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Sample records for burkina faso communities

  1. Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La sensibilisation contre la scarification eviterait la surinfection. Mots-cles : tumeur royale, Recklinghausen, scarification, chirurgie. Traditional scarification, superinfected royal tumors and surgery in the Von Recklinghausen disease: two cases report in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) Surgical resection is indicated in cases of ...

  2. BURKINA FASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydie S. A. Yiougo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities in developing countries are faced waste management challenges in terms of quantity and quality. Most of the time, solid and liquid wastes are dumped on street and open spaces. Uncontrolled waste dumped has led to diverse kind of health problems. The purpose of this article is to characterize urban cities and evaluate their waste generation using the Geographical Info rmation System (GIS. The focus is on two cities in Burkina Faso. Specific variabl es which were considered during the survey include urban fabric, grey water outlets a nd household garbage dumps sites/techniques. The study shows that in the two cities, the most dominant urban fabric is low standard of living (about 64% of housing in Fada and 62% of housing in Pouytenga. The urban fabric is also characterized by the exis tence of empty spaces. Overall, the average density of grey water discharge points is 0.85 points and 5.7 points per ha of street in Fada N’Gourma and Pouytenga respectivel y. The average density of solid waste dumps is 1.45 waste dumps per ha street a nd 7 waste dumps per ha street in Fada N'Gourma and Pouytenga respectively. In case of urgent waste management intervention, the priority areas for speedy intervention are area 10 in Fada N’Gourma, areas 2 and 5 in Pouytenga. GIS applied to w aste management can be a decision making tool for urban planne rs in developing country.

  3. Community engagement for better health in Burkina Faso | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... An innovative mHealth project called MOS@N is helping vulnerable populations in the Nouna district of Burkina Faso enjoy better health and greater access to health services. The project has also enhanced the status of women health workers by overcoming deep-seated gender biases. View infographics.

  4. Migration in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. A recent World Bank investigation finds a significant positive relationship between international migration and poverty reduction at the country level (Adams and Page 2003). Burkina Faso, whose conditions for

  5. Burkina Faso situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This article presents some of the major findings of a study investigating Burkina Faso's national family planning program, the results of which will be used to improve and expand the program. Burkina Faso established a family planning program in 1985. Administered by the Ministere de la Sante et de l'Action Sociale (MSAS), family planning services are currently available in 90 clinical service delivery points. MSAS and Africa OR/TA jointly examined the national family planning program. Researchers created an inventory of the administrative subsystems and service statistics, observed the interactions between clients and family planning providers, and conducted interviews with clients and staff. Some of the major findings include: 1) On the whole, the clinics' infrastructure was adequate, although disparities in terms of equipment were noted between urban and rural clinics (1/3 of provincial clinics lacked examination tables and 3/4 lacked sterilizers). 2) Most family planning providers were midwives, 15% of whom had not received formal training. 3) IEC materials were available in less than 1/2 the clinics. 4) Nearly 1/2 of the clinics had not received supervisory visits in the 6 months prior to the study. 5) Inconsistency marred clinic record-keeping, making it difficult to accurately analyze clinic performance. Finally, researchers examined the quality of care. Due to the lack of reliable records, quality measurements were based on observations and interviews. Clinics generally offered 4 contraceptive methods (pill, IUD, condom, and spermicide). But less than 1/2 of clients were instructed about the possible side-effects. Only in 1/2 of all consultations were the clients' reproductive intentions discussed. No follow-up mechanism existed.

  6. Uptake of HIV testing in Burkina Faso: an assessment of individual and community-level determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Jean, Kévin; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu

    2017-05-22

    Previous studies have highlighted a range of individual determinants associated with HIV testing but few have assessed the role of contextual factors. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of both individual and community-level determinants of HIV testing uptake in Burkina Faso. Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, the determinants of lifetime HIV testing were examined for sexually active women (n = 14,656) and men (n = 5680) using modified Poisson regression models. One third of women (36%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33-37%) reported having ever been tested for HIV compared to a quarter of men (26%; 95% CI: 24-27%). For both genders, age, education, religious affiliation, household wealth, employment, media exposure, sexual behaviors, and HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. After adjustment, women living in communities where the following characteristics were higher than the median were more likely to report uptake of HIV testing: knowledge of where to access testing (Prevalence Ratio [PR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.34-1.48), willing to buy food from an infected vendor (PR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.31-3.24), highest wealth quintiles (PR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.10-1.27), not working year-round (PR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84-0.96), and high media exposure (PR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.19). Men living in communities where the proportion of respondents were more educated (PR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41) than the median were more likely to be tested. This study shed light on potential mechanisms through which HIV testing could be increased in Burkina Faso. Both individual and contextual factors should be considered to design effective strategies for scaling-up HIV testing.

  7. Burkina Faso : Opportunities for Children

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Burkina Faso's Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) of the 2000s, which were implemented as annually rolled-over Priority Action Programs, focused on four pillars: a) accelerating broad based growth; b) expanding access to social services for the poor; c) increasing employment and income-generating activities for the poor; and d) promoting good governance. Increased public expenditure and ta...

  8. Uptake of HIV testing in Burkina Faso: an assessment of individual and community-level determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fati Kirakoya-Samadoulougou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have highlighted a range of individual determinants associated with HIV testing but few have assessed the role of contextual factors. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of both individual and community-level determinants of HIV testing uptake in Burkina Faso. Methods Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, the determinants of lifetime HIV testing were examined for sexually active women (n = 14,656 and men (n = 5680 using modified Poisson regression models. Results One third of women (36%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 33–37% reported having ever been tested for HIV compared to a quarter of men (26%; 95% CI: 24–27%. For both genders, age, education, religious affiliation, household wealth, employment, media exposure, sexual behaviors, and HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. After adjustment, women living in communities where the following characteristics were higher than the median were more likely to report uptake of HIV testing: knowledge of where to access testing (Prevalence Ratio [PR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.34–1.48, willing to buy food from an infected vendor (PR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.31–3.24, highest wealth quintiles (PR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.10–1.27, not working year-round (PR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84–0.96, and high media exposure (PR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03–1.19. Men living in communities where the proportion of respondents were more educated (PR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07–1.41 than the median were more likely to be tested. Conclusions This study shed light on potential mechanisms through which HIV testing could be increased in Burkina Faso. Both individual and contextual factors should be considered to design effective strategies for scaling-up HIV testing.

  9. Spoligotyping of Mycobacterium africanum, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Gomgnimbou, Michel K.; Refrégier, Guislaine; Diagbouga, Serge P.; Adama, Sanou; Kaboré, Antoinette; Ouiminga, Adama; Sola, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Using Ziehl-Neelsen–positive slides collected from tuberculosis diagnostic centers in Burkina Faso, we showed that 20% of 80 spoligotyping-positive DNA samples had a characteristic Mycobacterium africanum–specific genomic signature. This result suggests that M. africanum is still present in Burkina Faso at almost the same prevalence as 15–20 years ago.

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with asymptomatic malaria in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Bisseye, Cyrille; Bazie, Bapio Valery Jean Télesphore Elvira; Diarra, Birama; Compaore, Tegwindé Rebeca; Djigma, Florencia; Pietra, Virginio; Moret, Remy; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-08-01

    To investigate 4 combinations of mutations responsible for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in a rural community of Burkina Faso, a malaria endemic country. Two hundred individuals in a rural community were genotyped for the mutations A376G, G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism assays and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The prevalence of the G6PD deficiency was 9.5% in the study population. It was significantly higher in men compared to women (14.3% vs 6.0%, P=0.049). The 202A/376G G6PD A- was the only deficient variant detected. Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic parasitaemia was significantly higher among the G6PD-non-deficient persons compared to the G6PD-deficient (P<0.001). The asymptomatic parasitaemia was also significantly higher among G6PD non-deficient compared to G6PD-heterozygous females (P<0.001). This study showed that the G6PD A- variant associated with protection against asymptomatic malaria in Burkina Faso is probably the most common deficient variant.

  11. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W, Burkina Faso, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    MacNeil, Jessica R.; Medah, Isaïe; Koussoubé, Daouda; Novak, Ryan T.; Cohn, Amanda C.; Diomandé, Fabien V.K.; Yelbeogo, Denis; Kambou, Jean Ludovic; Tarbangdo, Tiga F.; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Sangaré, Lassana; Hatcher, Cynthia; Vuong, Jeni; Mayer, Leonard W.; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to introduce meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT). During 2012, Burkina Faso reported increases in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W, raising questions about whether these cases were a natural increase in disease or resulted from serogroup replacement after PsA-TT introduction. We analyzed national surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of serogroup W and genotyped 61 serogroup W isolates. In 2012, a total of 5,807 mening...

  12. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  13. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country’s iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur’s mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to

  14. Perinatal mortality in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Abdoulaye

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a scarcity of reliable data on perinatal mortality (PNM in Sub-Saharan Africa. The PROMISE-EBF trial, during which we promoted exclusive breastfeeding, gave us the opportunity to describe the epidemiology of PNM in Banfora Health District, South-West in Burkina Faso. Study objectives To measure the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR in the PROMISE-EBF cohort in Banfora Health District and to identify potential risk factors for perinatal death. Methods We used data collected prospectively during the PROMISE-EBF-trial to estimate the stillbirth rate (SBR and early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR. We used binomial regression with generalized estimating equations to identify potential risk factors for perinatal death. Results 895 pregnant women were enrolled for data collection in the EBF trial and followed-up to 7 days after birth. The PNMR, the SBR and the ENMR, were 79 per 1000 (95% CI: 59-99, 54 per 1000 (95% CI: 38-69 and 27 per 1000 (95% CI: 9-44, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, nulliparous women (RR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.6-5.0, primiparae mothers (RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9, twins (RR = 4.0, 95% CI: 2.3-6.9 and giving birth during the dry season (RR = 2.1 95% CI: 1.3-3.3 were factors associated with increased risk of perinatal death. There was no evidence that risk of perinatal death differed between deliveries at home and at a health centre Conclusion Our study observed the highest PNMR ever reported in Burkina. There is an urgent need for sustainable interventions to improve maternal and newborn health in the country.

  15. All projects related to Burkina Faso | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The gendered socialization of very young adolescents in schools and sexual and reproductive health ... Resilience strategies to counter youth violence in Africa ... of the contributing factors to violence and the resilience strategies of youth and their communities in West Africa, particularly in Burkina Faso and in Senegal.

  16. Total Quality Management in the African business community of Burkina Faso : a change in perspective on knowledge development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, L.; Pennink, B.

    2007-01-01

    During the 1990s Total Quality Management (TQM) became diffused to Burkina Faso. The overarching logic of privatization due to Structural Adjustment Programs prepared the ground for far-reaching changes in management practices. TQM became exhorted as a new way of manufacturing. This new management

  17. [Demography and the cities in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirven, P

    1987-01-01

    Recent demographic trends in Burkina Faso are analyzed using data from the 1975 and 1985 censuses. Consideration is given to differences in population density by province, urbanization, and internal migration. The author concludes that although urbanization levels are moderate, if current levels of population growth continue there will be problems of urban readjustment and food supply by the year 2000. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  18. Burkina Faso's Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Briceño-Garmendia, Cecilia; Domínguez-Torres, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructure contributed 1.3 percentage points to Burkina Faso's annual per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth over the past decade, much of it due to improvements in information and communication technology (ICT). Raising the country's infrastructure endowment to that of the region's middle-income countries (MICs) could boost annual growth by more than 3 percentage points per ca...

  19. ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) au Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aperçu de la culture du voandzou ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) au Burkina Faso: enjeux et perspectives d'amélioration de sa productivité. ... Foliar diseases and insects in stock are major biotic constraints. Producers retain the seed in cans tightly closed. The average cycle of cultivated varieties is 90 days. The favorite ...

  20. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Saleri, Nuccia; Badoum, Gisèle; Ouedraogo, Martial; Dembélé, Sary M.; Nacanabo, Rachel; Bonkoungou, Victor; Cirillo, Daniela; Pinsi, Gabriele; Matteelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Because data from countries in Africa are limited, we measured the proportion of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) cases among TB patients in Burkina Faso for whom retreatment was failing. Of 34 patients with multidrug-resistant TB, 2 had an XDR TB strain. Second-line TB drugs should be strictly controlled to prevent further XDR TB increase.

  1. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Burkina Faso is among the poorest countries in the world. The energy situation in Burkina Faso is among the most critical issues which need to be addressed in the country. The electrical power grid is insufficient and only available in urban centers. Consequently wood and charcoal is used in order to meet the basic needs for heating, cooking, and lightning by the majority of the population. The resulting overuse of natural energy resources in Burkina Faso has been causing massive deforestation and desertification on the one hand and on the other hand scarcity in fuel wood availability. According to a recent feasibility study of the GTZ, biogas is thought to be one of the most sustainable solutions for developing energy self sufficiency in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Biogas is not a new concept in Burkina Faso, as the first biogas plants were already installed in the 70's. Recently a national biogas program and the activity of various NGOs lead to a rejuvenation of attempts to establish biogas in Burkina Faso. Although biogas has a long history in Burkina Faso, no significant breakthrough of this technology has happened so far. None of the biogas plants built during the last 40 years have been operational for a long time. This contribution presents a study aimed to analyze the partial success and failures of the attempts to install biogas plants so far. The study was conducted in May 2009 as part of a project for a model application of the technology in the frame of University cooperation between Austria (University of Innsbruck) and Burkina Faso (Universite Polytechnique du Bobo Dioulasso). During the field study four sites of existing biogas plants were visited, five interviews with experts conducted and two focus groups with potential users in a rural setting were conducted. The systemic approach, including technical as well as socioeconomic aspects, yielded a wealth of factors which can potentially influence the success of biogas projects in

  2. Process and effects of a community intervention on malaria in rural Burkina Faso: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Lars

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of young children affected by malaria have no access to formal health services. Home treatment through mothers of febrile children supported by mother groups and local health workers has the potential to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial was implemented from 2002–2004 in a malaria endemic area of rural Burkina Faso. Six and seven villages were randomly assigned to the intervention and control arms respectively. Febrile children from intervention villages were treated with chloroquine (CQ by their mothers, supported by local women group leaders. CQ was regularly supplied through a revolving fund from local health centres. The trial was evaluated through two cross-sectional surveys at baseline and after two years of intervention. The primary endpoint of the study was the proportion of moderate to severe anaemia in children aged 6–59 months. For assessment of the development of drug efficacy over time, an in vivo CQ efficacy study was nested into the trial. The study is registered under http://www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN 34104704. Results The intervention was shown to be feasible under program conditions and a total of 1.076 children and 999 children were evaluated at baseline and follow-up time points respectively. Self-reported CQ treatment of fever episodes at home as well as referrals to health centres increased over the study period. At follow-up, CQ was detected in the blood of high proportions of intervention and control children. Compared to baseline findings, the prevalence of anaemia (29% vs 16%, p P. falciparum parasitaemia, fever and palpable spleens was lower at follow-up but there were no differences between the intervention and control group. CQ efficacy decreased over the study period but this was not associated with the intervention. Discussion The decreasing prevalence of malaria

  3. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children: a qualitative study of community perceptions and recommendations in Burkina Faso and Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pitt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc is a highly efficacious method of malaria control where malaria transmission is highly seasonal. However, no studies published to date have examined community perceptions of IPTc. METHODS: A qualitative study was undertaken in parallel with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of IPTc conducted in Mali and Burkina Faso in 2008-2009 to assess community perceptions of and recommendations for IPTc. Caregivers and community health workers (CHWs were purposively sampled. Seventy-two in-depth individual interviews and 23 focus group discussions were conducted. FINDINGS: Widespread perceptions of health benefits for children led to enthusiasm for the trial and for IPTc specifically. Trust in and respect for those providing the tablets and a sense of obligation to the community to participate in sanctioned activities favoured initial adoption. IPTc fits in well with existing understandings of childhood illness. Participants did not express concerns about the specific drugs used for IPTc or about providing tablets to children without symptoms of malaria. There was no evidence that IPTc was perceived as a substitute for bed net usage, nor did it inhibit care seeking. Participants recommended that distribution be "closer to the population", but expressed concern over caregivers' ability to administer tablets at home. CONCLUSIONS: The trial context mediated perceptions of IPTc. Nonetheless, the results indicate that community perceptions of IPTc in the settings studied were largely favourable and that the delivery strategy rather than the tablets themselves presented the main areas of concern for caregivers and CHWs. The study identifies a number of key questions to consider in planning an IPTc distribution strategy. Single-dose formulations could increase the success of IPTc implementation, as could integration of IPTc within a package of activities, such as bed net

  4. Dengue Fever in Burkina Faso, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnagda, Zékiba; Cissé, Assana; Bicaba, Brice Wilfried; Diagbouga, Serge; Sagna, Tani; Ilboudo, Abdoul Kader; Tialla, Dieudonné; Lingani, Moussa; Sondo, K Appoline; Yougbaré, Issaka; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sow, Hyacinthe Euvrard; Sakandé, Jean; Sangaré, Lassana; Greco, Rebecca; Muscatello, David J

    2018-01-01

    We report 1,327 probable cases of dengue in Burkina Faso in 2016. Of 35 serum samples tested by a trioplex test, 19 were confirmed dengue virus (DENV)‒positive: 11 DENV-2, 6 DENV-3, 2 nontypeable, and 1 DENV-2/DENV-3 co-infection. Molecular testing should be conducted to correctly identify causative agents in this complex infectious disease landscape.

  5. Dengue Fever in Burkina Faso, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnagda, Zékiba; Cissé, Assana; Bicaba, Brice Wilfried; Diagbouga, Serge; Sagna, Tani; Ilboudo, Abdoul Kader; Tialla, Dieudonné; Lingani, Moussa; Sondo, K. Appoline; Yougbaré, Issaka; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sow, Hyacinthe Euvrard; Sakandé, Jean; Sangaré, Lassana; Greco, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    We report 1,327 probable cases of dengue in Burkina Faso in 2016. Of 35 serum samples tested by a trioplex test, 19 were confirmed dengue virus (DENV)‒positive: 11 DENV-2, 6 DENV-3, 2 nontypeable, and 1 DENV-2/DENV-3 co-infection. Molecular testing should be conducted to correctly identify causative agents in this complex infectious disease landscape.

  6. Effects of information, education, and communication campaign on a community-based health insurance scheme in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Cofie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The study analysed the effect of Information, Education, and Communication (IEC campaign activities on the adoption of a community-based health insurance (CHI scheme in Nouna, Burkina Faso. It also identified the factors that enhanced or limited the campaign's effectiveness. Design : Complementary data collection approaches were used. A survey was conducted with 250 randomly selected household heads, followed by in-depth interviews with 22 purposively selected community leaders, group discussions with the project management team, and field observations. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between household exposure to campaign and acquisition of knowledge as well as household exposure to campaign and enrolment. Results : The IEC campaign had a positive effect on households’ knowledge about the CHI and to a lesser extent on household enrolment in the scheme. The effectiveness of the IEC strategy was mainly influenced by: 1 frequent and consistent IEC messages from multiple media channels (mass and interpersonal channels, including the radio, a mobile information van, and CHI team, and 2 community heads’ participation in the CHI scheme promotion. Education was the only significantly influential socio-demographic determinant of knowledge and enrolment among household heads. The relatively low effects of the IEC campaign on CHI enrolment are indicative of other important IEC mediating factors, which should be taken into account in future CHI campaign evaluation. Conclusion : The study concludes that an IEC campaign is crucial to improving the understanding of the CHI scheme concept, which is an enabler to enrolment, and should be integrated into scheme designs and evaluations.

  7. Fiscal reforms and income inequalities in Senegal and Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performances of tax systems have been improved, with an appreciable reduction in inequality in the two countries, particularly for Burkina Faso. The excess fiscal revenues generated from taxation are more important after the reform for both Senegal and Burkina Faso. African Journal of Economic Policy Vol. 11(2) 2004: ...

  8. African Tobacco Situational Analyses (ATSA) in Burkina Faso ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Project Leader. Kangoye, Larba Theodore. Project Leader. Ki/Ouedraogo, Salimata. Institution. Association Burkinabé de Santé Publique. Institution Country. Burkina Faso. Project Leader. DONALD MAKOKA, Ph.D. Institution. University of Malawi.

  9. All projects related to Burkina Faso | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-07

    Project. In Burkina Faso, scientific research, invention and innovation have generated many results that could contribute to endogenous development. Start Date: February 7, 2008. End Date: February 7, 2014. Topic: RESEARCH RESULTS, APPLIED RESEARCH. Region: Burkina Faso, North of Sahara, South of Sahara.

  10. Burkina Faso : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gestion de l'eau de consommation et de la pollution dans le bassin versant de Yitenga, Burkina Faso - Phase II. Projet. La première phase de ce projet, 102474 ... Sujet: DAMS, RIVER BASINS, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, WATER SUPPLY, DIARRHOEAL DISEASES. Région: Burkina Faso, North of Sahara, South of ...

  11. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Pare

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO, in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.. Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North and Nayala (Northwest to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55 respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61 plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31 families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main

  12. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Dramane; Hilou, Adama; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Guenne, Samson

    2016-04-26

    Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution) can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc. ). Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North) and Nayala (Northwest) to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. The fifty-five (55) respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61) plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31) families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main families of plants are Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae

  13. Can Social Capital influence Smallholder Farmers’ Climate-Change Adaptation Decisions? Evidence from Three Semi-Arid Communities in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Yaméogo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of farmers’ social capital on their decisions to deal with climate change and climate variability in Burkina Faso. The study is based on a household survey conducted among 450 households, randomly selected from three communities in Burkina Faso. Two indexes were constructed to capture farmers’ structural and cognitive social capital; and using generalized Poisson regression (GPR and a multivariate probit model, the study probes the effect of farmers’ social capital on their choice of adaptation alternatives, the number of adaptation practices used, and the extent to which adaptation measures were applied. The results indicated that the effect of social capital depends on the type of indicator used and on the type of adaptation strategies necessary. Farmers’ cognitive social capital was significantly and positively related to their choice of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCT, and techniques such as agroforestry and irrigation. Structural social capital, on the other hand, was positively associated with the adoption of new varieties and conservation tillage strategies and negatively associated with the use of a crop-diversification strategy. The results also highlighted that socio-economic, institutional and agro-ecological variables determine farmers’ decisions to adapt to climate change.

