network controller has shown better ability to isolate the engine vibration than the conventional controllers.

  10. Oscillations of elastically mounted cylinders in regular waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏炜; 詹杰民; 李毓湘

    2014-01-01

    Under the assumption of potential flow and linear wave theory, a semi-analytic method based on eigenfunciton expansion is proposed to predict the hydrody-namic forces on an array of three bottom-mounted, surface-piercing circular cylinders. The responses of the cylinders induced by wave excitation are determined by the equa-tions of motion coupled with the solutions of the wave radiation and diffraction problems. Experiments for three-cylinder cases are then designed and performed in a wave flume to determine the accuracy of this method for regular waves.

  11. Thermal hehavior of Surface Mounted Devices (SMD) packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Werner; Moeller, Werner

    The thermal behavior of Surface Mounted Devices (SMD) packaging was investigated on an easily variable type. The effect of basic materials, chip carriers, and bonding, soldering, glueing and casting techniques was examined, considering the most important quantities, switching time and power. The test results show that cooling measures in the chip domain, such as chip bonding, chip casting, and chip carrier lining, are especially efficient for short switching times. The basic materials, even with heat sinks, become only important for longer switching times. The chip temperature of a conventional FR4/LCCC packaging was halved by the application of novel packaging materials, without changing the cooling mechanisms and the power.

  12. Preparation of Samples for Leaf Architecture Studies, A Method for Mounting Cleared Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Several recent waves of interest in leaf architecture have shown an expanding range of approaches and applications across a number of disciplines. Despite this increased interest, examination of existing archives of cleared and mounted leaves shows that current methods for mounting, in particular, yield unsatisfactory results and deterioration of samples over relatively short periods. Although techniques for clearing and staining leaves are numerous, published techniques for mounting leaves are scarce. Methods and Results: Here we present a complete protocol and recommendations for clearing, staining, and imaging leaves, and, most importantly, a method to permanently mount cleared leaves. Conclusions: The mounting protocol is faster than other methods, inexpensive, and straightforward; moreover, it yields clear and permanent samples that can easily be imaged, scanned, and stored. Specimens mounted with this method preserve well, with leaves that were mounted more than 35 years ago showing no signs of bubbling or discoloration.

  13. Destruction and management of Mount Kenya`s forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R.W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften

    1996-08-01

    This article presents data on the destruction of the montane forests on Mount Kenya. The material was obtained during field-work for a phytosociological study in 1992-1994. Special emphasis was given to the observation of regeneration patterns and succession cycles within the different forest communities, with regard to the impact of humans and big game. Although private tree planting is reducing the fuelwood deficit in Kenya, large parts of the 200 000 ha of Mount Kenya`s forests - the largest natural-forest area in the country - are heavily impacted by among other things illegal activities. The wet camphor forests of the south and southeast mountain slopes are being destroyed at an alarming speed, by large-scale selective logging of Ocotea usambarensis and marihuana cultivation. The drier Juniperus procera are also logged, but are even more endangered by the new settlement schemes. The large elephant population does not affect forest regeneration; whereas browsing and chaffing by buffaloes inhibits regeneration of the dry forests, and damages many trees. Suggestions are presented for better management of the forest resources. 12 refs, 1 fig

  14. Sensor 17 Thermal Isolation Mounting Structure (TIMS) Design Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enstrom, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-04

    The SENSOR 17 thermographic camera weighs approximately 0.5lbs, has a fundamental mode of 167 Hz, and experiences 0.75W of heat leakage in through the TIMS. The configuration, shown in Figure 1, is comprised of four 300 Series SST washers paired in tandem with P.E.I (Ultem 100) washers. The SENSOR 17 sensor is mounted to a 300 series stainless plate with A-shaped arms. The Plate can be assumed to be at ambient temperatures (≈293K) and the I.R. Mount needs to be cooled to 45K. It is attached to the tip of a cryocooler by a ‘cold strap’ and is assumed to be at the temperature of the cold-strap (≈45K). During flights SENSOR 17 experiences excitations at frequencies centered around 10-30Hz, 60Hz, and 120Hz from the aircraft flight environment. The temporal progression described below depicts the 1st Modal shape at the systems resonant frequency. This simulation indicates Modal articulation will cause a pitch rate of the camera with respect to the body axis of the airplane. This articulation shows up as flutter in the camera.

  15. Design features of SMART for barge mounted application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMART is an integral reactor of 330 MWt capacity with passive safety features being developed for a wide range of applications including the barge mounted co-generation plant. Its design strives to combine the firmly-established commercial reactor design with new advanced technologies. Thus the use of the industry proven KOFA (Korea Optimized Fuel Assembly) based nuclear fuels is pursued while such radically new technologies as self-pressurizing pressurizer, helical once-through steam generators, and advanced control concepts are being developed. The safety of SMART centers around enhancing the inherent safety characteristics of the reactor and salient features include low core power density, integral arrangement to eliminate large break loss of coolant accident, etc. The progression of emergency situations into accidents is prevented with a number of advanced engineered safety features such as Passive Residual Heat Removal System, Passive Emergency Core Cooling System, Safeguard Vessel, Passive Containment Over-pressure Protection. This paper presents the status of current SMART development, characteristics of SMART safety systems and the possibility of SMART application to barge mounted environment. (author)

  16. Determination of gait events using an externally mounted shank accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Hobbs, Sarah J; Protheroe, Laurence; Edmundson, Christopher J; Greenhalgh, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Biomechanical analysis requires the determination of specific foot contact events. This is typically achieved using force platform information; however, when force platforms are unavailable, alternative methods are necessary. A method was developed for the determination of gait events using an accelerometer mounted to the distal tibia, measuring axial accelerations. The aim of the investigation was to determine the efficacy of this method. Sixteen participants ran at 4.0 m/s ± 5%. Synchronized tibial accelerations and vertical ground reaction forces were sampled at 1000 Hz as participants struck a force platform with their dominant foot. Events determined using the accelerometer, were compared with the corresponding events determined using the force platform. Mean errors of 1.68 and 5.46 ms for average and absolute errors were observed for heel strike and of -3.59 and 5.00 ms for toe-off. Mean and absolute errors of 5.18 and 11.47 ms were also found for the duration of the stance phase. Strong correlations (r = .96) were also observed between duration of stance obtained using the two different methods. The error values compare favorably to other alternative methods of predicting gait events. This suggests that shank-mounted accelerometers can be used to accurately and reliably detect gait events. PMID:23462448

  17. Community Exposure to Lahar Hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Soulard, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic evidence of past events and inundation modeling of potential events suggest that lahars associated with Mount Rainier, Washington, are significant threats to downstream development. To mitigate potential impacts of future lahars and educate at-risk populations, officials need to understand how communities are vulnerable to these fast-moving debris flows and which individuals and communities may need assistance in preparing for and responding to an event. To support local risk-reduction planning for future Mount Rainier lahars, this study documents the variations among communities in King, Lewis, Pierce, and Thurston Counties in the amount and types of developed land, human populations, economic assets, and critical facilities in a lahar-hazard zone. The lahar-hazard zone in this study is based on the behavior of the Electron Mudflow, a lahar that traveled along the Puyallup River approximately 500 years ago and was due to a slope failure on the west flank of Mount Rainier. This lahar-hazard zone contains 78,049 residents, of which 11 percent are more than 65 years in age, 21 percent do not live in cities or unincorporated towns, and 39 percent of the households are renter occupied. The lahar-hazard zone contains 59,678 employees (4 percent of the four-county labor force) at 3,890 businesses that generate $16 billion in annual sales (4 and 7 percent, respectively, of totals in the four-county area) and tax parcels with a combined total value of $8.8 billion (2 percent of the study-area total). Employees in the lahar-hazard zone are primarily in businesses related to manufacturing, retail trade, transportation and warehousing, wholesale trade, and construction. Key road and rail corridors for the region are in the lahar-hazard zone, which could result in significant indirect economic losses for businesses that rely on these networks, such as the Port of Tacoma. Although occupancy values are not known for each site, the lahar-hazard zone contains numerous

  18. Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles)west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture

  19. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved adhesion and method thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boven, Michelle L; Keenihan, James R; Lickly, Stan; Brown, Jr., Claude; Cleereman, Robert J; Plum, Timothy C

    2014-12-23

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic device suitable for directly mounting on a structure. The device includes an active portion including a photovoltaic cell assembly having a top surface portion that allows transmission of light energy to a photoactive portion of the photovoltaic device for conversion into electrical energy and a bottom surface having a bottom bonding zone; and an inactive portion immediately adjacent to and connected to the active portion, the inactive portion having a region for receiving a fastener to connect the device to the structure and having on a top surface, a top bonding zone; wherein one of the top and bottom bonding zones comprises a first bonding element and the other comprises a second bonding element, the second bonding element designed to interact with the first bonding element on a vertically overlapped adjacent photovoltaic device to bond the device to such adjacent device or to the structure.

  20. Plants Biodiversity of Jobolarangan Forest Mount Lawu: 1. Cryptogamae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to make: (1 a list of Cryptogamic plants at Jobolarangan forest in mount Lawu, and (2 the actual condition of biodiversity conservation of the plants. All Cryptogamic plants on the forest were studied. The procedures of data collection were including species collection in the field, make up herbaria, observation of flora vegetation using transect method, morphology observation in the laboratory, and interview to residents and government administrations. The results showed that in the forest were found 77 species Cryptogamic plants, consisting of 27 species of fungi, 5 species of lichens, 20 species of Bryophyta and 25 species of Pterydophyta. Government and residents had successfully conserved the forest; however fire and illegal logging damaged another part.

  1. Pedestrian Navigation Using Foot-Mounted Inertial Sensor and LIDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    Foot-mounted inertial sensors can be used for indoor pedestrian navigation. In this paper, to improve the accuracy of pedestrian location, we propose a method using a distance sensor (LIDAR) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The distance sensor is a time of flight range finder with 30 m measurement range (at 33.33 Hz). Using a distance sensor, walls on corridors are automatically detected. The detected walls are used to correct the heading of the pedestrian path. Through experiments, it is shown that the accuracy of the heading is significantly improved using the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the system is shown to work robustly in indoor environments with many doors and passing people. PMID:26797619

  2. Precision mirror mounting system for UHV compatible synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ultra high vacuum compatible system for precision adjustment of the orientation and location of a mirror with respect to incident synchrotron radiation beam has been designed. This will be used for the upcoming photoelectron spectroscopy beamline to be installed on Indus-1. Our ray tracing calculations indicate that positioning of mirror with respect to synchrotron radiation beam direction and other beam line optical components is very critical for good resolution and photon flux. This requires the mirror to have various motions with a precision control over these motions of the order of millidegree for angular and five micron for linear motions. Based on these calculations, design of mirror mount system having various kinematic motions in ultra high vacuum has been worked out and incorporated in the mechanical design of the system. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs

  3. Hierarchical planning for a surface mounting machine placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾又姣; 马登哲; 金烨; 严隽琪

    2004-01-01

    For a surface mounting machine (SMM) in printed circuit board (PCB) assembly line, there are four problems, e.g. CAD data conversion, nozzle selection, feeder assignment and placement sequence determination. A hierarchical planning for them to maximize the throughput rate of an SMM is presented here. To minimize set-up time, a CAD data conversion system was first applied that could automatically generate the data for machine placement from CAD design data files. Then an effective nozzle selection approach was implemented to minimize the time of nozzle changing. And then, to minimize picking time, an algorithm for feeder assignment was used to make picking multiple components simultaneously as much as possible. Finally, in order to shorten pick-and-place time, a heuristic algorithm was used to determine optimal component placement sequence according to the decided feeder positions. Experiments were conducted on a four head SMM. The experimental results were used to analyse the assembly line performance.

  4. Railcar mounted gas turbines serve Chinese power needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-03-01

    The Orenda Division of Hawker Siddeley Canada Ltd. has just completed an order by the China National Technical Import Corp., Peking, for 2 railcar-mounted 9000-kW mobile generating sets. The gas-turbine-powered units, spares, etc., made up a package valued at approximately $4 million. The overall design concept called for a 2-car unit with the gas turbine and generator in one car and the switch gear, control panels, and an auxiliary power unit in the other. At the operating site, the cars are separated by distances of 10 ft (3 m), and the power car is leveled using mechanically operated leveling jacks and a system of liquid-level sight glasses located along the walls of the car. Cable connections between the control and power cars are made through drop-down doors at the facing car ends.

  5. Pressure-Equalizing Cradle for Booster Rocket Mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A launch system and method improve the launch efficiency of a booster rocket and payload. A launch aircraft atop which the booster rocket is mounted in a cradle, is flown or towed to an elevation at which the booster rocket is released. The cradle provides for reduced structural requirements for the booster rocket by including a compressible layer, that may be provided by a plurality of gas or liquid-filled flexible chambers. The compressible layer contacts the booster rocket along most of the length of the booster rocket to distribute applied pressure, nearly eliminating bending loads. Distributing the pressure eliminates point loading conditions and bending moments that would otherwise be generated in the booster rocket structure during carrying. The chambers may be balloons distributed in rows and columns within the cradle or cylindrical chambers extending along a length of the cradle. The cradle may include a manifold communicating gas between chambers.

  6. Airborne reconnaissance and Mount Everest: an historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1994-10-01

    In 1933, aerial cameras had been developed that worked essentially as they do today. Aerial surveys were made, stereo plotters produced maps, and the science of photogrammetry was advancing. However, aircraft development had a long way to go before the SR-71 came along. Over the years, the general complexity of taking photographs from above increased by orders of magnitude. A 1933 British flight in two bi-wing aircraft over Mount Everest on an aerial survey mission is compared to a 1984 Space Shuttle flight dedicated to aerial, or more accurately, space photography. The comparison leads to the conclusion that in exploration, it is important that people involved must be given latitude to exercise self-initiative if we are to be successful in the exploration of the solar system and galaxy.

  7. Plants Biodiversity of Jobolarangan Forest Mount Lawu: 2. Spermatophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHAR IRIANTO

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to make: (1 a list of Spermatophyte plants at Jobolarangan forest in mount Lawu, and (2 the ecological and the economical benefits of the plants. All Spermatophyte plants on the forest were studied. The research procedures were including species collection in the field, make up herbaria, morphological observations in the laboratory, and interview to residents and government administrations. The results showed that in the forest were found 142 species Spermatophyte plants, in which 126 species of 54 family were identified, consisting of 78 species of herbs, 26 species of bushes, and 21 species of trees. Ecological benefits of the plants were hydrological regulation, keep out landslide and erosions etc., however economical benefits of the plants were log, firewood, charcoal, honey bee, medicinal plants, etc.

  8. Optical Measurement System for Motion Characterization of Surface Mount Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song; AN Bing; ZHANG Tong-jun; XIE Yong-jun

    2006-01-01

    Advanced testing methods for the dynamics of mechanical microdevices are necessary to develop reliable,marketable microelectromechanical systems. A system for measuring the nanometer motions of microscopic structures has been demonstrated. Stop-action images of a target have been obtained with computer microvision,microscopic interferometry,and stroboscopic illuminator. It can be developed for measuring the in-plane-rigid-body motions,surface shapes,out-of-plane motions and deformations of microstructures. A new algorithm of sub-pixel step length correlation template matching is proposed to extract the in-plane displacement from vision images. Hariharan five-step phase-shift interferometry algorithm and unwrapping algorithms are adopted to measure the out-of-plane motions. It is demonstrated that the system can measure the motions of solder wetting in surface mount technology(SMT).

  9. Practical low-cost stereo head-mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausch, Randy; Dwivedi, Pramod; Long, Allan C., Jr.

    1991-08-01

    A high-resolution head-mounted display has been developed from substantially cheaper components than previous systems. Monochrome displays provide 720 by 280 monochrome pixels to each eye in a one-inch-square region positioned approximately one inch from each eye. The display hardware is the Private Eye, manufactured by Reflection Technologies, Inc. The tracking system uses the Polhemus Isotrak, providing (x,y,z, azimuth, elevation and roll) information on the user''s head position and orientation 60 times per second. In combination with a modified Nintendo Power Glove, this system provides a full-functionality virtual reality/simulation system. Using two host 80386 computers, real-time wire frame images can be produced. Other virtual reality systems require roughly 250,000 in hardware, while this one requires only 5,000. Stereo is particularly useful for this system because shading or occlusion cannot be used as depth cues.

  10. VALUATION OF MOUNT MERAPI NATIONAL PARK: A TRAVEL COST ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setya Dewanta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates recreational value of Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi (TNGM – Mount MerapiNational Park in Kaliurang, Yogyakarta with a travel cost method. Since the visitors are not the frequentones, the paper estimates the visitor’s utility using a categorical regression technique. Applyingin-depth interview on visitors from August 1st until August 15th 2009, the results suggest that the utilityfunction for recreation at volcano national park is better estimated using the negative binomialdistribution model. It also finds that the economic value of recreation at volcano national park is Rp222,000, and that the total consumer surplus for recreation national park is Rp 31.2 billion.Keywords: Travel cost valuation, binomial regression model, recreation national park valuationJEL classification numbers: D12, L83

  11. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features. Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural processElevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  12. Seasonality of Shallow Icequakes at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, H. A.; Aster, R. C.; Kyle, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Background (non-eruptive) seismicity at Mount Erebus Volcano is dominated by icequake activity on its extensive ice fields and glaciers. We examine icequake seismograms recorded by both long-running and temporary densification deployments spanning seven years (2003-2009) to assess event frequency, size, apparent seasonality, event mechanism, and geographic distribution. In addition to generally investigating mountain glacial ice seismicity in cold and dry glacial environments, we also hope to exploit icequakes as local sources for tomographic imaging of the volcano’s interior in conjunction with 2008-2010 active source and explosive volcanism data. Using Antelope-based methodologies, we determined the distribution and magnitude of a subset of well-recorded icequakes using data from the long-running Mount Erebus Volcano Network (MEVO) network, as well as two dense IRIS PASSCAL supported temporary networks deployed during 2008 and 2009 (the MEVO network consists of six broadband and nine short period stations with environmental data streams; the dense arrays consisted of 24 broadband stations arranged in two concentric rings around the volcano and 99 short period stations deployed near the summit of Erebus volcano and along the Terror-Erebus axis of Ross Island). During each of the seven years, we note a number of large icequake swarms (up to many hundreds of events per day). We hypothesize that many of these events occur in very shallow ice, based on the apparent ambient temperature-driven seasonality of the events. Specifically, approximately 43% of the events occur between March and May and approximately 30% occur between October and December. Each of these times feature rapidly changing ambient air temperatures due to the high latitude appearance/disappearance of the sun. A shallow mechanism is predicted by 1-D thermal skin depth calculations that show that annual temperature fluctuations decay by 1/e within the top few meters of ice.

  13. 3D head mount display with single panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuchang; Huang, Junejei

    2014-09-01

    The head mount display for entertainment usually requires light weight. But in the professional application has more requirements. The image quality, field of view (FOV), color gamut, response and life time are considered items, too. A head mount display based on 1-chip TI DMD spatial light modulator is proposed. The multiple light sources and splitting images relay system are the major design tasks. The relay system images the object (DMD) into two image planes to crate binocular vision. The 0.65 inch 1080P DMD is adopted. The relay has a good performance which includes the doublet to reduce the chromatic aberration. Some spaces are reserved for placing the mirror and adjustable mechanism. The mirror splits the rays to the left and right image plane. These planes correspond to the eyepieces objects and image to eyes. A changeable mechanism provides the variable interpupillary distance (IPD). The folding optical path makes sure that the HMD center of gravity is close to the head and prevents the uncomfortable downward force being applied to head or orbit. Two RGB LED assemblies illuminate to the DMD in different angle. The light is highly collimated. The divergence angle is small enough such that one LED ray would only enters to the correct eyepiece. This switching is electronic controlled. There is no moving part to produce vibration and fast switch would be possible. Two LED synchronize with 3D video sync by a driving board which also controls the DMD. When the left eye image is displayed on DMD, the LED for left optical path turns on. Vice versa for right image and 3D scene is accomplished.

  14. Cotton phenotyping with lidar from a track-mounted platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew N.; Gore, Michael A.; Thompson, Alison

    2016-05-01

    High-Throughput Phenotyping (HTP) is a discipline for rapidly identifying plant architectural and physiological responses to environmental factors such as heat and water stress. Experiments conducted since 2010 at Maricopa, Arizona with a three-fold sensor group, including thermal infrared radiometers, active visible/near infrared reflectance sensors, and acoustic plant height sensors, have shown the validity of HTP with a tractor-based system. However, results from these experiments also show that accuracy of plant phenotyping is limited by the system's inability to discriminate plant components and their local environmental conditions. This limitation may be overcome with plant imaging and laser scanning which can help map details in plant architecture and sunlit/shaded leaves. To test the capability for mapping cotton plants with a laser system, a track-mounted platform was deployed in 2015 over a full canopy and defoliated cotton crop consisting of a scanning LIDAR driven by Arduinocontrolled stepper motors. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at 0.1 m/s while collecting LIDAR scans at 25 Hz (0.1667 deg. beam). These tests showed that an autonomous LIDAR platform can reduce HTP logistical problems and provide the capability to accurately map cotton plants and cotton bolls. A prototype track-mounted platform was developed to test the use of LIDAR scanning for High- Throughput Phenotyping (HTP). The platform was deployed in 2015 at Maricopa, Arizona over a senescent cotton crop. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at <1 m/s while collecting LIDAR scans at 25 Hz (0.1667 deg. beam). Scanning data mapped the canopy heights and widths, and detected cotton bolls.

  15. Lights of Democracy, Authority and Liberty-On the History of News Legal System in Burma over the Past 160 Years%开明、威权与自由之光--160年缅甸新闻法制史管窥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展江; 黄晶晶

    2013-01-01

    缅甸曾经是亚洲享有最充分的新闻自由的国家,但是到了20世纪中期以后,随着1962年军事政变,缅甸由一个亚洲较富裕国家变成了落后国家,新闻界则经历了长达半个世纪的新闻管制。2011年,缅甸开启民主化政治改革,新闻界也随之开始了改革之路。通过梳理缅甸历史上的新闻自由、二战后军政府对新闻的管制和媒体的抗争以及正在进行的政治新闻变革举措,可以揭示出一个当代威权主义国家刚刚开始的媒体和政治转型之路。%Burma used to be a country which enjoyed the freedom of press in Asia during the 19th century.However, after the military coup in 1962, the press in Burma experienced more than half a century of news blackout, drawing back from a rich country in Asia to a backward one.In 2011, due to the launching of the political and democratic reform, the press in Burma started its reforming process.This paper aims to discuss the history of news development in Burma, including the freedom of press in the past, the news blackout after the 2nd World War by the military government and the struggle of media, and the polit-ical, news reform at the moment.In this way, an authoritative nation with news and political change on its way is to be presen-ted.

  16. A new mount with moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator for naval shipboard equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is proposed a new hybrid mount having a moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator to reduce the vibration transmitted from naval shipboard equipment to the structure of the ship’s hull. Optimal design specifications are determined through experimental analysis. The detailed design of the hybrid mount is determined through several design steps with electromagnetic numerical analysis using Maxwell Software(S/W. The hybrid mount that combines a rubber mount and an electromagnetic actuator has a fail-safe function for shock resistance. The mount is fabricated and tested using a universal testing machine to evaluate the design specifications. Finally, numerical simulation of the hybrid mount is performed to confirm control performance and applicability

  17. Investigations on specimen design and mounting for Split Hopkinson Tension Bar (SHTB experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledford Noah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Split Hopkinson Tension Bar (SHTB experiments can be used to test the material behavior with high strain rates in tension loading. The influence of the specimen mounting and the specimen design on the test results was investigated. Three mounting methods were tested. The best signal is achieve using a mounting based on form fit. The three tested specimen designs all lead to a valid fracture behavior, but result in a different local strain rate.

  18. Vertically mounted InGaN-on-Sapphire light-emitting diodes

    OpenAIRE

    L. Zhu; Ma, ZT; Lai, PT; Choi, HW

    2011-01-01

    An InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) chip mounted in a vertical configuration (vmLED) is demonstrated, exhibiting significant enhancement to light extraction, compared with a LED mounted in a conventional planar geometry. By flipping the chip orthogonally, two large illumination surfaces of the device are exposed for direct light extraction. Comparisons, through ray-trace modeling and experiment data with conventional surface-mounted LEDs, indicate that the vmLEDs achieve superior light ex...

  19. CMS ECAL Endcap (EE) Dee Assembly - SC mounting on Dee 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Cockerill, D

    2007-01-01

    Protection panels on back of Dee 1, Completion of SC mounting, 03/10/2007: Completion of SC mounting (aart from the inner 3-2-1)on the first quadrant of Dee 1 and subsequent survey. 22-28/08/2007: The first supercrystals on Dee1, Dee1 in 867 with the first column of SCs ready for mounting, Dee1 with its protection panels over the laser monitoring fibre system

  20. Biodiversity conservation, ecotourism and rural liverlihoods in protected areas. Case study : the Mount Cameroon National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Nkengfack, Susan Nkendem

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in the South West Province of Cameroon, specifically in the Mount Cameroon Region which encompasses the Mount Cameroon National park and its surrounding villages. The aim of the study was to assess how ecotourism is used as a tool to conserve the rich biodiversity of this area while improving the livelihoods of the local people and fostering development in the local communities. Focus was on the activities of the Mount Cameroon Inter-communal Ecotourism Board (Mt...

  1. Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Atkins, Carolyn; Roche, Jacqueline M.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested xray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  2. Analysis of Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ryan F.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested x-ray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  3. Introducing a new semi-active engine mount using force controlled variable stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Mojtaba; Behzadipour, Saeed; Faulkner, Gary

    2013-05-01

    This work introduces a new concept in designing semi-active engine mounts. Engine mounts are under continuous development to provide better and more cost-effective engine vibration control. Passive engine mounts do not provide satisfactory solution. Available semi-active and active mounts provide better solutions but they are more complex and expensive. The variable stiffness engine mount (VSEM) is a semi-active engine mount with a simple ON-OFF control strategy. However, unlike available semi-active engine mounts that work based on damping change, the VSEM works based on the static stiffness change by using a new fast response force controlled variable spring. The VSEM is an improved version of the vibration mount introduced by the authors in their previous work. The results showed significant performance improvements over a passive rubber mount. The VSEM also provides better vibration control than a hydromount at idle speed. Low hysteresis and the ability to be modelled by a linear model in low-frequency are the advantages of the VSEM over the vibration isolator introduced earlier and available hydromounts. These specifications facilitate the use of VSEM in the automotive industry, however, further evaluation and developments are needed for this purpose.

  4. Water diffusion in Mount Changbai peralkaline rhyolitic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyue; Xu, Zhengjiu; Behrens, Harald; Zhang, Youxue

    2009-10-01

    Diffusion couple experiments with wet half (up to 4.6 wt%) and dry half were carried out at 789-1,516 K and 0.47-1.42 GPa to investigate water diffusion in a peralkaline rhyolitic melt with major oxide concentrations matching Mount Changbai rhyolite. Combining data from this work and a related study, total water diffusivity in peralkaline rhyolitic melt can be expressed as: D_{{{text{H}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{text{t}} }} = D_{{{text{H}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{text{m}} }} left( {1 - 0.5 - X/{sqrt {[4exp (3110/T - 1.876) - 1](X - X^{2 ) + 0.25} }}} right), {text{with}}D_{{{text{H}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{text{m}} }} = exp left[ { - 1 2. 7 8 9- 13939/T - 1229.6P/T + ( - 27.867 + 60559/T)X} right], where D is in m2 s-1, T is the temperature in K, P is the pressure in GPa, and X is the mole fraction of water and calculated as X = ( C/18.015)/( C/18.015 + (100 - C)/33.14), where C is water content in wt%. We recommend this equation in modeling bubble growth and volcanic eruption dynamics in peralkaline rhyolitic eruptions, such as the 1,000- ad eruption of Mount Changbai in North East China. Water diffusivities in peralkaline and metaluminous rhyolitic melts are comparable within a factor of 2, in contrast with the 1.0-2.6 orders of magnitude difference in viscosities. The decoupling of diffusivity of neutral molecular species from melt viscosity, i.e., the deviation from the inversely proportional relationship predicted by the Stokes-Einstein equation, might be attributed to the small size of H2O molecules. With distinct viscosities but similar diffusivity, bubble growth controlled by diffusion in peralkaline and metaluminous rhyolitic melts follows similar parabolic curves. However, at low confining pressure or low water content, viscosity plays a larger role and bubble growth rate in peralkaline rhyolitic melt is much faster than that in metaluminous rhyolite.

