Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.
Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.
... meters per hectare (1600 gallons per acre); soil to be from 4.5 °C to 32 °C (40 °F to 90 °F). (7) Root..., of any kind. (10) Ear corn, except shucked ear corn. (11) Used crates, boxes, and burlap bags,...
Lignocellulosic composites (LCs) were prepared by partially dissolving cotton along with steam exploded Aspen wood and burlap fabric reinforcements utilizing an ionic liquid (IL) solvent. Two methods of preparation were employed. In the first method, a controlled amount of IL was added to preassembl...
Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman, are a quarantine issue for nursery shipments to certain U.S. states. The Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP) allows balled and burlapped (B&B) root ball immersion in chlorpyrifos or bifenthrin for P. japonica certification. Study objective...
Dominguez, Graciela; And Others
Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…
Montague, Thayne; Kjelgren, Roger; Allen, Rick; Wester, David
Over three growing seasons (1994-1996), water loss of five recently transplanted, balled and burlaped (B&B) tree species was investigated using below-ground, electronic weighing lysimeters. For each species, actual tree water loss was correlated with reference evapotranspiration (ETo) to create a water loss multiplier. At the beginning of each growing season a single tree was planted into each lysimeter. Selected species were London planetree (Platanus x acerifolia 'Bloodgood'), corkscrew ...
Full Text Available Lignocellulosic composites (LCs were prepared by partially dissolving cotton along with steam exploded Aspen wood and burlap fabric reinforcements utilizing an ionic liquid (IL solvent. Two methods of preparation were employed. In the first method, a controlled amount of IL was added to preassembled dry matrix of cotton and Aspen wood with a burlap weave reinforcement. In the second method, IL solvent, cotton, and Aspen wood were mixed to produce a thick paste matrix that was subsequently pressed into the burlap weave reinforcement. The IL-based solvent was removed via water soaking, and the flexural and tensile properties of the LCs were examined. In this study, the matrix paste method produced a superior LC. Variables such as processing time (IL interaction time and fabric weaves were found to influence the mechanical properties of the LCs. Although significant process optimization can still be realized, the mechanical properties of several of the LCs fabricated in this study were comparable to injection molded test specimens of neat high density polyethylene or neat polypropylene.
Madheswaran, C. K.; Ambily, P. S.; Dattatreya, J. K.; Ramesh, G.
This work describes the experimental investigation on behaviour of reinforced GPC beams subjected to monotonic static loading. The overall dimensions of the GPC beams are 250 mm × 300 mm × 2200 mm. The effective span of beam is 1600 mm. The beams have been designed to be critical in shear as per IS:456 provisions. The specimens were produced from a mix incorporating fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag, which was designed for a compressive strength of 40 MPa at 28 days. The reinforced concrete specimens are subjected to curing at ambient temperature under wet burlap. The parameters being investigated include shear span to depth ratio (a/d = 1.5 and 2.0). Experiments are conducted on 12 GPC beams and four OPCC control beams. All the beams are tested using 2000 kN servo-controlled hydraulic actuator. This paper presents the results of experimental studies.
Ryon, M. G.; Jett, R. T.; McCracken, M. K.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Fortner, A. M.; Goins, K. N.; Riazi, A. S.