  14. Neonatal haemoglobinopathy screening in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafando, E; Nacoulma, E; Ouattara, Y; Ayéroué, J; Cotton, F; Sawadogo, M; Gulbis, B

    2009-01-01

    To report our experience of neonatal screening for sickle cell disease in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and to discuss the feasibility of neonatal screening in this country. Between the years 2000 and 2004, there were about 2,341 births in five maternity services in Ouagadougou. These babies were screened for sickle cell disease in a universal screening pilot programme. In 2006, 53 babies born to selected couples were screened. The specimens were collected either by cord blood sampling or from a dried blood spot on filter paper. The screening was performed using an isoelectric focusing technique. In the first stage (2000-4), the incidence of sickle cell disease was 1:57. In the second stage, six of 53 babies of selected couples were found to have major haemoglobinopathies: one was homozygous for haemoglobin S and five were compound heterozygotes for haemoglobins S and C. The results suggest that a national screening programme should be implemented in Burkina Faso with effective newborn and subsequent follow-up, but a methodology needs to be developed.

  15. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W, Burkina Faso, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Medah, Isaïe; Koussoubé, Daouda; Novak, Ryan T; Cohn, Amanda C; Diomandé, Fabien V K; Yelbeogo, Denis; Kambou, Jean Ludovic; Tarbangdo, Tiga F; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Sangaré, Lassana; Hatcher, Cynthia; Vuong, Jeni; Mayer, Leonard W; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Clark, Thomas A; Messonnier, Nancy E

    2014-03-01

    In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to introduce meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT). During 2012, Burkina Faso reported increases in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W, raising questions about whether these cases were a natural increase in disease or resulted from serogroup replacement after PsA-TT introduction. We analyzed national surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of serogroup W and genotyped 61 serogroup W isolates. In 2012, a total of 5,807 meningitis cases were reported through enhanced surveillance, of which 2,353 (41%) were laboratory confirmed. The predominant organism identified was N. meningitidis serogroup W (62%), and all serogroup W isolates characterized belonged to clonal complex 11. Although additional years of data are needed before we can understand the epidemiology of serogroup W after PsA-TT introduction, these data suggest that serogroup W will remain a major cause of sporadic disease and has epidemic potential, underscoring the need to maintain high-quality case-based meningitis surveillance after PsA-TT introduction.

  16. Tomato leaf curl Burkina Faso virus: a novel tomato-infecting monopartite begomovirus from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Alassane; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Claverie, Sohini; Hoareau, Murielle; Traoré, Edgard Valentin; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Oumar; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    In this report, we present the first description of the complete genome sequence of a new monopartite begomovirus isolated from tomatoes collected in Burkina Faso and presenting with symptoms of tomato leaf curl disease. We propose the tentative name "tomato leaf curl Burkina Faso virus'' (ToLCBFV). DNA-A-like nucleotide sequence of ToLCBFV shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (85%) with the pepper yellow vein Mali virus (PepYVMLV). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the affiliation of ToLCBFV to Old World monopartite begomoviruses. This discovery of a new species confirms the existence of high genetic diversity in monopartite begomoviruses in sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in West Africa.

  17. Evaluation of Proposed Ouagadougou-Donsin Airport Development, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Burkina Faso (GoBF) has indicated that it wishes to relocate the current international airport of Ouagadougou, which lies close to the centre of the capital, to an alternative site at Donsin, 35 km northwest of the city. This report briefly describes the economy of Burkina Faso within which the airport operates, the current infrastructure of the existing airport and exami...

  18. High nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes in community and hospital settings in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul-Salam OUEDRAOGO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n=219 were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219, 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%. The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones and CC1-MSSA (nine clones. Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52,2% (36/69, containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains.

  19. Econometric analysis to evaluate the effect of community-based health insurance on reducing informal self-care in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Hill, Allan; Liu, Yuanli; Souares, Aurélia; Savadogo, Germain; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    This study examines the role of community-based health insurance (CBHI) in influencing health-seeking behaviour in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Community-based health insurance was introduced in Nouna district, Burkina Faso, in 2004 with the goal to improve access to contracted providers based at primary- and secondary-level facilities. The paper specifically examines the effect of CBHI enrolment on reducing the prevalence of seeking modern and traditional methods of self-treatment as the first choice in care among the insured population. Three stages of analysis were adopted to measure this effect. First, propensity score matching was used to minimize the observed baseline differences between the insured and uninsured populations. Second, through matching the average treatment effect on the treated, the effect of insurance enrolment on health-seeking behaviour was estimated. Finally, multinomial logistic regression was applied to model demand for available health care options, including no treatment, traditional self-treatment, modern self-treatment, traditional healers and facility-based care. For the first choice in care sought, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of self-treatment among the insured and uninsured populations, reaching over 55% for each group. When comparing the alternative option of no treatment, CBHI played no significant role in reducing the demand for self-care (either traditional or modern) or utilization of traditional healers, while it did significantly increase consumption of facility-based care. The average treatment effect on the treated was insignificant for traditional self-care, modern self-care and traditional healer, but was significant with a positive effect for use of facility care. While CBHI does have a positive impact on facility care utilization, its effect on reducing the prevalence of self-care is limited. The policy recommendations for improving the CBHI scheme's responsiveness to population health care

  20. Blood parasites in birds from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarino, M; Vaschetti, G; Boano, G

    2007-06-01

    This study aims at evaluating the prevalence and density of haemoparasites in a native population of immature and adult male and female birds of Burkina Faso. Protists from the orders Eucoccidiorida, Kinetoplastida, as well as microfilaria were found. During the period from the 27th to the 29th of November 2003, we trapped 110 birds: on 101 sampled birds, 47 harboured blood parasites, with an overall prevalence of infection of 46.5%; 15 birds (14.8%) harboured mixed infections. Haemoproteus (prevalence of infection 30.7%), Plasmodium (13.9%), Trypanosoma (10.9%), microfilaria (8.9%) and Leucocytozoon (5.9%) were most frequently recorded. Occurrence of blood parasites was very high in comparison to that seen in birds from other areas of Africa.

  1. Successful Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in School Age Children in Burkina Faso and an Example of Community-Based Assessment via Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Drabo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF mass drug administration (MDA for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future.A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.8% in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6% and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0-4.2 epg. Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9-6.1% and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3-26.6 epg. A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS. In this assessment, 351 children aged 6-7 years and 345 children aged 10-14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2-2.1% and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0-4.1% of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to <10% in STH prevalence according to the pre-defined cut-off values.Through large-scale preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso has effectively controlled STH in school age children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also demonstrated that LF TAS provides one feasible and efficient platform to assess the

  2. Successful Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in School Age Children in Burkina Faso and an Example of Community-Based Assessment via Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabo, François; Ouedraogo, Hamado; Bougma, Roland; Bougouma, Clarisse; Bamba, Issouf; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Barrett, Laura; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Palmer, Stephanie; Chu, Brian; Toubali, Emily; Zhang, Yaobi

    2016-01-01

    Background Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF) mass drug administration (MDA) for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls) were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0–1.8%) in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9–1.6%) and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0–4.2 epg). Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9–6.1%) and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3–26.6 epg). A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS). In this assessment, 351 children aged 6–7 years and 345 children aged 10–14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–2.1%)) and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0–4.1%)) of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to Burkina Faso has effectively controlled STH in school age children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also demonstrated that LF TAS provides one feasible and efficient platform to assess the STH situation for post LF MDA decision making. PMID

  3. Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameogo Clotaire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106. The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86. Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59. Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60 had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58 had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.

  4. CASE STUDY: Burkina Faso — Learning how not to be poor in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    When a community-based monitoring system showed Burkina Faso villagers just how poor they were, in so many ways, they did not like what they saw. They set out to take their development in hand. Community action has led to tangible improvements and new funding sources for key development projects. “Before the ...

  5. A qualitative study of community perception and acceptance of biological larviciding for malaria mosquito control in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambach, Peter; Jorge, Margarida Mendes; Traoré, Issouf; Phalkey, Revati; Sawadogo, Hélène; Zabré, Pascal; Kagoné, Moubassira; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Becker, Norbert; Beiersmann, Claudia

    2018-03-23

    Vector and malaria parasite's rising resistance against pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets and antimalarial drugs highlight the need for additional control measures. Larviciding against malaria vectors is experiencing a renaissance with the availability of environmentally friendly and target species-specific larvicides. In this study, we analyse the perception and acceptability of spraying surface water collections with the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in a single health district in Burkina Faso. A total of 12 focus group discussions and 12 key informant interviews were performed in 10 rural villages provided with coverage of various larvicide treatments (all breeding sites treated, the most productive breeding sites treated, and untreated control). Respondents' knowledge about the major risk factors for malaria transmission was generally good. Most interviewees stated they performed personal protective measures against vector mosquitoes including the use of bed nets and sometimes mosquito coils and traditional repellents. The acceptance of larviciding in and around the villages was high and the majority of respondents reported a relief in mosquito nuisance and malarial episodes. There was high interest in the project and demand for future continuation. This study showed that larviciding interventions received positive resonance from the population. People showed a willingness to be involved and financially support the program. The positive environment with high acceptance for larviciding programs would facilitate routine implementation. An essential factor for the future success of such programs would be inclusion in regional or national malaria control guidelines.

  6. Using a community-based definition of poverty for targeting poor households for premium subsidies in the context of a community health insurance in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadogo, Germain; Souarès, Aurelia; Sié, Ali; Parmar, Divya; Bibeau, Gilles; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2015-02-06

    One of the biggest challenges in subsidizing premiums of poor households for community health insurance is the identification and selection of these households. Generally, poverty assessments in developing countries are based on monetary terms. The household is regarded as poor if its income or consumption is lower than a predefined poverty cut-off. These measures fail to recognize the multi-dimensional character of poverty, ignoring community members' perception and understanding of poverty, leaving them voiceless and powerless in the identification process. Realizing this, the steering committee of Nouna's health insurance devised a method to involve community members to better define 'perceived' poverty, using this as a key element for the poor selection. The community-identified poor were then used to effectively target premium subsidies for the insurance scheme. The study was conducted in the Nouna's Health District located in northwest Burkina Faso. Participants in each village were selected to take part in focus-group discussions (FGD) organized in 41 villages and 7 sectors of Nouna's town to discuss criteria and perceptions of poverty. The discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed in French using the software NVivo 9. From the FGD on poverty and the subjective definitions and perceptions of the community members, we found that poverty was mainly seen as scarcity of basic needs, vulnerability, deprivation of capacities, powerlessness, voicelessness, indecent living conditions, and absence of social capital and community networks for support in times of need. Criteria and poverty groups as described by community members can be used to identify poor who can then be targeted for subsidies. Policies targeting the poorest require the establishment of effective selection strategies. These policies are well-conditioned by proper identification of the poor people. Community perceptions and criteria of poverty are grounded in reality, to better

  7. Econometric analysis to evaluate the effect of community-based health insurance on reducing informal self-care in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Hill, Allan; Liu, Yuanli; Souares, Aurélia; Savadogo, Germain; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines the role of community-based health insurance (CBHI) in influencing health-seeking behaviour in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Community-based health insurance was introduced in Nouna district, Burkina Faso, in 2004 with the goal to improve access to contracted providers based at primary- and secondary-level facilities. The paper specifically examines the effect of CBHI enrolment on reducing the prevalence of seeking modern and traditional methods of self-treatment as the first choice in care among the insured population. Methods Three stages of analysis were adopted to measure this effect. First, propensity score matching was used to minimize the observed baseline differences between the insured and uninsured populations. Second, through matching the average treatment effect on the treated, the effect of insurance enrolment on health-seeking behaviour was estimated. Finally, multinomial logistic regression was applied to model demand for available health care options, including no treatment, traditional self-treatment, modern self-treatment, traditional healers and facility-based care. Results For the first choice in care sought, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of self-treatment among the insured and uninsured populations, reaching over 55% for each group. When comparing the alternative option of no treatment, CBHI played no significant role in reducing the demand for self-care (either traditional or modern) or utilization of traditional healers, while it did significantly increase consumption of facility-based care. The average treatment effect on the treated was insignificant for traditional self-care, modern self-care and traditional healer, but was significant with a positive effect for use of facility care. Discussion While CBHI does have a positive impact on facility care utilization, its effect on reducing the prevalence of self-care is limited. The policy recommendations for improving the CBHI scheme

  8. Successful Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in School Age Children in Burkina Faso and an Example of Community-Based Assessment via Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabo, François; Ouedraogo, Hamado; Bougma, Roland; Bougouma, Clarisse; Bamba, Issouf; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Barrett, Laura; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Palmer, Stephanie; Chu, Brian; Toubali, Emily; Zhang, Yaobi

    2016-05-01

    Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF) mass drug administration (MDA) for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future. A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls) were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.8%) in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6%) and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0-4.2 epg). Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9-6.1%) and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3-26.6 epg). A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS). In this assessment, 351 children aged 6-7 years and 345 children aged 10-14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2-2.1%)) and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0-4.1%)) of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also demonstrated that LF TAS provides one feasible and efficient platform to assess the STH situation for post LF MDA decision making.

  9. SWV determination of glyphosate in Burkina Faso soils using carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an evaluation using carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME) for the determination of glyphosate in soils from Burkina Faso treated with Glyphonet SL 360 by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The maximum intensity of the electrochemical response signal of glyphosate has been optimized and conditions ...

  10. Consommation des psychotropes en milieu scolaire, au Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consommation des psychotropes en milieu scolaire, au Burkina Faso : Prévalences et facteurs de risque. L Nikiéma, S Kouanda, I Seck, S Tiendrebéogo, HG Ouédraogo, M Yaméogo, B Méda, B Doulogou, I Guissou, B Sondo ...

  11. Irrigation and climate information in Burkina Faso (AARC) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Then, they will develop and pilot test locally appropriate agricultural techniques at two sites in Burkina Faso with a view to minimizing the impacts of climate change. Both pilot sites - in the ... Platform for Exchange between African Research Scientists and Policymakers on Climate Change Adaptation. Given its widespread ...

  12. Irrigation and climate information in Burkina Faso (AARC) | Page 5 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the 1970s, the Sahel has experienced a marked decline in rainfall and a high variability in the timing of the rainy season (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). As a result, farmers have struggled to plan their crops and manage irrigation for food production. In Burkina Faso, many farmers have resorting ...

  13. Energy and Water Resources of Burkina Faso as Catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... development would invest additional 38 millions euros. New solar station will be located near Ouagadougou, capital of. Burkina Faso. 96 thousands solar panels will. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90. 2005. 2010. 2015. 2020. 2025. 2030. 2035. % energies fossiles energies renouvelables. 0. 5000. 10000.

  14. Migration and Income Diversification: Evidence from Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.; Taylor, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses limited-dependent variable methods and new data from Burkina Faso to test the impact of inter-continental and continental migration on activity choice and incomes in rural households. Econometric evidence supports our theoretical expectation that the impact of emigration varies both

  15. Regionalizing the Recruitment of Health Personnel in Burkina Faso ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regionalizing the Recruitment of Health Personnel in Burkina Faso. Human resources are essential to attaining the objectives of the Millennium development goals with respect to national health systems. In low-income countries, human health resources are characterized by a deficit of qualified personnel and an unequal ...

  16. Energy and water resources of Burkina Faso as catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is dedicated to the research conducted in Burkina Faso. The Research objectives were to study the energy situation, search for sources of water for the power plant and oil refinery. To operate the power plant and oil refinery, large amounts of water would be required. Water from open sources is a scarce resource ...

  17. Analyzing Innovation Systems (Burkina Faso) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to improve the efficiency of the nascent innovation system in Burkina Faso by strengthening exchanges between researchers, inventors and innovators and public ... L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique en Afrique subsaharienne remporte le prix de la diplomatie scientifique.

  18. Valorizing Research Results and Innovations in Burkina Faso ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Burkina Faso, scientific research, invention and innovation have generated many results that could contribute to endogenous development. However, these results are little known, underutilized and undervalued. This situation unfavorable to national development can be explained by numerous obstacles, notably: ...

  19. All projects related to Burkina Faso | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: GOVERNMENT, Civil society, HEALTH SYSTEM, MIDDLE EAST, AFRICA, POLICY MAKING, DECISION MAKING, RESEARCH. Region: Lebanon, Uganda ... Climate Variability and Access to and Utilization of Water Resources in the Informal Settlements in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Project. There is still a paucity ...

  20. Learning how not to be poor in Burkina Faso

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moreover, local capacity was weak, particularly in rural areas where up to 90% of the population are illiterate. The decentralization process that has been underway in. Burkina Faso since 1995 further increases the relevance of the monitoring system. Even though the resources needed to make it a success have not yet ...

  1. Regionalizing the Recruitment of Health Personnel in Burkina Faso ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In low-income countries, human health resources are characterized by a deficit of qualified personnel and an unequal distribution of existing personnel. To address these problems, the Burkina Faso Ministry of Health has adopted a number of reforms aimed at improving the quality and quantity of health workers, and ...

  2. Burkina Faso : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: REGIONAL DISPARITY, GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION, HEALTH PERSONNEL, JOB SATISFACTION, HEALTH POLICY, Evaluation, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Burkina Faso. Programme: Santé des mères et des enfants. Financement total : CA$ 369,013.00.

  3. Burkina Faso : Poverty Trends and Profile, 2003-2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Burkina Faso's Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) of the 2000s, which were implemented as annually rolled-over Priority Action Programs, focused on four pillars: a) accelerating broad based growth; b) expanding access to social services for the poor; c) increasing employment and income-generating activities for the poor; and d) promoting good governance. Increased public expenditure and ta...

  4. Irrigation et information climatique au Burkina Faso (CARA) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au Burkina Faso, nombre d'agriculteurs ont choisi de recourir à un mélange de techniques agricoles traditionnelles et modernes. Bien que ces ... In the impoverished Bolivian Highlands (Altiplano), changes in local climate are already having significant impacts on infrastructure, land use, production, and livelihoods.

  5. Parental Death and Children's Schooling in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobiane, Jean-Francois; Calves, Anne-Emmanuele; Marcoux, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the literature on orphanhood, schooling, and the role of the extended family system in supporting the education of orphans in Burkina Faso. They also summarize the historical, social, and economic context of this study. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of orphanhood on children's access to…

  6. Influenza A(H9N2) Virus, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Zecchin, Bianca; Minoungou, Germaine; Fusaro, Alice; Moctar, Sidi; Ouedraogo-Kaboré, Anne; Schivo, Alessia; Salviato, Annalisa; Marciano, Sabrina; Monne, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    We identified influenza A(H9N2) virus G1 lineage in poultry in Burkina Faso. Urgent actions are needed to raise awareness about the risk associated with spread of this zoonotic virus subtype in the area and to construct a strategy for effective prevention and control of influenza caused by this virus.

  7. [Burkina Faso: review of population policies and programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, H

    1999-12-01

    When Burkina Faso gained its independence, no one thought to act upon the various demographic variables with the aim of achieving certain specific, planned goals. It was necessary to wait until 1986 for the adoption of a planning policy and the abrogation of part of 1920 legislation on contraceptive distribution before the first signs of attitudinal change could be observed with regard to population concerns. Formerly confused with birth limiting policy, family planning is increasingly becoming an essential component of maternal and infant health. The author describes the evolution of population policies in Burkina Faso from independence, after the 1974 Bucharest conference on population, and up until now. Today, general population policy goals in Burkina Faso are in favor of whatever will improve quality of life and well-being across all social strata. This goal will only be attained through the establishment of better balance between population and available resources. It involves meeting the population¿s essential food, nutrition, health, education, and employment needs; raising the value of available human resources; lowering morbidity and mortality; improving women¿s status; improving the population¿s spatial distribution; managing the environment better; and accounting for demographic variables when establishing development goals. Burkina Faso therefore plans to pursue a comprehensive approach toward its population problems.