  5. The eddy performance: Contemporary ethnography of Mount Tlaloc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Fernández, David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mount Tlaloc was a very important religious place in the prehispanic age: it was the place where request ceremonies for rain took place on the Mexica Empire. This is the reason for the increasing interest in this place among archaeologists and ethnohistorians. However, systematic ethnography in the region is almost inexistent and the accurate meaning of the offerings and rituals which are still being carried out nowadays is unknown. The article shows the conclusions of a long fieldwork on the region which describes a therapeutic ceremony where the offering consists in the performing of an eddy —an identification with the water spirits to copy their behavior. Such eddy is related to another array of offerings which includes the donation of seeds or their smell as food. With the analysis of the ritual, the complex contemporary cosmology is explored showing a link between Mount Tlaloc and the local irrigation system: their irrigation channels and the springs are a whole from a conceptual and geographic point of view.

    El Monte Tláloc constituyó un importante sitio ceremonial regional en la época prehispánica: era el lugar en el que se realizaban los ritos petitorios de lluvia del Imperio mexica. Por ello ha despertado el interés creciente de arqueólogos y etnohistoriadores. Sin embargo, la etnografía sistemática de la zona es prácticamente inexistente, al grado de que desconocemos exactamente el sentido de las ofrendas y los rituales que continúan realizándose allí. En este sentido, el artículo presenta las conclusiones de un prolongado trabajo de campo en el área y describe un rito terapéutico en el que la ofrenda es la teatralización de un «remolino actuado», es decir, una identificación con los espíritus del agua por el recurso de imitar sus acciones. Dicho remolino se asocia también con otra variedad de ofrendas que incluyen la donación de semillas o sus aromas como alimento. A partir de un análisis del rito se

  6. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixia [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangyan405@gmail.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Li, Hongli, E-mail: lihongli1225@163.com [Environmental Monitoring Central Station of Shandong Province, Jinan, 250101 (China); Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Tao [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Wenxing [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2015-09-01

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC–MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved + particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. - Highlights: • The site is in the high pollution emission area, having many sources of PAHs around. • Mount Lushan is a unique site for cloud chemistry monitoring. • Atmospheric PAHs mostly deposited and transferred into cloud water. • Special case showed PAHs are more concentrated in

  7. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC–MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved + particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. - Highlights: • The site is in the high pollution emission area, having many sources of PAHs around. • Mount Lushan is a unique site for cloud chemistry monitoring. • Atmospheric PAHs mostly deposited and transferred into cloud water. • Special case showed PAHs are more concentrated in

  8. Differential effects of head-mounted displays on visual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schega, Lutz; Hamacher, Daniel; Erfuth, Sandra; Behrens-Baumann, Wolfgang; Reupsch, Juliane; Hoffmann, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Head-mounted displays (HMDs) virtually augment the visual world to aid visual task completion. Three types of HMDs were compared [look around (LA); optical see-through with organic light emitting diodes and virtual retinal display] to determine whether LA, leaving the observer functionally monocular, is inferior. Response times and error rates were determined for a combined visual search and Go-NoGo task. The costs of switching between displays were assessed separately. Finally, HMD effects on basic visual functions were quantified. Effects of HMDs on visual search and Go-NoGo task were small, but for LA display-switching costs for the Go-NoGo-task the effects were pronounced. Basic visual functions were most affected for LA (reduced visual acuity and visual field sensitivity, inaccurate vergence movements and absent stereo-vision). LA involved comparatively high switching costs for the Go-NoGo task, which might indicate reduced processing of external control cues. Reduced basic visual functions are a likely cause of this effect.

  9. GPS Attitude Determination Using Deployable-Mounted Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Michael L.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to develop a method to solve for spacecraft attitude in the presence of potential incomplete antenna deployment. Most research on the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) in attitude determination has assumed that the antenna baselines are known to less than 5 centimeters, or one quarter of the GPS signal wavelength. However, if the GPS antennas are mounted on a deployable fixture such as a solar panel, the actual antenna positions will not necessarily be within 5 cm of nominal. Incomplete antenna deployment could cause the baselines to be grossly in error, perhaps by as much as a meter. Overcoming this large uncertainty in order to accurately determine attitude is the focus of this study. To this end, a two-step solution method is proposed. The first step uses a least-squares estimate of the baselines to geometrically calculate the deployment angle errors of the solar panels. For the spacecraft under investigation, the first step determines the baselines to 3-4 cm with 4-8 minutes of data. A Kalman filter is then used to complete the attitude determination process, resulting in typical attitude errors of 0.50.

  10. Shuttle Mounted Sensors For The Analysis Of Ocean Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steller, David D.

    1984-09-01

    The Space Shuttle has proven to be an excellent platform for testing sensors for the analysis of ocean phenomena. The Shuttle provides a manned, stable platform that can be precisely navigated. The ocean monitoring sensors are operated, retrieved, evaluated in the laboratory and reflown. Of major importance is the ability of the astronaut/oceanographer to use his intellect and visual acuity to recognize valuable ocean phenomena and then to interact directly with the sensors. This interaction can include real-time sensor pointing, tuning, and coordination with the ground and ship stations. In the complex task of identifying ocean features from space, man can: make rapid interpretation, evaluate ocean color changes, filter out cloud affects, make geographic location decisions and assess the contrast of subtle ocean features from background. Optional sensor mounting methods have been designed to reduce flight costs and turnaround times necessary for continuing sensor demonstration schedules. The Shuttle platform permits space testing of ocean monitoring sensors without the commitment of long range, expensive, systems programs necessary for stand-alone satellite sensor testing.

  11. Hierarchical planning for a surface mounting machine placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾又姣; 马登哲; 金烨; 严隽琪

    2004-01-01

    For a surface mounting machine(SMM)in printed circuit board(PCB)assembly line,there are four problems,e.g. CAD data conversion,nozzle selection,feeder assignment and placement sequence determination. A hierarchical planning for them to maximize the throughput rate of an SMM is presented here. To minimize set-up time,a CAD data conversion system was first applied that could automatically generate the data for machine placement from CAD design data files. Then an effective nozzle selection approach was implemented to minimize the time of nozzle changing. And then,to minimize picking time,an algorithm for feeder assignment was used to make picking multiple components simultaneously as much as possible. Finally,in order to shorten pick-and-place time,a heuristic algorithm was used to determine optimal component placement sequence according to the decided feeder positions. Experiments were conducted on a four head SMM.The experimental results were used to analyse the assembly line performance.

  12. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, J.M. (Independent Equipment Corp., Raritan, NJ (United States)); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  13. Unity and universe: understanding pilgrimage to Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gothóni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Having found the specific universal unity of pilgrimages, namely that pilgrimages are journeys of spiritual transformation, the author began to look more closely at the uniqueness of the content of beliefs embodied in pilgrimages to Mount Athos, particularly with the aim of unfolding the universe of beliefs concealed in the word proskýnima, which is the Greek word for ‘pilgrimage’. Therefore, he shifted his focus from the concept to the word ‘pilgrimage’, denoting the human phenomena of visiting holy and sacred places, persons, mountains, wells and so forth. This article illustrates how our preconceptions of the word ‘pilgrimage’ determine our conception of the concept or category of ‘pilgrimage’, which again determines our interpretation and understanding of the content of beliefs of this form of human phenomenon. As a by-product this article also displays the process of how our limited horizon of conceiving the concepts and words is extended in parallel with the process of research. The article shows how this horizon determines our leaving out fundamental elements of ‘pilgrimages’ which, in this case, are characteristic of visits to the Holy Mountain of Greece.

  14. Sensor-controlled heliostat with an equatorial mount

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiuchi, Kosuke; Yoshida, Kazuo; Onozaki, Masaki; Katayama, Yukuo [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Minoru; Nakamura, Katsushige [Mitaka Kohki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    A heliostat having a photo-sensor sun-tracking system was developed and evaluated. The sensor was composed of a set of two photo-cells placed side by side on the bottom of the small box. Sun-tracking can be achieved by rotating the heliostat equipped with the sensor, while maintaining the two photo-cells under illumination by the sun through a slit in the box. A preliminary tracking evaluation of the sensor was carried out with the aid of a mirror-telescope system, and the tracking error was estimated to be less than 0.6mrad in clear weather. The developed heliostat employed an equatorial mount system that permits the rotating speed of the right-ascension axis to be nearly constant for the diurnal motion of the sun. The use of two additional sensors, a cloud sensor and a primary sensor, permitted stable tracking with high accuracy even in a cloudy sky. Field tests of the heliostat revealed that an angular error within 2mrad was achieved in fine weather. In cloudy weather, the heliostat operated stably with the cloud sensor within an error of 10mrad. (author)

  15. The August 2010 Phreatic Eruption of Mount Sinabung, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan S. Sutawidjaja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i1.155Mount Sinabung, located in Karo Regency, North Sumatra Province, is a strato volcano having four active craters. Since its latest eruption about 1,200 year ago, a phreatic eruption occurred on August 27th, 2010. The eruption took place in Crater-I, which was initiated by a greyish white plume and then followed by black plumes as high as 2000 m above the crater. Altered rock fragments and ash were erupted during this event. The altered rocks show a development of argillic alterations which was formed in the hydrothermal system in depth. The alteration zone is formed along the northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast trend across the three craters. All of the craters are actively discharging solfataric gases, of which sulphur deposits are resulted, and they have been quarried by the local people. The age of the latest magmatic eruption was dated by 14C method from the charcoal sample found in the pyroclastic flow deposits near Bekerah Village.

  16. Positioning of Littrow mounted gratings in pulse compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinchenko, Galina; Vyhlidka, Stepan; Kramer, Daniel; Lerer, Alexander; Rus, Bedrich

    2015-09-01

    The development of chirped pulse amplification lasers toward multi-PetaWatt power imposes more demands on laser system elements. To make the spectral band of pulse compressors wider, laser designers began to consider Littrow mounted grating setups. In this study we investigate two Littrow type configurations. The first one is roll - a grating is rotated in the grating plane by a small angle. The second configuration is pitch - a grating is rotated by small angle about an axis perpendicular to the grating grooves. In this paper we experimentally measured diffraction efficiency of rolled and pitched dielectric grating, and simulated it with two methods: numerical Fourier Modal Method in LightTrans Virtual Lab and semi-analytical Volume Integral Equation Method. Here we claim that roll is more preferable for dielectric diffraction gratings with high groove density. It is shown that the energy of laser pulse compressed by a Littrow-roll configured compressor is 2 to 5% higher than Littrow-pitch configured one.

  17. Development and Climate Change in Tanzania. Focus on Mount Kilimanjaro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an output from the OECD Development and Climate Change project, an activity jointly overseen by the EPOC Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP), and the DAC Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET). The overall objective of the project is to provide guidance on how to mainstream responses to climate change within economic development planning and assistance policies, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. This report presents the integrated case study for Tanzania carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Tanzania are assessed, and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios in Tanzania are analyzed to examine the proportion of donor activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for climate change impacts and response strategies for Mount Kilimanjaro - a critical ecosystem, biodiversity hotspot, and source of freshwater. This part of the analysis draws upon extended field research by a case study consultant in collaboration with national and international partners

  18. Vortex shedding from two surface-mounted cubes in tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periodic vortex shedding from two surface-mounted cubes, of height H, in tandem arrangement placed in a thin boundary layer is investigated for a spacing 2H using phase-averaged Laser Doppler Velocimetry. Tests were conducted for a Reynolds number of 22,000, based on H and the freestream velocity, and an approximately 0.07H thick laminar boundary layer. For obstacle separations between 1.5H and 2.5H, the shedding frequency scales inversely with the obstacle spacing, S, such that the Strouhal number based on S is constant or geometrically locked. In this locked regime, periodic shedding is triggered by the interference between a vertical flow stream along the front face of the downstream obstacle and the vortex in the inter-obstacle cavity. This three-dimensional mechanism is not observed for two-dimensional geometries and helps explain why a locked regime cannot be observed for square cylinders in tandem arrangement. Furthermore, it is shown that the structure of the turbulent field in the cavity region differs significantly from that in the base region of a two-dimensional obstacle

  19. Optical Turbulence Measurements and Models for Mount John University Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, J L; Cottrell, P L

    2010-01-01

    Site measurements were collected at Mount John University Observatory in 2005 and 2007 using a purpose-built scintillation detection and ranging system. $C_n^2(h)$ profiling indicates a weak layer located at 12 - 14 km above sea level and strong low altitude turbulence extending up to 5 km. During calm weather conditions, an additional layer was detected at 6 - 8 km above sea level. $V(h)$ profiling suggests that tropopause layer velocities are nominally 12 - 30 m/s, and near-ground velocities range between 2 -- 20 m/s, dependent on weather. Little seasonal variation was detected in either $C_n^2(h)$ and $V(h)$ profiles. The average coherence length, $r_0$, was found to be $7 \\pm 1$ cm for the full profile at a wavelength of 589 nm. The average isoplanatic angle, $\\theta_0$, was $1.0 \\pm 0.1$ arcsec. The mean turbulence altitude, $\\bar{h_0}$, was found to be $2.0\\pm0.7$ km above sea level. No average in the Greenwood frequency, $f_G$, could be established due to the gaps present in the \\vw\\s profiles obtained...

  20. An investigation of a top-mounted domestic refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed numerical simulation of the performance of household refrigerator having a top-mount configuration is made in this study, and an experiment is carried out with a real refrigerator for verification. The results indicate the temperature distributions from the numerical simulation are qualitatively in line with the experimental measurements. Cyclic temperature variations occur amid freezer, refrigerating, and vegetable compartments due to on/off control strategy. However, it is found that the temperature variation for freezer and refrigerating compartment are in phase with each other while the temperature variation in vegetable compartment is roughly out-of-phase with the other two compartments. The simulations show that the design of air duct and its locations may impose a detrimental role on the temperature uniformity within the refrigerator, yet the airflow is strongly influenced by gravity. It is also found that the refrigerating compartment possesses the worst temperature non-uniformity. For improving the temperature non-uniformity, a modified design incorporating the air duct design with appropriate locations of the inlet openings in the freezer and refrigerating compartment is proposed. Though these modifications the maximum temperature difference and the root mean-square of temperature variation in refrigerating compartment, had been reduced from 7.17 deg. C to 3.57 deg. C and from 3.17 deg. C to 1.55 deg. C, respectively.

  1. Robotic Mounted Detection System: robotics for route clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, John; Klager, Gene; McCoy, Edward; Fite, David; Frederick, Brian

    2010-04-01

    Robotic Mounted Detection System (RMDS) is a government program to enable robotic control of a Husky route clearance vehicle with a mine detection sensor payload. The goal is for the operator to control the Husky and mine detection sensor from another vehicle. This program will provide the user with standard tele-operation control of the vehicle as well as semi-autonomous modes including cruise control, precision waypoint navigation with operator error correction and a visual mode allowing the operator to enter waypoints in the current video feed. The use of autonomy will be tailored to give the operator maximum control of the robotic vehicle's path while minimizing the effort required to maintain the desired route. Autonomous alterations of the path would conflict with the goal of route clearance, so waypoint navigation will allow the operator to supply offsets to counteract location errors. While following a waypoint path, the Husky will be capable of controlling its speed to maintain an operator specified distance from the control vehicle. Obstacle avoidance will be limited to protecting the mine detection sensor, leaving any decision to leave the path up to the operator. Video will be the primary navigational sensor feed to the operator, who will use an augmented steering wheel controller and computer display to control the Husky. A LADAR system will be used to detect obstacles that could damage the mine sensor and to maintain the optimal sensor orientation while the vehicle is moving. Practical issues and lessons learned during integration will be presented.

  2. Cones and craters on Mount Pavagadh, Deccan Traps: Rootless cones?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hetu C Sheth; George Mathew; Kanchan Pande; Soumen Mallick; Balaram Jena

    2004-12-01

    Rootless cones, also (erroneously) called pseudocraters, form due to explosions that ensue when a lava flow enters a surface water body, ice, or wet ground. They do not represent primary vents connected by vertical conduits to a subsurface magma source. Rootless cones in Iceland are well studied. Cones on Mars, morphologically very similar to Icelandic rootless cones, have also been suggested to be rootless cones formed by explosive interaction between surface lava flows and ground ice. We report here a group of gentle cones containing nearly circular craters from Mount Pavagadh, Deccan volcanic province, and suggest that they are rootless cones. They are very similar morphologically to the rootless cones of the type locality of Mý vatn in northeastern Iceland. A group of three phreatomagmatic craters was reported in 1998 from near Jabalpur in the northeastern Deccan, and these were suggested to be eroded cinder cones. A recent geophysical study of the Jabalpur craters does not support the possibility that they are located over volcanic vents. They could also be rootless cones. Many more probably exist in the Deccan, and volcanological studies of the Deccan are clearly of value in understanding planetary basaltic volcanism.

  3. Gaze contingent hologram synthesis for holographic head-mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Youngmin; Hong, Sunghee; Shin, Choonsung; Kang, Hoonjong

    2016-03-01

    Development of display and its related technologies provides immersive visual experience with head-mounted-display (HMD). However, most available HMDs provide 3D perception only by stereopsis, lack of accommodation depth cues. Recently, holographic HMD (HHMD) arises as one viable option to resolve this problem because hologram is known to provide full set of depth cues including accommodation. Moreover, by virtue of increasing computational power, hologram synthesis from 3D object represented by point cloud can be calculated in real time even with rigorous Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula. However, in HMD, rapid gaze change of the user requires much faster refresh rate, which means that much faster hologram synthesis is indispensable in HHMD. Because the visual acuity falls off in the visual periphery, we propose here to accelerate synthesizing hologram by differentiating density of point cloud projected on the screen. We classify the screen into multiple layers which are concentric circles with different radii, where the center is aligned with gaze of user. Layer with smaller radius is closer to the region of interest, hence, assigned with higher density of point cloud. Because the computation time is directly related to the number of points in point cloud, we can accelerate synthesizing hologram by lowering density of point cloud in the visual periphery. Cognitive study reveals that user cannot discriminate those degradation in the visual periphery if the parameters are properly designed. Prototype HHMD system will be provided for verifying the feasibility of our method, and detailed design scheme will be discussed.

  4. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, A. J.; Reed, D. K.; Nance, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of launch vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is a field best studied through experimentation, which is often carried out in the form of large scale wind tunnel testing. Measurement of the fluctuating pressures induced by the boundary layer noise is customarily made with miniature pressure transducers installed into a model of the vehicle of interest. Literature shows that noise level increases between two to five decibels (dB referenced to 20 micropascal) can be induced when the transducer surface is not mounted perfectly flush with the model outer surface. To reduce this artificially induced noise, special transducer holders have been used for aeroacoustic wind tunnel testing by NASA. This holder is a sleeve into which the transducer fits, with a cap that allows it to be mounted in a recessed hole in the model. A single hole in the holder allows the transport of the tunnel medium so the transducer can discriminate the fluctuating pressure due to the turbulent boundary layer noise. The holder is first dry fitted into the model and any difference in height between the holder and the model surface can be sanded flush. The holder is then removed from the model, the transducer glued inside the holder, and the holder replaced in the model, secured also with glue, thus eliminating the problem of noise level increases due to lack of flushness. In order to work with this holder design, special transducers have been ordered with their standard screen removed and the diaphragm moved as close to the top of the casing as possible to minimize any cavity volume. Although this greatly reduces induced noise due to the transducers being out of flush, the holders can also induce a cavity resonance that is usually at a very high frequency. This noise is termed transducer mount induced noise (XMIN). The peak of the mode can vary with the cavity depth, boundary layer noise that can excite the mode, tunnel flow medium, and the build of the transducers. Because the boundary

  5. Energetic and developmental costs of mounting an immune response in greenfinches (Carduelis chloris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amat, Juan A.; Aguilera, Eduardo; Visser, G. Henk

    2007-01-01

    It is assumed that there is a trade-off between the costs allocated to mounting an immune defence and those allocated to costly functions such as breeding and moulting. The physiological basis for this is that mounting an immune response to pathogen challenge has energetic and/or nutrient costs whic

  6. 21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. 892.1880 Section 892.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radiographic cassette holder. (a) Identification. A wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder is a device...

  7. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or... of Cargo Tanks § 180.413 Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks. (a) General. Any repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of a...

  8. 77 FR 11567 - Notice of Extension of Visitor Services-Mount Rainier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Extension of Visitor Services--Mount Rainier National Park AGENCY: National..., the National Park Service intends to request an extension of visitor services in Mount Rainier National Park for a period not to exceed one year from the expiration date of the current contract....

  9. 75 FR 47488 - FM Table of Allotments, Boulder Town, Levan, Mount Pleasant, and Richfield, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... proposed transmitter site was unavailable due to its location in a national forest. See 71 FR 29886 (May 24..., Report and Order, 71 FR 76208 (December 20, 2006). The CDBS will reflect Channel 229C at Mount Pleasant... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Boulder Town, Levan, Mount Pleasant, and Richfield,...

  10. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. 25.865 Section 25.865 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located...

  11. Deformation of Mount Baker volcano by hydrothermal heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, S.D.

    1976-12-01

    A sudden increase in fumarolic activity at Sherman Crater near the summit of Mount Baker, Washington, occurred in March, 1975. Various estimates in the increase in heat flow range from 3 to 10 times the previous level over the roughly half a square kilometer area of the crater. Temperatures of many of the old fumaroles have increased, some by more than 30/sup 0/C and numerous new fumaroles have formed. Gravity stations were established on the crater rim in May, 1975 as well as control stations at the base of the mountain and have been resurveyed periodically since then. A maximum decrease in gravity of 0.55 mgals has been observed at the crater stations relative to base stations. Applying corrections to the gravity data to adjust for seasonal ice and snow loads results in a curve which appears to be reaching an equilibrium value about 0.35 mgals lower than the first gravity reading. This corresponds to a free air elevation increase of a little more than a meter. A model is proposed to explain this change solely by hydrothermal heating of a cylinder of radius 0.4 km extending below Sherman Crater. Deep-seated changes in the hydrothermal plumbing system allows additional heat to be rapidly brought to the upper portions of the volcanoe's core heating the rock and causing thermal expansion to produce the apparent uplift. Some constraints on this model are the almost total lack of seismicity during this process and the apparent absence of tilt on the flanks of the volcano.

  12. Cinder cones of Mount Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan S. SutawIdjaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20096The Mount Slamet volcanic field in Central Java, Indonesia, contains thirty five cinder cones within an area of 90 sq. km in the east flank of the volcano. The cinder cones occur singly or in small groups, with diameter of the base ranges from 130 - 750 m and the height is around 250 m. Within the volcanic field, the cinder cones are spread over the volcanic area at the distance of 4 to 14 km from the eruption center of the Slamet Volcano. They are concentrated within latitudes 7°11’00” - 7°16’00” S,, and longitudes 109°15’00” - 109°18’00” E. The density of the cinder cones is about 1.5 cones/km2. Most of the cinder cones lie on the Tertiary sedimentary rocks along the NW-trending fault system and on radial fractures. The structural pattern may be related to the radial faults in this region. The cone surfaces are commonly blanketed by Slamet air-falls and lava flows. The deposits consist of poorly bedded, very coarse-grained, occasionally overlain by oxidized scoria, and large-sized of ballistic bombs and blocks. There are various kind of volcanic bombs originating from scoriae ballistic rock fragments. The other kind of volcanic bombs are breadcrust bomb, almond seed or contorted shape. All of the cinder cones have undergone degradation, which can be observed from the characters of gully density and surface morphology. By using Porter parameters, Hco is equal to 0.25 Wco, whilst Wcr is equal to 0.40 Wco. The Hco/Wco ratio is higher than Hco = 0.2 Wco reference line. A radiometric dating using K-Ar method carried out on a scoria bomb yields the age of 0.042 + 0.020 Ma.  

  13. Safety Aspect Analysis of Helmet Mounted Millimeter Wave Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nageswari

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of millimetric wave (MMW power density from two-helmet-mounted MMW radiating horn antennas were made at various distances on the three axes. These three axes are representing three planes: (i in the direction of propagation (Z-axis, (ii horizontal axis perpendicular to the direction of propagation (Y-axis, i.e., 15 cm to the left or right of Z-axis, and (iii vertical axis (X-axis also perpendicular to the direction of propagation and extending up and down an imaginary central reference line passing through the centre of the horn and the centre of the microwave measuring probe. Measurements were also made inside the helmet close to the metallic plate at 17 locations and 10 cm away from it. The Narda-8723 broadband isotropic microwave probe [frequency of operation (0.3-40 GHz power density range 0.05-100 mW/cm1 was placed at various distance points marked at 15 nm intervals and also at distances of relevance on Z-axis. For each of the distance points on Z-axis, measurements were taken at 7 probe locations on X-axis. For Y-axis measurements, 4 probe locations were selected (on vertical or X-axis. The results revealed no leakage of microwave power inside the helmets. In the transmitting mode of operation, there was a great variability of microwave power emitted closest to the horn antennas (2.5-5.0 mW / 2 and 6.0-105 mW /cm2 for helmet Nos.11 and2, respectively. As the distance from the antenna increased in the direction of propagation, the power density dropped to 0.04 m W / cm2 or 0.075 m W / cm{ maximum value at 1 m. As the values recorded are within American National Standards Institute (ANSI safety guidelines (10mW/cm2 at 35 GHz.

  14. Air pressure waves from Mount St. Helens eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J.W.

    1987-10-20

    Weather station barograph records as well as infrasonic recordings of the pressure wave from the Mount St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980, have been used to estimate an equivalent explosion airblast yield for this event. Pressure amplitude versus distance patterns in various directions compared with patterns from other large explosions, such as atmospheric nuclear tests, the Krakatoa eruption, and the Tunguska comet impact, indicate that the wave came from an explosion equivalent of a few megatons of TNT. The extent of tree blowdown is considerably greater than could be expected from such an explosion, and the observed forest damage is attributed to outflow of volcanic material. The pressure-time signature obtained at Toledo, Washington, showed a long, 13-min duration negative phase as well as a second, hour-long compression phase, both probably caused by ejacta dynamics rather than standard explosion wave phenomenology. The peculiar audibility pattern, with the blast being heard only at ranges beyond about 100 km, is explicable by finite amplitude propagation effects. Near the source, compression was slow, taking more than a second but probably less than 5 s, so that it went unnoticed by human ears and susceptible buildings were not damaged. There was no damage as Toledo (54 km), where the recorded amplitude would have broken windows with a fast compression. An explanation is that wave emissions at high elevation angles traveled to the upper stratosphere, where low ambient air pressures caused this energetic pressure oscillation to form a shock wave with rapid, nearly instantaneous compression. Atmospheric refraction then returned part of this wave to ground level at long ranges, where the fast compressions were clearly audible. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  15. Two kinds of silicalites in Mount Ailao belt, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of radiolarian silicalites at the bottom and top of the ophiolite in the Mount (Mt.) Ailao belt, Yunnan Province, are dealt with in this work in terms of geology, micro-paleontology, isotope and REE. The first kind of silicalite was defined as the turbidite formation. In this category, the radiolarian species lived in the Late Devonian (D3). The corresponding ecologic assemblage, composed of δ 30Si (0.4‰-0.5‰, average 0.03‰), δ Ce (0.77- 0.97, average 0.85) and LaN /YbN (0.77-1.06, average 0.96) of silicalite, shows that it occurred in the abyssal environment. The second kind of silicalite was defined as the mud-siliceous formation. Contacting conformably with the basalt of the ophiolite suit, the radiolarian silicalite at the top of ophiolite was in the category of the component units of the ophiolite in the Mt. Ailao belt. In this category, the radiolarian species lived in the Early Carboniferous (C1-). The corresponding ecologic assemblage, composed of d 30Si (0.2‰-1.3‰, averaging 0.7‰), dδCe (0.88- 0.92, averaging 0.90) and LaN /YbN (0.77-1.45, averaging 1.22), of silicalites indicate that it occurred in the bathyal environment. All these facts domonstrate that the Mt. Ailao must have been a small ocean basin at that time.