A technique for increasing the establishment rate of American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) and simplifying planting was developed as part of a pond remediation project. Lotus propagation techniques typically require scarification of the seed, germination in heated water, and planting in nursery containers. Then mature (~ 1 yr) nursery-grown stock is transferred to planting site or scarified seed are broadcast applied. Mature plants should grow more quickly, but can be sensitive to handling, require more time to plant, and cost more. Scarified seeds are easier to plant and inexpensive, but have a lag time in growth, can fail to germinate, and can be difficult to site precisely. We developed an intermediate technique using small burlap bags that makes planting easier, provides greater germination success, and avoids lag time in growth. Data on survival and growth from experiments using mature stock, scarified seeds, and bag lotus demonstrate that bag lotus grow rapidly in a variety of conditions, have a high survival rate, can be processed and planted easily and quickly, and are very suitable for a variety of remediation projects
Klimkina, Iryna; Fedotov, Viacheslav; Heilmeier, Hermann
Last 50 years coal dumps reclamation in Ukraine was based on two- or three-layer models. These models use a fertile substratum underneath a black soil (chernozem) layer 0.5 m thick (Model 1) or 0.70-1 m thick (Model 2). Model 3 has 3 layers. The deepest layer is a substrate which is phytotoxic or unfavourable for crop growth (coal-bearing substrates with a high content of pyrite, saline substrates). The second layers acts as a protective shield and consist of loess (0.5 m). The third is the layer of fertile chernozem (0.3-0.8 m). However, due to the situation of a shortage of fertile soils, a lack of nutrient elements in the waste rock, and a moisture deficit with strong rock acidification, it is considered important to develop new non-traditional reclamation methods based on the geo-synthetic materials used in conjunction with sowing lawn grasses or grass seeds inside. The geogrids and biogeotextiles made from natural materials such as hemp, flax, jute, coconut and other plant biopolymer fibers are recommended for bioremediation. The biodegradable carcass of reclamation covering materials stabilises the slopes, effectively restraints the soil particles from leaching and blowing, and prevents wash-out of the plant seeds, as well as protecting them from being eaten by animals. The research object of the presented work was the coal dumps of sulfide rocks in Western Donbass (Ukraine). These rocks are characterized by low level of the maximum hygroscopic moisture (4.3%) and moisture content not available for plant growth (5-6%). Also the rock has an average level of salinity, mainly of the sulphate type. The main goal of the study was to justify the use of some non-traditional materials such as burlap (jute cloth), agricultural fibers (light non-woven material from polypropylene fiber of spun-bond type) and a padding of polyester in the capacity of a geosynthetic substrate as a basis for the mixed grass crop that enable a reduction in the bioremediation costs (in
Fabiano de Oliveira Fortes
Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado na Floresta Ombrófila Mista, de grande diversidade tipológica, em São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo foi estimar a serapilheira acumulada, coletada com diferentes tamanhos de molduras e determinar a intensidade amostral em cada estação sazonal. Foram obtidas 15 amostras aleatórias por hectare para cada moldura em cada estação sazonal. A serapilheira foi separada nos estratos folhas, cascas, galhos e miscelâneas, foi secada e pesada e os dados foram expressos em t ha-1. Procedeu-se uma análise de variância conjunta com as fontes de variação "moldura, estação, interação e erro". Foi estimada a média, a variância e o coeficiente de variação e foi realizado o teste de homogeneidade das variâncias entre as estações e entre as molduras. Admitindo-se um erro de amostragem máximo de 10, 15, 20 e 25% da média estimada, calculou-se a intensidade de amostragem, por hectare, para população infinita. A interação entre moldura e estação não foi significativa para a serapilheira e para os estratos e nem houve diferenças significativas entre as molduras. As variâncias da serapilheira foram homogêneas entre as molduras nas quatro estações e foram heterogêneas entre as estações nas quatro molduras. É preferido usar a moldura muito pequena (0,25m², com 27 unidades de amostra no inverno, 25 na primavera, 33 no outono e 15 no verão para uma precisão de 15% de diferença entre as médias.The present research was accomplished in the Forest Mixed Ombrófila of São Francisco de Paula - FLONA, being this representative of great diversity in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective was to esteem the accumulated burlap collected with four different collecting frames and the amostral intensity in each seasonal station. 15 random samples were collected for each frame by hectare in each seasonal station being separated in the stratus leaves, peels, branches and miscellany. It was
Kimiti, David W; Riginos, Corinna; Belnap, Jayne
Rangeland degradation, typified by extensive bare ground and soil erosion, is a serious problem around the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, rangeland degradation threatens the food security of millions of people who depend on livestock and the region's large mammalian wildlife diversity. We tested the ability of five simple, low-cost erosion barriers to promote grass and forb establishment in a bare ground-dominated rangeland in Kenya. These treatments were: (1) trenches with small berms; (2) bundles of branches; and bundles of branches with (3) elephant dung balls, (4) burlap sacking, or (5) nylon mesh sacking inside them. We also tested whether barrier performance depended on (1) supplemental seeding with the grass Cenchrus ciliaris and (2) whether a barrier was located next to existing vegetation patches versus in the open. Within months, the trench and nylon mesh barriers had accumulated 20–50% more sediment than other treatments and had greater grass and forb seedling establishment. Seeding with Cenchrusresulted in higher herbaceous cover but was not necessary for other grasses to establish. After 3 years, the trench and nylon mesh barriers had created patches of new vegetation averaging 18–63% larger than patches created by the other treatments. Barriers that were initially adjacent to existing vegetation had created new vegetation patches averaging 65% larger than those created by solitary barriers. Results suggest that all barrier types increase grass cover but that trenches—especially if placed next to existing vegetation patches—are a particularly cost-effective way to reduce bare ground and erosion in degraded rangelands.