  8. A community-based approach to indigent selection is difficult to organize in a formal neighbourhood in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: a mixed methods exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In most African countries, indigents treated at public health centres are supposed to be exempted from user fees. In Africa, most of the available knowledge has to do with targeting processes in rural areas, and little is known about how to select the worst-off in an urban area. In rural communities of Burkina Faso, trials of participatory community-based selection of indigents have been effective. However, the process for selecting indigents in urban areas is not yet clear. Methods This study evaluates a community-funded participatory indigent selection process in both a formal (loti) and an informal (non-loti) neighbourhood in the urban setting of Burkina Faso’s capital. This was an exploratory study to evaluate the processes and effectiveness of participatory targeting. We conducted individual interviews (n = 26) and analyzed secondary qualitative data (eight focus groups, 16 individual interviews). We also used the results of a socioeconomic survey (carried out by the Ouaga HDSS in 2011) of all the households established in the areas, including those of selected indigents. Results The coverage of indigent targeting was very low: 0.33% (loti) and 0.22% (non loti). In the non loti neighbourhood, the level of poverty among people selected was higher than the mean level of the poor who were not selected. Some indigents selected in the loti neighbourhood were not among the worst-off. The process was difficult to organize in the loti neighbourhood; people knew each other less well and were not very available, and there were cases of collusion. The process worked well in the non loti neighbourhood. Conclusions This intervention research provides new evidence about the feasibility of a community-based selection process in an urban setting in Africa by comparing two different urban settings. The participatory community-based selection process appeared to be suitable for the non loti neighbourhood, but other targeting strategies need to be found for loti

  9. Low coverage but few inclusion errors in Burkina Faso: a community-based targeting approach to exempt the indigent from user fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background User fees were generalized in Burkina Faso in the 1990 s. At the time of their implementation, it was envisioned that measures would be instituted to exempt the poor from paying these fees. However, in practice, the identification of indigents is ineffective, and so they do not have access to care. Thus, a community-based process for selecting indigents for user fees exemption was tested in a district. In each of the 124 villages in the catchment areas of ten health centres, village committees proposed lists of indigents that were then validated by the health centres' management committees. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this community-based selection. Methods An indigent-selection process is judged effective if it minimizes inclusion biases and exclusion biases. The study compares the levels of poverty and of vulnerability of indigents selected by the management committees (n = 184) with: 1) indigents selected in the villages but not retained by these committees (n = 48); ii) indigents selected by the health centre nurses (n = 82); and iii) a sample of the rural population (n = 5,900). Results The households in which the three groups of indigents lived appeared to be more vulnerable and poorer than the reference rural households. Indigents selected by the management committees and the nurses were very comparable in terms of levels of vulnerability, but the former were more vulnerable socially. The majority of indigents proposed by the village committees who lived in extremely poor households were retained by the management committees. Only 0.36% of the population living below the poverty threshold and less than 1% of the extremely poor population were selected. Conclusions The community-based process minimized inclusion biases, as the people selected were poorer and more vulnerable than the rest of the population. However, there were significant exclusion biases; the selection was very restrictive because the exemption

  10. The role of transportation to access maternal care services for women in rural Bangladesh and Burkina Faso: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Kouanda, Seni; Seppey, Mathieu; Alam, Anadil; Savadogo, Justin Ragnessi; Sia, Drissa; Fournier, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    To understand the role of transportation in accessing health care during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period among women in rural Bangladesh and Burkina Faso. An exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Mymensingh district in Bangladesh and Kaya district in Burkina Faso. We recruited 300 women from Bangladesh and 340 from Burkina Faso with a delivery outcome within one year of interview. Key informant interviews were conducted with 19 participants and 12 focus group discussions took place with attendees in selected community clinics. Of the interviewees, 45.7% in Bangladesh and 73.2% in Burkina Faso reported having had health complications during their last pregnancy, delivery, or postpartum period. Of all women, 42.7% in Bangladesh and 67.4% in Burkina Faso sought facility care for their complications. Facility-based delivery was much higher in Burkina Faso (87.7%) than Bangladesh (38.2%). Literacy, transport availability, transportation costs, and travel time were associated with care seeking behavior. Lack of reliable transportation was reported as a significant barrier to accessing care during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum by women in Bangladesh and Burkina Faso. Effort should be made to improve access to emergency obstetric care, and transport intervention should be strengthened. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soil conservation in Burkina Faso: is international cooperation effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Coviello, Velio; Grimaldi, Stefania; Vezza, Paolo; Koussubé, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Challenges related to Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) have been documented in Burkina Faso for many decades so far. The ever-growing population of this country, a landlocked desertification-prone one, is daily facing the visible impact of increasingly intense rainfall and concentrated rainy days. Agricultural soil erosion and reservoir siltation are two of the main issues affecting Burkina Faso subsistence agriculture sector, whose revenues largely contribute to people's income. From the sixties onwards locally-developed SWC techniques (e.g. permeable rock dams and gabion check dams) have been widely, though geographically variably, employed in the country. The effectiveness of these techniques in locally increasing soil moisture and reducing soil erosion is well proven, while their long term effect in decreasing the reservoir siltation is still under debate and shall be addressed with a whole-catchment approach often overlooked by international donors. This research aims to analyze the history of the use of these techniques by reviewing the results of several cooperation projects that dealt with the implementation of nearly 200 conservation works. These case studies are representative of 5 out of 12 regions of Burkina Faso and span over two decades. Local people levels of (i) awareness, (ii) technique appropriation, (iii) involvement and the degree of (iv) effectiveness and (v) maintenance of these SWC works have been taken into account. The analysis of the afore-mentioned five indicators let the authors draw a list of features that are needed for this kind of projects to be successful in the SWC domain. Moreover the differences that exist between the approach to the community-works, normally employed for SWC realizations, of different ethnical groups is highlighted. The degree of degradation of the environment also plays an important role in the involvement of the local community together with the familiarity of the population with these techniques. For

  12. Irrigation and climate information in Burkina Faso (AARC) | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supplemental irrigation in farming systems : history of a practice and outlooks for Burkina Faso. Études. Adoption et impacts de l'irrigation de complément en zone sahélienne : modélisation bioéconomique d'une exploitation à Kongoussi. Études. Analyse comparative des modes d'exhaure et de deux techniques culturales ...

  13. Gestion du parc agroforestier du terroir de Vipalogo (Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Burkina Faso, l'arbre rural fait partie des systèmes de production. Le choix des espèces, leur densité, les modes de gestion ainsi que les besoins à satisfaire, obéissent à des critères propres aux producteurs. C'est pour comprendre ces logiques paysannes de la gestion du parc agroforestier que la présente étude a été ...

  14. irrigation de complement et culture du sorhgo au burkina faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    technique permettant la sécurisation de la production céréalière dans ces régions à risque climatique élevé. MATERIEL ET METHODES. CONTEXTE PEDO CLIMATIQUE. Sur tout le territoire du Burkina Faso, la pluviométrie est unimodale, saisonnière et est sous la dépendance des fluctuations du Front. Intertropical (FIT).

  15. Irrigation and climate information in Burkina Faso (AARC) | Page 4 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Then, they will develop and pilot test locally appropriate agricultural techniques at two sites in Burkina Faso with a view to minimizing the impacts of climate change. ... Conception d'un système de collecte de l'eau pour l'irrigation de complément : application de la théorie TRIZ au cas d'une exploitation agricole sahélienne.

  16. [HIV/AIDS stigma in Africa: analysis of its forms and manifestations in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Desclaux, Alice; Somé, Jean-François; El Asmar, Khalil; Msellati, Philippe; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2014-01-01

    Negative impact of stigma on HIV care and prevention is documented. Qualitative approaches were used to describe its importance in Burkina Faso (1% of HIV prevalence) and need to be completed by quantitative estimations of the main manifestations and categories of stigma. During the MATCH study (Multi-country African Study on Testing and Counselling for HIV) conducted in 2007-2008, 219 people tested HIV positive (PLWHA) were interviewed by means of a quantitative questionnaire. One of the topics concerned their experience of the consequences of HIV positive results using 20 items on stigma manifestations, classified into 3 categories: stigma in health care services (7 items), interpersonal stigma (10 items) and internal stigma (3 items). Internal stigma is the major category experienced by PLWHA in Burkina Faso (46%) compared to 40% for interpersonal stigma and 11% for stigma in health care facilities). PLWHA who disclosed their HIV result, widows or separated persons, those with a lower level of education, PLWHA who joined community-based organizations are more likely to experience interpersonal stigma. Stigma in health care facilities is more frequently reported by PLWHA who joined community-based organizations. Internal stigma affects all PLWHA, with no significant differences in terms of age categories or gender. Antiretroviral scaling-up programmes must integrate more adapted psychology support aspects. Psychosocial activities, targeting persons and not groups, must be part of PLWHA care in Burkina Faso, especially in community-based organizations.

  17. Burden of Severe Fungal Infections in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanata Bamba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the limited access to more powerful diagnostic tools, there is a paucity of data regarding the burden of fungal infections in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in this sub-Saharan country. We primarily used the national demographic data and performed a PubMed search to retrieve all published papers on fungal infections from Burkina Faso and its surrounding West African countries. Considering the prevalence of HIV infection (0.8% of the population and a 3.4% incidence of cryptococcosis in hospitals, it is estimated that 459 patients per year develop cryptococcosis. For pneumocystosis, it is suggested that 1013 new cases occur every year. Taking into account the local TB frequency (population prevalence at 0.052%, we estimate the prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis at 1120 cases. Severe forms of asthma with fungal sensitization and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis are estimated to affect 7429 and 5628 cases, respectively. Vulvovaginal candidiasis may affect 179,000 women, and almost 1,000,000 children may suffer from tinea capitis. Globally, we estimate that roughly 1.4 million people in Burkina Faso (7.51% of the population suffer from a serious fungal infection. These data should be used to drive future epidemiological studies, diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic strategies.

  18. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices

    In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security,

  19. Temporal distribution of gastroenteritis viruses in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: seasonality of rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Nafissatou; Ngangas, Stephanie Moustapha Tomba; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste Ouindguèta; Tiendrebeogo, Aissatou Bénéwendé; Traore, Kuan Abdoulaye; Sanou, Idrissa; Traore, Alfred Sababénédjo; Barro, Nicolas

    2017-03-21

    Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among children and adults, and continues to cause a major problem of public health in Burkina Faso. The temporal pattern of rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A was studied by examining prevalence of gastroenteritis viruses in association with meteorological variables in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Stool samples from 263 children under 5 years of age and 170 older children patients, adolescent and adults with gastroenteritis were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Enteric viruses were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-) PCR. Temperature, humidity and monthly rainfall were recorded from the National Meteorological Direction. Categorical data were compared by Chi-square tests and the effect of weather variables and monthly prevalence were analyzed using Pearson Correlation Coefficient test. The prevalence of rotavirus infections was significantly higher in the dry season (Season S1) compared to the wet season (season S2) (p = 0.03) among the population of children under 5 years of age. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding other gastroenteritis viruses comparing the dry season and the wet season. Positive cases of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and sapovirus in children under 5 years of age were correlated with temperature (r = -0.68, p = 0.01; r = -0.74, p gastroenteritis. These results can provide valuable information necessary to alert health care providers when a period of infection in the community is likely to occur. The transmission of these viruses in Burkina Faso could depends on multiple factors including climatic variables.

  20. Situation of the radiation protection in the Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayamba, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Burkina Faso is a french-speaking country, it represents a population of eight millions of inhabitants, it is situated in the west of Africa. The difference between the situation of practice, equipment, organization in radiation protection and international standards is increasing. The fear of radiations is become excessive. A study about the situation of radiation protection is necessary. An inquiry has been realized, in march 1999, the results reveal a situation very difficult and far from the standards. The last part of the work gathers the aspirations and recommendations of the radiology actors: a proposition of solutions does the conclusion. (N.C.)

  1. Burkina Faso Experience with Establishment and Maintenance of an SSAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Ouedraogo, Z.A.; Sangre, S. Sam; Nabayaogo, D.

    2010-01-01

    Burkina Faso is a State with Small Quantity Protocol and its Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/618/Add.1) interred into force on the 17 of April 2003. Burkina Faso is involved in the Agency nuclear security activities through many multilateral and bilateral agreements; and obviously, Safeguards Agreements. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)'s statutes have been ratified by Burkina Faso in 1998. The country became IAEA membership since 14 September 1998 (number of accession: 128). The basic law relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety has been voted by the National Assembly on 26 April 2005. This law is the legal basis that allowed the creation of the National Regulatory Authority for Radiation protection and Nuclear safety (ARSN). The global aim is to regulate activities involving nuclear materials or radioactive sources, to control the traffic of such materials and to manage radioactive waste within the country. ARSN is the national regulatory body competent for the control of the better use of ionizing radiation sources. This authority received mandate to establish and maintain an SSAC in accordance with the IAEA guidance. For the ARSN to be effective in its responsibilities, all activities involving radiation exposure are subjected to regulatory control by a system of notification, authorization by registration or licensing and inspection. Two separated infrastructures are dealing with nuclear energy. The first one, called Autorite Nationale de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (ARSN) ) is acting as a regulator. The second one, Secretariat Technique a l'Energie Nucleaire (STEA) acts as a promoter. During the Santa Fe International Training Course, USA may 2008, we agreed the Burkina Faso SSAC to be implemented by ARSN. The STEA should be involved by sending officially reports and declarations (received from ARSN) to the IAEA, through the National Liaison Officer. In order to maintain the SSAC, physical inventories are conducted, regularly

  2. Interdisciplinary Water and Sanitation Project in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    船水, 尚行

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary project on water and sanitation was performed in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2015. The title of the project was “Development of sustainable water and sanitation systems in the African Sahel region”, and the project was supported by SATREPS (JST and JICA) and collaborated with International Institute of Water and Sanitation (2iE). The main purpose of the project was to develop and demonstrate the new system of water and sanitation based on the concept of “do not mix” and “do no...

  3. Community factors shaping early age at first sex among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents' sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents' sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions.

  4. A community effectiveness trial of strategies promoting intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabin Bernard

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP is currently being scaled up in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite high antenatal clinic (ANC attendance, coverage with the required two doses of SP remains low. The study investigated whether a targeted community-based promotion campaign to increase ANC attendance and SP uptake could effectively improve pregnancy outcomes in the community. Methods Between 2004 and 2006 twelve health centres in Boromo Health District, Burkina Faso were involved in this study. Four were strategically assigned to community promotion in addition to IPTp-SP (Intervention A and eight were randomly allocated to either IPTp-SP (Intervention B or weekly chloroquine (Control. Primi- and secundigravidae were enrolled at village level and thick films and packed cell volume (PCV taken at 32 weeks gestation and at delivery. Placental smears were prepared and newborns weighed. Primary outcomes were peripheral parasitaemia during pregnancy and at delivery, placental malaria, maternal anaemia, mean and low birth weight. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of women with ≥ 3 ANC visits and ≥ 2 doses of SP. Intervention groups were compared using logistic and linear regression with linearized variance estimations to correct for the cluster-randomized design. Results SP uptake (≥ 2 doses was higher with (Intervention A: 70% than without promotion (Intervention B: 49% (OR 2.45 95%CI 1.25–4.82 p = 0.014. Peripheral (33.3% and placental (30.3% parasite rates were significantly higher in the control arm compared to Intervention B (peripheral: 20.1% OR 0.50 95%CI 0.37–0.69 p = 0.001; placental: 20.5% OR 0.59 95%CI 0.44–0.78 p = 0.002 but did not differ between Intervention A (17.4%; 18.1% and Intervention B (20.1; 20.5% (peripheral: OR 0.84 95%CI 0.60–1.18 p = 0.280; placental: OR 0.86 95%CI 0.58–1.29 p = 0.430. Mean PCV and birth weight and

  5. Burden of acute gastrointestinal infections in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Simavé Dembele, Elisa Huovinen, Denis Yelbéogo, Markku Kuusi, Guétawendé Sawadogo, Kaisa Haukka, Isidore Bonkoungou, Anja Siitonen, Alfred S. Traoré

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal infections are one of the major health problems in developing countries. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. Methods: A door-to-door survey of selected residents in Ouagadougou city was conducted. Of the Ouagadougou’s 30 districts, nine most populated ones were selected to the study. The residents of these districts have middle incomes as those of the secondary cite of Burkina Faso. Results: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in the 30 days prior to the interview was 77/491 (15.7%: among children 44/223 (19.7% and among adults 33/268 (12.3%. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were the most com­mon symptoms among 33 adult cases while diarrhea and vomiting were the most common among children. None of the cases were hospitalized and a stool sample was taken in three of 77 cases. Medication for gastrointestinal infections was received by 55% percent of adults and 77% of children. Conclusions: Our results shown that antibiotics with and without prescription were the most common medicine used. Washing hands before meals and boiling milk before drinking had a protective effect against gastrointestinal infections. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 45-52

  6. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karou, D.; Dicko, M.H.; Simpore, J.; Traore, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and

  7. Governance della terra e sviluppo rurale: le sfide del processo di riforma fondiaria in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Caltabiano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Il mio lavoro di tesi mira ad analizzare il processo di riforma fondiaria in atto dal 2009 in Burkina Faso, alla luce delle politiche di sviluppo rurale adottate a livello regionale (Africa occidentale francofona) e del percorso storico-politico che dalla conquista coloniale francese ci conduce all’ultima fase di democratizzazione del Burkina Faso. Ripercorrendo le principali strategie ed obiettivi di riforma agraria e fondiaria perseguiti dai Governi a livello regionale e nazionale intendo f...

  8. The Influence of Urbanization Modes on the Spatial Circulation of Flaviviruses within Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    OpenAIRE

    Fournet, Florence; Rican, St?phane; Vaillant, Zo?; Roudot, Anna; Meunier-Nikiema, Aude; Kassi?, Daouda; Dabir?, Roch K.; Salem, G?rard

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Although this virus has been reported for a long time, its significance within the burden of diseases in West Africa is not obvious, especially in Burkina Faso. Our objective was to evaluate flavivirus presence in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and the link between anti-flavivirus antibody seroprevalence and urbanization modes. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted and 3015 children were enrolled from Ouagadougou d...

  9. Community assessment of availability, consumption, and cultural acceptability of food sources of (pro)vitamin A: Toward the development of a dietary intervention among preschool children in rural Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nana, C.P.; Brouwer, I.D.; Zagré, N.M.; Kok, F.J.; Traoré, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso and elsewhere in the developing world. Dietary diversification is a promising strategy that needs to be explored to strengthen the country's ongoing supplementation program. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify

  10. Measuring women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikiema Béatrice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, women must overcome numerous barriers when they need modern healthcare. Respect of gender norms within the household and the community may still influence women's ability to obtain care. A lack of gender-sensitive instruments for measuring women's ability to overcome barriers compromises attempts to adequately quantify the burden and risk of exclusion they face when seeking modern healthcare. The aim of this study was to create and validate a synthetic measure of women's access to healthcare from a publicly available and possibly internationally comparable population-based survey. Method Seven questionnaire items from the Burkina Faso 2003 DHS were combined to create the index. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the index. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA were applied to evaluate the factorial structure and construct validity of the index while taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data. Results The index has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.75, suggesting adequate reliability. In EFA, three correlated factors fitted the data best. In CFA, the construct of perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking emerged as a second-order latent variable with three domains: socioeconomic barriers, geographical barriers and psychosocial barriers. Model fit indices support the index's global validity for women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso. Evidence for construct validity comes from the finding that women's index scores increase with household living standard. Conclusion The DHS items can be combined into a reliable and valid, gender-sensitive index quantifying reproductive-age women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso. The index complies conceptually with the sector-cross-cutting capability approach and enables measuring directly the perceived access to healthcare. Therefore it

  11. Urban Climate and Air Pollution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Jenny

    2011-05-15

    Africa has recently been singled out by UN Habitat as the fastest urbanizing continent in the world. The most extreme case was found in the Sahelian city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, where the population is expected to almost double over the next ten years. It is well known that the rapid growth of an urban area is among the most important anthropogenic impacts on the environment, and that it has a profound impact on both the urban climate and air quality. Few studies have been focused on cities in the Sahel region, and the lack of information may consequently hinder adaptation to the extreme urbanization rates of these often heavily polluted cities. The main objective of this thesis was to study the nature of, and relationship between, urban climate and air pollution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Specific objectives were to; examine spatial variations in daily temperature and humidity patterns during early dry season with focus on effects of different land cover; to examine the influence of atmospheric stability on the intra-urban air temperature patterns, the urban wind field and on air pollution levels; and to examine spatial variations in air pollution levels. An additional objective was to document the status and potential development of synoptic meteorological stations in Burkina Faso. Empirical data used in analyses were collected during five field studies between 2003 and 2010. Meteorological and air pollution parameters were measured at fixed sites and through car traverses in areas of different land cover, activity, traffic density and road surface. The most distinct features in thermal patterns found in Ouagadougou were strong intra-urban nocturnal cool islands in vegetated areas, caused by evening evaporative cooling by the vegetation. Extremely stable nocturnal atmospheric conditions were observed during 80 % of days examined in early dry season, during which spatial patterns in temperature and humidity as well as in air pollution were most pronounced

  12. Substandard anti-malarial drugs in Burkina Faso

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    Sie Ali

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is concern about an increasing infiltration of markets by substandard and fake medications against life-threatening diseases in developing countries. This is particularly worrying with regard to the increasing resistance development of Plasmodium falciparum against affordable anti-malarial medications, which has led to a change to more expensive drugs in most endemic countries. Methods A representative sample of modern anti-malarial medications from licensed (public and private pharmacies, community health workers and illicit (market and street vendors, shops sources has been collected in the Nouna Health District in north-western Burkina Faso in 2006. All drugs were tested for their quality with the standard procedures of the German Pharma Health Fund-Minilab. Detected low standard drugs were re-tested with European Pharmacopoeia 2.9.1 standards for disintegration and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at the laboratory of the Heidelberg University for confirmation. Results Overall, 86 anti-malarial drug samples were collected, of which 77 samples have been included in the final analysis. The sample consisted of 39/77 (50% chloroquine, 10/77 (13% pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine, 9/77 (12% quinine, 6/77 (8% amodiaquine, 9/77 (12% artesunate, and 4/77 (5% artemether-lumefantrine. 32/77 (42% drug samples were found to be of poor quality, of which 28 samples failed the visual inspection, nine samples had substandard concentrations of the active ingredient, four samples showed poor disintegration, and one sample contained non of the stated active ingredient. The licensed and the illicit market contributed 5/47 (10.6% and 27/30 (90.0% samples of substandard drugs respectively. Conclusion These findings provide further evidence for the wide-spread existence of substandard anti-malarial medications in Africa and call for strengthening of the regulatory and quality control capacity of affected countries, particularly in view of the

  13. Baseline drivers of lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso

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    Michelle C. Stanton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a parasitic disease that is endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa, infecting approximately 40 million people. In Burkina Faso, mass drug administration (MDA for LF with ivermectin and albendazole has been ongoing since 2001, and by 2006 all endemic health districts were receiving MDA with a therapeutic coverage of at least 65%. As MDA activities scale down, the focus is now on targeting areas where LF transmission persists with alternative elimination strategies. This study explored the relationship between village-level, baseline LF prevalence data collected in 2000 with publicly available meteorological, environmental and demographic variables in order to determine the factors that influence the geographical distribution of the disease. A fitted multiple logistic regression model indicated that the length of the rainy season, variability in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and population density were significantly positively associated with LF prevalence, whereas total annual rainfall, average June-September temperature, mean NDVI, elevation and the area of cotton crops were significantly negatively associated. This model was used to produce a baseline LF risk map for Burkina Faso. An extended model which incorporated potential socio-demographic risk factors also indicated a significant positive relationship between LF prevalence and wealth. In overlaying the baseline LF risk map with the number of MDA rounds, plus an insecticide-treated net (ITN ownership measure, the central southern area of the country was highlighted as an area where baseline LF prevalence was high and ITN coverage relatively low (<50%, while at least 10 rounds of MDA had been undertaken, suggesting that more concentrated efforts will be needed to eliminate the disease in these areas.