  16. Space Radar Image of Mount Pinatubo Volcano, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    These are color composite radar images showing the area around Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. The images were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 (left image) and October 5,1994 (right image). The images are centered at about 15 degrees north latitude and 120.5 degrees east longitude. Both images were obtained with the same viewing geometry. The color composites were made by displaying the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in green; and the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in blue. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 65 kilometers (25 miles by 40 miles). The main volcanic crater on Mount Pinatubo produced by the June 1991 eruptions and the steep slopes on the upper flanks of the volcano are easily seen in these images. Red on the high slopes shows the distribution of the ash deposited during the 1991 eruption, which appears red because of the low cross-polarized radar returns at C and L bands. The dark drainages radiating away from the summit are the smooth mudflows, which even three years after the eruptions continue to flood the river valleys after heavy rain. Comparing the two images shows that significant changes have occurred in the intervening five months along the Pasig-Potrero rivers (the dark area in the lower right of the images). Mudflows, called 'lahars,' that occurred during the 1994 monsoon season filled the river valleys, allowing the lahars to spread over the surrounding countryside. Three weeks before the second image was obtained, devastating lahars more than doubled the area affected in the Pasig-Potrero rivers, which is clearly visible as the increase in dark area on the lower right of the images. Migration of deposition to the east (right) has affected many communities. Newly affected areas included the community

  17. Optimization of Damper Top Mount Characteristics to Improve Vehicle Ride Comfort and Harshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina M. S. Kaldas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimization technique for optimizing the damper top mount characteristics to improve vehicle ride comfort and harshness is developed. The proposed optimization technique employs a new combined objective function based on ride comfort, harshness, and impact harshness evaluation. A detailed and accurate damper top mount mathematical model is implemented inside a validated quarter vehicle model to provide a realistic simulation environment for the optimization study. The ride comfort and harshness of the quarter vehicle are evaluated by analyzing the body acceleration in different frequency ranges. In addition, the top mount deformation is considered as a penalty factor for the system performance. The influence of the ride comfort and harshness weighting parameters of the proposed objective function on the optimal damper top mount characteristics is studied. The dynamic stiffness of the damper top mount is used to describe the optimum damper top mount characteristics for different optimization case studies. The proposed optimization routine is able to find the optimum characteristics of the damper top mount which improve the ride comfort and the harshness performances together.

  18. GNSS Signal Tracking Performance Improvement for Highly Dynamic Receivers by Gyroscopic Mounting Crystal Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maryam; Jin, Tian; Sun, Kewen

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, the efficiency of the gyroscopic mounting method is studied for a highly dynamic GNSS receiver's reference oscillator for reducing signal loss. Analyses are performed separately in two phases, atmospheric and upper atmospheric flights. Results show that the proposed mounting reduces signal loss, especially in parts of the trajectory where its probability is the highest. This reduction effect appears especially for crystal oscillators with a low elevation angle g-sensitivity vector. The gyroscopic mounting influences frequency deviation or jitter caused by dynamic loads on replica carrier and affects the frequency locked loop (FLL) as the dominant tracking loop in highly dynamic GNSS receivers. In terms of steady-state load, the proposed mounting mostly reduces the frequency deviation below the one-sigma threshold of FLL (1σ(FLL)). The mounting method can also reduce the frequency jitter caused by sinusoidal vibrations and reduces the probability of signal loss in parts of the trajectory where the other error sources accompany this vibration load. In the case of random vibration, which is the main disturbance source of FLL, gyroscopic mounting is even able to suppress the disturbances greater than the three-sigma threshold of FLL (3σ(FLL)). In this way, signal tracking performance can be improved by the gyroscopic mounting method for highly dynamic GNSS receivers.

  19. Vibration control of a camera mount system for an unmanned aerial vehicle using piezostack actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work proposes an active mount for the camera systems of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in order to control unwanted vibrations. An active actuator of the proposed mount is devised as an inertial type, in which a piezostack actuator is directly connected to the inertial mass. After evaluating the actuating force of the actuator, it is combined with the rubber element of the mount, whose natural frequency is determined based on the measured vibration characteristics of UAV. Based on the governing equations of motion of the active camera mount, a robust sliding mode controller (SMC) is then formulated with consideration of parameter uncertainties and hysteresis behavior of the actuator. Subsequently, vibration control performances of the proposed active mount are experimentally evaluated in the time and frequency domains. In addition, a full camera mount system of UAVs that is supported by four active mounts is considered and its vibration control performance is evaluated in the frequency domain using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) method

  20. Blast dynamics at Mount St Helens on 18 May 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    At 8.32 a.m. on 18 May 1980, failure of the upper part of the north slope of Mount St Helens triggered a lateral eruption ('the blast') that devastated the conifer forests in a sector covering ???500 km2 north of the volcano. I present here a steady flow model for the blast dynamics and propose that through much of the devastated area the blast was a supersonic flow of a complex multiphase (solid, liquid, vapour) mixture. The shape of the blast zone; pressure, temperature, velocity (Mach number) and density distributions within the flow; positions of weak and strong internal shocks; and mass flux, energy flux, and total energy are calculated. The shape of blast zone was determined by the initial areal expansion from the reservoir, by internal expansion and compression waves (including shocks), and by the density of the expanding mixture. The pressure within the flow dropped rapidly away from the source of the blast until, at a distance of ???11 km, the flow became underpressured relative to the surrounding atmosphere. Weak shocks within the flow subparallel to the east and west margins coalesced at about this distance into a strong Mach disk shock, across which the flow velocities would have dropped from supersonic to subsonic as the pressure rose back towards ambient. The positions of the shocks may be reflected in differences in the patterns of felled trees. At the limits of the devastated area, the temperature had dropped only 20% from the reservoir temperature because the entrained solids thermally buffered the flow (the dynamic and thermodynamic effects of the admixture of the surrounding atmosphere and the uprooted forest and soils into the flow are not considered). The density of the flow decreased with distance until, at the limits of the blast zone, 20-25 km from the volcano, the density became comparable with that of the surrounding (dirty) atmosphere and the flow became buoyant and ramped up into the atmosphere. According to the model, the mass flux per

  1. CFRP platform and hexapod mount for the Array of MIcrowave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffin, Philippe A.; Martin, Robert N.; Huang, Yau-De; Patt, Ferdinand; Romeo, Robert C.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Kingsley, Jeffrey S.

    2004-09-01

    AMiBA consists of a 90 GHz interferometric array telescope with dishes ranging in size from 0.3 to 2.4 meter in diameter, mounted on a 6-meter fully steerable platform. The dishes are attached to the receivers, which are mounted on a platform controlled by a six degree of freedom hexapod mount. The hexapod mount is a parallel connection manipulator also called Stewart Platform. The basic reference for this mechanism is a paper by Stewart. The Stewart Platform is a unique kinematically constrained work platform. It can be manipulated through the six degrees of freedom. The hexapod also provides better accuracy, rigidity, load to weight ratio and load distribution than a serial manipulator or traditional manipulator. The advantages of the hexapod shows that it is a great choice for the AMiBA project. Vertex Antennentechnik GmbH fabricates the hexapod. Testing has started in Germany. The telescope will be delivered in the summer of 2004. The 6m in diameter hexagonal platform is made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) and consists of seven pieces of three different unique types. The platform can be disassembled and fits in a container for transportation. The mounting plane flatness is an important issue for the platform assembly. The deflection angle of the mounting plane relative to any other mounting position must be less than 20 arcsec. Meanwhile, the platform must endure a loading of 3 tons. The platform has been built by Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. (CMA) in Tucson, and mounted on the Hexapod in Germany. This report describes the design and testing of platform and mount for the AMiBA telescope.

  2. Solar rotation measurements at Mount Wilson. II - Systematic instrumental effects and the absolute rotation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, B. J.; Howard, R.

    1981-01-01

    Possible sources of systematic error in solar Doppler rotational velocities are examined. Scattered light is shown to affect the Mount Wilson solar rotation results, but this effect is not enough to bring the spectroscopic results in coincidence with the sunspot rotation. Interference fringes at the spectrograph focus at Mount Wilson have in two intervals affected the rotation results. It has been possible to correlate this error with temperature and thus correct for it. A misalignment between the entrance and exit slits is a possible source of error, but for the Mount Wilson slit configuration, the amplitude of this effect is negligibly small. Rapid scanning of the solar image also produces no measurable effect.

  3. Demonstrating the Feasibility of Molten Aluminum for Destroying Polymeric Encapsulants in SNF-Bearing Metallographic Mounts. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods have been cross sectioned and mounted for metallography throughout the history of nuclear reactors. Many hundreds of these ''met mounts'' have accumulated in storage across the DOE complex. However, because of potential hydrogen generation from radiolysis of the polymeric encapsulants, the met mounts are problematic for eventual disposal in a geologic repository

  4. Application of whole-mount section of lung specimen in study of radiologic-pathologic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Soimakallio, S

    1996-08-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of the whole-mount section of the inflated-fixed lung specimen in the study of radiologic-pathologic correlations. Altogether, 24 resected fresh lobe specimens with 1.5- to 3.0-cm solitary pulmonary carcinomas or tuberculomas were inflated with air, intrabronchially fixed by infusing Heitzman's solution, and finally cut into 10- to 15-micron-thick whole-mount sections for the histopathological examination. All 24 inflated-fixed lobes were satisfactorily soft as sponge, sufficiently springy, and kept their original shape. All whole-mount sections clearly presented the complete morphological features of the whole lobes, and could be directly observed by the naked eye and examined under microscopy. The use of the whole-mount section of the lung specimen may facilitate precisely and effectively the studies of the radiologic-pathologic correlations. PMID:8872075

  5. High-Frequency Flush Mounted Miniature LOX Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations is teaming with the University of Alabama, Huntsville, to develop a miniature flush-mounted fiber-optic pressure sensor that will allow accurate,...

  6. AAA: Road Debris a Mounting Danger on U.S. Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160383.html AAA: Road Debris a Mounting Danger on U.S. Highways ... and more than 500 deaths, according to the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. Crashes involving vehicle-related ...

  7. FISHERIES IN MOUNT HOPE BAY: NOTES ON A SPECIAL SYMPOSIUM FROM A SESSION MODERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This contribution represents a summary of talks presented during the afternoon session the Mount Hope Bay Syposium, focused directly on the issues surrounding observed winter flounder populations, as prepared by the session moderator.

  8. Digital Geologic Map of the Mount Coolidge quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Mount Coolidge quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary...

  9. High-Frequency Flush Mounted Miniature LOX Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor II Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations has teamed with the University of Alabama, Huntsville, to develop a miniature flush-mounted fiber-optic pressure sensor that will allow accurate,...

  10. Design and analysis of an innovative combined magneto-rheological damper-mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Do Xuan; Chung, Jye Ung; Choi, Seung Bok

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new innovative modified high-loaded magneto-rheological fluid (MR in short) damper-mount is presented. The proposed damper-mount is designed based on two modes of MR fluid such as flow mode and shear mode, and it includes two separated electric coil for establishing magnetic field. The damping force of the damper-mount is analyzed based on the difference pressure between upper chamber and lower chamber. After analyzing the mathematical function of damping force, the proposed mount is optimized following the maximal damping force by using ANSYS software. Besides, there is a laboratorial MR fluid using in this optimization such as plate-like fluid MRF140. Results of optimization show that the requirement of damping force is obtain and the saturation of materials is in range of limitation.

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TRACTOR FRONT MOUNTED PIGEON PEA STEM CUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    Atul R. Dange; S.K.Thakare

    2010-01-01

    Pigeon pea or tur (Cajanus cajan L. Mills.) is one of the important pulse crops of India and ranks second to chickpea in area and production. Traditionally the harvesting of pigeon pea is done manually by sickle, which demands considerable amount of labour, drudgery, time and cost to harvest, which reflects on total production cost of the crop. In view of this a tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was developed and being front mounted implement it facilitated better visibil...

  12. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for use in firefighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng; Feng, Shengrong; Li, Kai; Pan, Shunchen; Su, Junhong; Jin, Weiqi

    2000-05-01

    From the concept and need background of firefighters to the thermal imager, we discuss how the helmet-mounted camera applied in the bad environment of conflagration, especially at the high temperature, and how the better matching between the thermal imager with the helmet will be put into effect in weight, size, etc. Finally, give a practical helmet- mounted IR camera based on the uncooled focal plane array detector for in firefighting.

  13. Analysis on the Changing Characteristics of Meteorological Elements in Mount Qomolangma Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to analyze the changing characteristics of meteorological elements in Mount Qomolangma Nature Reserve.[Method] Based on the ground observation data of Nyalam and Tingri station in Mount Qomolangma Nature Reserve,temperature,ground temperature,evaporation,precipitation and snow depth were analyzed.[Result] Annual average temperature of Nyalam and Tingri tended to increase since the 1960s,especially Tingri station.Annual mean ground temperature also increased since observational da...

  14. Solar rotation measurements at Mount Wilson. I - Analysis and instrumental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.; Boyden, J. E.; Labonte, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    We examine the background velocity fields of the sun as observed at Mount Wilson. The method of velocity reduction of the full-disk Mount Wilson data is outlined. We describe a number of tests that have been carried out in order to find an instrumental origin for short-term rotation variations and a large-scale background line-shift - the ears. No instrumental cause can be found for this ear effect, although such a cause cannot yet be ruled out.

  15. The stratigraphy and evolution of lower Mount Sharp from spectral, morphological, and thermophysical orbital data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeman, A. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Edwards, C. S.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Milliken, R. E.; Quinn, D. P.; Rice, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a refined geologic map and stratigraphy for lower Mount Sharp using coordinated analyses of new spectral, thermophysical, and morphologic orbital data products. The Mount Sharp group consists of seven relatively planar units delineated by differences in texture, mineralogy, and thermophysical properties. These units are (1-3) three spatially adjacent units in the Murray formation which contain a variety of secondary phases and are distinguishable by thermal inertia and albedo differences, (4) a phyllosilicate-bearing unit, (5) a hematite-capped ridge unit, (6) a unit associated with material having a strongly sloped spectral signature at visible near-infrared wavelengths, and (7) a layered sulfate unit. The Siccar Point group consists of the Stimson formation and two additional units that unconformably overlie the Mount Sharp group. All Siccar Point group units are distinguished by higher thermal inertia values and record a period of substantial deposition and exhumation that followed the deposition and exhumation of the Mount Sharp group. Several spatially extensive silica deposits associated with veins and fractures show that late-stage silica enrichment within lower Mount Sharp was pervasive. At least two laterally extensive hematitic deposits are present at different stratigraphic intervals, and both are geometrically conformable with lower Mount Sharp strata. The occurrence of hematite at multiple stratigraphic horizons suggests redox interfaces were widespread in space and/or in time, and future measurements by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover will provide further insights into the depositional settings of these and other mineral phases.

  16. The modern legal status of the Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papastatis Haralambos K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The peninsula of Athos in Chalkidiki became a center of organized monachal life in monasteries in the year 963, when with the initiative of the Byzantine emperor Nichephorus Phocas the Monastery of Great Laura was founded. Since that time Mount Athos (=MA became the "Holy Mountain" and has attracted the moral and material support of the Byzantine emperors, various Orthodox countries and the flock till today. During this long period of more then one thousand years, MA was armed with a privileged legal status, the existence of which continues till now. The legal status of MA is based on three foundations: I. The law of the Hellenic Republic, II. The Public International Law, and III. The European Law. I. Fundamental significance for the status of MA have the provisions of article 105 of the Greek Constitution. Then is the Charter of MA, which is drawn up and voted by the Athonite monachal authorities and afterwards ratified by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Greek Parliament. The Charter is a law of superior formal force in comparison to the other laws. According to the Constitution and the Charter, MA has an ancient privileged status and is a self-governed part of the Greek State, whose sovereignty remains intact. Spiritually MA is under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, direct in the sense that the Ecumenical Patriarch is also the local bishop of MA The territory of the peninsula is exempt from expropriation and is divided among the twenty Athonite monasteries exclusively. The administrative power lies in self-administration of the first and the second degree. The first is exercised by the ruling twenty monasteries. This number may not be changed, nor may their position in the preeminence, nor towards their dependencies (skates, cells, hermitages. Nowadays all the monasteries are coenobitic, i.e. the monks share a common life and have no private property. The monasteries are administered by the abbot

  17. Influence of Refugees in Burma Kokang Flooded into the Border Area on China%缅甸果敢难民涌入对中国边境地区的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海利; 刘静; 胡志丁; 熊理然; 李灿松; 付磊

    2015-01-01

    The conflict in Burma Kokang Broke Out, and a large number of refugees have poured into China’s Yunnan Province border area to escape the war. The Kokang refugees entered China and live in penury. But with the help of government and the public in our country, their basic need of life was guaranteed. Although people in Kokang and people in China’s border areas, language is interlinked, live in a similar way, people on both sides almost have no estrangement. But we cannot ignore the effects caused by the influx of Kokang refugees in border areas, so as to avoid the refugee problem lead to the scourge. This study analyzes the impact of the conflict on the border areas of China through field trips, questionnaires, and interviews. The result shows that an influx of refugees has damaged border areas of bilateral trade and increased security pressure, and threatened the ecological environment, but also has brought new labor and economic source for the border area. At the same time, the government has promulgated a series of effective measures for the problem of refugees. Overall, the impact of the influx of Kokang refugees in the border area of our country is in the controllable range, and did not cause the unbalance of border area society.%缅甸果敢冲突爆发,大量难民为躲避战争纷纷涌入中国云南省的边境地区。进入中国的果敢难民生活拮据,但在中国政府及民众的帮助下,基本生活得到保障。虽然果敢人民与中国边境地区的人民语言相通,生活方式相似,双方人民间隔阂较小,但大量涌入的果敢难民对边境地区造成的影响依然不可忽视,以免因难民问题酿成祸患。研究通过实地考察、问卷调查、深度访谈等方法分析此次冲突对中国边境地区造成的影响。结果表明,难民的涌入使得边境地区的双方贸易往来受损,治安压力增大,生态环境受到威胁,但也为边境地区带来了新的劳

  18. Defining ‘forced migration’ in Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley South

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Burmese people fleeing their homes do so for a combination of reasons. The root causes for leaving, however,determine which ‘category’ they belong to: ‘internally displaced persons’ (IDPs or ‘economic migrants’. There issome discussion as to whether people leaving their homes due to exhaustion of livelihoods options are IDPsaccording to the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement1 – or not. Ashley South and Andrew Bosson presenttheir views below.By analogy, this debate can be extended to Burmese people in exile. Are Burmese people outside refugee camps‘economic migrants’ or ‘self-settled refugees’? The article ‘Invisible in Thailand’ (pp31-33 sheds more light on this.

  19. An Embryonic Border: Racial Discourses and Compulsory Vaccination for Indian Immigrants at Ports in Colonial Burma, 1870-1937 Une frontière embryonnaire : discours raciaux et vaccination obligatoire des immigrants indiens dans les ports de la Birmanie coloniale, 1870-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Osada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how an administrative border emerged between historically and culturally different and geographically separate regions which nevertheless had been integrated into one state under the colonial power. As a result of three Anglo-Burmese wars in the 19th century, Burma was colonized by the British. During the course of its colonization, the country formally became a province of India. Hence no border had existed between Burma and the rest of India until 1937 when the former was separated from the latter. This connection with India brought Burma unrestricted labour supply from India which was necessary for the growth of the economy. But at the same time, such a vast flow of people included undesirable elements like criminals, beggars and people sick of infectious diseases which caused social problems in Burma. While the government of Burma attempted to deter or exclude those undesirable elements in order to maintain social order, these attempts were frustrated by several factors. In spite of these circumstances, the local government started taking more decisive policy for examinations of immigrants after the middle of the 1910s. No border existed yet, but port cities, especially Rangoon, gradually assumed function of checking people who came from “outside” into “inside”. I would like to call this phenomenon, tentatively, the emergence of an embryonic border. As a part of this phenomenon, this paper describes a history of sanitary regulations for Indian immigrant labourers in colonial Burma, by focusing on a case of implementation of compulsory vaccination at ports. And it points out that those regulations wereCet article montre comment une frontière administrative est apparue entre deux régions historiquement et culturellement différentes et géographiquement séparées réunies toutefois en un État par un pouvoir colonial. Après trois guerres anglo-birmanes au xixe siècle, la Birmanie devint une colonie

  20. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept. Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species. The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92% and 472 temperate genera (51.08%. The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species. These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and

  1. Catastrophic eruptions of the directed-blast type at Mount St. Helens, bezymianny and Shiveluch volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoyavlenskaya, G.E.; Braitseva, O.A.; Melekestsev, I.V.; Kiriyanov, V. Yu; Dan, Miller C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes catastrophic eruptions of Mount St. Helens (1980), Bezymianny (1955-1956), and Shiveluch (1964) volcanoes. A detailed description of eruption stages and their products, as well as the quantitative characteristics of the eruptive process are given. The eruptions under study belong to the directed-blast type. This type is characterized by the catastrophic character of the climatic stage during which a directed blast, accompanied by edifice destruction, the profound ejection of juvenile pyroclastics and the formation of pyroclastic flows, occur. The climatic stage of all three eruptions has similar characteristics, such as duration, kinetic energy of blast (1017-1018 J), the initial velocity of debris ejection, morphology and size of newly-formed craters. But there are also certain differences. At Mount St. Helens the directed blast was preceeded by failure of the edifice and these events produced separable deposits, namely debris avalanche and directed blast deposits which are composed of different materials and have different volumes, thickness and distribution. At Bezymianny, failure did not precede the blast and the whole mass of debris of the old edifice was outburst only by blast. The resulting deposits, represented by the directed blast agglomerate and sand facies, have characteristics of both the debris avalanche and the blast deposit at Mount St. Helens. At Shiveluch directed-blast deposits are represented only by the directed-blast agglomerate; the directed-blast sand facies, or blast proper, seen at Mount St. Helens is absent. During the period of Plinian activity, the total volumes of juvenile material erupted at Mount St. Helens and at Besymianny were roughly comparable and exceeded the volume of juvenile material erupted at Shiveluch, However, the volume of pyroclastic-flow deposits erupted at Mount St. Helens was much less. The heat energy of all three eruptions is comparable: 1.3 ?? 1018, 3.8-4.8 ?? 1018 and 1 ?? 1017 J for

  2. Weather And Death On Mount Everest: An Analysis Of The Into Thin Air Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. W. K.; Semple, John L.

    2006-04-01

    Scientific interest in Mount Everest has been largely focused on the physiology of hypoxia caused by the summit's low barometric pressure. Although weather is recognized as a significant risk for climbers on the mountain, it has not been extensively studied. In this paper, we reconstruct the meteorological conditions associated with the deadly outbreak of high-impact weather on Mount Everest that occurred in May 1996 and was the subject of the best-selling book Into Thin Air. The authors show that during this event, two jet streaks—an upper-level short-wave trough and an intrusion of stratospheric air into the upper troposphere—were present in the vicinity of Mount Everest. Meanwhile, in the lower troposphere, there was convergence of water vapor transport from both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal into the region to the south of Mount Everest. The authors propose that the ageostrophic circulation associated with the upper-level features resulted in a region of large-scale ascent near Mount Everest that, in combination with the anomalous availability of moisture in the region, triggered convective activity. The resulting high-impact weather trapped over 20 climbers on Mount Everest's exposed upper slopes leading to the deaths of 8. These synoptic-scale characteristics provide some expectation of predicting life-threatening high-altitude storms in the Himalayas. In addition, the authors argue that the falling barometric pressure and the presence of ozone-rich stratospheric air that occurred near the summit of Mount Everest during this event could have shifted a coping climber from a state of brittle tolerance to physiological distress.

  3. Polymethylmethacrylate-based luminescent solar concentrators with bottom-mounted solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped plates were studied. • The mechanism of transport process was proposed. • The fabricated luminescent solar concentrator achieved a gain of 1.38. • Power conversion efficiency of 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. • The lowest cost per watt of $1.89 was optimized with cell area coverage of 18%. - Abstract: Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to concentrate sunlight economically without tracking, but the narrow absorption band of luminescent materials hinders their further development. This paper describes bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plates that absorb not only the waveguided light but also the transmitted sunlight and partial fluorescent light in the escape cone. A series of bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators with size of 78 mm × 78 mm × 7 mm were fabricated and their gain and power conversion efficiency were investigated. The transport process of the waveguided light and the relationship between the bottom-mounted cells were studied to optimize the performance of the device. The bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator with cell area coverage of 9% displayed a cell gain of 1.38, to our best knowledge, which is the highest value for dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plate luminescent solar concentrators. Power conversion efficiency as high as 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. Furthermore, the bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator was found to have a lowest cost per watt of $1.89 with cell area coverage of 18%. These results suggested that the fabricated bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator may have a potential in low-cost building integrated photovoltaic application

  4. Improvement of mount preparations in showing myenteric nerve plexus from intestines of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 张远强; 孙岚; 王春杨; 尹岭

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The whole mount preparations of digestive tract is an effective experimental way to study the appearance and distribution of nerve plexus in digestive tract. Although myentric nerve plexus preparations technique was reported very early. But we have done experiment over and over during our research work in order to improve this traditional method and to meet the needs of our research work, we made some progresses in regular mount preparations after many experiments, which helped offer better situation in observing myentric nerve plexus. Methods: Five healthy male adult Kunming mice (20-30 g in weight) were used in this study. After intraperitoneal injection of muscle relaxant, with dislocation of cervical vertebra method, the abdominal cavity was exposed through abdominal median incision. After several steps of mount preparations the mucous layer and longitudinal muscle layer mount preparations with myentric nerve plexus were stripped under anatomical microscope. Immunohistochemical staining was also used in our study. Results: The mount preparation samples with myentric nerve plexus from intestines of mice showed positive SP immunoreaction. The positive cells were dark brown. Many of the cytons appeared circular and oval, while some appeared triangular or irregular. Conclusion: Our improved method is really a good method to show enteric nerve plexus. The method has many advantages and is particularly applied to small animals such as Kunming mice and BALB/c mice, weighing from 20 g to 30 g.

  5. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Mount Hood Region, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Pierson, T.C.; Costa, J.E.; Gardner, C.A.; Vallance, J.W.; Major, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Snow-clad Mount Hood dominates the Cascade skyline from the Portland metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties. The mountain contributes valuable water, scenic, and recreational resources that help sustain the agricultural and tourist segments of the economies of surrounding cities and counties. Mount Hood is also one of the major volcanoes of the Cascade Range, having erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, most recently during two episodes in the past 1,500 yr. The last episode ended shortly before the arrival of Lewis and Clark in 1805. When Mount Hood erupts again, it will severely affect areas on its flanks and far downstream in the major river valleys that head on the volcano. Volcanic ash may fall on areas up to several hundred kilometers downwind. The purpose of the volcano hazard report USGS Open-File Report 97-89 (Scott and others, 1997) is to describe the kinds of hazardous geologic events that have happened at Mount Hood in the past and to show which areas will be at risk when such events occur in the future. This data release contains the geographic information system (GIS) data layers used to produce the Mount Hood volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-89. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain. A second data layer contains points that indicate estimated travel times of lahars.