Moralejo Álvarez, María Remedios
Full Text Available La Universidad de Zaragoza puede honrarse de poseer dos piezas excepcionales, fruto del genio de los dos aragoneses más universales: un ejemplar de la primera edición de los Caprichos de Goya con comentarios manuscritos y el Atlas de Anatomía de Cajal y sus sucesores. Este artículo informa sobre el tratamiento de estas dos obras en la Biblioteca Universitaria y se centra en el Atlas de Anatomía, restaurado. El Atlas es un enorme volumen (1.385 x 950 x 9.5 cm y unos 60 Kg de peso con tapas de madera forradas de arpillera, lomos y cantoneras de piel y dos cierres metálicos, con 34 hojas que contienen 49 láminas en color, las doce primeras tradicionalmente atribuidas a Cajal entre 1877 y 1883 y las restantes de otros autores, contemporáneos o posteriores. El Atlas fue, durante años, intensamente utilizado en las clases como material didáctico. Cuando dejó de utilizarse, a los daños producidos por el uso se sumaron los de la humedad. El Atlas de Anatomía, restaurado, y enriquecido con seis láminas descubiertas en el proceso de restauración, se incorporó a la colección histórica de la biblioteca Universitaria.The University of Zaragoza can be honoured of owning two exceptional pieces, fruit of the genius of the two most universal Aragonese men: a copy of the first edition of Goya's Caprichos with manuscript commentaries, and the Atlas of Anatomy of Cajal and his successors. This article reports on dealing with both works in University Library and focuses on the Atlas of Anatomy restored. The Atlas is an enormous volume (1.385 x 950 x 9.5 cm. and nearly 60 kg in weight with wooden covers lined with burlap, leather spine and cornerpieces and two metal clasps, with 34 leaves containing 49 pictures in colour, the first twelve are traditionally attributed to Cajal, betwen1877 and 1883; the following pictures from other authors, contemporary and later than Cajal. The Atlas was intensively used in the classroom for many years as didactic
Patucci, Natalia; Oliveira, Deborah
Soil quality is particularly through composition and structure, as well as by, measured by physical and chemical indicators, as well as by living organisms contained therein, which play the most varied ecological functions. The abundance and diversity of soil macrofauna in ecosystems can be affected by many factors, precisely because these organisms are sensitive to environmental changes, whether induced or natural. Thus, soil populations can be measured as bioindicators, since changes in the community may indicate possible changes in soil functioning. This research aims to survey the biodiversity of meso soil fauna environments with remaining Atlantic Forest (Fontes do Ipiranga park, Cantareira park and Jaraguá park) in order to detect specific features and significant changes in ecological function performed by these soil communities. The project aims to develop an overview of multivariate understanding about soil, especially the relation of variation of pedofauna with the occurring physical and chemical modifications in order to be able to prove the adaptation of soil fauna with variations in temperature, humidity, sunshine, influence of vegetation, soil genesis and topographic gradient. According to Lavelle & Spain (2001), the temperature and humidity are the main factors that activate the metabolic regulation in subjects of soil fauna, which ultimately determine their spatial distribution, periods of increased activity, peculiarities and significant changes, the function of these communities in the substrate. Two combining sampling will be performed, one in the rainy season, in January, and another in the dry season, in July, with the purpose of measuring the diversity of populations according to seasonality. Invertebrates associated soil interface - burlap (Moreira et al, 2010) will be caught by pitfall traps, which will be distributed in three installments by park, containing a sampling gride with nine equidistant points 30 meters of each other. Through