  14. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Ilboudo PGC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patrick GC Ilboudo,1–3 Serge MA Somda,4 Johanne Sundby3 1Département de Santé Publique, Unité de Recherche sur les Politiques et Systèmes de Santé, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 2Agence de Formation, de Recherche et d'Expertise en Santé pour l'Afrique (AFRICSanté, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 4Département des Maladies Non Transmissibles, Unité de Formation et d'Appui Méthodologique, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Introduction: Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results: The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41; whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24; and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95

  15. The effects of zooprophylaxis and other mosquito control measures against malaria in Nouna, Burkina Faso

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    Sié Ali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of large scale, organized vector control programmes, individual protective measures against mosquitoes are essential for reducing the transmission of diseases like malaria. Knowledge of the types and effectiveness of mosquito control methods used by households can aid in the development and promotion of preventive measures. Methods A matched, population-based case control study was carried out in the semi-urban region of Nouna, Burkina Faso. Surveys and mosquito captures were conducted for each participating household. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression and Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results In Nouna, Burkina Faso, the main types of reported mosquito control measures used included sleeping under bed nets (insecticide-treated and untreated and burning mosquito coils. Most of the study households kept animals within the compound or house at night. Insecticide house sprays, donkeys, rabbits and pigs were significantly associated with a reduced risk of malaria only in univariate analyses. Conclusion Given the conflicting results of the effects of zooprophylaxis from previous studies, other community-based preventive measures, such as bed nets, coils and insecticide house-spraying, may be of more benefit.

  16. Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly in Burkina Faso: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Hervé; Berthé, Abdramane; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Meda, Nicolas; Konaté, Blahima; Tou, Fatoumata; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2014-11-01

    To assess the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among urban older adults in Burkina Faso. Cross-sectional study among community-dwelling elderly people aged ≥60 in Bobo-Dioulasso. We performed interviews, clinical examination and medical record review. Multimorbidity was defined as co-occurrence of at least two chronic diseases in one person whether as a coincidence or not. The overall prevalence of multimorbidity among older adults was 65%. Age ≥70 was associated with multimorbidity in multivariate analysis: adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI (1.01-2.68, P = 0.04). The most common chronic diseases were hypertension (82%) 95% CI (78; 86), malnutrition (39%) 95% CI (34; 44), visual impairments (28%) 95% CI (24; 33) and diabetes mellitus (27%) 95% CI (22; 31). Those aged ≥70 had significantly more malnutrition (50% vs. 31%, P = 0.0003) and osteoarthritis (8% vs. 3%, P = 0.01) than those aged 60-69. The high prevalence of multimorbidity requires a reorganization of healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Burkina Faso. Interventions and care guidelines usually focused on individual diseases should be improved to better reflect this reality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Complete Coding Sequences of Two Dengue Virus Type 2 Strains Isolated from an Outbreak in Burkina Faso in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronti, Cécile; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Touret, Franck; Charrel, Rémi; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Nougairede, Antoine

    2017-04-27

    We report here the complete coding sequences of two strains of dengue virus type 2, isolated in France from patients returning from Burkina Faso in November 2016. Both strains (cosmopolitan genotype) are almost identical (99.91% nucleotide identity) and closely related to a strain circulating in Burkina Faso in 1983. Copyright © 2017 Baronti et al.

  18. Complete Coding Sequences of Two Dengue Virus Type 2 Strains Isolated from an Outbreak in Burkina Faso in 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Baronti, C?cile; Piorkowski, G?raldine; Touret, Franck; Charrel, R?mi; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Nougairede, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete coding sequences of two strains of dengue virus type 2, isolated in France from patients returning from Burkina Faso in November 2016. Both strains (cosmopolitan genotype) are almost identical (99.91% nucleotide identity) and closely related to a strain circulating in Burkina Faso in 1983.

  19. Universal access to electricity in Burkina Faso: scaling-up renewable energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that

  20. Consensual Unions in Burkina Faso: Trends and Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussi, Zourkaleini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper examines entry into consensual unions versus marriages in BurkinaFaso, a topic that has received little attention to date in sub-Saharan Africa.Changes in marriage behaviors may entail or reflect profound changes in familyorganization, gender relations and fertility and, to the extent that consensualunions are relatively transitory and lead to more sexual partners, they may beassociated with greater sexual risks including HIV. The determinants of newunions being consensual are estimated from national family-life type survey datathat provide information on the timing of different types of marriages and thestart of cohabitation. While consensual unions are not new to the country, theyappear to be changing in nature and have been growing more common overtime especially in urban areas. They are also more popular among men andwomen with greater schooling or who began cohabiting while living outside thecountry, and for women who have previously lived in union.RésuméCet article compare les entrées en unions libres avec et les mariages au BurkinaFaso, un sujet ayant reçu peu d'attention en Afrique sub-saharienne jusqu'àprésent. Les changements de comportements reliés au mariage peuventimpliquer ou refléter de profondes modifications dans l'organisation desfamilles, dans les relations entre les sexes et dans la fécondité. Si les unionslibres sont en général plus transitoires que le mariage et entraînent un plusgrand nombre de partenaires sexuels, elles peuvent être associées à une haussede pratiques sexuelles à risque pouvant mener aux infections du VIH. Lesdéterminants de type d'union (libre ou mariage ont été estimés en utilisant lesdonnées d'une enquête nationale de type biographique à l'aide d'information surla chronologie des différents types de mariage et les débuts de cohabitation.Bien que les unions libres ne soient pas un nouveau phénomène au BurkinaFaso, il semble que leur nature s'évolue sur le

  1. Patients infected by tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus facing their disease, their reactions to disease diagnosis and its implication about their families and communities, in Burkina Faso: a mixed focus group and cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méda, Ziemlé Clément; Somé, Télesphore; Sombié, Issiaka; Maré, Daouda; Morisky, Donald E; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-07-29

    Patients facing tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection receive particular care. Despite efforts in the care, misconceptions about TB and HIV still heavily impact patients, their families and communities. This situation severely limits achievement of TB and HIV programs goals. This study reports current situation of TB patients and patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) facing their disease and its implications, by comparing results from both qualitative and quantitative study design. Cross sectional study using mixed methods was used and excluded patients co-infected by TB and HIV. Focus group included 96 patients (6 patients per group) stratified by setting, disease profile and gender; from rural (Orodara Health District) and urban (Bobo Dioulasso) areas, all from Hauts-Bassins region in Burkina Faso. Quantitative study included 862 patients (309 TB patients and 553 PLWHA) attending TB and HIV care facilities in two main regions (Hauts-Bassins and Centre) of Burkina Faso. A content analysis of reports found TB patients and PLWHA felt discriminated and stigmatized because of misconceptions with its aftermaths (rejection, emotional and financial problems), mainly among PLWHA and women patients. PLWHA go to healers when facing limited solutions in health system. There are fewer associations for TB patients, and less education and sensitization sessions to give them opportunity for sharing disease status and learning from other TB patients. TB patients and PLWHA still need to better understand their disease and its implication. Access to care (diagnosis and treatment) remains one of the key issues in health system, especially for PLWHA. Individual counseling is centered among PLWHA but not for TB patients. With research progress and experiences sharing, TB patients and PLWHA have some hope to implement their life project, and to receive psychosocial and nutritional support. Despite international aid, TB patients and PLWHA are facing

  2. Knowledge of prevention, cause, symptom and practices of malaria among women in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Yaya

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health issue in most southern African countries as the disease remains hyper endemic. Burkina Faso continues to face challenges in the treatment of malaria, as the utilization of preventive measures remains low on a national scale. While it has been acknowledged that understanding women's health-seeking behaviours, perception of malaria and its preventive measures will aid in the control of malaria, there is paucity of information on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among women in the reproductive age of 15-49 years in Burkina Faso. This study investigated women's knowledge of malaria, attitudes towards malaria, and practices of malaria control in order to create a synergy between community efforts and governmental/non-governmental malaria control interventions in Burkina Faso.The analysis used data from the 2014 Burkina Faso Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS. In total 8111 women aged between 15-49 years were included in the present study. We assessed women's knowledge about 1 preventive measures, 2 causes and 3 symptoms of malaria, as well as malaria prevention practices for their children and during pregnancy. The socio-demographic characteristics were considered for Age, Religion, Education, Wealth index, Number of household members, Sex of household head, Household possession of radio, TV and Received antenatal care. Data were analyzed using STATA, version 14. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square and logistic regression, with the level of statistical significance set at 95%.A preponderant proportion of respondents were aged 15-29 years (mean age was 28.63±9.41. About three-quarters of the respondents had no formal education. An estimated two-third of the participants were of Islamic faith, while access to media and behavioural communication were generally poor. The level of knowledge was 53% for rural women and 68.2% for urban dwellers. In sum, there was 56.1% level of accurate knowledge

  3. Knowledge of prevention, cause, symptom and practices of malaria among women in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Sanni; Bishwajit, Ghose; Ekholuenetale, Michael; Shah, Vaibhav; Kadio, Bernard; Udenigwe, Ogochukwu

    2017-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health issue in most southern African countries as the disease remains hyper endemic. Burkina Faso continues to face challenges in the treatment of malaria, as the utilization of preventive measures remains low on a national scale. While it has been acknowledged that understanding women's health-seeking behaviours, perception of malaria and its preventive measures will aid in the control of malaria, there is paucity of information on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among women in the reproductive age of 15-49 years in Burkina Faso. This study investigated women's knowledge of malaria, attitudes towards malaria, and practices of malaria control in order to create a synergy between community efforts and governmental/non-governmental malaria control interventions in Burkina Faso. The analysis used data from the 2014 Burkina Faso Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS). In total 8111 women aged between 15-49 years were included in the present study. We assessed women's knowledge about 1) preventive measures, 2) causes and 3) symptoms of malaria, as well as malaria prevention practices for their children and during pregnancy. The socio-demographic characteristics were considered for Age, Religion, Education, Wealth index, Number of household members, Sex of household head, Household possession of radio, TV and Received antenatal care. Data were analyzed using STATA, version 14. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square and logistic regression, with the level of statistical significance set at 95%. A preponderant proportion of respondents were aged 15-29 years (mean age was 28.63±9.41). About three-quarters of the respondents had no formal education. An estimated two-third of the participants were of Islamic faith, while access to media and behavioural communication were generally poor. The level of knowledge was 53% for rural women and 68.2% for urban dwellers. In sum, there was 56.1% level of accurate knowledge of malaria

  4. Electricity consumption and economic growth in Burkina Faso: A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Idrissa M.

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically establishes the direction of causality between electricity consumption and economic growth in Burkina Faso for the period 1968-2003. The bounds test yields evidence of cointegration between electricity consumption, GDP, and capital formation when electricity consumption and GDP are used as dependent variable. Causality results indicate that there is no significant causal relationship between electricity consumption and investment. Estimates, however, detect in the long-run a bidirectional causal relationship between electricity use and real GDP. There is also evidence of a positive feedback causal relationship between GDP and capital formation. Burkina Faso is therefore an energy dependent country. It is also a country in which electricity consumption is growing with the level of income. All of this shows that electricity is a significant factor in socio-economic development in Burkina Faso; as such, energy policy must be implemented to ensure that electricity generates fewer potential negative impacts.

  5. Epidemiology of rotavirus infection among young children with acute diarrhoea in Burkina Faso

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    Haukka Kaisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In anticipation of vaccine introduction, we assessed epidemiology of rotavirus disease among children visiting medical centre due to acute diarrhoea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods Between November 2008 and February 2010, stool specimens from 447 children less than 5 years of age suffering from diarrhoea were tested for the presence of rotavirus by antigen detection using an immunochromatographic test. Sociodemographic, environmental and clinical factors were assessed during the study. Results Rotavirus antigen was detected in 151 (33.8% of the patients. Most of the cases (94.2% were in children Conclusions The results of this study underscore the need to control rotavirus infections among young children in Burkina Faso and may argue a decision on the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Burkina Faso.

  6. [Poliomyelitis case surveillance data management in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabo, Koiné Maxime; Nana, Félicité; Kouassi, Kouassi Lazare; Konfé, Salifou; Hien, Hervé; Saizonou, Jacques; Ouedraogo, Tinoaga Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The global initiative for poliomyelitis eradication can only remain relevant if survey systems are regularly assessed. In order to identify shortcomings and to propose improvement, the data collection and transmission during case investigation were assessed in the Banfora health district in Burkina Faso. The survey targeted six (6) primary health centres, the district laboratory and the national laboratory, all involved in the poliomyelitis surveillance system. Data from registers, forms documenting suspected cases, stool sample forms and weekly reports were collected by means of a data grid. Data from actors involved in the poliomyelitis case investigation system were collected by means of an individual questionnaire. The reactivity of investigating suspected cases was satisfactory with a median alert questionnaire notification time of 18 hours. The completeness of the reporting system was satisfactory. Nevertheless, the promptness of data management by primary heath centres and the national laboratory remained unsatisfactory. Evaluation of data management revealed logistic and organization shortcomings. The overall efficacy of the poliomyelitis surveillance could be improved by using management tools for laboratory supplies, collecting data related to the homes of suspected cases and implementing a cold chain maintenance plan.

  7. [Pernicious anemia: diagnosis and course in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulidiati, J; Sawadogo, S; Sagna, Y; Somda, K S; Tieno, H; Kafando, E; Drabo, Y J

    2015-01-01

    Pernicious anemia (also known as Biermer disease or anemia, Addison or Addisonian anemia, and Addison-Biermer anemia) is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis responsible for vitamin B12 malabsorption due to a deficiency of intrinsic factor. We report eight cases of pernicious anemia in Burkina Faso, collected over a 44-month period. The three criteria for diagnosis of pernicious anemia were: vitamin B12 deficiency, gastric disease (gastric histology) with presence of anti-intrinsic factor, and/or anti-gastric parietal cell antibodies in serum. All patients had anemia, with a mean hemoglobin level of 8.75 g/100 mL. The average mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was 122.1 fL the average mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 39.3 pg, the mean reticulocyte count 12.069 10(9)/L reticulocytes, and the mean rate of megaloblast marrow cells 17.2%. The serum vitamin B12 level ranged from 35 to 71 pmol/L. Antibodies against intrinsic factor were found in all eight patients. All ABO blood groups were present with a predominance (4 cases) of group O. Endoscopy found a normal fundic mucosa in three patients. Histology showed gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia for six patients (85.7%). Under B12 vitamin therapy, the course was favorable in all patients; seven patients also had 10 days of iron therapy. We recommend a gastric biopsy even in the absence of macroscopic gastric lesions on the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  8. Updating the Northern Tsetse Limit in Burkina Faso (1949–2009: Impact of Global Change

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    Fabrice Courtin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The northern distribution limit of tsetse flies was updated in Burkina Faso and compared to previous limits to revise the existing map of these vectors of African trypanosomiases dating from several decades ago. From 1949 to 2009, a 25- to 150-km shift has appeared toward the south. Tsetse are now discontinuously distributed in Burkina Faso with a western and an eastern tsetse belt. This range shift can be explained by a combination of decreased rainfall and increased human density. Within a context of international control, this study provides a better understanding of the factors influencing the distribution of tsetse flies.

  9. A Case of Dengue Fever Imported from Burkina Faso to Japan in October 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takehiro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Maeki, Takahiro; Tajima, Shigeru; Takaya, Saho; Katanami, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kei; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-11-22

    Dengue fever remains underreported in Africa due to a lack of awareness among healthcare providers, the presence of other febrile illnesses, and insufficient laboratory testing. We present a case of dengue fever imported from Burkina Faso to Japan, where an outbreak of dengue was reported on October 18, 2016. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate from our patient belonged to a distinct cluster of sylvatic dengue viruses, suggesting that dengue viruses have been maintained in mosquitoes and human cycles in Burkina Faso for more than 30 years.

  10. Presence of three dengue serotypes in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) : research and public health implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ridde, V.; Agier, I.; Bonnet, Emmanuel; Carabali, M.; Dabire, K. R.; Fournet, Florence; Ly, A.; Meda, I. B.; Parra, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The significant malaria burden in Africa has often eclipsed other febrile illnesses. Burkina Faso?s first dengue epidemic occurred in 1925 and the most recent in 2013. Yet there is still very little known about dengue prevalence, its vector proliferation, and its poverty and equity impacts. Methods An exploratory cross-sectional survey was performed from December 2013 to January 2014. Six primary healthcare centers in Ouagadougou were selected based on previously reported presence ...

  11. Burkina Faso Priorities for Poverty Reduction and Shared Prosperity : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    The rate of Burkina Faso’s progress towards the eradication of extreme poverty and the reduction of inequalities over recent years has been sub-optimal. This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) is an analytical report prepared by the World Bank Group (WBG) in an attempt to identify and analyze the factors that can help Burkina Faso accelerate its quest towards the achievement of the twin g...

  12. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2004-01-01

    %), 12 years (57%), 18 years (58%), 35-44 years (49%). In addition, 10% of 35-44-year-olds had CPI score 4. Rural participants had more severe periodontal scores than did urban individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention......OBJECTIVES: To analyse the oral health status of children and adults in rural and urban areas of Burkina Faso; to provide epidemiological data for planning and evaluation of oral health care programmes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey including different ethnic and socio-economic groups. SAMPLE......). Clinical oral health data collected according to WHO methodology and criteria. RESULTS: At age 6, 38% of children had caries, with prevalence higher in urban than rural areas. At age 12, the mean DMFT was 0.7 with prevalence significantly higher among urban than rural children. Mean DMFT was 1.9 in 18-year...

  13. BoulSat Project: Low-Cost Wireless Metropolitan Network Implementation in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catusian, Samuele S.; Longobardi, Federico; Panicucci, Francesco; Bartalesi, Raphael P.; Demi, Libertario; Cuomo, Antonio D.; Orlandi, Silvano

    The BoulSat Project involves the realization of a bidirectional VSAT (satellite connection system) and the study of "poor" a Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) to extend the Internet connectivity to the public institutions in the town area. Low-cost or waste materials have been used to build components where possible, thus to make possible for the local technicians with no specific and theoretical skills to build their network components by hand. This pilot scheme has been applied in Boulsa, in the Sahel region at the north of Burkina Faso. Besides the Boulsa case study, the whole work analyses a typical situation, due to the wide range of problems which have been handled, of remote communities in the South of the World. The aim is to characterize a standard of intervention, suitable for Developing Countries, to set up low-cost wireless telecommunication infrastructures.

  14. Respectful maternity care in three health facilities in Burkina Faso: the experience of the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Ali; Kiemtoré, Sibraogo; Zamané, Hyacinthe; Bonané, Blandine T; Akotionga, Michel; Lankoande, Jean

    2014-10-01

    The Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Burkina Faso (SOGOB) conducted a project to reinforce skills in respectful maternity care among its members and health workers at three facilities. The participatory process allowed health workers to self-diagnose quality of care, recognize their own responsibility, propose solutions, and pledge respectful care commitments that were specific for each unit. Key commitments included good reception; humanistic clinical examination; attentive listening and responsiveness to patient needs; privacy, discretion, and confidentiality; availability; and comfort. These commitments can potentially be modified after each evaluation by SOGOB. Poor working conditions were found to negatively impact on quality of care. High staff turnover, frequent technical malfunctions, and inadequate infrastructure were identified as issues that require future focus to ensure improvements in quality of care are sustainable. Programs that aim to improve the maternity experience by linking good practice with humanistic care merit rollout to all healthcare facilities in Burkina Faso. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Household energy preferences for cooking in urban Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Boukary

    2006-01-01

    An extensive survey on household expenditures in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, was used to analyze the factors determining urban household energy choices using a multinomial logit model. Wood-energy remains the preferred fuel of most urban households in the country; though rational, the choice is not sustainable as it portends a threat to the savanna woodlands and the economy. Many important policies have been adopted by public authorities to minimize household wood-energy consumption and to substitute it by alternative fuel. Despite the magnitude of all these policies, the depletion rate of the forest resource is increasing. A kind of inertia is thus observed for household preferences for cooking fuel. This model analyzes the sociological and economic variables of household energy preferences for cooking in Ouagadougou. The analyses show that the inertia of household cooking energy preferences are due to poverty factors such as low income, poor household access to electricity for primary and secondary energy, low house standard, household size, high frequency of cooking certain meals using woodfuel as cooking energy. The descriptive analyses show that the domestic demand for wood-energy is strongly related to household income. The firewood utilization rate decreases with increasing household income. In other words, this fuel appears as a 'transition good' for these households which aim for other sources of energy for cooking that are more adapted for urban consumption. This implies that a price subsidy policy for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and its cook stoves could significantly decrease the utilization rate of wood-energy

  16. Beneficiaries’ perceptions and reported use of unconditional cash transfers intended to prevent acute malnutrition in children in poor rural communities in Burkina Faso: qualitative results from the MAM’Out randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Tonguet-Papucci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute malnutrition is a public health issue worldwide, and particularly in the Eastern region of Burkina Faso. Following a needs assessment, unconditional seasonal, multiannual cash transfers were implemented as a safety net to prevent childhood undernutrition. The objectives of this study were to explore the types of purchases made by beneficiaries of this cash transfer program and to understand the perceived effects of and changes induced by regular cash transfers in the daily lives of women, and at the household and community level. Methods The design of this study was a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. Qualitative data were collected each month during the cash transfer period for two years, leading to a total of more than 300 interviews and focus group discussions with various participants: beneficiary mothers, heads of households, mothers-in-law, co-wives, key members of the community, and participants of the control group. Results The two main types of expenses reported were food and health care for the child and the whole family. The program was also associated with positive perceived changes at the household level, mainly related to gender equality and improvement of women’s status, and has promoted an increase in dignity and social integration of the poorest at the community level through cash sharing. Unexpected effects of this program included some women planning new pregnancies and some individuals not expecting the transfers to end. Conclusion Although the transfers were unconditional, the cash was mainly used to improve the children’s and households’ food security and health, which correspond to two main underlying causes of undernutrition. Therefore, spending mainly in these areas can help to prevent undernutrition in children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov , identifier: NCT01866124 , registered May 7, 2013.