  6. Real-Time Radiometric Compensation for Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Tobias; Cook, Matthew; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2016-11-01

    Optical see-through head-mounted displays are currently seeing a transition out of research labs towards the consumer-oriented market. However, whilst availability has improved and prices have decreased, the technology has not matured much. Most commercially available optical see-through head mounted displays follow a similar principle and use an optical combiner blending the physical environment with digital information. This approach yields problems as the colors for the overlaid digital information can not be correctly reproduced. The perceived pixel colors are always a result of the displayed pixel color and the color of the current physical environment seen through the head-mounted display. In this paper we present an initial approach for mitigating the effect of color-blending in optical see-through head-mounted displays by introducing a real-time radiometric compensation. Our approach is based on a novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display that allows the capture of the current environment as seen by the user's eye. We present three different algorithms using this prototype to compensate color blending in real-time and with pixel-accuracy. We demonstrate the benefits and performance as well as the results of a user study. We see application for all common Augmented Reality scenarios but also for other areas such as Diminished Reality or supporting color-blind people. PMID:27479973

  7. Optimal design of high damping force engine mount featuring MR valve structure with both annular and radial flow paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the optimal design of a compact and high damping force engine mount featuring magnetorheological fluid (MRF). In the mount, a MR valve structure with both annular and radial flows is employed to generate a high damping force. First, the configuration and working principle of the proposed MR mount is introduced. The MRF flows in the mount are then analyzed and the governing equations of the MR mount are derived based on the Bingham plastic behavior of the MRF. An optimal design of the MR mount is then performed to find the optimal structure of the MR valve to generate a maximum damping force with certain design constraints. In addition, the gap size of MRF ducts is empirically chosen considering the ‘lockup’ problem of the mount at high frequency. Performance of the optimized MR mount is then evaluated based on finite element analysis and discussions on performance results of the optimized MR mount are given. The effectiveness of the proposed MR engine mount is demonstrated via computer simulation by presenting damping force and power consumption. (paper)

  8. Frictional properties of the Mount St. Helens gouge: Chapter 20 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Peter L.; Iverson, Neal R.; Iverson, Richard M.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Frictional properties of gouge bounding the solid dacite plug that extruded at Mount St. Helens during 2004 and 2005 may have caused stick-slip upward motion of the plug and associated seismicity. Laboratory experiments were performed with a ring-shear device to test the dependence of the peak and steady-state frictional strength of the gouge on shearing rate and hold time. A remolded gouge specimen (~0.012 m3

  9. Integrated crystal mounting and alignment system for high-throughput biological crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Snell, Gyorgy P.; Cornell, Earl W.; Kolbe, William F.; Yegian, Derek T.; Earnest, Thomas N.; Jaklevich, Joseph M.; Cork, Carl W.; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2007-09-25

    A method and apparatus for the transportation, remote and unattended mounting, and visual alignment and monitoring of protein crystals for synchrotron generated x-ray diffraction analysis. The protein samples are maintained at liquid nitrogen temperatures at all times: during shipment, before mounting, mounting, alignment, data acquisition and following removal. The samples must additionally be stably aligned to within a few microns at a point in space. The ability to accurately perform these tasks remotely and automatically leads to a significant increase in sample throughput and reliability for high-volume protein characterization efforts. Since the protein samples are placed in a shipping-compatible layered stack of sample cassettes each holding many samples, a large number of samples can be shipped in a single cryogenic shipping container.

  10. Dynamic characteristics of Semi-active Hydraulic Engine Mount Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jiande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of semi-active hydraulic engine mount is studied in this paper. After careful analysis of its structure and working principle, the FEA simulation of it was divided into two cases. One is the solenoid valve is open, so the air chamber connects to the atmosphere, and Fluid-Structure Interaction was used. Another is the solenoid valve is closed, and the air chamber has pressure, so Fluid-Structure-Gas Interaction was used. The test of this semi-active hydraulic engine mount was carried out to compare with the simulation results, and verify the accuracy of the model. Then the dynamic characteristics-dynamic stiffness and damping angle were analysed by simulation and test. This paper provides theoretical support for the development and optimization of the semi-active hydraulic engine mount.

  11. Aerodynamic Optimization of an Over-the-Wing-Nacelle-Mount Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sasaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An over-the-wing-nacelle-mount airplane configuration is known to prevent the noise propagation from jet engines toward ground. However, the configuration is assumed to have low aerodynamic efficiency due to the aerodynamic interference effect between a wing and a nacelle. In this paper, aerodynamic design optimization is conducted to improve aerodynamic efficiency to be equivalent to conventional under-the-wing-nacelle-mount configuration. The nacelle and wing geometry are modified to achieve high lift-to-drag ratio, and the optimal geometry is compared with a conventional configuration. Pylon shape is also modified to reduce aerodynamic interference effect. The final wing-fuselage-nacelle model is compared with the DLR F6 model to discuss the potential of Over-the-Wing-Nacelle-Mount geometry for an environmental-friendly future aircraft.

  12. Calibration of an ultrasonic flowmeter and investigation of its behavior under given mounting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhof, H. G.; Hajek, W.

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasonic flowmeter equipped with three movable detectors was calibrated on a water meter test stand and tested under mounting conditions similar to the definitive mounting in the primary cooling circuit of an experimental nuclear reactor. Measuring errors are found to be 0.5%. However, deviations 20% are found when the flowmeter is mounted behind parts distorting the velocity profile in tube, especially by angular momentum. These errors are significantly reduced by the introduction of a flow rectifier which has to be calibrated together with the flowmeter. The magnitude of the deviations between the three measured signals and the magnitude of the measuring signal deviations at constant flow are shown to be influenced by flow perturbations. The measuring signal differences can therefore only be determined during commissioning in the primary cooling circuit.

  13. Life on Mount Obstacle: Disease of existence as condition and possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Kenneth; Jespersen, Ejgil

    will analyze various kinds of human meaning that can be found on Mount Obstacle, departing from two key positions: First, Camus (1967) used The Myth of Sisyphus to describe how the experience of obstacles is a human condition. In cases of disability this condition is of course more evident, but the task...... is still to create meaning from this absurd condition. Sisyphus is to Camus an ’absurd hero’ because he is aware of and acknowledges the challenge that he is condemned to. This means that the struggle to overcome the necessary obstacle can become a meaningful pursuit, wherefore Camus concluded: ”The...... be illustrated by Suits’ (2005) classical treatise on game playing. By choosing to climb Mount Obstacle the activity of climbing becomes an end in itself, which opens for experiencing the intrinsic value related to voluntarily attempting to overcome the unnecessary obstacle. In both cases life on Mount Obstacle...

  14. The preliminary results: Internal seismic velocity structure imaging beneath Mount Lokon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical records that before the 17th century, Mount Lokon had been dormant for approximately 400 years. In the years between 1350 and 1400, eruption ever recorded in Empung, came from Mount Lokon’s central crater. Subsequently, in 1750 to 1800, Mount Lokon continued to erupt again and caused soil damage and fall victim. After 1949, Mount Lokon dramatically increased in its frequency: the eruption interval varies between 1 – 5 years, with an average interval of 3 years and a rest interval ranged from 8 – 64 years. Then, on June 26th, 2011, standby alert set by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. Peak activity happened on July 4th, 2011 that Mount Lokon erupted continuously until August 28th, 2011. In this study, we carefully analyzed micro-earthquakes waveform and determined hypocenter location of those events. We then conducted travel time seismic tomographic inversion using SIMULPS12 method to detemine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio structures beneath Lokon volcano in order to enhance our subsurface geological structure. During the tomographic inversion, we started from 1-D seismic velocities model obtained from VELEST33 method. Our preliminary results show low Vp, low Vs, and high Vp/Vs are observed beneath Mount Lokon-Empung which are may be associated with weak zone or hot material zones. However, in this study we used few station for recording of micro-earthquake events. So, we suggest in the future tomography study, the adding of some seismometers in order to improve ray coverage in the region is profoundly justified

  15. Design method of automotive powertrain mounting system based on vibration and noise limitations of vehicle level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Liu, Xiao-Ang; Lv, Zhao-Ping; Rakheja, Subhash

    2016-08-01

    The design logic and calculation method for determining mount stiffness and damping for a Powertrain Mounting System (PMS) based on reductions of vehicle vibration and noise contributed by mounts is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the design target for a PMS with regard to vibration and noise limitations of vehicle level contributed form mounts is described. Then a vehicle model with 13 Degree of Freedoms (DOFs) is proposed, which includes 6DOFs for the powertrain, 3 DOFs for the car body and 4DOFs for the four unsprung mass, and the dynamic equation for the model is derived. Some widely used models, such as the 6 DOFs model of the powertrain for the design calculation of a PMS, the 7 DOFs model (Body's 3 DOFs; unsprung mass's 4 DOFs) and the 9 DOFs model (powertrain's 6 DOFs; Body's 3 DOFs) for ride analysis of a vehicle, are the specific cases of the presented model of 13 DOF. Thirdly, the calculation method for obtaining the vibration of seat track and evaluation point and the noise at driver right ear is presented based on the mount forces and the vibration and noise transfer functions. An optimization process is proposed to get the mount stiffness and damping based on minimization of vehicle vibration and noise, and the optimized stiffness is validated by comparing the calculated vibration and noise and limitations. In the end of this paper, the natural frequencies and mode energies for the powertrain, the body and the unsprung mass are calculated using different models and the results are compared and analyzed.

  16. The preliminary results: Internal seismic velocity structure imaging beneath Mount Lokon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firmansyah, Rizky, E-mail: rizkyfirmansyah@hotmail.com [Geophysical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Kristianto, E-mail: kris@vsi.esdm.go.id [Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Geological Agency, Bandung, 40122 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Historical records that before the 17{sup th} century, Mount Lokon had been dormant for approximately 400 years. In the years between 1350 and 1400, eruption ever recorded in Empung, came from Mount Lokon’s central crater. Subsequently, in 1750 to 1800, Mount Lokon continued to erupt again and caused soil damage and fall victim. After 1949, Mount Lokon dramatically increased in its frequency: the eruption interval varies between 1 – 5 years, with an average interval of 3 years and a rest interval ranged from 8 – 64 years. Then, on June 26{sup th}, 2011, standby alert set by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. Peak activity happened on July 4{sup th}, 2011 that Mount Lokon erupted continuously until August 28{sup th}, 2011. In this study, we carefully analyzed micro-earthquakes waveform and determined hypocenter location of those events. We then conducted travel time seismic tomographic inversion using SIMULPS12 method to detemine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio structures beneath Lokon volcano in order to enhance our subsurface geological structure. During the tomographic inversion, we started from 1-D seismic velocities model obtained from VELEST33 method. Our preliminary results show low Vp, low Vs, and high Vp/Vs are observed beneath Mount Lokon-Empung which are may be associated with weak zone or hot material zones. However, in this study we used few station for recording of micro-earthquake events. So, we suggest in the future tomography study, the adding of some seismometers in order to improve ray coverage in the region is profoundly justified.

  17. Methods used by the Kenya tourist board in marketing adventure tourism in Mount Kenya region

    OpenAIRE

    Muratha, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to examine the methods used by the Kenya Tourism Board in marketing adventure tourism in Mount Kenya region. This study focused on the Mount Kenya region which was chosen because it has a wide range of sites for camping such as Minot’s, Shipton's and Old Moses. The region also offers wide opportunities of other adventure tourism activities such as mountaineering, trout fishing, and white water rafting. Adventure tourism in the study region is not well dev...

  18. The research on a novel type of the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shun-long

    2011-08-01

    Ultraviolet technology of detecting is playing a more and more important role in the field of civil application, especially in the corona discharge detection, in modern society. Now the UV imaging detector is one of the most important equipments in power equipment flaws detection. And the modern head-mounted displays (HMDs) have shown the applications in the fields of military, industry production, medical treatment, entertainment, 3D visualization, education and training. We applied the system of head-mounted displays to the UV image detection, and a novel type of head-mounted displays is presented: the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays. And the structure is given. By the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays, a real-time, isometric and visible image of the corona discharge is correctly displayed upon the background scene where it exists. The user will see the visible image of the corona discharge on the real scene rather than on a small screen. Then the user can easily find out the power equipment flaws and repair them. Compared with the traditional UV imaging detector, the introducing of the HMDs simplifies the structure of the whole system. The original visible spectrum optical system is replaced by the eye in the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays. And the optical image fusion technology would be used rather than the digital image fusion system which is necessary in traditional UV imaging detector. That means the visible spectrum optical system and digital image fusion system are not necessary. This makes the whole system cheaper than the traditional UV imaging detector. Another advantage of the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays is that the two hands of user will be free. So while observing the corona discharge the user can do some things about it. Therefore the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays can make the corona discharge expose itself to the user in a better way, and it will play an important role in corona detection in the future.

  19. [Neo-Confucianism and TCM culture in Mount Wuyish area in Song Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Wang, Ying-Ying

    2011-07-01

    Mount Wuyi area is the representative cultural region of Fujian province in early time. Medical books and recordings of this area were primary constituents of TCM in ancient Fujian. Zhuzi Theory was formed in this area in Song Dynasty. Influenced by Neo-confucianismborned Songci (Great forensic scientist), Caiyuanding (A scholar of Neo-confucianism with achievements in medical science) and Qianwenli (an official who studied medical science). The spread of Neo-confucianism promoted the development of local printing industry, culture industry and TCM in Mount Wuyi area. PMID:22169487

  20. Stability and Ergonomic Design Features of Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator for Coconut Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor P. Kolhe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The most important design criterion of mechanized device is safety; safety comprises both the safety of operator and safety of maintenance personnel. Failures and safety of harvesting platform of Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator (TMHE powered by tractor PTO was tested by Finite Element Method for the mechanical harvesting of coconut orchards using digital Ergonomic hart rate meter. The objective of this study was to study the stability of the THME by finite element method, operational safety and power requirement for the use of this elevator for coconut harvesting. Also to provide sufficient adjustment and space to account for variation in body sizes, ensure controls are situated within suitable reach and are properly marked. Approach: The Modal analysis was carried out for the whole assembly of tractor mounted hydraulic elevator by using Ansis software. The digital polar hart rate meter RS400TM having infrared connectivity sensor is used for recording the hart rates. The research work was conducted at, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Kokan Krishi Vidyapeeth Dapoli. The harvesting of coconuts was performed by manual climbing labor and by tractor mounted hydraulic elevator. The technical assessments included the use of biomechanical models, vibration testing equipment, ODR, BPDS. The ergonomical evaluation results of the above study are correlates to decide the feasibility, safety and efficiency of Tractor mounted hydraulic elevator for coconut harvesting. The PTO rpm influence for the lifting and lowering of the harvesting platform was studied experimentally by using digital tachometer. Results: The better stability results with the controlled vibrations and frequency of the lifting platform and welded joints were recorded by keeping constrained boundary conditions. Ergonomically operational safe and controlled heart rates are recorded. Hence the labors can continuously do the coconut harvesting work by using the tractor mounted

  1. SPINE-compatible `carboloops': a new microshaped vitreous carbon sample mount for X-ray and neutron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoli, Filippo; Mossou, Estelle; Cuypers, Maxime; van der Linden, Peter; Carpentier, Philippe; Mason, Sax A; Forsyth, V Trevor; McSweeney, Sean

    2014-05-01

    A novel vitreous carbon mount for macromolecular crystallography, suitable for neutron and X-ray crystallographic studies, has been developed. The technology described here is compatible both with X-ray and neutron cryo-crystallography. The mounts have low density and low background scattering for both neutrons and X-rays. They are prepared by laser cutting, allowing high standards of production quality, the ability to custom-design the mount to specific crystal sizes and large-scale production.

  2. Shaping of the Yunnan-Burma Frontier by Secret Societies since the End of the 17th Century Comment les sociétés secrètes ont façonné la frontière birmano-yunnanaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jianxiong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available After the 1680s, Big Vehicle Religion gradually developed on the Yunnan-Burma frontier. It was banned by the Qing government and became a sect of Chinese secret societies. The founders of this religion combined various Buddhist and Taoist elements together and claimed this to be the route to their salvation. They also trained many students to be monks. After the Sino-Burma wars these monks established a Five Buddha Districts system among the Lahu and some Wa villages in western Mekong River, until the system was destroyed by the Qing government in the 1880s. The monks became leaders of the Luohei/Lahu through millenarianism and many Han immigrants also became involved in the movements to become the Lahu or the Wa. The monks performed critical roles as social activists in Lahu cultural reconstruction. As a shaping power, their human agency was deeply integrated into secret societies and they formulated regional political centers as well as a network mechanism for the floating indigenous populations. Secret societies clearly shaped a historical framework for local politics and economic flux in the Yunnan-Burma frontier and became a cross-border mechanism for contemporary life after the border between Yunnan, Burma and Thailand was decided. However, it used to be a networking dynamic linked with silver and copper minefields, Sino-Burma wars, and anti-Qing millenarianism. Local people could also use this frontier space for their negotiations with different states before the coming of European colonialism.Après les années 1680, le bouddhisme du grand véhicule se développa sur la frontière birmano-yunnanaise. Le gouvernement des Qing l’interdit mais il devint une secte diffusée par des sociétés secrètes. Les fondateurs de cette religion combinèrent des éléments bouddhistes et taoïstes et prétendirent que c’était la voie du salut. Ils formèrent également des élèves pour en faire des moines. Après les guerres sino-birmanes, ces

  3. Alignment measurement and permanent mounting of thin lightweight x-ray mirror segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Mazzarella, James R.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Saha, Timo T.; Schofield, Mark J.; Zhang, William W.

    2013-09-01

    Current areas of intense research in astrophysics such as understanding evolution of the large scale structure of the universe, detection and measurement of dark matter, the evolution of stars, and other areas of research will greatly benefit from affordable X-ray telescopes capable of high angular resolution and large collecting area. One approach to building such X-ray optics is currently under development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by the Next Generation X-ray Optics (NGXO) group. The design requires precision alignment and permanent mounting of thin, lightweight mirror segments. Technology Development Modules (TDM's) containing three aligned and permanently mounted glass segment pairs have been constructed and tested to demonstrate segment alignment and permanent mounting procedures meet initial performance goals as well as survivability requirements. Improvements to the mirror segment alignment and mounting process in the past year are presented along with associated TDM X-ray performance test results as the near term goal of 10 arc-second optics is pursued. Mirror segment distortion caused by gravity in the module test configuration is shown to be a significant contributor to recent X-ray resolution measurements. Initial testing of future generation hardware designed for 1 arc-second angular resolution X-ray optics is also presented along with a concept for a facility capable of testing optics with significantly reduced mirror segment distortion caused by gravity.

  4. Center pivot mounted infrared sensors: Retrieval of ET and interface with satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared sensors mounted aboard cener pivot irrigation systems can remotely sense the surface temperatures of the crops and soils, which provides important information on crop water status. This can be used for irrigation management and irrigation automation, which can increase crop water productivi...

  5. The structure, dynamics, and chemical composition of noneruptive plumes from Mount St. Helens, 1980-1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    From May 1980 to September 1988, more than 1000 fixed-wing aircraft flights were made with a correlation spectrometer to measure the sulfur dioxide flux from Mount St. Helens volcano. These flights also provided valuable data on the structure and dynamics of noneruptive plumes emanating from Mount St. Helens. During 1980 and part of 1981, an infrared spectrometer was also used to measure carbon dioxide emission rates. At distances up to 25 km from Mount St. Helens, plume widths can range up to 20 km or more, with width/thickness ratios from 3 to about 30. Maximum sulfur dioxide concentrations in these plumes depend on wind speed and are typically under 5 ppm and usually 1 ppm or less. Close examination of the plume data reveals that the characteristics of quiescent plumes from Mount St. Helens are strongly affected by certain meteorological conditions such as thermal and wind stratification in the troposphere, as well as by the topography of the volcano. ?? 1992.

  6. Displacement and Force Control of a Quarter Car Using a Mixed Mode MR Mount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV, vibration in dual-mode pump/motor units should be isolated from the chassis. A mixed mode magnetorheological (MR fluid mount was adopted to isolate this vibration and was evaluated in a quarter car model. The MR fluid mount was designed to be able to operate in flow mode and squeeze mode independently and simultaneously. For HHVs, it is desirable to control force and displacement transmissibility. These simulation results presented a basis for designing an effective algorithm to control both the displacement transmissibility and force transmissibility. Moreover, a hierarchical controller for minimizing the two requirements for transmissibility was also constructed. At last, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to closely reproduce the effect of the hierarchical controller. The experiments were set up to facilitate the hardware-in-the-loop evaluation of the mount. Results from the experiments showed that the mixed mode MR fluid mount was able to achieve desired dynamic stiffness profile to minimize the dual-transmissibility criterion.

  7. The Use of Whole-Mount "in Situ" Hybridization to Illustrate Gene Expression Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamusí, Beatriz; Muñoz-Soriano, Verónica; Paricio, Nuria; Artero, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    "In situ" hybridization is a widely used technique for studying gene expression. Here, we describe two experiments addressed to postgraduate genetics students in which the effect of transcription factors on gene expression is analyzed in "Drosophila embryos of different genotypes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In one of the…

  8. Holographic head-mounted display with RGB light emitting diode light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunkyong; Kim, Myeongjae; Roh, Jinyoung; Kim, Hwi; Hahn, Joonku

    2014-03-24

    A compact head-mounted holographic three-dimensional display with an RGB light-emitting diode (LED) light source is developed. Issues regarding full-color holographic image design and the quality associated with the use of an LED light source are investigated. The accommodation effect and background noise in the proposed system are discussed based on experimental observation.

  9. A Class at Mount Holyoke College Uses "Frankenstein" as a Tool for Teaching Student Multimedia Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Ben

    1997-01-01

    A Mount Holyoke College (Massachusetts) class on computer applications in history and the humanities, entitled "Frankenstein Meets Multimedia," uses topics from the 1818 novel as the basis for students to develop multimedia compact disks about it. The novel is used because its author was heavily influenced by the philosophy of the Enlightenment…

  10. Torsion bar stabilizer for a vehicle and method for mounting the stabilizer on the vehicle frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauber, C.J.

    1987-01-06

    This patent describes a method of mounting a stabilizing mechanism on a vehicle frame which is supported and biased on a suspension assembly at opposite sides of the frame. The frame includes overload stops riveted to opposite sides of the frame and the suspension assembly includes bracket assemblies which secure the vehicle's suspension springs to a wheel axle. The method comprises the following steps: removing an overload stop from each side of the vehicle frame; mounting a modified overload stop on each side of the frame which serves as both an overload stop and a support for the stabilizing mechanism wherein the modified overload stop is mounted into the holes in the frame left from the removal of the overload stop; removing from each side of the vehicle the top bracket from the bracket assembly; inserting a modified top bracket into each bracket assembly wherein the top bracket assembly is modified to couple with the stabilizing mechanism; and mounting on the modified overload stops a torsion bar whose opposite ends are coupled to the modified top bracket by way of linkages.

  11. An Improved Technique for the Preparation of Mounted or Unmounted Carbon/Epoxy Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edahl, Robert A., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    As carbon/epoxy materials became more prevalent in the aerospace industry, microstructural analysis demanded specimen preparation techniques that led to better polished surfaces, achievable in a shorter time, and using fewer steps. The desire to use image analysis for material characterization also helped drive the goal for defect free surfaces. At NASA-Langley (LaRC), carbon/epoxy specimens had been historically prepared in 1 inch diameter Bakelite mounts. Carbon/epoxy specimens that were 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick were not affected by the heat and pressure required for mounting in Bakelite, however thinner specimens were crushed during mounting. A two-part room temperature curing epoxy was chosen as an alternative but sometimes voids developed between the specimen and the mounting material. This was prevented by either heating the epoxy to 140 degrees F to lower the viscosity of the epoxy or by using a vacuum impregnation apparatus. Both techniques helped facilitate flow and allowed the epoxy to penetrate crevices.

  12. Springs, streams, and gas vent on and near Mount Adams volcano, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel; Mariner, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Springs and some streams on Mount Adams volcano have been sampled for chemistry and light stable isotopes of water. Spring temperatures are generally cooler than air temperatures from weather stations at the same elevation. Spring chemistry generally reflects weathering of volcanic rock from dissolved carbon dioxide. Water in some springs and streams has either dissolved hydrothermal minerals or has reacted with them to add sulfate to the water. Some samples appear to have obtained their sulfate from dissolution of gypsum while some probably involve reaction with sulfide minerals such as pyrite. Light stable isotope data for water from springs follow a local meteoric water line, and the variation of isotopes with elevation indicate that some springs have very local recharge and others have water from elevations a few hundred meters higher. No evidence was found for thermal or slightly thermal springs on Mount Adams. A sample from a seeping gas vent on Mount Adams was at ambient temperature, but the gas is similar to that found on other Cascade volcanoes. Helium isotopes are 4.4 times the value in air, indicating that there is a significant component of mantle helium. The lack of fumaroles on Mount Adams and the ambient temperature of the gas indicates that the gas is from a hydrothermal system that is no longer active.

  13. Vortex propagation around a wall-mounted obstacle in pulsatile flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2015-11-01

    Wall-mounted obstacles are prevalent in nature and engineering applications. Physiological flows observed in human vocal fold pathologies, such as polyps, can be modeled by flow over a wall-mounted protuberance. Despite their prevalence, studies of wall-mounted obstacles have been restricted to steady (constant velocity) freestream flow. In biological and geophysical applications, pulsatile flow is much more common, yet effects of pulsatility on the wake of a wall-mounted obstacle remain to be extensively studied. This study aims to characterize the complex physics produced in this unsteady, separated flow. Experiments were performed in a low-speed wind tunnel with a set of rotating vanes, which produce the pulsatile inflow waveform. Instantaneous and phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) results acquired around a hemispherical obstacle are presented and compared. A mechanism based on self-induced vortex propagation, analogous to that in vortex rings, is proposed to explain the observed dynamics of coherent structures. Predictions of the propagation velocity based on analytical expressions for vortex rings in a viscous fluid are compared to the experimentally measured propagation velocity. Effects of the unsteady boundary layer on the observed physics are explored. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1236351, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  14. Measurements on Buoyant Jet Flows from a Ceiling-Mounted Slot Diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Möller, Åke T. A.

    Ceiling-mounted slot diffusers in ventilated rooms will often generate a flow of the wall jet type. The jet follows the ceiling, entrains air from the occupied zone and generates a recirculating flow in the whole room. This paper will deal with the flow in the ceiling region. The wall jet flow...

  15. Conservation in a crowded place : forest and people on Mount Elgon Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: tropical forest, conservation management, local livelihoods, forest cover change, disturbance, fuelwood, forest structure, species richness, biomass, Mount Elgon   A growing world population has important consequences for forests. In this study I investigate how co

  16. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

    1991-01-01

    We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size and cost. 5 refs.

  17. Prediction of pressure drop in fluid tuned mounts using analytical and computational techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, William C.; Khalilollahi, Amir; Mischler, John; Uhric, Tom

    1993-11-01

    A simplified model for predicting pressure drop in fluid tuned isolator mounts was developed. The model is based on an exact solution to the Navier-Stokes equations and was made more general through the use of empirical coefficients. The values of these coefficients were determined by numerical simulation of the flow using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FIDAP.

  18. Evaluation of wind flow with a nacelle-mounted continuous-wave lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medley, John; Slinger, Chris; Barker, Will;

    Nacelle-mounted lidar is becoming widely recognized as a tool with potential for assessing power curves, understanding wind flow characteristics, and controlling turbines. As rotor diameters continue to increase, and the deployment of turbines in complex terrain becomes more widespread, knowledge...

  19. Evaluation of wind flow with a nacelle-mounted, continuous wave wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medley, John; Barker, Will; Harris, Mike;

    2014-01-01

    Nacelle-mounted lidar is becoming widely recognized as a tool with potential for assessing power curves, understanding wind flow characteristics, and controlling turbines. As rotor diameters continue to increase, and the deployment of turbines in complex terrain becomes more widespread, knowledge...