  17. Malaria and anemia prevention in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Albrecht

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are a major risk group for malaria in endemic areas. Only little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women with malaria and anaemia preventive drug regimens in the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. In this study, we collected information on malaria and anaemia prevention behaviour in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso. Methods Cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative survey among 225 women of eight villages in rural northwestern Burkina Faso. Four of the villages had a health centre offering antenatal care (ANC services while the other four were more than five kilometers away from a health centre. Results Overall ANC coverage (at least one visit was 71% (95% in health centre villages vs 50% in remote villages. Malaria and anaemia were considered as the biggest problems during pregnancy in this community. ANC using women were quite satisfied with the quality of services, and compliance with malaria and anaemia prevention regimens (chloroquine and iron/folic acid was high in this population. Knowledge on the benefit of bed nets and good nutrition was less prominent. Distance, lack of money and ignorance were the main reasons for women to not attend ANC services. Conclusions There is an urgent need to improve access of rural SSA women to ANC services, either through increasing the number of rural health centres or establishing functioning outreach services. Moreover, alternative malaria and anaemia prevention programmes such as intermittent preventive treatment with effective antimalarials and the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets need to become implemented on a large scale.

  18. Oral health behaviour of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of dental knowledge and attitudes among 12 year-old children and 35-44 year-olds in Burkina Faso; to evaluate the pattern of oral health behaviour among these cohorts in relation to location, gender and social characteristics and; to evaluate the relative effect of...

  19. Prevention of intrauterine growth retardation by multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberfroid, D.A.G.

    2012-01-01

    This is the story of an idea. This is the account of its journey from birth to the delivery of new hypotheses. Reproduction, birth, but also death, are indeed at the heart of this research in which we assessed, in Burkina Faso, the health benefits of providing pregnant women with multiple

  20. The Value of Price Stabilization Policy for Cotton Producers in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Gouzaye, Amadou; Vitale, Jeffrey D.; Epplin, Francis M.; Adam, Brian D.; Stoecker, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Economic returns to Burkina Faso cotton producers from selling to the government parastatal are compared to those that could be obtained by selling on the international spot market. Based on historical prices, for certain levels of risk aversion, the parastatal price would be preferred to the international spot price.

  1. Literature and translation in Burkina Faso: the case of Fidèle P ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Translation, considered as a product of linguistic diversity or the confusion following the fall of the Tower of Babel, represents an act of communication. In a multilingual society, such as Burkina Faso, translation is an indispensable tool for socioeconomic, political and cultural development. In this paper I propose to examine ...

  2. Parkia biglobosa as an economic resource for rural women in south-western Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette-Helene Kronborg; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ilboudo, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    An approach for commercialising a product from Parkia biglobosa in order to improve the economic situation of rural women in south-western Burkina Faso was explored. Income is generated from sales of a derivative from the fermented seeds called soumbala. About one fifth of the women (18%) were in...

  3. Climate-Smart Farms? Case Studies in Burkina Faso and Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrieu, N.; Pédelahore, P.; Howland, F.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.

    2016-01-01

    The climate-smart agriculture concept aims to encourage reflection on
    the transition to sustainable agricultural systems adapted to climate change. This chapter is based on participatory research studies carried out in Colombia and Burkina Faso to investigate, with farmers, the relevance of new

  4. Diabète en milieu urbain de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso: profil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outre ses complications métaboliques, le diabète est un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire majeur. Le but de notre étude était de ... de risque cardiovasculaire. Conclusion: il est urgent de mettre en place un programme national de lutte contre le diabète sucré et les autres maladies non transmissibles au Burkina Faso.

  5. The Legacy of Christianity in West Africa, with Special Reference to Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In the following paper, I am going to discuss education and religion and consider the legacy of Christianity in education in West Africa with particular reference to the Evangelical churches in Burkina Faso. The paper will start with a general introduction to West Africa and the place of missionaries' activities in the region. I will then attempt…

  6. Modelling nutrient losses by wind and water erosion in northern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the semi-arid environment of northern Burkina Faso the processes of wind and water erosion occur almost simultaneously and may cause severe soil degradation. Especially in the early rainy season when soils are bare and unprotected, violent winds preceding intense rainfall events result in intense

  7. L'émergence de l' « artiste » au Burkina Faso | Rousseau | Tydskrif ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'art contemporain ne trouve d'acteurs au Burkina Faso que depuis une vingtaine d'années. Le gouvernement révolutionnaire de Thomas Sankara est le premier à offrir aux artistes un cadre de promotion et de perfectionnement technique. Dans les années 1980, les SNC (Semaines Nationales de la Culture), le FESPACO ...

  8. Biological Control Of Witch Weed In Fields Of Burkina Faso Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen Fusarium oxysporum isolates from diseased parasitic weeds (Striga hermonthica plants) were evaluated over two years (1997-98) to identify the most effective isolates for the control of the parasite in infested sorghum fields in Burkina Faso. In both years the fungus was found to reduce Striga infection in sorghum by ...

  9. Potential use of clay from Burkina Faso as filler in rubber production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raw clay materials deposit in Burkina Faso have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis to evaluate their potentialities to be used in rubber compounds production as filler. The samples are composed principally by aolinite, illite and quartz. The rubber ...

  10. Linking participatory and GIS-based land use planning methods; A case study from Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, R.; Berg, van den J.; Kabore, O.; Kekem, van A.J.; Verzandvoort, S.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable land use planning is crucial for realizing the aim of food security and for combating land degradation in the Sahel. A participatory land use planning workshop was organised in a village in the eastern region of Burkina Faso to investigate land use problems, their causes, effects and

  11. Platform for resource management : case studies of success or failure in Benin and Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangbegnon, C.

    1998-01-01

    The present book focuses on platforms for (natural) resource management. It analyses various case studies in Benin and Burkina Faso. Conditions for collective resource management in conflict and interdependent situations are the most critical issues. The present study raises the importance

  12. Endogenous phenolics and starch modifying enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to screen for biochemical determinants in sorghum varieties cultivated in Burkina Faso to identify the best sorghum varieties to be used as source of bioactive components or for specific local foods, e.g. "tô", thin porridges for infants, granulated foods "couscous",

  13. Effect on stone lines on soil chemical characteristics under continuous sorghum cropping in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmore, R.; Gnankambary, Z.; Guillobez, L.S.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2002-01-01

    In the semiarid Sahel, farmers commonly lay stone lines in fields to disperse runoff. This study was conducted in northern Burkina Faso to assess the chemical fertility of soil under a permanent, non-fertilised sorghum crop, which is the main production system in this area, 5 years after laying

  14. Sowing rules for estimating rainfed yield potential of sorghum and maize in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Quattara, K.; Supit, I.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the dependence on local expert knowledge, which is important for large-scale crop modelling studies, we analyzed sowing dates and rules for maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)) at three locations in Burkina Faso with strongly decreasing rainfall amounts from south to

  15. Incontinence urinaire de la femme en milieu urbain au Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incontinence urinaire de la femme en milieu urbain au Burkina Faso: Enquête épidemiologique auprès de 759 femmes à Bobo Dioulasso. ... showed that the following risk factors were significantly associated with urinary incontinence: dystocia, repeated urinary tract infections, chronic constipation, episiotomy and obesity.

  16. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondombo, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens

  17. Burkina Faso : Non-Monetary Poverty and Gender Inequalities, 1993-2010 Trends

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Burkina Faso's Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) of the 2000s, which were implemented as annually rolled-over Priority Action Programs, focused on four pillars: a) accelerating broad based growth; b) expanding access to social services for the poor; c) increasing employment and income-generating activities for the poor; and d) promoting good governance. Increased public expenditure and ta...

  18. Burkina Faso : Determinants of Cereal Production, Stochastic Frontier Approach for Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Burkina Faso's Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) of the 2000s, which were implemented as annually rolled-over Priority Action Programs, focused on four pillars: a) accelerating broad based growth; b) expanding access to social services for the poor; c) increasing employment and income-generating activities for the poor; and d) promoting good governance. Increased public expenditure and ta...

  19. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Burkina Faso Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Babacar

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Developing the education system in Burkina Faso will involve equipping more people with a basic qu...

  20. Serogroup W Meningitis Outbreak at the Subdistrict Level, Burkina Faso, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrelus, Laurence; Medah, Isaïe; Koussoubé, Daouda; Yélbeogo, Denis; Fernandez, Katya; Lingani, Clément; Djingarey, Mamoudou; Hugonnet, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    In 2012, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W caused a widespread meningitis epidemic in Burkina Faso. We describe the dynamic of the epidemic at the subdistrict level. Disease detection at this scale allows for a timelier response, which is critical in the new epidemiologic landscape created in Africa by the N. meningitidis A conjugate vaccine.

  1. Serogroup W Meningitis Outbreak at the Subdistrict Level, Burkina Faso, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Cibrelus, Laurence; Medah, Isa?e; Koussoub?, Daouda; Y?lbeogo, Denis; Fernandez, Katya; Lingani, Cl?ment; Djingarey, Mamoudou; Hugonnet, St?phane

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W caused a widespread meningitis epidemic in Burkina Faso. We describe the dynamic of the epidemic at the subdistrict level. Disease detection at this scale allows for a timelier response, which is critical in the new epidemiologic landscape created in Africa by the N. meningitidis A conjugate vaccine.

  2. Conventionalization of the organic sesame network from Burkina Faso: shrinking into mainstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the structure and development of the organic sesame network from Burkina Faso to explain the declining trend in organic sesame export. The paper addresses particularly the question whether the organic sesame network is structurally (re)shaped as a conventional mainstream

  3. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanga, Essowè; Filloux, Denis; Martin, Darren P; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Gargani, Daniel; Ferdinand, Romain; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus-a strain of Bean common mosaic virus-[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae]) five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus), two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae), a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae) and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae). Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples) and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses.

  4. Targeting the worst-off for free health care: a process evaluation in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Yaogo, Maurice; Kafando, Yamba; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Ouedraogo, Moctar; Bicaba, Abel; Haddad, Slim

    2011-11-01

    Effective mechanisms to exempt the indigent from user fees at health care facilities are rare in Africa. A State-led intervention (2004-2005) and two action research projects (2007-2010) were implemented in a health district in Burkina Faso to exempt the indigent from user fees. This article presents the results of the process evaluation of these three interventions. Individual and group interviews were organized with the key stakeholders (health staff, community members) to document the strengths and weaknesses of key components of the interventions (relevance and uptake of the intervention, worst-off selection and information, financial arrangements). Data was subjected to content analysis and thematic analysis. The results show that all three intervention processes can be improved. Community-based targeting was better accepted by the stakeholders than was the State-led intervention. The strengths of the community-based approach were in clearly defining the selection criteria, informing the waiver beneficiaries, using a participative process and using endogenous funding. A weakness was that using endogenous funding led to restrictive selection by the community. The community-based approach appears to be the most effective, but it needs to be improved and retested to generate more knowledge before scaling up. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Independent Evaluation of the Rapid Scale-Up Program to Reduce Under-Five Mortality in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munos, Melinda; Guiella, Georges; Roberton, Timothy; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Tiendrebeogo, Adama; Tam, Yvonne; Bryce, Jennifer; Baya, Banza

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective evaluation of the “Rapid Scale-Up” (RSU) program in Burkina Faso, focusing on the integrated community case management (iCCM) component of the program. We used a quasi-experimental design in which nine RSU districts were compared with seven districts without the program. The evaluation included documentation of program implementation, assessments of implementation and quality of care, baseline and endline coverage surveys, and estimation of mortality changes using the Lives Saved Tool. Although the program trained large numbers of community health workers, there were implementation shortcomings related to training, supervision, and drug stockouts. The quality of care provided to sick children was poor, and utilization of community health workers was low. Changes in intervention coverage were comparable in RSU and comparison areas. Estimated under-five mortality declined by 6.2% (from 110 to 103 deaths per 1,000 live births) in the RSU area and 4.2% (from 114 to 109 per 1,000 live births) in the comparison area. The RSU did not result in coverage increases or mortality reductions in Burkina Faso, but we cannot draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the iCCM strategy, given implementation shortcomings. The evaluation results highlight the need for greater attention to implementation of iCCM programs. PMID:26787147

  6. [Management of wastes from dental amalgam by dentists in Burkina Faso and Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, S; Sawadogo, A; Sakout, M; Abdallaoui, F

    2012-12-01

    Dental amalgam is a metallic restorative material that is used for direct filling of carious lesions since many years. The use of this material generates solid and particulate wastes that present potential challenges to the environment. This study was carried out to assess amalgam use and waste management protocols practiced by Moroccan and Burkinabe dentists. A cross-sectional study was made of 79 in Rabat, Sale and Temara in Morocco and 56 in Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina-Faso. The results showed that 69.5% of dental amalgam waste in Morocco vs 49.9% in Burkina-Faso was disposed with household waste which is a problem for both the environment and a risk to human being. Proper methods of dental amalgam waste disposal should be carried out to prevent indirect mercury poisoning for human.

  7. Monitoring agricultural expansion in Burkina Faso over 14 years with 30 m resolution time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knauer, Kim; Gessner, Ursula; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    and 3000 MODIS scenes were processed with this automated framework. The generated ESTARFM NDVI time series enabled extraction of per-pixel phenological features that all together served as input for the delineation of agricultural areas via random forest classification at 30 m spatial resolution for entire......Burkina Faso ranges amongst the fastest growing countries in the world with an annual population growth rate of more than three percent. This trend has consequences for food security since agricultural productivity is still on a comparatively low level in Burkina Faso. In order to compensate...... for the low productivity, the agricultural areas are expanding quickly. The mapping and monitoring of this expansion is difficult, even on the basis of remote sensing imagery, since the extensive farming practices and frequent cloud coverage in the area make the delineation of cultivated land from other land...

  8. Attitudes towards abortion and contraception in rural and urban Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Using results from the ethnographic literature and two qualitative studies on people's representations of different means of birth control (abstinence, contraception, abortion in two populations in Burkina Faso (one rural and one urban, we designed a multi-dimensional quantitative scale to measure individuals' attitudes towards varied means of birth control. We applied it in two representative surveys in rural and urban Burkina Faso. Relating individuals' attitudes towards birth control to their socio-demographic characteristics and to their attitudes towards other life dimensions, and applying N. Elias' theory of the civilization process, we seek to explain why abortion is less tolerated, while more widely practiced, in the city than in the villages.

  9. Survey data on key climate and environmental drivers of farmers' migration in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfo, Safiétou; Fonta, M William; Boubacar, Ibrahim; Lamers, P A John

    2016-12-01

    This article describes two datasets generated from various sources in south western Burkina Faso to identify the key climate and environmental drivers that cause farmers to migrate. The survey sampling is random but reasoned and rational. The first dataset from 367 farm households contains data on farmers' perception of climate change risks or hazards, their impacts on farmland productivity and farm households' risk management strategies. The second dataset from 58 farm households contains data on agricultural practices, environmental changes, and environmental migration. Three supplemental Excel sheets show the results of the surveys. Details on the sample as well as further interpretation and discussion of the surveys are available in the associated research article ('Field Facts for Crop Insurance Design: Empirical Evidence from South Western Burkina Faso' (W. M. Fonta, S. Sanfo, B. Ibrahim, B. Barry, 2015) [1]).

  10. Patients are paying too much for tuberculosis: a direct cost-burden evaluation in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Laokri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paying for health care may exclude poor people. Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy implementing "free care" for Tuberculosis (TB diagnosis and treatment. This should increase universal health coverage and help to overcome social and economic barriers to health access. METHODS: Straddling 2007 and 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted over a year among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in six rural districts of Burkina Faso. Out-of-pocket expenses (direct costs associated with TB were collected according to the different stages of their healthcare pathway. RESULTS: Median direct cost associated with TB was US$101 (n = 229 (i.e. 2.8 months of household income. Respectively 72% of patients incurred direct costs during the pre-diagnosis stage (i.e. self-medication, travel, traditional healers' services, 95% during the diagnosis process (i.e. user fees, travel costs to various providers, extra sputum smears microscopy and chest radiology, 68% during the intensive treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs and 50% during the continuation treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs. For the diagnosis stage, median direct costs already amounted to 35% of overall direct costs. CONCLUSIONS: The patient care pathway analysis in rural Burkina Faso showed substantial direct costs and healthcare system delay within a "free care" policy for TB diagnosis and treatment. Whether in terms of redefining the free TB package or rationalizing the care pathway, serious efforts must be undertaken to make "free" health care more affordable for the patients. Locally relevant for TB, this case-study in Burkina Faso has a real potential to document how health programs' weaknesses can be identified and solved.

  11. Patients are paying too much for tuberculosis: a direct cost-burden evaluation in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laokri, Samia; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Weil, Olivier; Kafando, Benoît; Dembélé, Sary Mathurin; Dujardin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Paying for health care may exclude poor people. Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy implementing "free care" for Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment. This should increase universal health coverage and help to overcome social and economic barriers to health access. Straddling 2007 and 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted over a year among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in six rural districts of Burkina Faso. Out-of-pocket expenses (direct costs) associated with TB were collected according to the different stages of their healthcare pathway. Median direct cost associated with TB was US$101 (n = 229) (i.e. 2.8 months of household income). Respectively 72% of patients incurred direct costs during the pre-diagnosis stage (i.e. self-medication, travel, traditional healers' services), 95% during the diagnosis process (i.e. user fees, travel costs to various providers, extra sputum smears microscopy and chest radiology), 68% during the intensive treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs) and 50% during the continuation treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs). For the diagnosis stage, median direct costs already amounted to 35% of overall direct costs. The patient care pathway analysis in rural Burkina Faso showed substantial direct costs and healthcare system delay within a "free care" policy for TB diagnosis and treatment. Whether in terms of redefining the free TB package or rationalizing the care pathway, serious efforts must be undertaken to make "free" health care more affordable for the patients. Locally relevant for TB, this case-study in Burkina Faso has a real potential to document how health programs' weaknesses can be identified and solved.

  12. Analyse des systèmes d'innovation (Burkina Faso) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet a pour objectif d'améliorer l'efficience du système d'innovation en construction au Burkina Faso en renforçant les échanges entre chercheurs, inventeurs, innovateurs et décideurs publiques en vue d'une meilleure valorisation des résultats de recherche. Sous la tutelle du Centre national de la recherche ...

  13. Vulnerabilities of Government Websites in a Developing Country – The Case of Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Bissyandé , Tegawendé F.; Ouoba , Jonathan; Ahmat , Daouda; Ouédraogo , Fréderic; Béré , Cedric; Bikienga , Moustapha; Sere , Abdoulaye; Dandjinou , Mesmin; Sié , Oumarou

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Slowly, but consistently, the digital gap between developing and developed countries is being closed. Everyday, there are initiatives towards relying on ICT to simplify the interaction between citizens and their governments in developing countries. E-government is thus becoming a reality: in Burkina Faso, all government bodies are taking part in this movement with web portals dedicated to serving the public. Unfortunately, in this rush to promote government actions wit...

  14. Platform for resource management : case studies of success or failure in Benin and Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Dangbegnon, C.

    1998-01-01

    The present book focuses on platforms for (natural) resource management. It analyses various case studies in Benin and Burkina Faso. Conditions for collective resource management in conflict and interdependent situations are the most critical issues. The present study raises the importance of socio-economic sustainability. It aims at incorporating social perspective within economic growth by focusing on stakeholders needs and by learning with them to respond to evolving conditions.&l...

  15. Analyse des systèmes d'innovation (Burkina Faso) | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enjeux et perspectives d'une promotion durable du système d'innovation de la filière karité (Vitellaria paradoxa) au Burkina Faso : communication présentée à la IIIe Conférence Internationale de KMA « Knowledge Management Africa » sous le thème « le... Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Rapport final du projet « Analyse ...

  16. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: epidemiologic and genetic links between human and cattle isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Sanou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations.Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5 or humans (1 or from both (1. Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1 clonal complex (81.8% and the putative African 5 (Af5 clonal complex (18.2%, in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing.This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.

  17. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: epidemiologic and genetic links between human and cattle isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Adama; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Kanyala, Estelle; Zingué, Dezemon; Nouctara, Moumini; Ganamé, Zakaria; Combary, Adjima; Hien, Hervé; Dembele, Mathurin; Kabore, Antoinette; Meda, Nicolas; Van de Perre, Philippe; Neveu, Dorine; Bañuls, Anne Laure; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2014-10-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations. Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5) or humans (1) or from both (1). Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree) showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex (81.8%) and the putative African 5 (Af5) clonal complex (18.2%), in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing. This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.

  18. The components of self-rated health among adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Onadja, Yentéma; Bignami, Simona; Rossier, Clementine; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although the relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and physical and mental health is well documented in developed countries, very few studies have analyzed this association in the developing world, particularly in Africa. In this study, we examine the associations of SRH with measures of physical and mental health (chronic diseases, functional limitations, and depression) among adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and how these associations vary by sex, age, and education l...

  19. Muted voices: HIV/AIDS and the young people of Burkina Faso and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendal Østergaard, Lise; Samuelsen, Helle

    2004-11-01

    This article explores the discrepancies between the vocal public discourse on HIV/AIDS and sexuality as generally encouraged by policy-makers and donor communities in Africa, and the often hushed voices of their target groups: young people in African communities. Based on fieldwork among urban youth in Senegal and Burkina Faso, we describe the silence of young people with regard to HIV/AIDS and sexuality as a social phenomenon, with focus given to family relations, peer relations and gender aspects in partnerships. Drawing on Foucault and Morrell, an inability and unwillingness to speak about HIV/AIDS and sexuality are analysed as a response to an everyday life characterised by uncertainty. This response represents a certain degree of resistance, while it constitutes a major barrier to any HIV/AIDS prevention effort. Finally, we stress that despite great constraints in their everyday lives, young people have some room to manoeuvre and are able to apply some negotiating strategies to reduce sexually-related health risks.

  20. Preliminary assessment of framework conditions for release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freece, Chenoa; Paré Toé, Léa; Esposito, Fulvio; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Favia, Guido

    2014-09-01

    Genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) are emerging as a measure to control mosquito-borne diseases, but before any genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are released into the environment, it is imperative to establish regulatory standards incorporating public engagement. A previous project in Burkina Faso introduced a type of genetically modified cotton [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] cotton) that produces insecticide, and incorporated policies on public engagement. We explored the perspectives of Burkinabè (citizens of Burkina Faso) on bio-agricultural exposure to GMOs and their receptiveness to the use of GMOs. Interviews were conducted in a village (Bondoukuy) and with representatives from stakeholder organizations. The population may be very receptive to the use of GMMs against malaria, but may voice unfounded concerns that GMMs can transmit other diseases. It is important to constantly supply the population with correct and factual information. Investigating the application of Burkina Faso's biotechnology policies with regard to Bt cotton has shown that it may be conceivable in the future to have open discussions about the merits of GMM release. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Who Is Going for VCT? A Case Study in Urban Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Yaro, Seydou; Fao, Paulin; Defer, Marie-Christine; Ilboudo, François; Langani, Youssouf; Meda, Nicolas; Robert, Annie; Nagot, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) is a key element of treatment and is essential for prevention of vertical HIV transmission. Little information is available on the uptake of VCT in Burkina Faso. This study aims to assess the prevalence of VCT in urban Burkina Faso, where the epidemic is still highly concentrated. Methods. We conducted a two-stage clustered population-based survey among 1,694 subjects living in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. After informed consent was obtained, a behavioural questionnaire was administered to participants. Results. Overall, 10.2% of individuals had used VCT, while 9% were women. Among women who had a child after the launch of the programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), only 10.4% have been tested for HIV. Almost all participants (99.3%) were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 65% knew the main methods of prevention. In multivariate analysis, older age and being married and better educated were independent factors associated with VCT. Conclusions. Despite high public knowledge and awareness about HIV, VCT uptake was still very low and PMTCT coverage was poor. New strategies are required to increase VCT uptake in urban areas, in particular among the youngest age. PMID:24052873

  2. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Eve; Chevalier, Véronique; Ayelet, Gelagay; Ben Bencheikh, Med Nadir; Boussini, Hiver; Chu, Daniel Kw; El Berbri, Ikhlass; Fassi-Fihri, Ouaffa; Faye, Bernard; Fekadu, Getnet; Grosbois, Vladimir; Ng, Bryan Cy; Perera, Ranawaka Apm; So, T Y; Traore, Amadou; Roger, François; Peiris, Malik

    2017-03-30

    Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February-March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2-28.0), followed by Burkina Faso (up to 12.2%; 95% CI: 7-20.4) and Morocco (up to 7.6%; 95% CI: 1.9-26.1). The RNA detection rate was higher in camels bred for milk or meat than in camels for transport (p = 0.01) as well as in younger camels (p = 0.06). High seropositivity rates (up to 100%; 95% CI: 100-100 and 99.4%; 95% CI: 95.4-99.9) were found in Morocco and Ethiopia, followed by Burkina Faso (up to 84.6%; 95% CI: 77.2-89.9). Seropositivity rates were higher in large/medium herds (≥51 camels) than small herds (p = 0.061), in camels raised for meat or milk than for transport (p = 0.01), and in nomadic or sedentary herds than in herds with a mix of these lifestyles (p < 0.005). This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  3. Presence of three dengue serotypes in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso): research and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Agier, Isabelle; Bonnet, Emmanuel; Carabali, Mabel; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Fournet, Florence; Ly, Antarou; Meda, Ivlabèhiré Bertrand; Parra, Beatriz

    2016-04-05

    , 2.6 breeding sites were found per yard. Potential Aedes breeding sites were found near 71.4 % (21/28) of patients, but no adult Aedes were found. The most frequently identified potential breeding sites were water storage containers (45.2 %). Most specimens collected in yards were Culex (97.9 %). The scientific community, public health authorities, and health workers should consider dengue as a possible cause of febrile illness in Burkina Faso.

  4. Comparative Review of Selected Educational Policies of 1st and 2nd Cycle Institutions in Ghana and Burkina Faso, and That of United Kingdom and United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi, Asamoah Moses; Seidu, Abarichie Adamu

    2017-01-01

    This article examines some selected Educational Policies of First and Second Cycle Institutions in Ghana and Burkina Faso, in comparison with that of the UK and US. The purpose of the study is to itemise the commonalities and differences in Educational Policies of both developed (UK and US) and developing countries (Ghana and Burkina Faso) in…

  5. Pharmacovigilance systems in developing countries: an evaluative case study in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabore, Lassane; Millet, Pascal; Fofana, Souleymane; Berdai, Driss; Adam, Caroline; Haramburu, Françoise

    2013-05-01

    Burkina Faso, like other Sub-Saharan African countries, has recently experienced a large-scale deployment of new medicines for the prevention and treatment of notable diseases of public health interest, including malaria, HIV/AIDS and meningitis. This new context rendered the implementation of pharmacovigilance necessary in order to monitor and establish the safety and effectiveness of these medicines. In 2008, the Ministry of Health of Burkina Faso, West Africa, launched a formal pharmacovigilance system to respond to this need. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early-stage pharmacovigilance system of Burkina Faso through a comprehensive and system-based approach with the prospect of identifying areas for improvements. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in Burkina Faso. Sixteen key informants from the National Drug Authority (NDA), public health programmes (PHPs) and hospitals were interviewed. Study participants were selected based on a convenience sampling in the NDA, three teaching hospitals, two regional hospitals and six PHPs. Data were collected using the Indicator-based Pharmacovigilance Assessment Tool (IPAT), a metric instrument recently designed and validated by 'Management Sciences for Health', a US non-profit organization. The evaluation also involved the collection and review of relevant pharmacovigilance-related documentation in the institutions assessed. A scoring system was used for the quantification of assessment results. The NDA of Burkina Faso, the institution statutorily in charge of pharmacovigilance, achieved a performance score of 70 %. The basic structures for pharmacovigilance activities were in place; however, the lack of specific laws dedicated to pharmacovigilance, the lack of national guidelines and standard operating procedures on pharmacovigilance, and the insufficient coordination of pharmacovigilance stakeholders in the country were identified as the main weaknesses. Safety data collected thus far have not

  6. Effectively introducing a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Africa: the Burkina Faso experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Barry, Rodrigue; Bonkoungou, Mete; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre; Sebgo, Rene; Kandolo, Denis; Lingani, Clement; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Zuber, Patrick L F; Perea, William; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Dellepiane de Rey Tolve, Nora; Tevi-Benissan, Carole; Clark, Thomas A; Mayer, Leonard W; Novak, Ryan; Messonier, Nancy E; Berlier, Monique; Toboe, Desire; Nshimirimana, Deo; Mihigo, Richard; Aguado, Teresa; Diomandé, Fabien; Kristiansen, Paul A; Caugant, Dominique A; Laforce, F Marc

    2012-05-30

    A new Group A meningococcal (Men A) conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac™, was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. Because Burkina Faso has repeatedly suffered meningitis epidemics due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis special efforts were made to conduct a country-wide campaign with the new vaccine in late 2010 and before the onset of the next epidemic meningococcal disease season beginning in January 2011. In the ensuing five months (July-November 2010) the following challenges were successfully managed: (1) doing a large safety study and registering the new vaccine in Burkina Faso; (2) developing a comprehensive communication plan; (3) strengthening the surveillance system with particular attention to improving the capacity for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of spinal fluid specimens; (4) improving cold chain capacity and waste disposal; (5) developing and funding a sound campaign strategy; and (6) ensuring effective collaboration across all partners. Each of these issues required specific strategies that were managed through a WHO-led consortium that included all major partners (Ministry of Health/Burkina Faso, Serum Institute of India Ltd., UNICEF, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, Meningitis Vaccine Project, CDC/Atlanta, and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health/Oslo). Biweekly teleconferences that were led by WHO ensured that problems were identified in a timely fashion. The new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine was introduced on December 6, 2010, in a national ceremony led by His Excellency Blaise Compaore, the President of Burkina Faso. The ensuing 10-day national campaign was hugely successful, and over 11.4 million Burkinabes between the ages of 1 and 29 years (100% of target population) were vaccinated. African national immunization programs are capable of achieving very high coverage for a vaccine desired by the public, introduced in a well-organized campaign, and supported at the highest

  7. Conservation′s Ambiguities: Rangers on the Periphery of the W Park, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Poppe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the central role of ambiguity in the (reproduction process of conservation practice. It argues that some current political economy as well as environmentality approaches to research conservation practice fail to capture the complexity of the lived experience of local conservationists. The article focuses on the multiple identities of rangers in interaction with other residents at the periphery of the W Park in Burkina Faso, as rangers are local conservationists who simultaneously submit to and produce conservation practices. Park rangers are village men who are recruited under the banner of community participation in conservation projects and state forestry. On a day-to-day basis, these rangers help the foresters with the management of the natural resources on the one hand, and guide tourists, especially in the hunting concessions, on the other. They occupy ambiguous positions at the crossroads of conservationist, state, political, economic, spiritual, social, and cultural practices, inherent to their conservation occupations at the lowest echelon, where residents have to transform conservation policies into practices. It is precisely this ambiguity that turns out to ensure the conservation implementation.

  8. Oral Health Status of Children Living in Gorom-Gorom, Oudalan District, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Mazza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In order to set up the needs for intervention and to plan oral health prevention and care programmes, this paper aims to describe the oral health status and behaviour in children living in the municipality of Gorom-Gorom, Burkina Faso. Design. The sample size was 692 children, 334 females (48.3% and 358 males (51.7%. Clinical and oral health related behaviours were collected. Results. 83.4% of the children were caries-free. Fluorosis was recorded in 41.3% of the sample, while only 37.9% of children showed healthy gingival condition. Toothbrushing was reported by 35.7% of children. A statistically significant association was found between caries experience and cleanliness of hands. Community Periodontal Index was statistically associated to toothbrushing and chewingstick use. Conclusion. As suggested by WHO's global strategies, integrated primary oral health care and services meeting the dental needs of the local population are necessary for children living in this area of Africa.

  9. [History of an epidemiological route between Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso: the case of the Koudougou sleeping sickness foci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiendrébéogo, D; Kambiré, R; Jamonneau, V; Lingué, K; Solano, P; Courtin, F

    2012-11-01

    In the first half of the XXth century, while Upper-Volta (now Burkina Faso) was suffering a terrible epidemic of sleeping sickness, the French colonial administration encouraged the movement of people from Upper-Volta to Ivory Coast to meet their demands for labour. This led to the establishment of Mossi villages, such as those of Koudougou, in the Ivorian forest with populations originating from areas of Upper-Volta that were not only densely populated but also severely affected by sleeping sickness. Since 2000, most cases of sleeping sickness in the Koudougou district of Burkina Faso have been in people originally from Ivory Coast. Who are they? Where did they settle in Burkina Faso? Where do they come from in Ivory Coast? After having retraced the epidemiological history of Koudougou villages in Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast, the history of ten cases of sleeping sickness detected passively at Koudougou hospital since 2000 were analysed. All cases originated from the forest area of Ivory Coast. Understanding the spread of sleeping sickness between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast will assist in the identification of areas of disease risk.

  10. Desiccation and storage of Lannea microcarpa from Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daws, M.I.; Gaméné, C.E.; Sacandé, M.; Pritchard, H.W.; Groot, S.P.C.; Hoekstra, F.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of Lannea microcarpa collected from Brurkina Faso in 1997 and 1998 were subjected to desiccation and a range of storage conditions.Seeds were able to tolerate desiccation to low moisture contents (ca 5%) with little loss of viability. In addition, it was possible to store seeds at 25 degrees

  11. Ascertaining gene flow patterns in livestock populations of developing countries: a case study in Burkina Faso goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traoré Amadou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introgression of Sahel livestock genes southwards in West Africa may be favoured by human activity and the increase of the duration of the dry seasons since the 1970’s. The aim of this study is to assess the gene flow patterns in Burkina Faso goat and to ascertain the most likely factors influencing geographic patterns of genetic variation in the Burkina Faso goat population. Results A total of 520 goat were sampled in 23 different locations of Burkina Faso and genotyped for a set of 19 microsatellites. Data deposited in the Dryad repository: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.41h46j37. Although overall differentiation is poor (FST = 0.067 ± 0.003, the goat population of Burkina Faso is far from being homogeneous. Barrier analysis pointed out the existence of: a genetic discontinuities in the Central and Southeast Burkina Faso; and b genetic differences within the goat sampled in the Sahel or the Sudan areas of Burkina Faso. Principal component analysis and admixture proportion scores were computed for each population sampled and used to construct interpolation maps. Furthermore, Population Graph analysis revealed that the Sahel and the Sudan environmental areas of Burkina Faso were connected through a significant number of extended edges, which would be consistent with the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal. Genetic variation of Burkina Faso goat followed a geographic-related pattern. This pattern of variation is likely to be related to the presence of vectors of African animal trypanosomosis. Partial Mantel test identified the present Northern limit of trypanosome vectors as the most significant landscape boundary influencing the genetic variability of Burkina Faso goat (p = 0.008. The contribution of Sahel goat genes to the goat populations in the Northern and Eastern parts of the Sudan-Sahel area of Burkina Faso was substantial. The presence of perennial streams explains the existence of trypanosome vectors. The South

  12. Development of a health education intervention strategy using an implementation research method to control taeniasis and cysticercosis in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Helena; Ozbolt, Ivan; Millogo, Athanase; Dermauw, Veronique; Somé, Télesphore; Spicer, Paul; Jervis, Lori L; Ganaba, Rasmané; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Carabin, Hélène

    2017-06-01

    Taeniasis and cysticercosis are two diseases caused by Taenia solium, a parasite transmitted between humans and pigs, leading to considerable economic loss and disabilities. Transmission of the parasite is linked to environmental and behavioural factors such as inadequate sanitation and hygiene, poor pig management, and consumption of infected pork. This study used implementation research method to design a health education intervention strategy for reducing T. solium infections in Burkina Faso, a country endemic for the parasite. Eighteen group discussions were conducted with 8-18 participants each in three villages. In addition, structured interviews were conducted among 4 777 participants and 2 244 pig owners, who were selected through cluster random sampling in 60 villages of three provinces of Burkina Faso. Both approaches assessed knowledge and practices related to T. solium. The information obtained was used to develop a community-adapted health education intervention strategy to control taeniasis and cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. The group discussions revealed that participants had a poor quality of life due to the diseases as well as inadequate access to latrines, safe water, and healthcare services. In addition, it was found that pig production was an important economic activity, especially for women. Furthermore, financial and knowledge constraints were important limitations to improved pig management and latrine construction. The survey data also showed that open defecation and drinking unboiled water were common behaviours, enhanced by a lack of knowledge regarding the transmission of the parasite, perceived financial barriers to the implementation of control measures, lack of public sensitization, as well as a lack of self-efficacy towards control of the parasite. Nevertheless, the perceived financial benefits of controlling porcine cysticercosis could be emphasized by an education program that discourages open defecation and encourages drinking safe

  13. Desiccation and storage of Lannea microcarpa from Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Daws, M.I.; Gaméné, C.E.; Sacandé, M.; Pritchard, H.W.; Groot, S.P.C.; Hoekstra, F.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of Lannea microcarpa collected from Brurkina Faso in 1997 and 1998 were subjected to desiccation and a range of storage conditions.Seeds were able to tolerate desiccation to low moisture contents (ca 5%) with little loss of viability. In addition, it was possible to store seeds at 25 degrees centigrade at reduced moisture contents (approx. 6%), for up to 14 months. However, seeds stored at -20 or 4 degrees centigrade exhibited a reduction in viability within three months of storage. Thi...

  14. Process evaluation improves delivery of a nutrition-sensitive agriculture programme in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer N; Olney, Deanna K; Ouedraogo, Marcellin; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye; Rouamba, Hippolyte; Yago-Wienne, Fanny

    2017-12-26

    Evidence is emerging from rigorous evaluations about the effectiveness of nutrition-sensitive agriculture programmes in improving nutritional outcomes. Additional evidence can elucidate how different programme components and pathways contribute and can be optimized for impact. The International Food Policy Research Institute, with Helen Keller International, designed a comprehensive framework to evaluate the delivery, utilization, and impact of Helen Keller International's enhanced homestead food production programme in Burkina Faso. After 18 months of implementation, a process evaluation was conducted to examine programme impact pathways, using key informant and semistructured interviews with implementing agents and beneficiaries, and with residents of control communities. Data were analyzed by International Food Policy Research Institute and reviewed with project managers and partners through multiple workshops to identify opportunities to strengthen implementation. Findings illuminated gaps between intended and actual delivery schemes, including input constraints, knowledge gaps among community agents in agriculture and young child nutrition practices, and lower than expected activity by community volunteers. In response, staff developed measures to overcome water constraints and expand vegetable and poultry production, retrained volunteers in certain techniques of food production and counselling for nutrition behaviour change, added small incentives to motivate volunteers, and shaped both immediate and long-term changes to the programme model. Working closely with International Food Policy Research Institute on the evaluation activities also expanded the repertoire of research methods and skills of Helen Keller International staff. Process evaluation can strengthen programme delivery, utilization, and design. Collaboration between researchers and implementers can improve programme effectiveness, project staff capacity, and advance delivery science. © 2017

  15. Investigating rural poverty and marginality in Burkina Faso using remote sensing-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, M.; Stein, A.; Zurita-Milla, R.

    2014-02-01

    Poverty at the national and sub-national level is commonly mapped on the basis of household surveys. Typical poverty metrics like the head count index are not able to identify its underlaying factors, particularly in rural economies based on subsistence agriculture. This paper relates agro-ecological marginality identified from regional and global datasets including remote sensing products like the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall to rural agricultural production and food consumption in Burkina Faso. The objective is to analyze poverty patterns and to generate a fine resolution poverty map at the national scale. We compose a new indicator from a range of welfare indicators quantified from Georeferenced household surveys, indicating a spatially varying set of welfare and poverty states of rural communities. Next, a local spatial regression is used to relate each welfare and poverty state to the agro-ecological marginality. Our results show strong spatial dependency of welfare and poverty states over agro-ecological marginality in heterogeneous regions, indicating that environmental factors affect living conditions in rural communities. The agro-ecological stress and related marginality vary locally between rural communities within each region. About 58% variance in the welfare indicator is explained by the factors of rural agricultural production and 42% is explained by the factor of food consumption. We found that the spatially explicit approach based on multi-temporal remote sensing products effectively summarizes information on poverty and facilitates further interpretation of the newly developed welfare indicator. The proposed method was validated with poverty incidence obtained from national surveys.

  16. Could the decision of trial participation precede the informed consent process? Evidence from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré Toe, Lea; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Dierickx, Susan; Gryseels, Charlotte; Tinto, Halidou; Rouamba, Noèl; Diallo, Ibrahim; Cissao, Yacouba; Bayala, Korotimi; Hausmann, Susanna; Muela, Joan; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, the number of clinical trials carried out in low-income countries with poor medical infrastructure and limited access to health care has increased. In these settings, the decision of participating in a clinical study may be influenced by factors related to participants' vulnerability that limit the efficacy of the informed consent. A mixed methods social science study, based on the triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data, was carried out in a socio-economically disadvantaged and semi-urban area of Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. The study aimed at assessing the relevance of the informed consent procedure on the decision-making process of the parents and/or guardians of potential participants in a pediatric malaria trial. For most parents (70.4%), the decision of participating had already been taken before undergoing the informed consent process and was based on the information conveyed through the community. Access to free and good quality health care often inspired this decision. In addition, the parents' willingness to have their child included in the trial made them develop active strategies to achieve this purpose. In a context of socio-economic vulnerability and poor access to free health care, the process of informed consent does not always accomplish its goal of informing people and enabling them to make a free and informed decision. This information role is somehow anticipated by the community and trial participation becomes a strategic action to secure otherwise unavailable health resources leading community members to decide on participation even prior to the informed consent process.