  20. A simple method for validation and verification of pipettes mounted on automated liquid handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Frøslev, Tobias G;

    2011-01-01

    We have implemented a simple, inexpensive, and fast procedure for validation and verification of the performance of pipettes mounted on automated liquid handlers (ALHs) as necessary for laboratories accredited under ISO 17025. A six- or seven-step serial dilution of OrangeG was prepared in quadru...

  1. Apollo telescope mount. A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations, supplement 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) are presented. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) journal publications, (2) journal publications submitted, (3) other publications, (4) presentations - national and international meetings; and (5) other presentations.

  2. A comparison of two adaptive algorithms for the control of active engine mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, A. J.; Harrison, A. J. L.; Stoten, D. P.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes work conducted in order to control automotive active engine mounts, consisting of a conventional passive mount and an internal electromagnetic actuator. Active engine mounts seek to cancel the oscillatory forces generated by the rotation of out-of-balance masses within the engine. The actuator generates a force dependent on a control signal from an algorithm implemented with a real-time DSP. The filtered-x least-mean-square (FXLMS) adaptive filter is used as a benchmark for comparison with a new implementation of the error-driven minimal controller synthesis (Er-MCSI) adaptive controller. Both algorithms are applied to an active mount fitted to a saloon car equipped with a four-cylinder turbo-diesel engine, and have no a priori knowledge of the system dynamics. The steady-state and transient performance of the two algorithms are compared and the relative merits of the two approaches are discussed. The Er-MCSI strategy offers significant computational advantages as it requires no cancellation path modelling. The Er-MCSI controller is found to perform in a fashion similar to the FXLMS filter—typically reducing chassis vibration by 50-90% under normal driving conditions.

  3. Multiple-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization for Multi-Head Beam-Type Surface Mounting Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torabi, S.A.; Hamedi, M.; Ashayeri, J.

    2010-01-01

    The growing demand for electronic devices has made the manufacturing of printed circuit boards (PCBs) a promising industry over the last decades. As the demand for printed circuit boards increases, the industry becomes more dependent on highly automated assembly processes using Surface Mounting Devi

  4. Target efficiency comparison between free stream ribbon and surface-mounted ribbon in a turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of solid boundary under a surface-mounted ribbon on particle collection efficiency was studied. The turbulent fluid velocity was obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equation based on k-ε turbulence model. The trajectory model was adopted to obtain the information on the particle phase trajectories. The equation of particle motion included inertial, viscous drag and gravity forces. To check the validity of numerical results, target efficiency of particles over the free-stream ribbon with respect to Stockes number was compared with the same experimental data. It was observed that the agreement between these is excellent. For the surface-mounted ribbon, the target efficiency in the range of small Stokes numbers is larger than that for the free-stream ribbon, but for larger Stockes number is smaller. The Stokes and gravity numbers were introduced to interpret the effect of gravity and inertial impaction on particle deposition at the back and front of the surface-mounted ribbon. The dominant deposition mechanism inertial impaction, gravity force) over the surface-mounted ribbon depends on Stokes and gravity numbers

  5. Head-Mounted Eye Tracking: A New Method to Describe Infant Looking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchak, John M.; Kretch, Kari S.; Soska, Kasey C.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite hundreds of studies describing infants' visual exploration of experimental stimuli, researchers know little about where infants look during everyday interactions. The current study describes the first method for studying visual behavior during natural interactions in mobile infants. Six 14-month-old infants wore a head-mounted eye-tracker…

  6. In the blink of an eye: head mounted displays development within BAE Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Alex

    2015-05-01

    There has been an explosion of interest in head worn displays in recent years, particularly for consumer applications with an attendant ramping up of investment into key enabling technologies to provide what is essence a mobile computer display. However, head mounted system have been around for over 40 years and today's consumer products are building on a legacy of knowledge and technology created by companies such as BAE Systems who have been designing and fielding helmet mounted displays (HMD) for a wide range of specialist applications. Although the dominant application area has been military aviation, solutions have been fielded for solider, ground vehicle, simulation, medical, racing car and even subsea navigation applications. What sets these HMDs apart is that they provide the user with accurate conformal information embedded in the users real world view where the information presented is intuitive and easy to use because it overlays the real world and enables them to stay head up, eyes out, - improving their effectiveness, reducing workload and improving safety. Such systems are an enabling technology in the provision of enhanced Situation Awareness (SA) and reducing user workload in high intensity situations. These capabilities are finding much wider application in new types of compact man mounted audio/visual products enabled by the emergence of new families of micro displays, novel optical concepts and ultra-compact low power processing solutions. This paper therefore provides a personal summary of BAE Systems 40 year's journey in developing and fielding Head Mounted systems, their applications.

  7. The effect of stratospheric sulfur from Mount Pinatubo on tropospheric oxidizing capacity and methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banda, Narcissa; Krol, Maarten; van Noije, Twan; van Weele, Michiel; Williams, Jason E.; Sager, Philippe Le; Niemeier, Ulrike; Thomason, Larry; Röckmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 injected a large amount of SO2 into the stratosphere, which formed sulfate aerosols. Increased scattering and absorption of UV radiation by the enhanced stratospheric SO2 and aerosols decreased the amount of UV radiation reaching the troposphere, causing change

  8. The effect of stratospheric sulfur from Mount Pinatubo on tropospheric oxidizing capacity and methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bândə, Narcisa; Krol, Maarten; Noije, Van Twan; Weele, Van Michiel; Williams, Jason E.; Sager, Philippe Le; Niemeier, Ulrike; Thomason, Larry; Röckmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 injected a large amount of SO2 into the stratosphere, which formed sulfate aerosols. Increased scattering and absorption of UV radiation by the enhanced stratospheric SO2 and aerosols decreased the amount of UV radiation reaching the tr

  9. 3.5 m travelling-wave cavity with one coupler mounted

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Two of these cavities were mounted in a 800 MHz system for stabilizing a high intensity proton beam in the SPS (Annual Report 1979 p.70 and Fig. 2). Hansuli Preis and Ernest Ullrich Haebel stand on the left, Claude Ruivet on the right.

  10. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed. (paper)

  11. Aeroservoelastic Testing of a Sidewall Mounted Free Flying Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert C.; Vetter, Travis K.; Penning, Kevin B.; Coulson, David A.; Heeg, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A team comprised of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and the NASA Langley Research Center conducted three j wind-tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate active control technologies relevant to large, exible vehicles. In the rst of these three tests, a semispan, aeroelastically scaled, wind-tunnel model of a ying wing SensorCraft vehi- cle was mounted to a force balance to demonstrate gust load alleviation. In the second and third tests, the same wing was mated to a new, multi-degree-of-freedom, sidewall mount. This mount allowed the half-span model to translate vertically and pitch at the wing root, allowing better simulation of the full span vehicle's rigid-body modes. Gust Load Alleviation (GLA) and Body Freedom Flutter (BFF) suppression were successfully demonstrated. The rigid body degrees-of-freedom required that the model be own in the wind tunnel using an active control system. This risky mode of testing necessitated that a model arrestment system be integrated into the new mount. The safe and successful completion of these free-flying tests required the development and integration of custom hardware and software. This paper describes the many systems, software, and procedures that were developed as part of this effort.

  12. A simple method for validation and verification of pipettes mounted on automated liquid handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg;

     We have implemented a simple method for validation and verification of the performance of pipettes mounted on automated liquid handlers as necessary for laboratories accredited under ISO 17025. An 8-step serial dilution of Orange G was prepared in quadruplicates in a flat bottom 96-well microtiter...

  13. Catholic School Principals' Leadership Perspectives in Lebanon: A Case Study of Mount Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Jean Eias

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated the leadership perspectives of 13 Lebanese Catholic school principals and 4 educational leaders in the Governorate of Mount Lebanon via personal interviews, observations, and documents. It focused on whether Catholic school principals are able to act as revolutionary or transformational change agents to…

  14. Method of making cascaded die mountings with springs-loaded contact-bond options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2007-06-19

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  15. Transient pressure at closing of a monoleaflet mechanical heart valve prosthesis: mounting compliance effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z J; Gao, B Z; Hwang, N H

    1995-09-01

    An in vitro experimental study was performed to investigate the mounting compliance effect on the occluder closing dynamics and the transient pressure at the closing of the mitral Medtronic Hall (MH) mechanical heart valve (MHV). The closing velocity and the transient pressure were simultaneously measured at heart rates of 70, 90, 120, and 140 beats/minute with cardiac outputs of 5.0, 6.0, 7.5, and 8.5 liters/minute, respectively. The experiment was conducted under simulated physiologic ventricular and aortic pressures in a pulsatile mock flow loop. The characteristics of the transient pressure were investigated by detailed mapping of the transient pressure field in the atrial chamber using high frequency pressure transducers. Simultaneous measurements of the occluder closing velocity and the transient pressure around the seat stop of the MH showed that the transient pressure generated on the inflow side dropped below the vapor pressure of liquid during the occluder's sudden deceleration at closing. The amplitude of the transient pressure reduction (TR) was proportional to the occluder approaching velocity. The development of the transient pressure in the rigid and flexible mountings were significantly different. In the rigid mounting (RM), the pressure was reduced below the liquid's vapor pressure and maintained below -350 mmHg for approximately 180 microseconds. Strong signals of high frequency pressure oscillations (HPO) were recorded in the transient pressure traces. The timing of the HPO was found to be consistent with that of the cavitation bubble collapse as observed by others. In the flexible mounting (FM), TR also occurred, but recovered quickly and was followed immediately by a positive pressure spike. Relatively weak HPO appeared in the transient pressure trace. The mapping of the transient pressure field showed that both the transient pressure reduction (on the major orifice side) or rise (on the minor orifice side) as well as the HPO were locally

  16. Controls on long-term low explosivity at andesitic arc volcanoes: Insights from Mount Hood, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleszar, Alison M.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Wallace, Paul J.; Scott, William E.

    2012-03-01

    The factors that control the explosivity of silicic volcanoes are critical for hazard assessment, but are often poorly constrained for specific volcanic systems. Mount Hood, Oregon, is a somewhat atypical arc volcano in that it is characterized by a lack of large explosive eruptions over the entire lifetime of the current edifice (~ 500,000 years). Erupted Mount Hood lavas are also compositionally homogeneous, with ~ 95% having SiO2 contents between 58 and 66 wt.%. The last three eruptive periods in particular have produced compositionally homogeneous andesite-dacite lava domes and flows. In this paper we report major element and volatile (H2O, CO2, Cl, S, F) contents of melt inclusions and selected phenocrysts from these three most recent eruptive phases, and use these and other data to consider possible origins for the low explosivity of Mount Hood. Measured volatile concentrations of melt inclusions in plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole from pumice indicate that the volatile contents of Mount Hood magmas are comparable to those in more explosive silicic arc volcanoes, including Mount St. Helens, Mount Mazama, and others, suggesting that the lack of explosive activity is unlikely to result solely from low intrinsic volatile concentrations or from substantial degassing prior to magma ascent and eruption. We instead argue that an important control over explosivity is the increased temperature and decreased magma viscosity that results from mafic recharge and magma mixing prior to eruption, similar to a model recently proposed by Ruprecht and Bachmann (2010). Erupted Mount Hood magmas show extensive evidence for mixing between magmas of broadly basaltic and dacitic-rhyolitic compositions, and mineral zoning studies show that mixing occurred immediately prior to eruption. Amphibole chemistry and thermobarometry also reveal the presence of multiple amphibole populations and indicate that the mixed andesites and dacites are at least 100 °C hotter than the high-SiO2

  17. Performance of gas-lubricated cruciform-mounted tilting-pad journal bearings and a damped flexibly mounted spiral-groove thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    A test program was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of gas-lubricated cruciform-mounted tilting-pad journal bearings and a damped spiral-groove thrust bearing designed for the Brayton cycle rotating unit (BRU). Hydrostatic, hybrid (simultaneously hydrostatic and hydrodynamic), and hydrodynamic tests were conducted in argon gas at ambient pressure and temperature ranges representative of operation to the 10.5 kWe BRU power-generating level. Performance of the gas lubricated bearings is presented including hydrostatic gas flow rates, bearing clearances, bearing temperatures, and transient performance.

  18. 76 FR 27173 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rocky Mount & Western Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a... Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad (NCR), and to operate,...

  19. 75 FR 11914 - Chrysler, LLC, Mount Elliott Tool and Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Modern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 23, 2009 (74 FR 8114). At the request of the State agency, the... Employment and Training Administration Chrysler, LLC, Mount Elliott Tool and Die, Including On-Site Leased... workers of Chrysler, LLC, Mount Elliott Tool and Die, including on-site leased workers from...

  20. Comparison of Hipparcos Trigonometric and Mount Wilson Spectroscopic Parallaxes for 90 Subgiants that Defined the Class in 1935

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Allan; Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2016-06-01

    A history is given of the discovery between 1914 and 1935 of stars of intermediate luminosity between giants and dwarfs with spectral types between G0 to K3. The Mount Wilson spectroscopists identified about 90 such stars in their 1935 summary paper of spectroscopic absolute magnitudes for 4179 stars. Called “subgiants” by Strömberg, these 90 stars defined the group at the time. The position of the Mount Wilson subgiants in the HR diagram caused difficulties in comparisons of high weight trigonometric parallaxes being measured in the 1930s and with Russell's prevailing evolution proposal, and critics questioned the reality of the Mount Wilson subgiants. To show that the 1935 Mount Wilson subgiants are real, we compare, star-by-star, the Mount Wilson spectroscopic absolute magnitudes of the 90 stars defining their sample against those absolute magnitudes derived from Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes. We address concerns over biases in the Mount Wilson calibration sample and biases created by the adopted methodology for calibration. Historically, these concerns were sufficient to discredit the discovery of subgiants in the Mount Wilson sample. However, as shown here, the majority of the Mount Wilson stars identified as subgiants that also have reliable Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes do lie among the subgiant sequence in the Hipparcos HR diagram. Moreover, no significant offset is seen between the M V brightnesses derived from the Mount Wilson spectroscopic parallaxes and the M V values derived from Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes with {σ }π /π \\lt 0.10, which confirms in an impressive manner the efficacy of the original Mount Wilson assessments. The existence of subgiants proved that Russell's contraction proposal for stellar evolution from giants to the main sequence was incorrect. Instead, Gamow's 1944 unpublished conjecture that subgiants are post main-sequence stars just having left the main sequence was very nearly correct but was a decade

  1. A Wideband End-Fire Conformal Vivaldi Antenna Array Mounted on a Dielectric Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengrui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a novel antipodal Vivaldi antenna array mounted on a dielectric cone are presented. By employing antipodal Vivaldi antenna element, the antenna array shows ultrawide bandwidth and end-fire radiation characteristics. Our simulations show that the cone curvature has an obvious influence on the performance of the conformal antenna, in terms of both the bandwidth and the radiation patterns. The thickness and permittivity of the dielectric cone have an effect on the bandwidth of the conformal antenna. Measurement results of both single antenna and conformal antenna array show a good agreement with the simulated results. The measured conformal antenna can achieve a −10 dB S11 with bandwidth of 2.2–12 GHz and demonstrate a typical end-fire radiation beam. These findings provide useful guidelines and insights for the design of wideband end-fire antennas mounted on a dielectric cone.

  2. Mirror mounts designed for the Advanced Photon Source SRI-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of a mirror for beamlines at third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National laboratory, has many advantages. A mirror as a first optical component provides significant reduction in the beam peak heat flux and total power on the downstream monochromator and simplifies the bremsstrahlung shielding design for the beamline transport. It also allows one to have a system for multibeamline branching and switching. More generally, a mirror is used for beam focusing and/or low-pass filtering. Six different mirror mounts have been designed for the SRI-CAT beamlines. Four of them are designed as water-cooled mirrors for white or pink beam use, and the other two are for monochromatic beam use. Mirror mount designs, including vacuum vessel structure and precision supporting stages, are presented in this paper

  3. Surface-mounted bender elements for measuring horizontal shear wave velocity of soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-guo ZHOU; Yun-min CHEN; Yoshiharu ASAKA; Tohru ABE

    2008-01-01

    The bender element testing features its in-plane directivity,which allows using bender elements to measure the shear wave velocities in a wider range of in-plane configurations besides the standard tip-to-tip alignment.This paper proposed a novel bender element testing technique for measuring the horizontal shear wave velocity of soils,where the bender elements are surface-mounted and the axes of the source and receiver elements are parallel to each other.The preliminary tests performed on model ground of silica sand showed that,by properly determining the travel distance and time of the shear waves,the surface-mounted bender elements can perform as accurately as the conventional "tip-to-tip" configuration.Potentially,the present system provides a promising nondestructive tool for characterizing geomaterials and site conditions both in laboratory and in the fields.

  4. Gas turbine structural mounting arrangement between combustion gas duct annular chamber and turbine vane carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.; Charron, Richard C.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2016-10-18

    A gas turbine engine ducting arrangement (10), including: an annular chamber (14) configured to receive a plurality of discrete flows of combustion gases originating in respective can combustors and to deliver the discrete flows to a turbine inlet annulus, wherein the annular chamber includes an inner diameter (52) and an outer diameter (60); an outer diameter mounting arrangement (34) configured to permit relative radial movement and to prevent relative axial and circumferential movement between the outer diameter and a turbine vane carrier (20); and an inner diameter mounting arrangement (36) including a bracket (64) secured to the turbine vane carrier, wherein the bracket is configured to permit the inner diameter to move radially with the outer diameter and prevent axial deflection of the inner diameter with respect to the outer diameter.

  5. Head-mounted displays and the measurement of performance in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    The problems associated with assessing visual performance during translation and rotation in a virtual world are presented. Two studies are summarized that highlight the difficulties in defining and measuring the optical and visual variables that pilots use during the control of a craft in simulated flight. The analysis suggests that gaze line-of-sight (LOS), based on craft orientation, should be used to describe the visual information available to an observer. Head-mounted displays that utilize a headtracker provide a technology that can be used for determining an observer's LOS and generating a virtual world display. Such head-mounted displays put observers in a graphical world that exists no matter where they look.

  6. Motion control of the satellite mounted robot arm which assures satellite attitude stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsushige, Oda

    When a robot arm is mounted on a satellite to perform some tasks, the satellite's attitude must be stabilized to retain the communication link and to generate electrical power from solar panels. It is not realistic to control the total system as one dynamic system, since the number of degrees of freedom becomes too large to be handled by state-of-the-art satellite mounted computers. This paper proposes a coordinated control between the satellite's attitude control system and the robot-arm control system. The robot-arm control system estimates the angular momentum of the planned robot-arm's motion. The satellite's attitude control system will compensate for the reaction by using feed-forward control. The robot-arm controller also manages the motion plan of the robot arm in order not to disturb the satellite's attitude stability.

  7. Turbulent natural convection cooling of electronic components mounted on a vertical channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessaih, R.; Kadja, M. [Universite de Constantine, Inst. de Genie-Mecanique, Constantine (Algeria)

    2000-02-01

    The paper presents a numerical simulation of conjugate, turbulent natural-convection air cooling of three heated ceramic components, which are identical and mounted on a vertical adiabatic channel. A two-dimensional, conjugate heat transfer model and the standard k-e turbulence model were use to obtain the dynamic and thermal fields. The finite-volume method has been used to solve the model equations throughout the entire physical domain (solid and fluid). After validation of the method with available measurements for a single source, it was applied to investigate the effects on cooling of spacing between the heated electronic components and of the removal of heat input in one of the components. The former modification led to better cooling while the latter can be partially advantageous only when the non-powered components are mounted between the powered ones: this reduces the temperatures of the powered components situated downstream from the non-powered components. (Author)

  8. Radio interferometric detection of a traveling ionospheric disturbance excited by the explosion of Mount St. Helens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) was detected over Owens Valley, California, on May 18, 1980, by a highly sensitive very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio astronomy experiment. This TID is interpreted as the response of the ionosphere to a gravity wave excited in the neutral atmosphere by the explosion of Mount St. Helens that took place at 1532 UT on that day. A model, invoking the point-excitation of internal gravity waves in an isothermal atmosphere, which fits observations of the TID at several other stations, leads to identification of the features observed in the VLBI data. Small-amplitude higher-frequency changes in the ionosphere were detected for several hours after the passage of the large-amplitude Mount St. Helens TID, but it is not clear whether these were excited by the passage of the gravity wave or were background fluctuations

  9. Radio interferometric detection of a traveling ionospheric disturbance excited by the explosion of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. H.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Allen, B. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Burke, B. F.; Greenfield, P. E.; Lawrence, C. R.; Clark, T. A.

    1982-08-01

    A large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) was detected over Owens Valley, California, on May 18, 1980, by a highly sensitive very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio astronomy experiment. This TID is interpreted as the response of the ionosphere to a gravity wave excited in the neutral atmosphere by the explosion of Mount St. Helens that took place at 1532 UT on that day. A model, invoking the point-excitation of internal gravity waves in an isothermal atmosphere, which fits observations of the TID at several other stations, leads to identification of the features observed in the VLBI data. Small-amplitude higher-frequency changes in the ionosphere were detected for several hours after the passage of the large-amplitude Mount St. Helens TID, but it is not clear whether these were excited by the passage of the gravity wave or were background fluctuations.

  10. Effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance using a helmet-mounted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W T; Hettinger, L J; Cunningham, J A; Brickman, B J; Haas, M W; McKinley, R L

    1998-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance. Visual targets were presented on either a wide field-of-view dome display or a helmet-mounted display and were accompanied by either localized, nonlocalized, or no auditory information. The addition of localized auditory information resulted in significant increases in target detection performance and significant reductions in workload ratings as compared with conditions in which auditory information was either nonlocalized or absent. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of participants' head motions revealed that the addition of localized auditory information resulted in extremely efficient and consistent search strategies. Implications for the development and design of multisensory virtual environments are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of spatial auditory displays to augment visual information presented in helmet-mounted displays, thereby leading to increases in performance efficiency, reductions in physical and mental workload, and enhanced spatial awareness of objects in the environment.

  11. Uncertainty of power curve measurement with a two-beam nacelle-mounted lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael Stephen; Friis Pedersen, Troels;

    2015-01-01

    already been demonstrated to be suitable for use in power performance measurements. To be considered as a professional tool, however, power curve measurements performed using these instruments require traceable calibrated measurements and the quantification of the wind speed measurement uncertainty. Here...... lies between 1 and 2% for the wind speed range between cut-in and rated wind speed. Finally, the lidar was mounted on the nacelle of a wind turbine in order to perform a power curve measurement. The wind speed was simultaneously measured with a mast-top mounted cup anemometer placed two rotor diameters...... upwind of the turbine. The wind speed uncertainty related to the lidar tilting was calculated based on the tilt angle uncertainty derived from the inclinometer calibration and the deviation of the measurement height from hub height. The resulting combined uncertainty in the power curve using the nacelle...

  12. Noise Reduction Potential of Large, Over-the-Wing Mounted, Advanced Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    As we look to the future, increasingly stringent civilian aviation noise regulations will require the design and manufacture of extremely quiet commercial aircraft. Indeed, the noise goal for NASA's Aeronautics Enterprise calls for technologies that will help to provide a 20 EPNdB reduction relative to today's levels by the year 2022. Further, the large fan diameters of modem, increasingly higher bypass ratio engines pose a significant packaging and aircraft installation challenge. One design approach that addresses both of these challenges is to mount the engines above the wing. In addition to allowing the performance trend towards large, ultra high bypass ratio cycles to continue, this over-the-wing design is believed to offer noise shielding benefits to observers on the ground. This paper describes the analytical certification noise predictions of a notional, long haul, commercial quadjet transport with advanced, high bypass engines mounted above the wing.

  13. Convective Heat Transfer over a Wall Mounted Cube Using Large Eddy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Heidarzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow and convective heat transfer over wall mounted cube have been studied numerically using Large Eddy Simulation. Surface of wall mounted cube and plane floor has a constant heat flux. Two subgrid scale models were used in this study; Wall-Adapting Eddy viscosity (WALE and Dynamic Smagorinsky (DS. The numerical results were compared with the experimental data of Nakamura et al [2] that showed DS model has better results toward WALE model. Results contain the plots of time averaged normalized streamwise velocity and Reynolds stress in different positions, Temperature contours, local Nusselt number over the surfaces of cube and some characteristics of flow field and heat transfer. The local convective heat transfer from the surfaces of the cube and plate are directly related to the complexity of flow field.

  14. Retaining Access to Key Tourist Assets for Local Residents: A Case of Mount Kinabalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidder Christy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development can occur to the detriment of real or perceived access to major tourist destinations by local residents. They can find access changed due to privatization of assets or imposition of restrictions on the permissible uses. Drawing upon this subset of tourism impact on the host community, this study analyzes the access by local residents to Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Specifically, it examines the retention of access to the mountain for local Sabahans. Interviews with park management were conducted and questionnaires were distributed to local residents. The results show that the number of Sabahan climbers has always been significantly lower than other Malaysian and foreign climbers, despite the introduction of the Sabahan rate. Additionally, the actual number of Sabahan climbers is lower than the allocated quota potential. The paper proposes several recommendations that the park management can consider to ensure local Sabahans will have a fair and equal access to Mount Kinabalu.

  15. Large-eddy simulation of the flow over a hydrokinetic turbine mounted on an erodible bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2013-11-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy comprises an important source of clean and renewable energy. The beds of natural waterways are usually erodible. The hydrokinetic turbines affect the sediment transport, which, on the other hand, also influences the performance of hydrokinetic turbines. A powerful computational framework for simulating marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine arrays mounted in complex river bathymetry with sediment transport has been developed and validated by our group. In this work we apply this method to simulate the turbulent flow over a hydrokinetic turbine mounted in an open channel with erodible bed. Preliminary results show qualitatively good agreement with the experiment. Detailed comparison with measurements and analysis of the simulation results will be presented in the conference. This work was supported by the University of Minnesota Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment IREE (grant no RO-0004-12). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  16. Performance analysis of a semi-active mount made by a new variable stiffness spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Mojtaba; Behzadipour, Saeed; Faulkner, Garry

    2011-06-01

    A new variable stiffness mount (VSM), is created and its performance is experimentally measured and analyzed. VSMs have extensive applications in the vibration control of machineries including automotive industry. The variable stiffness in this design is realized by the prestress stiffness of a cable-based mechanism at a singular configuration. Changing the prestress, through a piezo actuator and a simple on-off controller, results in significant stiffness change in short time and at low energy costs. The stiffness of the VSM is characterized through static and dynamic tests. The performance of the VSM is then evaluated and compared with an equivalent passive mount in two main areas of transmissibility and shock absorption. The response time of the semi-active VSM is also measured in a realistic scenario. A summary of the performance tests are presented at the end.

  17. A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SUSPENDED SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS USING AN ADCP MOUNTED ON A MOVING VESSEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A DR300 Broad Band ADCP mounted on a vessel moving at a speed of 2-3 m/s was used to measure the profile of suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) at the entrance to Jiaozhou Bay, Shandong Peninsula, where the water is characterized by low SSCs. The echo intensity data produced by the ADCP were regressed against the SSCs derived using the filtration method. The results show that the calibrated relationship can be used to calculate the SSC, with a relative error of 30%. Therefore, it is feasible to measure the SSC (even if the concentration is low) using the ADCP mounted on a moving vessel. Compared with OBS, ABS and other instruments for SSC measurements, the ADCP represents a potentially powerful tool to retrieve SSC data in continental shelf waters.

  18. Head mounted device for point-of-gaze estimation in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Krüger, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    web-cameras for each eye and 6D magnetic sensors allowing free head movements in 3D. Evaluation of initial experiments indicate comparable results to current state-of-the-art on estimating gaze in 3D. Initial results show an RMS error of 39-50 mm in the depth dimension and even smaller......This paper presents a fully calibrated extended geometric approach for gaze estimation in three dimensions (3D). The methodology is based on a geometric approach utilising a fully calibrated binocular setup constructed as a head-mounted system. The approach is based on utilisation of two ordinary...... in the horizontal and vertical dimensions regarding fixations. However, even though the workspace is limited, the fact that the system is designed as a head-mounted device, the workspace volume is relatively positioned to the pose of the device. Hence gaze can be estimated in 3D with relatively free head...