  17. Could the decision of trial participation precede the informed consent process? Evidence from Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Paré Toe

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the number of clinical trials carried out in low-income countries with poor medical infrastructure and limited access to health care has increased. In these settings, the decision of participating in a clinical study may be influenced by factors related to participants' vulnerability that limit the efficacy of the informed consent.A mixed methods social science study, based on the triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data, was carried out in a socio-economically disadvantaged and semi-urban area of Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. The study aimed at assessing the relevance of the informed consent procedure on the decision-making process of the parents and/or guardians of potential participants in a pediatric malaria trial.For most parents (70.4%, the decision of participating had already been taken before undergoing the informed consent process and was based on the information conveyed through the community. Access to free and good quality health care often inspired this decision. In addition, the parents' willingness to have their child included in the trial made them develop active strategies to achieve this purpose.In a context of socio-economic vulnerability and poor access to free health care, the process of informed consent does not always accomplish its goal of informing people and enabling them to make a free and informed decision. This information role is somehow anticipated by the community and trial participation becomes a strategic action to secure otherwise unavailable health resources leading community members to decide on participation even prior to the informed consent process.

  18. The impact of clinical research activities on communities in rural Africa: the development of the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro (CRUN) in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Halidou; Valea, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Tahita, Marc Christian; Traore, Maminata; Bihoun, Biébo; Guiraud, Issa; Kpoda, Hervé; Rouamba, Jérémi; Ouédraogo, Sayouba; Lompo, Palpouguini; Yara, Sandrine; Kabore, William; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Robert Tinga; Binka, Fred N; Ogutu, Bernhards

    2014-03-22

    The opportunities for developing new drugs and vaccines for malaria control look brighter now than ten years ago. However, there are few places in sub-Saharan Africa with the necessary infrastructure and expertise to support such research in compliance to international standards of clinical research (ICH-GCP). The Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro (CRUN) was founded in 2008 to provide a much-needed GCP-compliant clinical trial platform for an imminent large-scale Phase 3 malaria vaccine trial. A dynamic approach was used that entailed developing the required infrastructure and human resources, while engaging local communities in the process as key stakeholders. This provided a better understanding and ownership of the research activities by the local population. Within five years (2008-2013), the CRUN set up a fully and well-equipped GCP-compliant clinical trial research facility, which enabled to attract 25 grants. The research team grew from ten health workers prior to 2008 to 254 in 2013. A Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), which covers a total population of about 60,000 people in 24 villages was set up in the district. The local community contributed to the development of the facility through the leadership of the king and the mayor of Nanoro. As a result of their active advocacy, the government extended the national electrical grid to the new research center, and later to the entire village. This produced a positive impact on the community's quality of life. The quality of health care improved substantially, due to the creation of more elaborate clinical laboratory services and the acquisition of state-of-the-art equipment. Involving the community in the key steps of establishing the centre provided the foundation for what was to become the CRUN success story. This experience demonstrates that when clinical trials research sites are carefully developed and implemented, they can have a positive and powerful impact on local communities in

  19. Note on the possible existence of hydrocarbons and other energetic substances in Burkina Faso and suggestions for prospecting them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The existence of hydrocarbons and other energetic substances in Burkina Faso has until now been an obscure point in the record of mining research; however there exist petrografic formations that, potentially, could be promising. Prospecting for these substances is expensive; but could be very profitable in case of positive results. It is thus clever and timely, in face of the world energy crisis, to perform prospectations of these formations in order to get an definite answer to the hopes of positive results. In a landlocked country like Burkina Faso, nothing should be left untried in order to discover our chances of development [fr

  20. Reflections on the Unintended Consequences of the Promotion of Institutional Pregnancy and Birth Care in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Melberg

    Full Text Available The policy of institutional delivery has been the cornerstone of actions aimed at monitoring and achieving MDG 5. Efforts to increase institutional births have been implemented worldwide within different cultural and health systems settings. This paper explores how communities in rural Burkina Faso perceive the promotion and delivery of facility pregnancy and birth care, and how this promotion influences health-seeking behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted in South-Western Burkina Faso between September 2011 and January 2012. A total of 21 in-depth interviews and 8 focus group discussions with women who had given birth recently and community members were conducted. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and interpreted through Merton's concept of unintended consequences of purposive social action. The study found that community members experienced a strong pressure to give birth in a health facility and perceived health workers to define institutional birth as the only acceptable option. Women and their families experienced verbal, economic and administrative sanctions if they did not attend services and adhered to health worker recommendations, and reported that they felt incapable of questioning health workers' knowledge and practices. Women who for social and economic reasons had limited access to health facilities found that the sanctions came with increased cost for health services, led to social stigma and acted as additional barriers to seek skilled care at birth. The study demonstrates how the global and national policy of skilled pregnancy and birth care can occur in unintentional ways in local settings. The promotion of institutional care during pregnancy and at birth in the study area compromised health system trust and equal access to care. The pressure to use facility care and the sanctions experienced by women not complying may further marginalize women with poor access to facility care and contribute to

  1. (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) du Nord du Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    29 déc. 2014 ... RESUME. Objectif : L'étude a pour objectif de déterminer le niveau de diversité agromorphologique des sorghos à grains sucrés du Nord du Burkina et d'estimer les paramètres génétiques de la collection en vue d'identifier les meilleures stratégies d'amélioration variétale. Méthodologie et résultats : Les ...

  2. Land cover change and plants diversity in the Sahel: A case study from northern Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Kadeba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding land cover degradation patterns and the effects of geomorphological units on phytodiversity is important for guiding management decisions and restoration strategies in the Sahelian vulnerables zones. This paper describes land cover degradation by combining Landsat TM image analysis and field data measurements in the Gourouol catchment of the Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. Erdas Imagine 9.2 and Arc-GIS.10 were applied. The change patterns were obtained by superposing land cover maps for 1992 and 2010. The field data were collected by the mean of inventories according to the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological relevés methods. Plot sizes were 50 m x 20 m for woody species and 10 m x 10 m for herbaceous species. Six land cover types were identified and mapped: cultivated lands, bared lands, lowlands, which all spatially increased; and shrub-steppes, grasslands and water bodies, which all spatially decreased. The dynamic patterns based on the geomorphological units were non-degraded lowlands, stable sand dunes and degraded glacis. High plant diversity was found in lowlands, whereas low diversity occurred in glacis. A significant dissimilarity was observed between communities. The Shannon diversity indices in plant communities were approximately close to ln(species richness. The Pielou indices were close to 1, indicating a species fairly good distribution. Our results showed a variation of land cover over time and the effects of geomorphological units on phytodiversity. Furthermore, this variation helps oppose land degradation in the Sahel.

  3. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  4. Farmers' knowledge and opinions towards bollgard II®implementation in cotton production in western Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Edouard I R; Gheysen, Godelieve; Koulibaly, Bazoumana; Roelofs, Caspar; Speelman, Stijn

    2018-01-24

    In 2008, the commercial cultivation of Genetically Modified (GM) cotton (Bollgard II ® ) started in Burkina Faso. The adoption rate increased rapidly in subsequent years to reach around 70% in 2014. Although some criticisms were raised concerning the suitability of the technology for the farming system in Burkina Faso, the introduction of transgenic cotton in the country was generally regarded as a great success. Despite this, during the 2016-2017 agricultural campaign, the government of Burkina Faso decided to suspend the cultivation of Bollgard II ® . In this context, this paper investigates farmers' knowledge, perceptions, opinions and attitudes towards Bollgard II ® as well as their views on the recent decision to suspend its cultivation. Data was collected from 324 cotton farmers, both growers of conventional and Bollgard II ® . The results showed that the farmers surveyed had a poor knowledge concerning the core concepts of biotechnology and Bollgard II ® in particular. Moreover, the regulatory oversight of the implementation of the technology was found insufficient, as illustrated by the lack of compliance with prescriptions concerning refuge areas and pesticide treatments. Nevertheless, overall, the farmers interviewed had a slightly positive opinion about the effects on yield, income and their wellbeing. In particular the reduction in pesticide treatments was perceived very positively by all respondents. Although the study finds that the majority of farmers disagreed with the recent suspension of Bt cotton cultivation by the government, it also makes clear that a thorough debate on the technology and its implementation is necessary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Learning Transfer: The Missing Link to Learning among School Leaders in Burkina Faso and Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Brion

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, billions of dollars are spent on development aid and training around the world. However, only 10% of this training results in the transfer of knowledge, skills, or behaviors learned in the training to the work place. Ideally, learning transfer produces effective and continued application by learners of the knowledge and skills they gained through their learning activities. Currently, there is a limited body of research examining the factors that hinder and promote learning transfer in professional development, particularly the professional development of school leaders in developing countries. This qualitative exploratory study sought to address the gap in the literature by examining six schools: three in Burkina Faso and three in Ghana, West Africa. This investigation explored what promoted and hindered learning transfer in both countries. The sample consisted of 13 West-African school leaders (6 in Burkina Faso and 7 in Ghana who attended a 3-day leadership training workshop. Data collection included in-depth interviews, document analysis, post-training site visits, and text messages to ascertain whether this mobile technology intervention enhanced learning transfer. The findings demonstrated that learning transfer occurred in both countries in all six schools. Data indicated that most of the transfer of learning happened in areas not requiring mindset and behavioral changes. Data suggested that the facilities in which the trainings took place, the facilitators’ dispositions and knowledge, the adequacy of the materials as well as the testimonials and certificate of completions enhanced the transfer of learning. Participants also indicated some inhibitors to the transfer of learning, such as financial, cultural, and human behavior constraints. This study helps increase our understanding of what promotes and inhibits learning transfer in educational settings in Burkina Faso and Ghana and provides suggestions for trainers and

  6. Clinical spectrum of rheumatologic diseases in a department of rheumatology in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Dieu-Donné; Ntsiba, Honoré; Tiendrébéogo Zabsonré, Joelle; Tiéno, Hervé; Bokossa, Laurelle I F; Kaboré, Fulgence; Drabo, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to review over a period of 5 years the clinical spectrum of rheumatic diseases seen in a tertiary hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A retrospective study of case records was conducted from March 1, 2006 to March 30, 2011 in the Rheumatology service, Department of Internal Medicine of the University Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo. Of the 4,084 patients seen, 2,381 were women (58.30%) and 1,703 were men (41.70%). The mean age at disease onset was 42.12 years, ranging from 3 to 92 years. Among the rheumatologic conditions, mechanical and degenerative disorders were the most common, found in 3,053 cases (74.76%). Among these cases, spinal pathology predominated, especially low back pain (19.93 %). The frequency of osteoarthritis was 19.70 % (804 cases) with a predominance of knee osteoarthritis (657 cases). Infectious pathology was dominated by osteoarticular tuberculosis (48 cases), particularly Pott's disease (43.68% of infectious diseases). Among the cases of inflammatory arthritides, rheumatoid arthritis was the leading cause (116 cases or 2.84%). It was followed by spondyloarthropathies in which arthritis related to HIV predominated (21 out of 81 cases). Metabolic diseases were mainly represented by the gout (162 cases or 3.96%) with male predominance. Comorbidities included high blood pressure (46.57%), diabetes mellitus (13.78%), hemoglobinopathies (9.66%), epigastric pain (7.25%), and peptic ulcer confirmed by endoscopy (6.75%). Rheumatology in Burkina Faso is booming. The profile of rheumatologic diseases in Burkina Faso, after 5 years of practice, confirms the diversity and importance of these conditions dominated by a degenerative pathology of the spine and limbs, including infectious diseases such as Pott's disease and the inflammatory and metabolic diseases.

  7. Costs of Neisseria meningitidis Group A Disease and Economic Impact of Vaccination in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Anaïs; Trotter, Caroline; Madrid, Yvette; Karachaliou, Andromachi; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2015-11-15

    Five years since the successful introduction of MenAfriVac in a mass vaccination campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds in Burkina Faso, consideration must be given to the optimal strategies for sustaining population protection. This study aims to estimate the economic impact of a range of vaccination strategies in Burkina Faso. We performed a cost-of-illness study, comparing different vaccination scenarios in terms of costs to both households and health systems over a 26-year time horizon. These scenarios are (1) reactive vaccination campaign (baseline comparator); (2) preventive vaccination campaign; (3) routine immunization at 9 months; and (4) a combination of routine and an initial catchup campaign of children under 5. Costs were estimated from a literature review, which included unpublished programmatic documents and peer-reviewed publications. The future disease burden for each vaccination strategy was predicted using a dynamic transmission model of group A Neisseria meningitidis. From 2010 to 2014, the total costs associated with the preventive campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds with MenAfriVac were similar to the estimated costs of the reactive vaccination strategy (approximately 10 million US dollars [USD]). Between 2015 and 2035, routine immunization with or without a catch-up campaign of 1- to 4-year-olds is cost saving compared with the reactive strategy, both with and without discounting costs and cases. Most of the savings are accrued from lower costs of case management and household costs resulting from a lower burden of disease. After the initial investment in the preventive strategy, 1 USD invested in the routine strategy saves an additional 1.3 USD compared to the reactive strategy. Prevention strategies using MenAfriVac will be significantly cost saving in Burkina Faso, both for the health system and for households, compared with the reactive strategy. This will protect households from catastrophic expenditures and increase the development

  8. APOBEC3G Variants and Protection against HIV-1 Infection in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaore, Tegwinde Rebeca; Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Tchelougou, Damehan; Maiga, Mamoudou; Assih, Maleki; Bisseye, Cyrille; Bakouan, Didier; Compaore, Issaka Pierre; Dembele, Augustine; Martinson, Jeremy; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Studies on host factors, particularly the APOBEC3G gene, have previously found an association with AIDS progression in some populations and against some HIV-1 strains but not others. Our study had two main objectives: firstly, to screen a population from Burkina Faso for three variants of APOBEC3G previously described, and secondly to analyze the effect of these three variants and their haplotypes on HIV-1 infection with Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) present in Burkina Faso. This case control study involved 708 seropositive and seronegative individuals. Genotyping was done by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. Minor allele frequencies of rs6001417 (p<0.05), rs8177832 (P<0.05), and rs35228531 (P<0.001) were higher in seronegative subjects. The rs6001417 and rs8177832 SNPs were associated with HIV-1 infection in an additive model (P<0.01). Furthermore the SNP rs35228531 was also associated with HIV-1 infection in a dominant model (P<0.001). Odds ratio analysis of genotypes and alleles of the different APOBEC3G variants showed that there is a strong association between the minor genetic variants, genotype of the three SNPs, and HIV-1 status. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 are in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype GGT from the rs6001417, rs8177832 and rs35228531 respectively has a protective effect OR = 0.54 [0.43-0.68] with P<0.001. There was also associations between the haplotypes GGC OR = 1.6 [1.1;-2.3] P<0.05, and CGC OR = 5.21 [2.4-11.3] P<0.001, which increase the risk of infection by HIV-1 from almost two (2) to five (5) fold. This study demonstrates an association of rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 of APOBEC3G with HIV-1 infection in a population from Burkina Faso.

  9. APOBEC3G Variants and Protection against HIV-1 Infection in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegwinde Rebeca Compaore

    Full Text Available Studies on host factors, particularly the APOBEC3G gene, have previously found an association with AIDS progression in some populations and against some HIV-1 strains but not others. Our study had two main objectives: firstly, to screen a population from Burkina Faso for three variants of APOBEC3G previously described, and secondly to analyze the effect of these three variants and their haplotypes on HIV-1 infection with Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs present in Burkina Faso. This case control study involved 708 seropositive and seronegative individuals. Genotyping was done by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. Minor allele frequencies of rs6001417 (p<0.05, rs8177832 (P<0.05, and rs35228531 (P<0.001 were higher in seronegative subjects. The rs6001417 and rs8177832 SNPs were associated with HIV-1 infection in an additive model (P<0.01. Furthermore the SNP rs35228531 was also associated with HIV-1 infection in a dominant model (P<0.001. Odds ratio analysis of genotypes and alleles of the different APOBEC3G variants showed that there is a strong association between the minor genetic variants, genotype of the three SNPs, and HIV-1 status. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 are in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype GGT from the rs6001417, rs8177832 and rs35228531 respectively has a protective effect OR = 0.54 [0.43-0.68] with P<0.001. There was also associations between the haplotypes GGC OR = 1.6 [1.1;-2.3] P<0.05, and CGC OR = 5.21 [2.4-11.3] P<0.001, which increase the risk of infection by HIV-1 from almost two (2 to five (5 fold. This study demonstrates an association of rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 of APOBEC3G with HIV-1 infection in a population from Burkina Faso.

  10. Identification of pests and assessment of their damage on Carapa procera and Lophira lanceolata in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tindano, Baslayi; Gnankine, Olivier; Ouésdraogo, Amadé

    2017-01-01

    Nontimber forest products are a source of income for women in rural African communities. However, these products are frequently damaged by insect pests. The present study investigates the diversity and damage rates of insect pests that attack Carapa procera seeds and Lophira lanceolata fruits....... The experiment was set up in western Burkina Faso and, for C. carapa, consisted of pests collected from seeds that had fallen to the ground and from stockpiled seeds. For L. lanceolata, pests were collected from fruits on the trees, and on the ground. The collected samples were sent to the laboratory to estimate...... the proportion of damaged seeds/fruits and rear the insects. The results showed that Ephestia spp., Tribolium castaneum, Oryzeaphilus spp., and Tenebroides mauritanicus were the pests of Carapa procera seeds and Lophira lanceolata fruits. Ephestia spp. was recorded as the main pest of both C. procera and L...

  11. Survey data on key climate and environmental drivers of farmers’ migration in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiétou Sanfo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes two datasets generated from various sources in south western Burkina Faso to identify the key climate and environmental drivers that cause farmers to migrate. The survey sampling is random but reasoned and rational. The first dataset from 367 farm households1 1 100 interviewed households, and 10 Focus Group Discussions comprising 267 farmers. contains data on farmers’ perception of climate change risks or hazards, their impacts on farmland productivity and farm households’ risk management strategies. The second dataset from 58 farm households contains data on agricultural practices, environmental changes, and environmental migration. Three supplemental Excel sheets show the results of the surveys. Details on the sample as well as further interpretation and discussion of the surveys are available in the associated research article (‘Field Facts for Crop Insurance Design: Empirical Evidence from South Western Burkina Faso’ (W. M. Fonta, S. Sanfo, B. Ibrahim, B. Barry, 2015 [1].

  12. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Burkina Faso : Apprendre à ne pas être pauvre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 déc. 2010 ... Bibliothèque numérique du CRDI. Mondialisation, croissance et pauvreté (CRDI). Projets reliés. Système de suivi ... En 2000, le gouvernement du Burkina Faso a préparé un premier document de stratégie de réduction de la pauvreté (DSRP). Le succès de la stratégie reposait sur sa capacité d'atteindre les ...

  13. Active tuberculosis case finding among pregnant women: a pilot project in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, G; Gnanou, S; Roggi, A; Konseimbo, A; Giorgetti, P F; Castelli, F; Matteelli, A

    2016-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death among women of childbearing age, and may be responsible for severe complications during pregnancy. Between August 2014 and March 2015, we conducted a pilot project to promote active TB case finding in antenatal care (ANC) clinics in the Central Region of Burkina Faso. Our results show very limited TB diagnostic practices and possible severe underdiagnosis of TB at ANC clinics, despite adequate screening practices. Integration of training and supervision of TB diagnosis and treatment into ANC services is required.