  19. Implications of the UK field trial of building mounted horizontal axis micro-wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building mounted micro-wind turbines and photovoltaics have the potential to provide widely applicable carbon free electricity generation at the building level. Photovoltaic systems are well understood and it is easy to predict performance using software tools or widely accepted yield estimates. Micro-wind, however, is far more complex and in comparison poorly understood. This paper presents the key findings of the building mounted (2 swept area, the majority of which were less than 25 kWh/m2. Good rural sites had an annual generation of between 100 and 280 kWh/m2, far less than the nominal 360 kWh/m2 (10% load factor for a typical turbine) that is often assumed. In the light of these findings, the potential impact of the UK's latest policy instrument, the 2010 micro-generation tariffs, is considered for both micro-wind and photovoltaics.

  20. Line Spread Functions of Blazed Off-Plane Gratings Operated in the Littrow Mounting

    CERN Document Server

    DeRoo, Casey T; Miles, Drew M; Peterson, Thomas J; Marlowe, Hannah; Tutt, James H; Donovan, Benjamin D; Menz, Benedikt; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Allured, Ryan; Smith, Randall K; Gunther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Ackermann, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Future soft X-ray (10 - 50 Angstrom) spectroscopy missions require higher effective areas and resolutions to perform critical science that cannot be done by instruments on current missions. An X-ray grating spectrometer employing off-plane reflection gratings would be capable of meeting these performance criteria. Off-plane gratings with blazed groove facets operated in the Littrow mounting can be used to achieve excellent throughput into orders achieving high resolutions. We have fabricated two off-plane gratings with blazed groove profiles via a technique which uses commonly available microfabrication processes, is easily scaled for mass production, and yields gratings customized for a given mission architecture. Both fabricated gratings were tested in the Littrow mounting at the Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics PANTER X-ray test facility to assess their performance. The line spread functions of diffracted orders were measured, and a maximum resolution of 800 $\\pm$ 20 is reported. In additi...

  1. Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) gimballed star tracker. [developed for the Skylab program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Design and development of six gimballed star trackers for Skylab's Apollo Telescope Mount, which performed successfully on all three manned Skylab missions and accumulated a total usage time of approximately 3,500 hours, is described in terms of configurations, materials and construction, qualification testing, performance, and reliability characteristics. A brief program history and design changes incorporated during the life of the program are also discussed. Extensive drawings, block diagrams, and photographs are provided.

  2. Response of a deciduous forest to the Mount Pinatubo eruption: enhanced photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lianhong; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Wofsy, Steve C; Munger, J William; Michalsky, Joseph J; Urbanski, Shawn P; Boden, Thomas A

    2003-03-28

    Volcanic aerosols from the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption greatly increased diffuse radiation worldwide for the following 2 years. We estimated that this increase in diffuse radiation alone enhanced noontime photosynthesis of a deciduous forest by 23% in 1992 and 8% in 1993 under cloudless conditions. This finding indicates that the aerosol-induced increase in diffuse radiation by the volcano enhanced the terrestrial carbon sink and contributed to the temporary decline in the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide after the eruption.

  3. Design of a Constructed Wetland for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Mount Pleasant, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Municipalities in the Intermountain West are facing water shortages based on their current population growth projections. Utah has the second highest per-capita culinary water use in the United States. Among other cities, Mount Pleasant, Utah, is seeking innovative and cost-effective ways to reduce culinary water use. This study presents a feasibility analysis of and a design for using a free water surface constructed wetland system to treat the city’s wastewater. The study further presents a...

  4. DOWNFLOW code and LIDAR technology for lava flow analysis and hazard assessment at Mount Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fornaciai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a lava-flow simulation (DOWNFLOW probabilistic code and airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR technology are combined to analyze the emplacement of compound lava flow fields at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy. The goal was to assess the hazard posed by lava flows. The LIDAR-derived time series acquired during the 2006 Mount Etna eruption records the changing topography of an active lava-flow field. These short-time-interval, high-resolution topographic surveys provide a detailed quantitative picture of the topographic changes. The results highlight how the flow field evolves as a number of narrow (5-15 m wide disjointed flow units that are fed simultaneously by uneven lava pulses that advance within formed channels. These flow units have widely ranging advance velocities (3-90 m/h. Overflows, bifurcations and braiding are also clearly displayed. In such a complex scenario, the suitability of deterministic codes for lava-flow simulation can be hampered by the fundamental difficulty of measuring the flow parameters (e.g. the lava discharge rate, or the lava viscosity of a single flow unit. However, the DOWNFLOW probabilistic code approaches this point statistically and needs no direct knowledge of flow parameters. DOWNFLOW intrinsically accounts for complexities and perturbations of lava flows by randomly varying the pre-eruption topography. This DOWNFLOW code is systematically applied here over Mount Etna, to derive a lava-flow hazard map based on: (i the topography of the volcano; (ii the probability density function for vent opening; and (iii a law for the expected lava-flow length for all of the computational vents considered. Changes in the hazard due to the recent morphological evolution of Mount Etna have also been addressed.

  5. Geological interpretation of Mount Ciremai geothermal system from remote sensing and magneto-teluric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Saepuloh, Asep; Irawan, Dasapta E.; Irawan, Diky; Fadillah, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of geothermal system at Mount Ciremai has been started since the early 1980s and has just been studied carefully since the early 2000s. Previous studies have detected the potential of geothermal system and also the groundwater mechanism feeding the system. This paper will discuss the geothermal exploration based on regional scale surface temperature analysis with Landsat image to have a more detail interpretation of the geological setting and magneto-telluric or MT survey at p...

  6. Indoor Positioning Using Multi-Frequency RSS with Foot-Mounted INS

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Martin; Rantakokko, Jouni; Skoglund, Martin A.; Hendeby, Gustaf

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a system which combines a zero-velocity-update-(ZUPT-)aided inertial navigation system (INS), using a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU), with opportunistic use of multi-frequency received signal strength (RSS) measurements. The system does not rely on maps or pre-collected data from surveys of the radio-frequency (RF) environment. Instead it builds its own database of collected RSS measurements during the course of the operation. New RSS measurements are continu...

  7. Indoor Positioning Using Opportunistic Multi-Frequency RSS With Foot-Mounted INS

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate positioning systems are expected to significantly improve the safety for first responders and enhance their operational efficiency. To be effective, a first responder positioning systemmust provide room level accuracy during extended time periods of indoor operation. This thesis presents a system which combines a zero-velocity-update (ZUPT) aided inertial navigation system (INS), using a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU), with the use of opportunistic multi-fr...

  8. Conference on ground-mounted photovoltaic plants in France and in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the future of ground-mounted photovoltaic plants both in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 130 participants debated about the present day and future regulatory framework and about the opportunities and challenges for projects financing and electricity resale. The different steps of plants realisation, from the planning to the site selection, the construction and the environmental issues were addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Introduction of PV tendering within the context of a premium system (Cornelia Viertl); 2 - Ground-mounted solar plants - evolution of the Legal and Regulatory framework in France - New calls for tender (Philippe d'Argenlieu); 3 - Competitiveness of Utility-Scale PV (Gaetan Masson); 4 - Power production by ground-mounted PV systems for nearby industrial parks (Kurt Schwan); 5 - experience feedback of a direct selling operator and the future role of direct solar power selling (Christophe Thomas); 6 - Financing solar plants via crowd-funding - opportunities and challenges (Uta Hoffmann); 7 - The Planning and approval Process in Germany: Potential for Standardization and Optimization? (Johannes Bohl); 8 - Planning and approval Procedures in France: towards an harmonization between the different competent authorities and a reduction of the periods allowed for appeals? (Arnaud Gossement); 9 - EDF Energies Nouvelles: Solar plant of the Base of Toul-Rosieres. Decontamination and valorisation of polluted sites thanks to the construction of ground-mounted plants (Emmanuel Jaclot)

  9. Stability and Ergonomic Design Features of Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator for Coconut Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Kishor P. Kolhe; Ashok G. Powar; Amit D. Dhakane; Sham H. Mankar

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The most important design criterion of mechanized device is safety; safety comprises both the safety of operator and safety of maintenance personnel. Failures and safety of harvesting platform of Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator (TMHE) powered by tractor PTO was tested by Finite Element Method for the mechanical harvesting of coconut orchards using digital Ergonomic hart rate meter. The objective of this study was to study the stability of the THME by finite element metho...

  10. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) which gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974 is presented. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations - National International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is also included.

  11. In-situ observations of the April 2014 Mount Everest Avalanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kent; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo; Pietro Verza, Gian; Semple, John

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental records indicate a warming of approximately 0.8oC has occurred in the Everest region since the 1980s that has resulted in a 100-300m rise in the height at which the ground is permanently frozen as well as a retreat and thinning of Everest's glaciers. This period of warming has coincided with Mount Everest becoming an increasingly important destination for both climbers and trekkers. For some time, there have been concerns that this warming and the resultant changes in the region's glaciers may be increasing the risks for both travellers to Mount Everest as well as the indigenous populations who support them. On April 18 2014, an avalanche caused by the collapse of a large serac swept down Mount Everest's Khumbu Ice Fall resulting in the deaths of 16 Sherpa. Although satellite imagery has been used to estimate the size of the serac, in-situ data on the avalanche itself has not been available. Here we show that this event was of a sufficient size as to result in the excitation of a 20 min long 'avalanche wind' that was observed at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid situated 12 km from Mount Everest. We use these observations to estimate that the winds at Everest Base Camp during this event were of hurricane strength. As a result of the destabilization of the region's glaciers due to the climate change, there are concerns that such events may become more frequent. These results provide the basis for a method to estimate the frequency and severity of avalanches in this region.

  12. Recent eruptive history of Mount Hood, Oregon, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1980-01-01

    Each of three major eruptive periods at Mount Hood (12,000-15,000(?), 1,500-1,800, and 200-300 years ago) produced dacite domes, pyroclastic flows, and mudflows, but virtually no pumice. Most of the fine lithic ash that mantles the slopes of the volcano and the adjacent mountains fell from ash clouds that accompanied the pyroclastic flows. Widely scattered pumice lapilli that are present at the ground surface on the south, east, and north sides of Mount Hood may have been erupted during the mid-1800's, when the last known activity of the volcano occurred. The geologically recent history of Mount Hood suggests that the most likely eruptive event in the future will be the formation of another dome, probably within the present south-facing crater. The principal hazards that could accompany dome formation include pyroclastic flows and mudflows moving from the upper slopes of the volcano down the floors of valleys. Ash clouds which accompany pyroclastic flows may deposit as much as a meter of fine ash close to their source, and as much as 20 centimeters at a distance of 11 kilometers downwind from the pyroclastic flows. Other hazards that could result from such eruptions include laterally directed explosive blasts that could propel rock fragments outward from the sides of a dome at high speed, and toxic volcanic gases. The scarcity of pumiceous ash erupted during the last 15,000 years suggests that explosive pumice eruptions are not a major hazard at Mount Hood; thus, there seems to be little danger that such an eruption will significantly affect the Portland (Oregon) metropolitan area in the near future.

  13. Anthropocene conservation : governing environmental change, biodiversity and local resistance at Mount Elgon, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanagh, Joseph Connor

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the manner in which the global context of anthropogenic environmental change influences the nature of conservation governance at one specific protected area: Mount Elgon National Park (MENP) in Uganda. In doing so, it presents three academic papers, each of which tests a widely held assumption in the literature on conservation and development. Utilized methods include semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, ethnographic observation, content ana...

  14. Rail Mounted Gantry Crane Scheduling Optimization in Railway Container Terminal Based on Hybrid Handling Mode

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Rail mounted gantry crane (RMGC) scheduling is important in reducing makespan of handling operation and improving container handling efficiency. In this paper, we present an RMGC scheduling optimization model, whose objective is to determine an optimization handling sequence in order to minimize RMGC idle load time in handling tasks. An ant colony optimization is proposed to obtain near optimal solutions. Computational experiments on a specific railway container terminal are conducted to illu...

  15. Driverless vehicle with floating mounted substrate, and precision stop/locator assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, J.L.; Lindquist, P.E.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a driverless vehicle comprising a body having support wheels and at least one drive wheel, the drive wheel being adapted for frictional contact with a drive shaft. The body has a load supporting substrate coupled thereto by a floating mount having fasteners which permit limited multi-dimensional movement of the substrate relative to the body, and position locator means on the substrate for cooperation with locator means off the vehicle for positioning the substrate.

  16. Proposing a Theoretical GIS Model for Landslides Analysis : The Case of Mount Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Tambe-Ebot, Mathias Ashu Tako

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a theoretical GIS model to investigate the relative impacts of geomorphic and environmental factors that govern the occurrence of landslides on the slopes of Mount Cameroon and its surrounding areas. The study area is located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), a major structural feature that originates from the south Atlantic and continues into the continental landmass. The quite frequent seismic activity, geologic character, humid tropical climate and high human pres...

  17. Simulations of mechanized planting – modelling terrain and crane-mounted planting devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ersson, Back Tomas; Jundén, Linus; Bergsten, Urban; Servin, Martin

    2012-01-01

    When reforesting clearcuts in southern Sweden, the Bracke Planter has shown to plant seedlings with better planting quality than operational manual tree planting (Ersson and Petersson 2011). Consequently, there is an increasing demand for intermittently advancing tree planting machines with crane-mounted planting devices in southern Sweden. Nevertheless, regardless of using one- (Bracke Planter) or two-headed planting devices (M-Planter), today’s average planting machine productivity is still...

  18. Mounting and joining technology for the dosimetric and control pipelines of WWER-440 type power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the mounting and joining technology for the pulse tubes and dosimetric pipelines is described. A GRW type welding machine was chosen for the mechanized welding of austenitic steel pulse tubes. The technology is very effective, high quality of joints can be attained even by workers of low qualification. For the joining of aluminium tubes of the dosimetric pipeline a sticking technology using epoxy adhesive resins has been developed. The AN 134 type resin proved to be very effective. (author)

  19. The Genetics of Colonization in Two Amphibian Species After the 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkegard, Kristin Ann

    2008-01-01

    The genetics of colonization is understudied in salamanders but has large conservation implications as new habitats are formed or restored to their previous condition. The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens provided a natural experiment to study the genetic effects of a large infrequent environmental disturbance on two species of salamander, Taricha granulosa (Rough-skinned newt) and Ambystoma gracile (Northwestern salamander). Both these species breed in ponds, and are thought to exhibit high...

  20. Sports participation among girls and women in Mount Frere, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Andreassen, Ina - Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on women and sports from sports and development perspective. The purpose of this study is to examine various aspects of female sports in a rural town in South Africa, called Mount Frere, with particular attention to experiences from sports involvement as well as facilitating sports for females. In order to contextualize the project, a brief background of the South African history has been given an account of, as well as issues related to and the organization ...

  1. Air Distribution in Rooms with Ceiling-mounted Obstacles and Three-Dimensional Isothermal Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Evensen, Louis; Grabau, Peter;

    The air supply openings in ventilated rooms are often placed close to the ceiling. A recirculating flow is generated in the room, and the region between the ceiling and the occupied zone serves as an entrainment and velocity decay area for the wall jets. Ceiling-mounted obstacles may disturb...... this flow and, in particular, certain dimensions and positions of the obstacles cause a downward deflection of the jets into the occupied zone resulting in reduced thermal comfort for the inhabitants....

  2. Stratified Flow in a Room with Displacement Ventilation and Wall-Mounted Air Terminal devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper describes experiments with wall-mounted air terminal devices. The stratified flow in the room is analyzed, and the influence of stratification and the influence of room dimensions on the velocity level and on the length scale are proved. The velocity level in the occupied zone can...... be described by a single equation based partly on stratified flow theory and partly on measurements....

  3. Mount St. Helens: Controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data and inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a series of geoelectrical soundings carried out on and near Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington, in 2010–2011. These soundings used a controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) approach (Zonge and Hughes, 1991; Simpson and Bahr, 2005). We chose CSAMT for logistical reasons: It can be deployed by helicopter, has an effective depth of penetration of as much as 1 kilometer, and requires less wire than a Schlumberger sounding.

  4. Two new butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) from Mount Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Highlands, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfián, Szabolcs; Tropek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A field survey of Mount Cameroon, South-West Province, Cameroon, revealed two butterfly species new to science. Lepidochrysops liberti sp. nov. (Lycaenidae) flies in the extensive mosaic of natural clearings in sub-montane forest above 1100 m a.s.l., whereas Ceratrichia fako sp. nov. (Hesperiidae) locally inhabits the forested narrow gullies in the same vegetation zone. Observations on the habitat and behaviour of both species are also presented. PMID:27515650

  5. Embedded-LES and experiment of turbulent boundary layer flow around a floor-mounted cube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger; Bennetsen, Jens Chr.

    An Embedded LES approach is used to numerically simulate fluctuating surface pressures on a floor-mounted cube in a turbulent boundary layer flow and compared to wind tunnel experiments. The computation were performed with the CFD software ANSYS FLUENT at a Reynolds number at cube height of Reh = 1...... correct velocity scales. However, the body induced turbulence is well captured in the fluctuating pressure coefficients....

  6. Exceptional diversity of Stefania (Anura, Cryptobatrachidae II: Six species from Mount Wokomung, Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. MacCulloch

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Six species of Stefania were collected on Mount Wokomung, a tepui in the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. This unusually high diversity of Stefania is similar to that found on a neighbouring tepui, Mt. Ayanganna. The two tepuis support slightly different habitats. Conspecific Stefania from the two mountains differ somewhat in body size, toe disc size and colouration. Specimens from Mt. Wokomung are used to expand descriptions and distributions of some species.

  7. Adapting the vehicle mounted tactical loudspeaker system to today's operational environment

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    From the time they were first used by the United States Army during World War II, loudspeakers have proven to be an effective means for tactical psychological operations (PSYOP) teams to disseminate messages to their intended target audiences. The vehicle mounted family of loudspeakers (FOL) is the loudspeaker system currently being utilized by tactical psychological operations forces as the primary mobile means of disseminating messages or sound effects to their target audiences. In its curr...

  8. CONTRASTING ARBOREAL AND TERRESTRIAL BRYOPHYTES COMMUNITIES OF THE MOUNT HALIMUN SALAK NATIONAL PARK, WEST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    NUNIK S. ARIYANTI; SULISTIJORINI

    2011-01-01

    Bryophyte communities were compared between arboreal (trunk bases) and terrestrialhabitats in primary forest Mount Halimun Salak National Park, West Java. The communitieswere analyzed based on species diversity, abundance, and biomass. A total of 150 bryophytesspecies were identified, including 67 species of mosses (Bryopsida) and 83 of liverworts(Hepaticopsida). Both bryophyte groups varied in diversity and abundance between arborealand terrestrial communities as well as among different elev...

  9. Lightning protection for roof-mounted solar cell using two masts

    OpenAIRE

    N. Petcharaks

    2013-01-01

    Houses invested in roof-mounted solar cell need protection from direct lightning. This paper presents the application of numerical method in designing the height and location of masts based on protection angle method according to international standard IEC 62305. An isolated external lightning protection system using two isolated masts is designed. The protected zone which is in the volume according to the protection angle method, depends on the protection level, the rolling sphere radius and...

  10. Applications of Augmented Vision Head-Mounted Systems in Vision Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Peli, Eli; Luo, Gang; Bowers, Alex; Rensing, Noa

    2007-01-01

    Vision loss typically affects either the wide peripheral vision (important for mobility), or central vision (important for seeing details). Traditional optical visual aids usually recover the lost visual function, but at a high cost for the remaining visual function. We have developed a novel concept of vision-multiplexing using augmented vision head-mounted display systems to address vision loss. Two applications are discussed in this paper. In the first, minified edge images from a head-mou...

  11. Greenhouse tomato production with electricity generation by roof-mounted flexible solar panels

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Ureña-Sánchez; Ángel Jesús Callejón-Ferre; José Pérez-Alonso; Ángel Carreño-Ortega

    2012-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources into greenhouse crop production in southeastern Spain could provide extra income for growers. Wind energy could be captured by small to medium-sized wind turbines, gas could be produced from biomass, and solar energy could be gathered by solar panels. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of flexible solar panels, mounted on top of a greenhouse for electricity production, on yield and fruit quality of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersycum L., cv ...

  12. Improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy with new high refractive index mounting media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Fouquet

    Full Text Available Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF, a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required.

  13. Exaggerated displays do not improve mounting success in male seaweed flies Fucellia tergina (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmott, Ruth; Briffa, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Signals of individual quality are assumed to be difficult to exaggerate, either because they are directly linked to underlying traits (indices) or because they are costly to perform (handicaps). In practise advertisement displays may consist of conventional and costly components, for instance where a morphological structure related to body size is used in visual displays. In this case, there is the potential for dishonest displays, due to the population level variance around the relationship between body size and display structures. We examine the use of wing flicking displays that we observed in situ in a strandline dwelling seaweed fly Fucellia tergina, using overall body size and the size of their eyes as underlying indicators of condition. Males displayed far more frequently than females, and were also observed to frequently mount other flies, a behaviour that was rare in females. The rate of display was greater for males that had positive residual values from relationships between wing length and body length. In other words those males with larger than expected wings for their underlying quality displayed more frequently, indicating that these displays are open to exaggeration. Males with larger than expected wings (for the size of their body or eyes), however, mounted less frequently. We suggest that small bodied males are less successful in terms of mounting, but that those small males with relatively large wings may attempt to compensate for this through increased display effort. PMID:26365923

  14. Parameter Identification on Lumped Parameters of the Hydraulic Engine Mount Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic Engine Mounts (HEM are important vibration isolation components with compound structure in the vehicle powertrain mounting system. They have the characteristic that large damping and high dynamic stiffness in the high frequency region, and small damping and low dynamic stiffness in the low frequency region, which can meet the requirements of the vehicle powertrain mounting system better. The method to identify the lumped parameters of the HEM is not only the necessary work for the analysis and calculation in dynamic performance and can also provide the theory for the performance optimization and structure optimization of product in the future. The parameter identification method based on coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI and finite element analysis (FEA was established in this study to identify the equivalent piston area of the rubber spring, the volume stiffness of the upper chamber, as well as the inertia coefficient and damping coefficient of the liquid through the inertia track. The simulated dynamic characteristic curves of the HEM with the parameters identified are in accordance with the measured dynamic characteristic curves well.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TRACTOR FRONT MOUNTED PIGEON PEA STEM CUTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul R. Dange

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pigeon pea or tur (Cajanus cajan L. Mills. is one of the important pulse crops of India and ranks second to chickpea in area and production. Traditionally the harvesting of pigeon pea is done manually by sickle, which demands considerable amount of labour, drudgery, time and cost to harvest, which reflects on total production cost of the crop. In view of this a tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was developed and being front mounted implement it facilitated better visibility and control to operator. The power was transmitted from pto to gear box. Arrangement of hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic motor was provided on the equipment to facilitate the height of cut and to rotate the conveyer belt. During comparative performance evaluation of developed equipment, the average cutting efficiency and field capacity was found 96.30 % and 0.176 ha/hr respectively. There was increase in fuel consumption and plant damage with increase in speed of operation. The average operation cost of newly developed tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was 64.71% less as compared with manual harvesting of pigeon pea crop. The time saved was almost 1/3rd to that of manual harvesting.

  16. Mount St. Helens: A case study of managing for change in wildland recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Alan

    1990-03-01

    Mount St. Helens provides an interesting case study of a forest and wildland area that has been radically altered in recent history. As a result of volcanic activity, the recreation environment has changed with respect to the setting, climbing opportunities, and motivations for mountaineering. An evaluation process using both qualitative and quantitative methods was developed to determine what the motivations, demographic characteristics, and preferred management techniques were for the posteruption Mount St. Helens mountain-climbing visitor. Results suggest that changes have occurred in the “new” or posteruption climbing visitor. These changes have not all been congruent with those anticipated by management. For example, the climbing visitor is now less interested in climbing opportunities and more concerned with seeing the crater and other volcanic-related features. This article discusses the findings of this research in light of how resource managers might consider the issue of visitor changes in both demands and types of uses. For example, determining quota numbers based on sociological determinants (e.g., desire for solitude) need to be firmly grounded in who the visitors actually are rather than who they were. Consequently, management tools such as the Recreational Opportunity Spectrum (ROS) and Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) may need to be altered to accommodate a changing resource or visitor base. These and other findings have implications for the future management practices of the Mount St. Helens area and other environments where the recreation resources have undergone rapid and profound change.

  17. Retrospective validation of a lava-flow hazard map for Mount Etna volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Del Negro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a retrospective methodology to validate a long-term hazard map related to lava-flow invasion at Mount Etna, the most active volcano in Europe. A lava-flow hazard map provides the probability that a specific point will be affected by potential destructive volcanic processes over the time period considered. We constructed this lava-flow hazard map for Mount Etna volcano through the identification of the emission regions with the highest probabilities of eruptive vents and through characterization of the event types for the numerical simulations and the computation of the eruptive probabilities. Numerical simulations of lava-flow paths were carried out using the MAGFLOW cellular automata model. To validate the methodology developed, a hazard map was built by considering only the eruptions that occurred at Mount Etna before 1981. On the basis of the probability of coverage by lava flows, the map was divided into ten classes, and two fitting scores were calculated to measure the overlap between the hazard classes and the actual shapes of the lava flows that occurred after 1981.

  18. Preliminary Report on the Anurans of Mount Hilong-hilong, Agusan Del Norte, Eastern Mindanao, Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeszianlenn L. PLAZA; Marites B.SANGUILA

    2015-01-01

    Mount Hilong-hilong is a key biodiversity area, spanning several municipalities in the provinces of the Caraga Region (Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur), northeastern Mindanao Island, southern Philippines. The Hilong-hilong massif remains one of the most signiifcant forested areas in Mindanao, threatened with habitat modification (forest removal, degradation) and other anthropogenic disturbances related to renewable resource extraction. Amphibians are key indicator species for environmental quality and are useful focal taxa for conservation efforts. Relying on historical museum database information and new survey work on Mount Hilong-hilong, we provide species accounts and describe microhabitat preferences of the anurans (frogs and toads) present in the area. Twenty-seven species representing seven anuran families were studied in detail at elevations between 700 to 1300 meters above sea level; 16 of these species are Mindanao faunal region endemics. Qualitative overlap in microhabitat use was observed, suggesting that, for the species recorded, intact forest may ensure species persistence to some levels of anthropogenic disturbance. A more extensive herpetofaunal survey is needed to fully estimate the herpetofaunal diversity of Mount Hilong-hilong. Because amphibians represent ifne-scale indicators of environmental quality and microendemism, we recommend appropriate ifne-scaled regional strategies geared towards the conservation of amphibians in the Caraga area, northeast Mindanao Island.

  19. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jared A; Brill, Anthony; Kapila, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability. PMID:27556464

  20. Lens-mount stability trade-off: a survey exemplified for DUV wafer inspection objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazzam, Achmed; Erbe, Torsten; Fahr, Stephan; Werschnik, Jan

    2015-09-01

    The position stability of optical elements is an essential part of the tolerance budget of an optical system because its compensation would require an alignment step after the lens has left the factory. In order to achieve a given built performance the stability error contribution needs to be known and accounted for. Given a high-end lens touching the edge of technology not knowing, under- or overestimating this contribution becomes a serious cost and risk factor. If overestimated the remaining parts of the budget need to be tighter. If underestimated the total project might fail. For many mounting principles the stability benchmark is based on previous systems or information gathered by elaborated testing of complete optical systems. This renders the development of a new system into a risky endeavour, because these experiences are not sufficiently precise and tend to be not transferable when scaling of the optical elements is intended. This contribution discusses the influences of different optical mounting concepts on the position stability using the example of high numerical aperture (HNA) inspection lenses working in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) spectrum. A method to investigate the positional stability is presented for selected mounting examples typical for inspection lenses.

  1. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  2. Development and evaluation of a boat-mounted RFID antenna for monitoring freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Neebling, Travis E.; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Development of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags has substantially increased the ability of researchers and managers to monitor populations of aquatic organisms. However, use of transportable RFID antenna systems (i.e., backpack-mounted) is currently limited to wadeable aquatic environments (RFID antenna to detect individually PIT-tagged benthic aquatic organisms (mussels). We evaluated the effects of tag orientation on detection distances in water with a 32-mm half-duplex PIT tag. Detection distances up to 50 cm from the antenna coils were obtained, but detection distance was dependent on tag orientation. We also evaluated detection distance of PIT tags beneath the sediment to simulate detection of burrowing mussels with 23- and 32-mm tags. In sand substrate, the maximum detection distance varied from 3.5 cm and 4.5 cm (vertical tag orientation) to 24.7 cm and 39.4 cm (45° tag orientation) for the 23- and 32-mm PIT tags, respectively. Our results suggest a 1.4-m total detection width for tagged mussels on the substrate surface by the boat-mounted antenna system regardless of tag orientation. However, burrowed mussels may require multiple passes to increase detection that would be influenced by depth, tag orientation, and tag size. Construction of the boat-mounted antenna was relatively low in cost (<500 USD) and had several advantages (less labor and time intensive, increased safety) over traditional mussel sampling techniques (diving, snorkeling) in nonwadeable habitats.

  3. Precise Alignment and Permanent Mounting of Thin and Lightweight X-ray Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Hong, Melinda N.; Mazzarella, James R.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Norman, Michael J.; Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    To provide observations to support current research efforts in high energy astrophysics. future X-ray telescope designs must provide matching or better angular resolution while significantly increasing the total collecting area. In such a design the permanent mounting of thin and lightweight segments is critical to the overall performance of the complete X-ray optic assembly. The thin and lightweight segments used in the assemhly of the modules are desigued to maintain and/or exceed the resolution of existing X-ray telescopes while providing a substantial increase in collecting area. Such thin and delicate X-ray segments are easily distorted and yet must be aligned to the arcsecond level and retain accurate alignment for many years. The Next Generation X-ray Optic (NGXO) group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has designed, assembled. and implemented new hardware and procedures mth the short term goal of aligning three pairs of X-ray segments in a technology demonstration module while maintaining 10 arcsec alignment through environmental testing as part of the eventual design and construction of a full sized module capable of housing hundreds of X-ray segments. The recent attempts at multiple segment pair alignment and permanent mounting is described along with an overview of the procedure used. A look into what the next year mll bring for the alignment and permanent segment mounting effort illustrates some of the challenges left to overcome before an attempt to populate a full sized module can begin.

  4. The Effects of Degradational Factors on the Ecosystem of Mount Madra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, R.; Soykan, A.; Sönmez, S.; Cürebal, I.

    2009-04-01

    Significant degradation has been observed in Turkey's Mediterranean woodlands and mountainous areas. Mediterranean climate prevails in the southern and western part of Turkey. Mount Madra, which is located on Turkey's western Aegean coast, is part of a rangeland which is particularly exposed to the effects of degradation resulting from human activities. The principal factors in the degradation are inappropriate land use, destruction of forests, mining, construction, overgrazing and transhumance. Mount Madra and its environs benefit from a Mediterranean climate, experiencing dry, hot summers and cool, wet winters. The average yearly rainfall is 700-1000 mm, of which most occurs in the winter months. The mountain extends from east to west, and between the South and North slopes there is great variety in terms of plant species and biodiversity. The regeneration of the lost plant cover has been hindered by the mountain's geomorphologic characteristics. The slopes have suffered destruction of vegetation and, as a result of severe erosion, the soil has been swept away and in many places the bedrock has become exposed. The Kozak plateau on mount Madra is notable for the richness of its natural vegetation. This plateau, covered in pine forest (Pinus pinea), is the site for the traditional transhumance of over 500 families. Pine nuts and livestock breeding are livelihood of these families. Mount Madra and its surrounding area is one of the most important locations with gold mining potential in Turkey and it is estimated that it has 16.7 tons of gold reserve. The gold mining which took place on the west of the Madra Mountain around Ovacik village in 1994 led to serious land degradation in the surrounding area. The new mining on the study area and the proposed feldspar mining on the Madra riverbed poses a serious threat to the region's ecosystem and biodiversity. The removal of increasing amounts of granite and other quarrying has had a negative impact on the natural

  5. Shallow repeating seismic events under an alpine glacier at Mount Rainier, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.; Allstadt, Kate; De Angelis, Silvio; Malone, Stephen D.; Moran, Seth C.; Vidale, John

    2013-01-01

    We observed several swarms of repeating low-frequency (1–5 Hz) seismic events during a 3 week period in May–June 2010, near the summit of Mount Rainier, Washington, USA, that likely were a result of stick–slip motion at the base of alpine glaciers. The dominant set of repeating events ('multiplets') featured >4000 individual events and did not exhibit daytime variations in recurrence interval or amplitude. Volcanoes and glaciers around the world are known to produce seismic signals with great variability in both frequency content and size. The low-frequency character and periodic recurrence of the Mount Rainier multiplets mimic long-period seismicity often seen at volcanoes, particularly during periods of unrest. However, their near-surface location, lack of common spectral peaks across the recording network, rapid attenuation of amplitudes with distance, and temporal correlation with weather systems all indicate that ice-related source mechanisms are the most likely explanation. We interpret the low-frequency character of these multiplets to be the result of trapping of seismic energy under glacial ice as it propagates through the highly heterogeneous and attenuating volcanic material. The Mount Rainier multiplet sequences underscore the difficulties in differentiating low-frequency signals due to glacial processes from those caused by volcanic processes on glacier-clad volcanoes.

  6. Optimal Thermo-Structural Analysis for High Density Package Mounting on Build-up Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tohru; Hase, Tomohiro

    The importance of the high density packaging technology and mounting technology on the printed wiring build-up board has been increased for the consumer electric products. On the other hand, the chance to use the build-up boards for mounting the high density packages has been increased. However, the understanding that the reliability of the solder connection depends on the structure of the package, the motherboard, and the material properties, is not very high. In this paper, the reliability for high density packaging, mounted on the build-up board, is assessed. The compact numerical analysis model for the reliability assessment is suggested and the most reliable packaging design with optimizing each of the parameters is reported. For introduction to the reliability assessment of the FCA attachment, ceramic and silicon are compared as the inter-poser with the parameter of the solder height. The verification of the numerical analysis results using tests on the actual hardware is also shown. And the established numerical analysis model is applied to the study of influence of the copper balance between the front side and the back side copper layers.

  7. Control of seismic and operational vibrations of rotating machines using semi-active mounts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Rana; T.T.Soong

    2004-01-01

    A dual isolation problem for rotating machines consists of isolation of housing structures from the machine vibrations and protection of machines during an earthquake to maintain their functionality. Desirable characteristics of machine mounts for the above two purposes can differ significantly due to difference in nature of the excitation and performance criteria in the two situations. In this paper, relevant response quantities are identified that may be used to quantify performancc and simplified models of rotating machines are presented using which these relevant response quantities may be calculated. Using random vibration approach with a stationary excitation, it is shown that significant improvement in seismic performance is achievable by proper mount design. Results of shaking table experiments performed with a realistic setup using a centrifugal pump are presented. It is concluded that a solution to this dual isolation problem lies in a semi-active.mount capable of switching its properties from‘operation-optimum'to‘seismic-optimum'at the omset of a seismic event.

  8. "Head up and eyes out" advances in head mounted displays capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Alex

    2013-06-01

    There are a host of helmet and head mounted displays, flooding the market place with displays which provide what is essentially a mobile computer display. What sets aviators HMDs apart is that they provide the user with accurate conformal information embedded in the pilots real world view (see through display) where the information presented is intuitive and easy to use because it overlays the real world (mix of sensor imagery, symbolic information and synthetic imagery) and enables them to stay head up, eyes out, - improving their effectiveness, reducing workload and improving safety. Such systems are an enabling technology in the provision of enhanced Situation Awareness (SA) and reducing user workload in high intensity situations. Safety Is Key; so the addition of these HMD functions cannot detract from the aircrew protection functions of conventional aircrew helmets which also include life support and audio communications. These capabilities are finding much wider application in new types of compact man mounted audio/visual products enabled by the emergence of new families of micro displays, novel optical concepts and ultra-compact low power processing solutions. This papers attempts to capture the key drivers and needs for future head mounted systems for aviation applications.

  9. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jared A.; Brill, Anthony; Kapila, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability. PMID:27556464

  10. The Effects of Degradational Factors on the Ecosystem of Mount Madra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, R.; Soykan, A.; Sönmez, S.; Cürebal, I.

    2009-04-01

    Significant degradation has been observed in Turkey's Mediterranean woodlands and mountainous areas. Mediterranean climate prevails in the southern and western part of Turkey. Mount Madra, which is located on Turkey's western Aegean coast, is part of a rangeland which is particularly exposed to the effects of degradation resulting from human activities. The principal factors in the degradation are inappropriate land use, destruction of forests, mining, construction, overgrazing and transhumance. Mount Madra and its environs benefit from a Mediterranean climate, experiencing dry, hot summers and cool, wet winters. The average yearly rainfall is 700-1000 mm, of which most occurs in the winter months. The mountain extends from east to west, and between the South and North slopes there is great variety in terms of plant species and biodiversity. The regeneration of the lost plant cover has been hindered by the mountain's geomorphologic characteristics. The slopes have suffered destruction of vegetation and, as a result of severe erosion, the soil has been swept away and in many places the bedrock has become exposed. The Kozak plateau on mount Madra is notable for the richness of its natural vegetation. This plateau, covered in pine forest (Pinus pinea), is the site for the traditional transhumance of over 500 families. Pine nuts and livestock breeding are livelihood of these families. Mount Madra and its surrounding area is one of the most important locations with gold mining potential in Turkey and it is estimated that it has 16.7 tons of gold reserve. The gold mining which took place on the west of the Madra Mountain around Ovacik village in 1994 led to serious land degradation in the surrounding area. The new mining on the study area and the proposed feldspar mining on the Madra riverbed poses a serious threat to the region's ecosystem and biodiversity. The removal of increasing amounts of granite and other quarrying has had a negative impact on the natural

  11. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. PMID:26232264

  12. Design of a one-chip board microcontrol unit for active vibration control of a naval ship mounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an experimental implementation of a user-tunable one-chip board microcontrol unit which is specifically designed for vibration control of the active mounting system for naval ships. The proposed mounting system consists of four active mounts supporting vibration-sensitive equipment. Each active mount constitutes a rubber element, an inertial mass and the piezostack actuator. It is designed for particular applications that require effective isolation performance against wide frequency ranges, such as naval ship equipment. After describing the configuration of the active mount, dynamic characteristics of the rubber element and the piezostack actuator are experimentally identified. Accordingly, the proposed mounting system is constructed and the governing equations of motion are formulated. In order to attenuate the unwanted vibrations transferred from the upper mass, a feedforward controller with fast Fourier algorithm is designed and experimentally realized using the one-chip microcontrol board which is specially made for this practical application. In order to evaluate the performance of the one-chip microcontrol unit, vibration control results of the proposed active mounting system are presented in the frequency domain. (technical note)

  13. Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    How did the education of surgical pathology, and pathology in general, differ at Mount Sinai? Passing the examination of the American Board of Pathology was never the focus of the department. Learning criteria or quoting references was de-emphasized, but mastery of macroscopic pathology was required, supported in both word and action by two brilliant surgical pathologists, Otani and Kaneko, and by two extraordinary medical pathologists, Klemperer and Popper. Meticulous microscopy emphasized pattern rather than reliance on lists of discrete features. Otani developed a regular "problem case" meeting for a community of pathologists, made up of alumni and other interested pathologists, as well as active department members. These monthly sessions provided the highest level of "continuing medical education." Otani and Kaneko unequivocally believed in learning from cases, and Mount Sinai residents were fortunate both in the one-to-one teaching and in the wealth of material, in all systems, that came to surgical pathology. Outstanding pathologists who came from Mount Sinai settled throughout the country and provided the highest level of diagnoses, but, with the exception of Bernard Wagner, Emanuel Rubin, Fiorenzo Paronetto, Richard Horowitz, Michael Gerber, Marc Rosenblum, Bruce Wenig, Jaishree Jagirdar, Swan Thung, Cesar Moran, Hideko Kamino, Philip LeBoit, Alberto Marchevsky, and others, there were relatively few academic leaders. Otani and Kaneko did not have national reputations. Klemperer, although world renowned, was relatively unassuming, and his disciples numbered almost as many nonpathologists as pathologists. Popper did establish a major center for liver pathology, with students coming from around the world, but did not particularly promote general surgical pathology. Can the Mount Sinai approach still be applied? The decline in the numbers of autopsies performed, the demands for rapid turnaround time, the de-emphasis of gross pathology as newer technologies (eg

  14. Geomorphic analysis of the river response to sedimentation downstream of Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Curran, Christopher A.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Kimball, Halley K.; Gish, Casey C.

    2012-01-01

    A study of the geomorphology of rivers draining Mount Rainier, Washington, was completed to identify sources of sediment to the river network; to identify important processes in the sediment delivery system; to assess current sediment loads in rivers draining Mount Rainier; to evaluate if there were trends in streamflow or sediment load since the early 20th century; and to assess how rates of sedimentation might continue into the future using published climate-change scenarios. Rivers draining Mount Rainier carry heavy sediment loads sourced primarily from the volcano that cause acute aggradation in deposition reaches as far away as the Puget Lowland. Calculated yields ranged from 2,000 tonnes per square kilometer per year [(tonnes/km2)/yr] on the upper Nisqually River to 350 (tonnes/km2)/yr on the lower Puyallup River, notably larger than sediment yields of 50–200 (tonnes/km2)/yr typical for other Cascade Range rivers. These rivers can be assumed to be in a general state of sediment surplus. As a result, future aggradation rates will be largely influenced by the underlying hydrology carrying sediment downstream. The active-channel width of rivers directly draining Mount Rainier in 2009, used as a proxy for sediment released from Mount Rainier, changed little between 1965 and 1994 reflecting a climatic period that was relatively quiet hydrogeomorphically. From 1994 to 2009, a marked increase in geomorphic disturbance caused the active channels in many river reaches to widen. Comparing active-channel widths of glacier-draining rivers in 2009 to the distance of glacier retreat between 1913 and 1994 showed no correlation, suggesting that geomorphic disturbance in river reaches directly downstream of glaciers is not strongly governed by the degree of glacial retreat. In contrast, there was a correlation between active-channel width and the percentage of superglacier debris mantling the glacier, as measured in 1971. A conceptual model of sediment delivery processes

  15. Aluminum or steel? Mounting systems for solar generators - a practice report; Aluminium oder Stahl? Montagesysteme fuer Solargeneratoren - ein Praxisreport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnitzer, Sandy [Mounting Systems GmbH, Rangsdorf (Germany); Hannemann, Lydia

    2013-10-01

    Mounting systems for solar generators must be solid and reliable as long as possible so that they carry the modules. Which material is best? [German] Montagesysteme fuer Solargeneratoren muessen solide sein, damit sie moeglichst lange und zuverlaessig die Module tragen.

  16. The Design, Fabrication, and Characteristic Experiment of the Electromagnet of Bottom-mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong Garp; Choi, Myoung Hwan; Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is located in the reactor pool top (Top-mounted) or the room below the reactor pool (Bottom-mounted). The function of the CRDM is to insert, withdraw, or maintain neutron absorbing material at any required position in the reactor core in order to maintain reactivity control of the core. There are so many kinds of CRDMs, such as magnetic-jack type, hydraulic type, rack and pinion type, chain type and linear or rotary step motor and so on. As a part of a new project, we are investigating the bottom-mounted control rod drive mechanism as shown in Fig. 1. To have a better knowledge of the electromagnetic and magnetic characteristics, numerical models of bottom-mounted CEDM are investigated. In this study, we clarified thrust force characteristics of the electromagnet by experiment and simulation, and verified the propriety of the FEM analysis by comparing it with the results

  17. Wind Tunnel Experiments to Assess the Effect of Back-Mounted Radio Transmitters on Bird Body Drag

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerodynamic drag of bird bodies was measured in a wind tunnel, with and without back-mounted dummy radio transmitters. Flight performance estimates indicate...

  18. The Impact Analysis of Sino - Burma Border Illegal Transnational Marriage on Harmony and Stability of Yunnan Border Minority Areas -- A Case in Xu Jia village of Long Ling of Yunnan%中缅边境非法跨国婚姻对云南边境少数民族地区和谐稳定的影响分析——以云南省龙陵县徐家寨为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白志红; 李喜景

    2011-01-01

    Due to geographical conditions, traditional habits and so on, there are large numbers of illegal transnational marriage in Sino - Burma border Areas of Yunnan. Those marriages not only weaken the authority of Chinese law and give rise to security and stability problems in the border areas but also disturb the residents' self- identity with homeland especially young residents and damage the legitimate rights and interests of women and children in the border areas. There are some suggestions, such as recognize transnational marriages condi- tionally, provide the occupation skill training for the women in Burma and strengthen marriage and family guid- ance work in the border areas. All of these not only can properly solve the above problems, but also contribute to harmony and stability of Yunnan border minority area in the long - term.%由于地缘条件、民族传统习惯等因素的影响,在云南中缅边境地区形成大量非法跨国婚姻。不仅削弱了中国法律在边境地区的权威,给边境地区的安全与稳定带来隐患,而且损害妇女儿童合法权益。有条件认可中缅跨国婚姻,为缅甸女性提供职业技能培训,有助于云南边境地区的长期和谐稳定。

  19. Design and structural/optical analysis of a kinematic mount for the testing of silicon carbide mirrors at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Christopher; Frohlich, Charles; Shirgur, Badri; Mink, Ronald G.

    2004-10-01

    A kinematic mount has been designed to support two Silicon Carbide-based spherical mirrors during cryogenic testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The mirrors are flight representative test mirrors for the NIRSpec Instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), provided by Galileo Avionica of Florence, Italy. One is cold-pressed Silicon Carbide (SiC) and one is Carbon reinforced Silicon Carbide (C/SiC); both are coated in a SiC-based chemical vapor deposit. Each is lightweighted and has an integral mount on the rear surface. The integral mount is used as an interface to the kinematic mount, which is designed to support the mirrors during cryogenic testing while minimizing distortions induced by CTE mismatch among the materials. Additionally, an alternative "simply supported" mount is used to hold the mirrors around the outer edge of the optical surface. This eliminates the bending of the integral mount under the weight of the mirror and evaluates the effectiveness of the kinematic mount. The mirrors were analyzed for optical performance during testing from room temperature to 20K using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with MSC/NASTRAN 2001. Predicted surface figure error (SFE) based on the removal of bias, tilt, and power was calculated using an in-house Matlab script for spherical mirrors. SFE was verified using the SigFit optical post-processing program to provide Zernike polynomial input for analysis with the Zemax optical software. The results show that the kinematic mount induces minimal figure error on the optical surface.

  20. Wireless. Automation of accident mountings. Development of a new solution of drive; Kabellos. Automatisierung von Havariearmaturen. Entwicklung einer neuen Antriebsloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacharowitz, Axel [3S Antriebe GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    The Industrielle Werke Basel IWB (Basel, Switzerland) evaluate the automation of dividing an accident of its district heating grid. However, only a few of the relevant shafts have a grid connection. Furthermore, the mountings have no drive units. Due to the costs IWB dispensed with the exchange of the mountings and effort of underground engineering. The solution consists of wireless valve actuators of the 3 S actuators. The first 3 S actuators are put into operation in November 2012.

  1. Application of Light-cured Dental Adhesive Resin for Mounting Electrodes or Microdialysis Probes in Chronic Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Tetsu; Okanoya, Kazuo; Tani, Jun

    2007-01-01

    In chronic recording experiments, self-curing dental acrylic resins have been used as a mounting base of electrodes or microdialysis-probes. Since these acrylics do not bond to the bone, screws have been used as anchors. However, in small experimental animals like finches or mouse, their craniums are very fragile and can not successfully hold the anchors. In this report, we propose a new application of light-curing dental resins for mounting base of electrodes or microdialysis probes in chron...

  2. Estimation of Rice Crop Quality and Harvest Amount from Helicopter Mounted NIR Camera Data and Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Masanoori Sakashita; Osamu Shigetomi; Yuko Miura

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of rice crop quality and harvest amount in paddy fields with the different rice stump density derived from helicopter mounted NIR camera and remote sensing satellite data is made. Using the intensive study site of rice paddy fields with managing, estimation of protein content in rice crop and nitrogen content in rice leaves through regression analysis with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: NDVI derived from camera mounted on a radio-control helicopter is made together with ha...

  3. Remote Sensing-Based Exploration of Structurally-Related Mineralizations around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jakob

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging is a powerful tool for mineral mapping and increasingly used in poorly-accessible areas. It only requires a limited amount of validation sample points, but can fail to discriminate spectrally-similar features. In this manuscript, we show that we improve the identification of interesting targets by including geomorphological data in the spectral mapping scheme. We jointly use geomorphic and spectral features to locate gossanous ironstone ridges as an indicator for possible Pb-Zn-Ag-mineralization and provide an application around Mount Isa and George Fisher/Hilton mine, Queensland, Australia. We combine hyperspectral HyMap data using mixture tuned matched filtering with topographical indices, such as maximum curvature and the topographical position index. As it is often the case with structurally-controlled mineralization, the amount of training sites is limited, and supervised classification methods cannot be implemented. Therefore, we implement expert knowledge in a decision tree to take advantage of the relationship between mineralization, alteration and structure. Optimized rock sampling and spectral measurements provided data for validation. We are able to map sets of gossanous ridges with a minimum of validation points, not only within the Mount Isa mining area itself, but also outside the commonly-accepted host rocks. The ridges are parallel to north-south trending geomorphological features and probably associated with the Paroo fault zone. Similarities between the ridges were confirmed by field observations, spectral measurements and a qualitative rock sample analysis. We identified new mineralized ridges that we could subsequently attribute to a poorly-known and sub-economic deposit known as the Mount Novit Pb-Zn-deposit.

  4. Mount Meager Volcano, Canada: a Case Study for Landslides on Glaciated Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, G. L.; Ward, B. C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Falorni, G.; Perotti, L.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sensing the planet) has been created. A complex history of glacial loading and unloading, combined with weak, hydrothermally altered rocks has resulted in a long record of catastrophic landslides. The most recent, in 2010 is the third largest (50 x 106 m3) historical landslide in Canada. Mount Meager is a perfect natural laboratory for gravity and topographic processes such as landslide activity, permafrost and glacial dynamics, erosion, alteration and uplift on volcanoes. Research is aided by a rich archive of aerial photos of the Massif (1940s up to 2006): complete coverage approximately every 10 years. This data set has been processed and multi-temporal, high resolution Orthophoto and DSMs (Digital Surface Models) have been produced. On these digital products, with the support on field work, glacial retreat and landslide activity have been tracked and mapped. This has allowed for the inventory of unstable areas, the identification of lava flows and domes, and the general improvement on the geologic knowledge of the massif. InSAR data have been used to monitor the deformation of the pre-2010 failure slope. It will also be used to monitor other unstable slopes that potentially can evolve to catastrophic collapses of up to 1 km3 in volume, endangering local communities downstream the volcano. Mount Meager is definitively an exceptional site for studying the dynamics of a glaciated, uplifted volcano. The methodologies proposed can be applied to other volcanic areas with high erosion rates such as Alaska, Cascades, and the Andes.

  5. Characteristics of debris flows of noneruptive origin on Mount Shasta, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, James C.; Poeschel, Karen R.; Osterkamp, Waite R.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of Mount Shasta indicate that eruptive activity has occurred, on the average, once every 800 years. Debris flows and deposits of non- eruptive origin, in addition to those associated with eruptive activity (lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and ash fall), inundate the fans and channels and can endanger people or property on the flanks of the mountain. This study evaluates the source and characteristics of historical noneruptive debris flows in the vicinity of Mount Shasta. At least 70 debris flows of noneruptive origin that occurred during the last 1,000 years have been identified in various stream channels on Mount Shasta. Of the four areas around the mountain, the most active are the McCloud River and The Whaleback-Ash Creek Butte depression; the Sacramento River area is the least active. Between 1900 and 1985, 37 debris flows occurred on different streams, with an average interval of 2.3 years between flows. Since 1900, Mud Creek (nine flows) and Whitney Creek (six flows) have been the most active channels. The path followed by a debris flow is not always at the lowest point in the channel, and the extent of downstream movement depends on the size of the flow. Former channels are inundated by the new flows and deposits, and new channels are eroded. In time, most of the entire channel between valley walls is subject to reworking. Most debris-flow deposits ranged in thickness from 0.4 to 2.5 meters. Thickness tends to decrease in a downstream direction. The deposits are generally of a convex shape, highest in the middle and lowest near the original valley wall. The ratio of water to solids in the slurry- sediment mixture of debris flows averages 68 percent by volume.

  6. Pre- and post-drill comparison of the Mount Elbert gas hydrate prospect, Alaska North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.W.; Agena, W.F.; Collett, T.S.; Inks, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) completed a detailed analysis and interpretation of available 2-D and 3-D seismic data, along with seismic modeling and correlation with specially processed downhole well log data for identifying potential gas hydrate accumulations on the North Slope of Alaska. A methodology was developed for identifying sub-permafrost gas hydrate prospects within the gas hydrate stability zone in the Milne Point area. The study revealed a total of 14 gas hydrate prospects in this area.In order to validate the gas hydrate prospecting protocol of the USGS and to acquire critical reservoir data needed to develop a longer-term production testing program, a stratigraphic test well was drilled at the Mount Elbert prospect in the Milne Point area in early 2007. The drilling confirmed the presence of two prominent gas-hydrate-bearing units in the Mount Elbert prospect, and high quality well logs and core data were acquired. The post-drill results indicate pre-drill predictions of the reservoir thickness and the gas-hydrate saturations based on seismic and existing well data were 90% accurate for the upper unit (hydrate unit D) and 70% accurate for the lower unit (hydrate unit C), confirming the validity of the USGS approach to gas hydrate prospecting. The Mount Elbert prospect is the first gas hydrate accumulation on the North Slope of Alaska identified primarily on the basis of seismic attribute analysis and specially processed downhole log data. Post-drill well log data enabled a better constraint of the elastic model and the development of an improved approach to the gas hydrate prospecting using seismic attributes. ?? 2009.

  7. Holocene pyroclastic-flow deposits from Shastina and Black Butte, west of Mount Shasta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. Dan

    1978-01-01

    A broad apron of pyroclastic-flow deposits derived from dacitic domes of Holocene age at Black Butte and Shastina covers an area of more than 110 km2 on the west flank of Mt. Shasta volcano. The stratigraphy of the deposits is exposed in readouts along a northwest-southeast line between the cities of Weed and Mount Shasta and includes, from bottom to top, pre-Shastina diamictons, a Shastina pyroclasticflow assemblage, and a Black Butte pyroclastic-flow assemblage. Pyroclastic flows from Shastina, a volcanic cone on the west flank of Mt. Shasta, form a fan of nonvesicular rock debris that overlies part of the Shastina cone and pre-Shastina deposits; the fan deposits thicken northward and underlie the town of Weed. Pyroclastic-flow deposits of both vesicular and nonvesicular rock debris caused by eruptions at the site of Black Butte, a large volcanic dome at the foot of Mt. Shasta, thicken southward and underlie part of the city of Mount Shasta. Soil-profile oxidation is 75-80 cm thick on deposits from both Shastina and Black Butte. As much as 10 m of vertical displacement occurred along east-trending faults 3.5 km northwest of Black Butte after deposition of the youngest two pyroclastic flows from that source. Evidence that faulting and volcanism were nearly simultaneous suggests that the area northwest of Black Butte subsided during a late eruptive phase of the plug dome. Future eruptions similar to those that produced the pyroclastic flows could endanger people and property in any direction downslope from vents, including the communities of Weed and Mount Shasta and possibly other communities in the Shasta Valley and upper Sacramento River area.

  8. Head-mounted LED for optogenetic experiments of freely-behaving animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Gnade, Andrew G.; Rush, Alexander D.; Patten, Craig D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in optogenetics have demonstrated the ability to target specific types of neurons with sub-millisecond temporal precision via direct optical stimulation of genetically modified neurons in the brain. In most applications, the beam of a laser is coupled to an optical fiber, which guides and delivers the optical power to the region of interest. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an alternative light source for optogenetics and they provide many advantages over a laser based system including cost, size, illumination stability, and fast modulation. Their compact size and low power consumption make LEDs suitable light sources for a wireless optogenetic stimulation system. However, the coupling efficiency of an LED's output light into an optical fiber is lower than a laser due to its noncollimated output light. In typical chronic optogenetic experiment, the output of the light source is transmitted to the brain through a patch cable and a fiber stub implant, and this configuration requires two fiber-to-fiber couplings. Attenuation within the patch cable is potential source of optical power loss. In this study, we report and characterize a recently developed light delivery method for freely-behaving animal experiments. We have developed a head-mounted light source that maximizes the coupling efficiency of an LED light source by eliminating the need for a fiber optic cable. This miniaturized LED is designed to couple directly to the fiber stub implant. Depending on the desired optical power output, the head-mounted LED can be controlled by either a tethered (high power) or battery-powered wireless (moderate power) controller. In the tethered system, the LED is controlled through 40 gauge micro coaxial cable which is thinner, more flexible, and more durable than a fiber optic cable. The battery-powered wireless system uses either infrared or radio frequency transmission to achieve real-time control. Optical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal

  9. Ein Qedem 2: a Kebaran site in Nahal Galim, Mount Carmel, Israel:

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Rosenberg; Dani Nadel; Avraham Ronen

    2011-01-01

    Ein Qedem 2 (EQ2) is an open-air Kebaran site (Early Epipalaeolithic period, ca. 22 000 –17 500 calBP) located on the slope of Mount Carmel, Israel. The site is a part of a complex of prehistoric sites situated around the perennial spring of Ein Qedem and near the outskirts of the city of Haifa. EQ2, located near affluent sources of flint, presents ample evidence for Kebaran flint knapping. The rich flint assemblage provides valuable information concerning the microlithic industry, one of the...

  10. Mounting, alignment and integration of large optics in China's high power laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Xiong, Zhao; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    SG-III, a high-power laser facility of China, is constructed to produce 0.18MJ energy for physical experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. Each laser beam requires the ability to align to a millimeter-sized target with a precision of 30 μm (RMS) and the single-beam energy will be up to 3.75 KJ. Arrayed along each beam-path, hundreds of optics must be positioned to stringent tolerances. Therefore, this paper introduces the approaches used by engineers to overcome the technical challenges on precise mounting, alignment and integration of large optics in china's high power laser facility.

  11. Speckle Interferometry at Mount Wilson Observatory: Observations Obtained in 2006-2007 and 35 New Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartkopf, William I.; Mason, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented for 607 speckle interferometric observations of double stars, as well as 222 measures of single stars or unresolved pairs. All data were obtained in 2006 and 2007 at the Mount Wilson Observatory, using the 2.5 m Hooker telescope. Separations range from 0.06 to 6.31, with a median of 0.34. These three observing runs concentrated on binaries in need of confirmation (mainly Hipparcos and Tycho pairs), as well as systems in need of improved orbital elements. New orbital solutions have been determined for 35 systems as a result.

  12. Vibration Response Predictions for Heavy Panel Mounted Components from Panel Acreage Environment Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Phillip; Frady, Greg; Duvall, Lowery; Fulcher, Clay; LaVerde, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The development of new launch vehicles in the Aerospace industry often relies on response measurements taken from previously developed vehicles during various stages of liftoff and ascent, and from wind tunnel models. These measurements include sound pressure levels, dynamic pressures in turbulent boundary layers and accelerations. Rigorous statistical scaling methods are applied to the data to derive new environments and estimate the performance of new skin panel structures. Scaling methods have proven to be reliable, particularly for designs similar to the vehicles used as the basis for scaling, and especially in regions of smooth acreage without exterior protuberances or heavy components mounted to the panel. To account for response attenuation of a panel-mounted component due to its apparent mass at higher frequencies, the vibroacoustics engineer often reduces the acreage vibration according to a weight ratio first suggested by Barrett. The accuracy of the reduction is reduced with increased weight of the panel-mounted component, and does not account for low-frequency amplification of the component/panel response as a system. A method is proposed that combines acreage vibration from scaling methods with finite element analysis to account for the frequency-dependent dynamics of heavy panel-mounted components. Since the acreage and mass-loaded skins respond to the same dynamic input pressure, such pressure may be eliminated in favor of a frequency-dependent scaling function applied to the acreage vibration to predict the mass-loaded panel response. The scaling function replaces the Barrett weight ratio, and contains all of the dynamic character of the loaded and unloaded skin panels. The solution simplifies for spatially uncorrelated and fully correlated input pressures. Since the prediction uses finite element models of the loaded and unloaded skins, a rich suite of response data are available to the design engineer, including interface forces, stress and strain

  13. Lava channel formation during the 2001 eruption on Mount Etna: evidence for mechanical erosion

    CERN Document Server

    Ferlito, C; Ferlito, Carmelo; Siewert, Jens

    2005-01-01

    We report the direct observation of a peculiar lava channel that was formed near the base of a parasitic cone during the 2001 eruption on Mount Etna. Erosive processes by flowing lava are commonly attributed to thermal erosion. However, field evidence strongly suggests that models of thermal erosion cannot explain the formation of this channel. Here, we put forward the idea that the essential erosion mechanism was abrasive wear. By applying a simple model from tribology we demonstrate that the available data agree favorably with our hypothesis. Consequently, we propose that erosional processes resembling the wear phenomena in glacial erosion are possible in a volcanic environment.

  14. Lava Channel Formation during the 2001 Eruption on Mount Etna: Evidence for Mechanical Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlito, Carmelo; Siewert, Jens

    2006-01-01

    We report the direct observation of a peculiar lava channel that was formed near the base of a parasitic cone during the 2001 eruption on Mount Etna. Erosive processes by flowing lava are commonly attributed to thermal erosion. However, field evidence strongly suggests that models of thermal erosion cannot explain the formation of this channel. Here, we put forward the idea that the essential erosion mechanism was abrasive wear. By applying a simple model from tribology we demonstrate that the available data agree favorably with our hypothesis. Consequently, we propose that erosional processes resembling the wear phenomena in glacial erosion are possible in a volcanic environment.

  15. A fluorescent method for visualization of Nosema infection in whole-mount honey bee tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Jonathan W

    2016-03-01

    Honey bees are critical pollinators in both agricultural and ecological settings. The Nosema species, ceranae and apis, are microsporidian parasites that are pathogenic to honey bees. While current methods for detecting Nosema infection have key merits, additional techniques with novel properties for studying the cell biology of Nosema infection are highly desirable. We demonstrate that whole-mount staining of honey bee midgut tissue with chitin-binding agent Fluorescent Brightener 28 and DNA dye Propidium Iodide allows for observation of Nosema infection in structurally intact tissue, providing a new tool for increasing our understanding of Nosema infection at the cellular and tissue level. PMID:26802732

  16. Comparison of stator-mounted permanent-magnet machines based on a general power equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hua, Wei; Cheng, Ming

    2009-01-01

    , and then, power equations considering the specific topologies are derived. Based on these power equations, theoretical comparisons are carried out between various types of the SMPM machines. In all, eight topologies have been presented and benchmarked. It reveals that the flux switching permanent-magnet......The stator-mounted permanent-magnet (SMPM) machines have some advantages compared with its counterparts, such as simple rotor, short winding terminals, and good thermal dissipation conditions for magnets. In this paper, a general power equation for three types of SMPM machine is introduced first...

  17. Rail mounted gantry crane scheduling optimization in railway container terminal based on hybrid handling mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhu, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    Rail mounted gantry crane (RMGC) scheduling is important in reducing makespan of handling operation and improving container handling efficiency. In this paper, we present an RMGC scheduling optimization model, whose objective is to determine an optimization handling sequence in order to minimize RMGC idle load time in handling tasks. An ant colony optimization is proposed to obtain near optimal solutions. Computational experiments on a specific railway container terminal are conducted to illustrate the proposed model and solution algorithm. The results show that the proposed method is effective in reducing the idle load time of RMGC. PMID:25538768

  18. Doppler lidar mounted on a wind turbine nacelle – UPWIND deliverable D6.7.1

    OpenAIRE

    Angelou, Nikolas; Mann, Jakob; Courtney, Michael; Sjöholm, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    A ZephIR prototype wind lidar manufactured by QinetiQ was mounted on the nacelle of a Vestas V27 wind turbine and measurements of the incoming wind flow towards the rotor of the wind turbine were acquired for approximately 3 months (April - June 2009). The objective of this experiment was the investigation of the turbulence attenuation induced in the lidar measurements. In this report are presented results from data analysis over a 21-hour period (2009-05-05 12:00 – 2009-05-06 09:00). During ...

  19. Evidence for Magmatic Intrusion at Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska, from GPS measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, P. F.; Coombs, M. L.; Freymueller, J. T.; McGee, K. A.

    2005-12-01

    Mount Spurr is a 3400-m high ice- and snow-covered andesitic stratovolcano located ~105 km east of Anchorage, Alaska, USA. Two historical eruptions (1953 and 1992) have occurred. Both were sub-Plinian (VEI 4), the eruption columns reaching ~20 km above sea level, and both deposited several mm of ash over south-central Alaska. In July, 2004, the micro-seismicity rate at Mount Spurr rose markedly. At about the same time, a melt pit appeared at Spurr's summit. Airborne gas measurements, begun in August 2004, showed abnormally high CO2 flux (~1000 tonnes/day). A plausible interpretation of this unrest is the intrusion of magma at some depth beneath Mount Spurr. As volatiles began to exsolve from the intrusion, they rose into the edifice, raising pore fluid pressure and triggering the increased seismicity. The rising volatiles carried heat convectively to the surface, melting the ice and snow at the summit. In an effort to image the hypothesized magmatic intrusion, three telemetered, continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers were deployed on the flanks of Mount Spurr in September, 2004. Four campaign monuments were also established and then re-occupied in June, 2005. For terrain and logistical reasons, the stations are located predominantly to the south of the summit, though one campaign station does lie slightly to the northwest. Benchmark instability is a concern in this region of alpine permafrost. One station in particular shows evidence of seasonal down-slope creep. We calculated station velocities from the GPS measurements, correcting for obvious benchmark instability where possible. The velocity field stands out prominently from the background regional signal. The southern stations, including all three continuous instruments, show a radial pattern of motion, with the center roughly coincident with Spurr's summit, with a maximum horizontal velocity of 3 to 4 cm/yr. However, the northwest campaign station shows little or no motion, making it inconsistent

  20. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications, supplement 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Reports are compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) that gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed in this report are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations--National and International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is included together with errata for the first report.

  1. Mounting for Fabrication, Metrology, and Assembly of Full Shell Grazing Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jacqueline M.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.

    2014-01-01

    Future x-ray telescopes will likely require lightweight mirrors to attain the large collecting areas needed to accomplish the science objectives. Understanding and demonstrating processes now is critical to achieving sub-arcsecond performance in the future. Consequently, designs not only of the mirrors but of fixtures for supporting them during fabrication, metrology, handling, assembly, and testing must be adequately modeled and verified. To this end, MSFC is using finite-element modeling to study the effects of mounting on full-shell grazing-incidence mirrors, during all processes leading to flight mirror assemblies. Here we report initial results of this study.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Skid-mounted LNG Plants Using HYSYS Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhi-guang; WANG Rong-shun; GU An-zhong; SHI Yu-mei

    2007-01-01

    This study presents three kinds of skid-mounted plants, including single mixed refrigerant cycle (MRC), nitrogen expander cycle, and natural gas (NG) Claude cycle. Hysys simulation shows that single MRC is the most efficient cycle among the three. The specific power of single MRC liquefiers is 1 485 kJ/kg, 15% higher than that of large liquefaction process. Considering the recovery of stranded-gas, commercial analysis suggests that the initial cost of LNG plants ranging from 1 to 100 m3/day can be paid back in 2 to 4 years.

  3. Target detection performance in helmet-mounted and conventional dome displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, L J; Nelson, W T; Haas, M W

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess visual target detection performance using a helmet-mounted display (HMD) and a conventional flight simulation dome display. Measures of workload and mood were also obtained. Participants in both viewing conditions scanned an area 120 degrees vertical by 240 degrees horizontal while attempting to locate targets that appeared to be approaching them from one of a possible 18 locations. Results indicated significantly superior performance in the conventional dome display. Workload and mood measures also showed a significant advantage for the dome display. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the design and use of HMD systems as components of airborne virtual environment interfaces.

  4. Sea-floor-mounted rotating side-scan sonar for making time-lapse sonographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David M.; McCulloch, David S.; Hill, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    A rotating side-scan sonar system was designed to make time-lapse sonographs of a circular area of the sea floor. To construct the system, the transducers of a commercial side-scan system (frequency 105 kHz; pulse length 0.1 ms; horizontal beam width 1°; vertical beam width 20°; beam depressed 10° with respect to horizontal) were mounted 2 m above the sea floor on a vertical shaft that had a rotation speed of 0.5 rpm.

  5. Development of a car-mounted nuclear material monitoring system: A prototype system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a car-mounted neutron and gamma monitoring system as a nuclear material detection system (NMDS). The system has been equipped with Geiger Muller detector (GM) and NaI(Tl) detectors for gamma-ray surveillance, and 3He detector for neutron surveillance. The customized interface board based on ARM core CPU and graphical user interface (GUI)-based software provide the system with counting and spectroscopy functions of gamma-ray and neutron in each window. The system showed good performances in detecting and analyzing suspicious radioactive materials even at low-level activities.

  6. Large Eddy Simulation of flow over a wall-mounted cube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large Eddy Simulation of flow over a wall-mounted cube in a channel was performed at Reynolds number of 40000. The subgrid-scale stress terms were obtained using the Selective Structure Function model (SSF) in which eddy viscosity is switched off in the regions where the flow is not three-dimensionally enough. A series of time-averaged velocities and Reynolds stresses are computed and compared with experimental data. It is shown that in general with a coarse grid resolution, it is possible to obtain relatively accurate results as compared to the experiment. (author)

  7. A low-cost mirror mount control system for optics setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Gühr, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We describe a flexible, simple to build, low-cost, and computer-controlled optical mirror actuator system, developed for undergraduate research laboratories. Geared motors for hobby robotics are controlled by an Arduino microcontroller in combination with an H bridge to finely position mirror mount actuators. We present a graphical user interface based on the Python script language. The price of the fully controlled actuator system is only a small fraction of the price of a commercial system. It can be quickly implemented due to the use of open-hardware electronics. We discuss the performance of the system and give an outlook for future expansions and use in advanced optical setups.

  8. Analysis of Head Mounted Wireless Camera Videos for Early Diagnosis of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Zolnierek, Andrej; Wozniak, Michal; Puchala, Edward; Kurzynski, Marek; Noris, B.; Benmachiche, K.; Meynet, Julien; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Billard, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a computer based approach to analysis of social interaction experiments for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in young children of 6-18 months of age. We apply face detection on videos from a head-mounted wireless camera to measure the time a child spends looking at people. In-Plane rotation invariant Face Detection is used to detect faces from the diverse directions of the children’s head. Skin color detection is used to render the system more robust...

  9. Finite element simulation for mechanical response of surface mounted solder joints under different temperature cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鑫; 钱乙余

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear finite element simulation for mechanical response of surface mounted solder joint under different temperature cycling was carried out. Seven sets of parameters were used in order to evaluate the influence of temperature cycling profile parameters. The results show that temperature cycling history has significant effect on the stress response of the solder joint. Based on the concept of relative damage stress proposed by the authors, it is found that enough high temperature holding time is necessary for designing the temperature cycling profile in accelerated thermal fatigue test.

  10. Test program on the contamination of ultraviolet region mirrors by Apollo Telescope Mount materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of testing performed to measure the effects of material outgas products on the reflectances of ultraviolet-region mirrors. These tests were to provide data on changes of ultraviolet reflectances of first-surface mirrors which had been exposed to the outgas products of selected materials under specific time and thermal-vacuum conditions. The requirement for such data was based on the extreme sensitivity of the sophisticated optical instruments in the Skylab mission's Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) to condensed outgas products from materials, and on the desire to insure that no serious hazard of contaminating these instruments existed.

  11. Unsteady flow patterns in the vicinity of heated wall-mounted transverse ribs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Guillaume; Padet, Jacques

    2002-10-01

    This paper deals with experimental modeling of the unsteady junction flow features in the vicinity of an isoflux heated wall with mounted insulated rectangular ribs representing three distinctive ribbed test geometries. Both flow visualizations and surface temperature distributions show that the blockage effect upstream of the ribs, as well as the presence of complex eddy structures inside the open cavities, significantly affect the heat transfer process. All the configurations indicate degraded heat transfer performance in the area close to the ribs and an enhancement just downstream from the last rib. PMID:12496017

  12. PASSIVE-ACTIVE CONTROL OF POWER FLOW IN AN ISOLATION SYSTEM MOUNTED ON FLEXIBLE FOUNDATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A general model of flexible isolation systems which involves both the passive and active control factors is established by inserting actuators into an passive isolation system. And the power flow transmission function in such a system as with multi-disturbance, multi-mounts, passive isolators and actuators is deduced. By means of the numerical simulation method, the influence of actuators on power flow transmission characteristic is studied. And as a conclusion, the passive-active synthetic control strategy of power flow is summarized.

  13. Sacred Networks and Struggles among the Karen Baptists across the Thailand-Burma Border Réseaux sacrés et conflits parmi les Baptistes karen de part et d’autre de la frontière birmano-thaïlandaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Horstmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I provide a case study of a moving border between Thailand and Burma. Emphasizing the agency of people who become refugees, the article is concerned to point out the important role of religious networks in providing humanitarian assistance, shelter and mobility to stateless Karen refugees. I argue that Christian and Buddhist literate networks- realigned in political exile, develop competing visions of a Karen “homeland.” Arguing that membership in the network is crucial for survival, the article follows the social organization and religious practices in Baptist networks. I examine how the Baptist church network in close partnership with the Karen National Union is able or not able to mobilize refugees for proselytization. Karen refugee leaders and KNU-pastors find analogies in the bible to find an explanation to the suffering of the Karen civil population in the war. The article is interested in the nexus and overlap of humanitarian ideology, Christianity and nationalism in the transitional space between Thailand and Burma. Providing case-studies of individual refugees, the article gives ethnographic sketches from the refugee camp, the countryside and humanitarian assistance to the internally displaced.Cet article est une étude de cas d’une frontière mouvante entre la Thaïlande et la Birmanie. Insistant sur l’agency (action de personnes devenues des réfugiés, l’article souligne le rôle important des réseaux religieux qui apportent une assistance humanitaire, des abris et de la mobilité à des réfugiés karen dépourvus d’État. Je soutiens que les réseaux intellectuels chrétiens et bouddhistes, recomposés dans l’exil, développent des visions concurrentes d’une « mère-patrie » karen. Soutenant que la participation au réseau est cruciale pour la survie, l’article développe plus particulièrement l’organisation sociale et les pratiques religieuses en vigueur dans les réseaux baptistes. J

  14. Fundamentally excited flow past a surface-mounted rib. Part I: Turbulent structure characterisation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Panigrahi

    2001-10-01

    Different data analysis techniques for characterisation of the turbulent flow past a surface-mounted rib are reviewed. Deficiencies of the existing techniques are explained and modified techniques for determination of coherent structure magnitude and phase jitter are suggested. The effect of fundamental excitation on the flow is studied by using these turbulent signal analysis techniques. The appropriate length scale for characterizing the large-scale structures present in the reattaching shear layer of the surface-mounted rib is found to be the momentum thickness at the downstream edge of the rib, and the corresponding Strouhal number is 0.013. This is in contrast to a rib in the free stream, where the rib height is the correct scaling parameter. The post reattachment region is observed to be dominated by large-scale structures contrary to the traditional belief that large eddies break into small scales at the reattachment location. Low magnitude of phase jitter in the near field region is observed, indicating coherence of the flow structures. Phase decorrelation begins to occur beyond three rib heights from the downstream edge of the rib. From the quadrant analysis results, the outer edge of the shear layer is observed to be dominated by large-scale ejection motions.

  15. Dissection and Flat-mounting of the Threespine Stickleback Branchial Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nicholas A; Miller, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    The posterior pharyngeal segments of the vertebrate head give rise to the branchial skeleton, the primary site of food processing in fish. The morphology of the fish branchial skeleton is matched to a species' diet. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have emerged as a model system to study the genetic and developmental basis of evolved differences in a variety of traits. Marine populations of sticklebacks have repeatedly colonized countless new freshwater lakes and creeks. Adaptation to the new diet in these freshwater environments likely underlies a series of craniofacial changes that have evolved repeatedly in independently derived freshwater populations. These include three major patterning changes to the branchial skeleton: reductions in the number and length of gill raker bones, increases in pharyngeal tooth number, and increased branchial bone lengths. Here we describe a detailed protocol to dissect and flat-mount the internal branchial skeleton in threespine stickleback fish. Dissection of the entire three-dimensional branchial skeleton and mounting it flat into a largely two-dimensional prep allows for the easy visualization and quantification of branchial skeleton morphology. This dissection method is inexpensive, fast, relatively easy, and applicable to a wide variety of fish species. In sticklebacks, this efficient method allows the quantification of skeletal morphology in genetic crosses to map genomic regions controlling craniofacial patterning. PMID:27213248

  16. Evolution of solar radiative effects of Mount Pinatubo at ground level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alados-Arboledas, L.; Olmo, F. J.; Ohvril, H. O.; Teral, H.; Arak, M.; Teral, K.

    1997-04-01

    The field research reported here contributes to the documentation on the effect of stratospheric aerosols produced by the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Using ground-based data obtained at 2 radiometric stations, located at very different latitudes (Estonia and Spain), we have studied the evolution of the Pinatubo eruption effects. Following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo there is a significant reduction in direct solar radiation, of about 10% in Almeria (Spain) and 7% in Tiirikoja (Estonia). The maximum reduction, of about 15% and 9% respectively, is measured during the 1991-1992 winter. The aerosol optical depth in Almeria presents, aside from the seasonal dependence, evident influences due to the volcanic aerosol cloud. We have tried to isolate this last effect. As a result, we have found that the 1991/1992 winter presented the maximum volcanic effects, with a decay along 1992 and a recovery in the 1992/1993 winter. These results are in agreement with more sophisticated studies of the aerosol cloud effects. By the 1993-1994 winter, our analysis shows evidence of a recovery of pre-eruption conditions confirmed by the aerosol optical depth behaviour during 1994. The analysis of Tiirikoja data set using an atmospheric integral transparency coefficient leads to similar results. The volcanic aerosol effect shows an exponential decay in both locations estimated at 8.6±1.9months for Almeria and 8.9±3.5months for Tiirikoja.

  17. Potential hazards from future eruptions of Mount St. Helens volanco, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandell, D.R.; Mullineaux, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Mount St. Helens has been more active and more explosive during the last 4500 years than any other volcano in the conterminous United States. Eruptions of that period repeatedly formed domes, large volumes of pumice, hot pyroclastic flows, and during the last 2500 years, lava flows. Some of this activity resulted in mudflows that extended tens of kilometers down the floors of valleys that head at the volcano. This report describes the nature of these phenomena and their threat to people and property; the accompaning maps show areas likely to be affected by future eruptions of Mount St. Helens. Explosive eruptions that produce large volumes of pumice affect large areas because winds can carry the lightweight material hundreds of kilometers from the volcano. Because of prevailing winds, the 180/sup 0/ sector east of the volcano will be affected most often and most severely by future eruptions of this kind. However, the pumice from any one eruption probably will fall in only a small part of that sector. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows also can affect areas far from the volcano, but the areas they affect are smaller because they follow valleys. Mudflows and possibly pyroclastic flows moving rapidly down Swift and Pine Creeks could displace water in Swift Reservoir, which could cause disastrous floods farther downvalley.

  18. Multispectral calibration to enhance the metrology performance of C-mount camera systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, S.; MacDonald, L.; Kyle, S. A.; Shortis, M. R.

    2014-06-01

    Low cost monochrome camera systems based on CMOS sensors and C-mount lenses have been successfully applied to a wide variety of metrology tasks. For high accuracy work such cameras are typically equipped with ring lights to image retro-reflective targets as high contrast image features. Whilst algorithms for target image measurement and lens modelling are highly advanced, including separate RGB channel lens distortion correction, target image circularity compensation and a wide variety of detection and centroiding approaches, less effort has been directed towards optimising physical target image quality by considering optical performance in narrow wavelength bands. This paper describes an initial investigation to assess the effect of wavelength on camera calibration parameters for two different camera bodies and the same `C-mount' wide angle lens. Results demonstrate the expected strong influence on principal distance, radial and tangential distortion, and also highlight possible trends in principal point, orthogonality and affinity parameters which are close to the parameter estimation noise level from the strong convergent self-calibrating image networks.

  19. Rhizocarpon calibration curve for the Aoraki/Mount Cook area of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Thomas V.; Schoenenberger, Katherine; Deddens, James A.; Denton, George H.; Smith, Colby; Black, Jessica; Hendy, Chris H.

    2005-05-01

    Development of Rhizocarpon growth curve from the Aoraki/Mount Cook area of New Zealand provides a means to assess Little Ice Age glacier behaviour and suggests approaches that have wider application. Employing a sampling strategy based on large populations affords the opportunity to assess which of various metrics (e.g. single largest, average of five largest, mean of an entire population) best characterise Rhizocarpon growth patterns. The 98% quantile from each population fitted with a quadric curve forms a reliable representation of the growth pattern. Since this metric does not depend on the original sample size, comparisons are valid where sample strategy must be adapted to local situations or where the original sample size differs. For the Aoraki/Mount Cook area a surface 100 years old will have a 98% quantile lichen diameter of 34.3 mm, whereas a 200-year-old surface will have a lichen diameter of 73.7 mm. In the Southern Alps, constraints from the age range of calibration points, the flattening of the quadric calibration curve and ecological factors limit the useful age range to approximately 250 years. Copyright

  20. Medical linear accelerator mounted mini-beam collimator: design, fabrication and dosimetric characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work was to design, build and experimentally characterize a linear accelerator mounted mini-beam collimator for use at a nominal 6 MV beam energy. Monte Carlo simulation was used in the design and dosimetric characterization of a compact mini-beam collimator assembly mounted to a medical linear accelerator. After fabrication, experimental mini-beam dose profiles and central axis relative output were measured and the results used to validate the simulation data. The simulation data was then used to establish traceability back to an established dosimetric code of practice. The Monte Carlo simulation work revealed that changes in collimator blade width have a greater influence on the valley-to-peak dose ratio than do changes in blade height. There was good agreement between the modeled and measured profile data, with the exception of small differences on either side of the central peak dose. These differences were found to be systematic across all depths and result from limitations associated with the collimator fabrication. Experimental mini-beam relative output and simulation data agreed to better than  ±2.0%, which is well within the level of uncertainty required for dosimetric traceability of non-standard field geometries. A mini-beam collimator has now been designed, built and experimentally characterized for use with a commercial linear accelerator operated at a nominal 6 MV beam energy. (paper)