  14. HIV prevalence and poverty in Africa: micro- and macro-econometric evidences applied to Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaud, Jean-Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Based on the data of the Demographic and Health Survey, and of the Household Priority Survey, carried out in 2003, the present study, examining the factors of HIV prevalence in Burkina Faso, provides two conclusions. Firstly, the fight against poverty is not necessarily a means of reducing simultaneously and drastically HIV/AIDS prevalence, an assertion based on several elements of empirical analysis. First of all, the micro-econometric estimates of the probit models suggest a positive relationship between HIV prevalence in adult women and men, and living standards of individuals. Then, the macro-econometric approach reveals the existence of a positive (negative) relationship between, on the one hand, the level of regional HIV prevalence, and, on the other hand, the average monetary provincial standard of living (poverty) of households. At the same time, the relationship between HIV prevalence and poverty, apprehended at the regional level, is not linear. Secondly, and correlatively, the relationship between HIV prevalence and poverty is called into question. First of all, some structural factors may contribute to a distortion of the relationship between resources of households and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. This may be due, on the one hand, to the persistence of cognitive and behavioural factors inherent in a traditional society, and in particular, to the fact that the social construction of female attributes and roles confers to men a statute of "decision-makers" with regard to sexual intercourse, while the persistence of secular beliefs contributes to minimizing the perception of HIV/AIDS in terms of risk, independently of standards of living. In addition, the enclavement of Burkina Faso required development of road and railway traffic with neighbouring countries, in particular Côte d'Ivoire. Therefore, it may be that the structural conditions of the process of development of Burkina Faso, concomitant with significant flows of the exchange of goods, services

  15. Three years of insecticide resistance monitoring in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso: resistance on the rise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badolo Athanase

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide-resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Burkina Faso. For three years, between 2008 and 2010, WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of resistance to all the major classes of insecticides at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season. Species identification and genotyping for target site mutations was also performed and the sporozoite rate in adults determined. Results At the onset of the study, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was already prevalent in An. gambiae s.l. from the south-west of the country but mosquitoes from the two sites in central Burkina Faso were largely susceptible. Within three years, DDT and permethrin resistance was established in all four sites. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance remains relatively rare and largely confined to the south-western areas although a small number of bendiocarb survivors were found in all sites by the final round of monitoring. The ace-1R target site resistance allele was present in all localities and its frequency exceeded 20% in 2010 in two of the sites. The frequency of the 1014F kdr mutation increased throughout the three years and by 2010, the frequency of 1014F in all sites combined was 0.02 in Anopheles arabiensis, 0.56 in An. gambiae M form and 0.96 in An. gambiae S form. This frequency did not differ significantly between the sites. The 1014S kdr allele was only found in An. arabiensis but its frequency increased significantly throughout the study (P = 0.0003 and in 2010 the 1014S allele frequency was 0.08 in An. arabiensis. Maximum sporozoite rates (12% were observed in Soumousso in 2009 and the difference between sites is significant for each year. Conclusion Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is now established in An. gambiae s.l. throughout Burkina Faso. Results from diagnostic dose assays are highly variable within and

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with hypertension in Burkina Faso: a countrywide cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kouesyandé Soubeiga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High blood pressure (HBP is an increasing public health issue for developing countries. HBP is an important contributing factor to many non-communicable diseases that were until very recently thought to be rare in developing countries. There is not enough evidence on its burden and risk factors in Africa. We report in this study on the prevalence and factors associated with HBP in the adult and active population of Burkina Faso from a nationally representative sample. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the World Health Organization (WHO Stepwise approach to Surveillance(STEPS survey on the prevalence of major risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Burkina Faso. This survey was conducted between September 26 and November 18, 2013 and involved a nationally representative sample of 4,800 adults aged 25 to 64 years. The risk factors were identified using a binary logistic regression in STATA Version 13.1 software. Results The analysis was conducted on a sample of 4629 participants of whom 72.18% lived in rural areas. The overall prevalence of hypertension in Burkina Faso was 18% (95% CI: 16.19%–19.96%. In urban areas the prevalence was 24.81% (95% CI 20.21%–30.07% and 15.37% (95% CI 13.67%–17.24% in rural areas. Increased Body Mass Index (BMI and older age were consistently associated with higher odds of HBP in both residential areas. In addition, being of male sex, fat intake, family history of HBP and low level of HDL cholesterol were significantly associated with increased odds of HBP in rural residents. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension is high in Burkina Faso with roughly one person in five affected. There is a predominant burden in urban areas with prevalence of ten-point percent higher compared to rural area. Modifiable risk factors should be targeted with appropriate and effective strategies to curb the rising burden of hypertension and its consequences.

  17. Ecole Supérieure de Droit à l'Université de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer, P.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher school of law at the University of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso. Insect flight populations infesting traditional millet storage have been followed by sticky trap during fifteen months in Senegal. Distribution analysis of species show that Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. (52 % of insect total number is most abundant, following by Ephestia cautella WLK. (7V, 6 %, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. (17, 4 % o, Cryptolestes sp. (10, 1 % o and Rhyzopertha dominica F. (9, 9 %&gt;. Infestation has been discussed in relation between storage methodology. Relation between seasonal fluctuation of S. cerealella and several abiotic factors of ecosystem has been found.

  18. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O; Kouraogo, Salam F; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B; Mueller, Judith E

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (pRural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine health services and schools, to ensure sustainability of health literacy efforts.

  19. Targeted Water Quality Assessment in Small Reservoirs in Brazil, Zimbabwe, Morocco and Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelee, Eline; Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Laamrani, Hammou; Cecchi, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Background Physical and chemical parameters of water in reservoirs can be affected by natural and manmade pollutants, causing damage to the aquatic life and water quality. However, the exact water quality considerations depend on what the water will be used for. Brick making, livestock watering, fisheries, irrigation and domestic uses all have their own specific water quality requirements. In turn, these uses impact on water quality. Methodology Water quality was assessed with a variety of methods in small multipurpose reservoirs in the São Francisco Basin in Brazil, Limpopo in Zimbabwe, Souss Massa in Morocco and Nakambé in Burkina Faso. In each case the first step was to select the reservoirs for which the water quality was to be monitored, then identify the main water uses, followed by a determination of key relevant water quality parameters. In addition, a survey was done in some cases to identify quality perceptions of the users. Samples were taken from the reservoir itself and related water bodies such as canals and wells where relevant. Results Accordingly in the four basins different methods gave different locally relevant results. In the Preto River in the Sao Francisco in Brazil small reservoirs are mainly used for irrigated agriculture. Chemical analysis of various small reservoirs showed that water quality was mainly influenced by geological origins. In addition there was nutrient inflow from surrounding areas of intensive agriculture with high fertilizer use. In the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe small reservoirs are used for almost all community water needs. Plankton was selected as indicator and sampling was carried out in reservoirs in communal areas and in a national park. Park reservoirs were significantly more diversified in phytoplankton taxa compared to those in the communal lands, but not for zooplankton, though communal lands had the highest zooplankton abundance. In Souss Massa in Morocco a combination of perceptions and scientific water

  20. Health providers' perceptions of clinical trials: lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angwenyi, Vibian; Asante, Kwaku-Poku; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Febir, Lawrence Gyabaa; Tawiah, Charlotte; Kwarteng, Anthony; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenue; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Webster, Jayne; Chandramohan, Daniel; Molyneux, Sassy; Jones, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials conducted in Africa often require substantial investments to support trial centres and public health facilities. Trial resources could potentially generate benefits for routine health service delivery but may have unintended consequences. Strengthening ethical practice requires understanding the potential effects of trial inputs on the perceptions and practices of routine health care providers. This study explores the influence of malaria vaccine trials on health service delivery in Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso. We conducted: audits of trial inputs in 10 trial facilities and among 144 health workers; individual interviews with frontline providers (n=99) and health managers (n=14); and group discussions with fieldworkers (n=9 discussions). Descriptive summaries were generated from audit data. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework approach. Facilities involved in trials benefited from infrastructure and equipment upgrades, support with essential drugs, access to trial vehicles, and placement of additional qualified trial staff. Qualified trial staff in facilities were often seen as role models by their colleagues; assisting with supportive supervision and reducing facility workload. Some facility staff in place before the trial also received formal training and salary top-ups from the trials. However, differential access to support caused dissatisfaction, and some interviewees expressed concerns about what would happen at the end of the trial once financial and supervisory support was removed. Clinical trials function as short-term complex health service delivery interventions in the facilities in which they are based. They have the potential to both benefit facilities, staff and communities through providing the supportive environment required for improvements in routine care, but they can also generate dissatisfaction, relationship challenges and demoralisation among staff. Minimising trial related harm and maximising benefits requires

  1. Health providers' perceptions of clinical trials: lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibian Angwenyi

    Full Text Available Clinical trials conducted in Africa often require substantial investments to support trial centres and public health facilities. Trial resources could potentially generate benefits for routine health service delivery but may have unintended consequences. Strengthening ethical practice requires understanding the potential effects of trial inputs on the perceptions and practices of routine health care providers. This study explores the influence of malaria vaccine trials on health service delivery in Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso.We conducted: audits of trial inputs in 10 trial facilities and among 144 health workers; individual interviews with frontline providers (n=99 and health managers (n=14; and group discussions with fieldworkers (n=9 discussions. Descriptive summaries were generated from audit data. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework approach.Facilities involved in trials benefited from infrastructure and equipment upgrades, support with essential drugs, access to trial vehicles, and placement of additional qualified trial staff. Qualified trial staff in facilities were often seen as role models by their colleagues; assisting with supportive supervision and reducing facility workload. Some facility staff in place before the trial also received formal training and salary top-ups from the trials. However, differential access to support caused dissatisfaction, and some interviewees expressed concerns about what would happen at the end of the trial once financial and supervisory support was removed.Clinical trials function as short-term complex health service delivery interventions in the facilities in which they are based. They have the potential to both benefit facilities, staff and communities through providing the supportive environment required for improvements in routine care, but they can also generate dissatisfaction, relationship challenges and demoralisation among staff. Minimising trial related harm and maximising

  2. Health Providers’ Perceptions of Clinical Trials: Lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angwenyi, Vibian; Asante, Kwaku-Poku; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Febir, Lawrence Gyabaa; Tawiah, Charlotte; Kwarteng, Anthony; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenue; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Webster, Jayne; Chandramohan, Daniel; Molyneux, Sassy; Jones, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical trials conducted in Africa often require substantial investments to support trial centres and public health facilities. Trial resources could potentially generate benefits for routine health service delivery but may have unintended consequences. Strengthening ethical practice requires understanding the potential effects of trial inputs on the perceptions and practices of routine health care providers. This study explores the influence of malaria vaccine trials on health service delivery in Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted: audits of trial inputs in 10 trial facilities and among 144 health workers; individual interviews with frontline providers (n=99) and health managers (n=14); and group discussions with fieldworkers (n=9 discussions). Descriptive summaries were generated from audit data. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework approach. Results Facilities involved in trials benefited from infrastructure and equipment upgrades, support with essential drugs, access to trial vehicles, and placement of additional qualified trial staff. Qualified trial staff in facilities were often seen as role models by their colleagues; assisting with supportive supervision and reducing facility workload. Some facility staff in place before the trial also received formal training and salary top-ups from the trials. However, differential access to support caused dissatisfaction, and some interviewees expressed concerns about what would happen at the end of the trial once financial and supervisory support was removed. Conclusion Clinical trials function as short-term complex health service delivery interventions in the facilities in which they are based. They have the potential to both benefit facilities, staff and communities through providing the supportive environment required for improvements in routine care, but they can also generate dissatisfaction, relationship challenges and demoralisation among staff. Minimising trial related

  3. Prevalence of breast-related symptoms, health care seeking behaviour and diagnostic needs among women in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströbele, Leonie; Kantelhardt, Eva Johanna; Traoré Millogo, Timongo Francoise Danielle; Sarigda, Maurice; Wacker, Jürgen; Grosse Frie, Kirstin

    2018-04-04

    The prevalence of breast cancer has been increasing in sub-Saharan Africa over the last few years. Patients often present with late stage disease, resulting in a high mortality rate. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of breast -related symptoms in the female population of Burkina Faso. The findings can be used to advise on adequate diagnostic health services for breast symptoms to ensure early detection and down-staging of breast cancer. A cross-sectional, population based study of 996 women was conducted to investigate the proportion of women with breast-related symptoms. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, information about breast cancer knowledge and details about breast-related symptoms, health care seeking and medical care. Breast-related symptoms were categorised as currently present/not currently present to estimate the current prevalence of women requiring a diagnostic service. Among the 996 women, 120 reported having had a breast-related symptom in their life. Only 36 women sought medical advice and eight women had diagnostic confirmation by histological or imaging techniques. Current breast-related symptoms were reported by 33 women (3.3% of the sample). An extrapolation to Burkina Faso's female population suggests that 184,562 women are in current need of diagnostic services due to any breast-related symptoms. Imaging techniques at the community and referral level are needed in order to triage women with breast-related symptoms. Specialised services need to be strengthened to ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment of breast diseases. Education campaigns among the general population and among health care professionals are required to increase awareness of breast cancer and improve prompt health care seeking and referral.

  4. Consuming the savings : Water Conservation in a Vegetation Barrier System at the Central Plateau in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    The vast majority of land users at the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso make a living by farming small plots, where mainly staple crops are produced for subsistence use. Both area interventions and line interventions comprising indigenous techniques as well as introduced techniques can be encountered

  5. Soil nutrient and sediment loss as affected by erosion barriers and nutrient source in semi-arid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmore, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2009-01-01

    In semi-arid Sahel, soil erosion by water is one major factor accounting for negative nutrient balances in agricultural systems. A field experiment was conducted on a Ferric Lixisol in Burkina Faso to assess the effects of soil and water conservation barriers (stone rows or grass strips of

  6. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  7. Energy partitioning over the West African savanna: multi-year evaporation and surface conductance measurements in Eastern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagayoko, F.; Yonkeu, S.; Elbers, J.A.; Giesen, van de N.

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variability of the energy partitioning was analyzed with a combination of eddy fluxes of sensible and latent heat and weather data on intensely farmed land in the savanna area of Eastern Burkina Faso, West Africa. The analysis covers two rainy seasons (May-October 2003 and 2004), one dry

  8. Magnitude of Maternal Anaemia in Rural Burkina Faso: Contribution of Nutritional Factors and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Meda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal anaemia is a worldwide public health problem affecting particularly developing countries. In Burkina Faso, little data is available for rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of maternal anaemia and the risk factors associated with it in the rural health district of Hounde in Burkina Faso but also to define better control measures of maternal anaemia. Methods. This cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 had a sample of 3,140 pregnant women attending antenatal care in all the 18 primary health care facilities of the district. The women’s characteristics and their knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STI were collected. Also, physical and gynaecological examination, completed by vaginal, cervix, blood, and stool samplings, were collected. Results. A prevalence of 63.1% was recorded for maternal anaemia. Geophagy rate was 16.3% and vitamin A deficiency 69.3%. In addition, anaemia was independently associated with low education, low brachial perimeter, geophagy, and primigravida. But no statically significant relationship was found between maternal anaemia and infectious diseases or vitamin A deficiency. Conclusion. The magnitude of maternal anaemia was found to be higher in rural Hounde health district and should be addressed by adequate policy including education and the fight against malnutrition.

  9. Transplacental Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Highly Malaria Endemic Area of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Ouédraogo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria congenital infection constitutes a major risk in malaria endemic areas. In this study, we report the prevalence of transplacental malaria in Burkina Faso. In labour and delivery units, thick and thin blood films were made from maternal, placental, and umbilical cord blood to determine malaria infection. A total of 1,309 mother/baby pairs were recruited. Eighteen cord blood samples (1.4% contained malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum. Out of the 369 (28.2% women with peripheral positive parasitemia, 211 (57.2% had placental malaria and 14 (3.8% had malaria parasites in their umbilical cord blood. The umbilical cord parasitemia levels were statistically associated with the presence of maternal peripheral parasitemia (OR=9.24, ≪0.001, placental parasitemia (OR=10.74, ≪0.001, high-density peripheral parasitemia (OR=9.62, ≪0.001, and high-density placental parasitemia (OR=4.91, =0.03. In Burkina Faso, the mother-to-child transmission rate of malaria appears to be low.

  10. Study of the biomass potential that can be used for producing biogas in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The introduction of biogas to Burkina Faso was done in 1976 through program of research and development. Agricultural and Animal waste is the principal substrates and the produced gas is useful principally to satisfy the domestic energy needs. The technological outputs go from 200 has 300 liters per m 3 of tank whereas the biological outputs are of 100 has 300 liters per kilogram of dry matter. The cost of the installations vary from 12000 to 100000 Fcfa per m 3 of tank according to the type of digester. In August 1998, only the installation of biogas of the School of Water and Drill of Dinderesso (Bobo-Dioulasso) produced biogas. According to the estimates, Burkina Faso respectively has an annual average potential of production theoretical and accessible about 4694 million and 2790 million m 3 of biogas coming by order from importance from livestock wastes, farming, human and urban. By taking a coefficient of 60% to take account of the imperfections of technology and implementation, 1674 million m 3 of biogas (accessible) could have been produced from the biomass over the period 1990-1996. For the same period, this quantity of biogas could have generated annually 2000 to 2344 GWh of electricity (cogeneration) against 218 GWh for the SONABEL [fr

  11. Mating performance of Glossina palpalis gambiensis strains from Burkina Faso, Mali, and Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutika, Gratian N.; Kabore, Idrissa; Parker, Andrew G.; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Seck, Momar T.; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The mating performance of Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae) mass- reared in Burkina Faso (BKF strain) was compared with that of target populations originating from the Bamako peri-urban area of the Niger River Basin, Mali (MLI strain) and the Niayes area, Senegal (SEN strain). The tests were carried out using a field cage either set up outdoors in Burkina Faso or inside the laboratory in Austria. The target population strains(MLI and SEN) were a few generations from the wild whereas the laboratory-reared flies (BKF) were adapted to laboratory rearing over many generations. The laboratory-reared BKF strain significantly out-competed the MLI strain in the mating tests, but showed close to equal competitiveness with the SEN strain. At least one-third of possible matings occurred during each observation period. The females from the two target populations readily mated with males from the BKF strain. The selected mating parameters and behaviour in the cage showed that there was mating compatibility between the strains and this absence of obvious mating barriers indicates the potential of using BKF strain males in programmes that have a sterile insect technique (SIT) component targeting the two G.p.gambiensis populations of Mali and Senegal.

  12. Evaluation of 13 selected medicinal plants from Burkina Faso for their antiplasmodial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Olivia; Angenot, L; Tits, M; Nicolas, J P; De Mol, P; Nikiéma, J-B; Frédérich, M

    2010-07-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of 13 plants used against malaria in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous crude extracts obtained from vegetal samples collected in Burkina Faso was first evaluated on the Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 chloroquine-sensitive strain using a colorimetric method. Thirteen extracts obtained from 8 different species were found to exhibit antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)Waltheria indica (roots and aerial parts), Bergia suffruticosa (whole plant), Vitellaria paradoxa (bark) and Jatropha gossypiifolia (leaves). The best results were obtained with extracts from the Dicoma tomentosa whole plant, from Psorospermum senegalense leaves and from Gardenia sokotensis leaves. These extracts found to display promising antiplasmodial activity, with IC(50) values ranging from 7.0 to 14.0 microg/ml. The most active plant extracts were then tested for in vitro activity on the Plasmodium falciparum W2 chloroquine-resistant strain and also for in vitro cytotoxicity on normal human fibroblasts (WI-38) in order to determine the selectivity index. Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) and Psorospermum senegalense (Clusiaceae) appeared to be the best candidates for further investigation of their antiplasmodial properties, reported for the first time by this study. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Terrorist attack of 15 January 2016 in Ouagadougou: how resilient was Burkina Faso's health system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Lechat, Lucie; Meda, Ivlabehire Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    In Africa, health systems are often not very responsive. Their resilience is often tested by health or geopolitical crises. The Ebola epidemic, for instance, exposed the fragility of health systems, and recent terrorist attacks have required countries to respond to urgent situations. Up until 2014, Burkina Faso's health system strongly resisted these pressures and reforms had always been minor. However, since late 2014, Burkina Faso has had to contend with several unprecedented crises. In October 2014, there was a popular insurrection. Then, in September 2015, the Security Regiment of the deposed president attempted a coup d'état. Finally, on 15 January 2016, a terrorist attack occurred in the capital, Ouagadougou. These events involved significant human injury and casualties. In these crises, the Burkinabè health system was sorely tried, testing its responsiveness, resiliency and adaptability. We describe the management of the recent terrorist attack from the standpoint of health system resilience. It would appear that the multiple crises that had occurred within the previous 2 years led to appropriate management of that terrorist attack thanks to the rapid mobilisation of personnel and good communication between centres. For example, the health system had put in place a committee and an emergency response plan, adapted blood bank services and psychology services, and made healthcare free for victims. Nevertheless, the system encountered several challenges, including the development of framework documents for resources (financial, material and human) and their use and coordination in crisis situations.

  14. Social determinants and access to induced abortion in burkina faso: from two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Ramatou; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion.

  15. Household cereal crop harvest and children's nutritional status in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belesova, Kristine; Gasparrini, Antonio; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Wilkinson, Paul

    2017-06-20

    Reduction of child undernutrition is one of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2030. Achievement of this goal may be made more difficult in some settings by climate change through adverse impact on agricultural productivity. However, there is only limited quantitative evidence on the link between household crop harvests and child nutrition. We examined this link in a largely subsistence farming population in rural Burkina Faso. Data on the middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of 975 children ≤5 years of age, household crop yields, and other parameters were obtained from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the relationship between MUAC and the household crop harvest in the year 2009 estimated in terms of kilocalories per adult equivalent per day (kcal/ae/d). Fourteen percent of children had a MUAC infrastructure and market presence, suggested a decline in MUAC below around 3000 kcal/ae/d. The mean MUAC was 2.49 (95% CI 0.45, 4.52) mm less at 1000 than at 3000 kcal/ae/d. Low per capita household crop production is associated with poorer nutritional status of children in a rural farming population in Burkina Faso. This and similar populations may thus be vulnerable to the adverse effects of weather on agricultural harvest, especially in the context of climate change.

  16. Medicinal Plants Used for Neuropsychiatric Disorders Treatment in the Hauts Bassins Region of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinda, Prosper T.; Zerbo, Patrice; Guenné, Samson; Compaoré, Moussa; Ciobica, Alin; Kiendrebeogo, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Burkina Faso, phytotherapy is the main medical alternative used by populations to manage various diseases that affect the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to report medicinal plants with psychoactive properties used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders in the Hauts Bassins region, in the western zone of Burkina Faso. Methods: Through an ethnobotanical survey using structured questionnaire, 53 traditional healers (TH) were interviewed about neuropsychiatric disorders, medicinal plants and medical practices used to treat them. The survey was carried out over a period of three months. Results: The results report 66 plant species used to treat neuropsychiatric pathologies. Roots (36.2%) and leaves (29%) were the main plant parts used. Alone or associated, these parts were used to prepare drugs using mainly the decoction and the trituration methods. Remedies were administered via drink, fumigation and external applications. Conclusions: It appears from this study a real knowledge of neuropsychiatric disorders in the traditional medicine of Hauts Bassins area. The therapeutic remedies suggested in this work are a real interest in the fight against psychiatric and neurological diseases. In the future, identified plants could be used for searching antipsychotic or neuroprotective compounds. PMID:28930246

  17. [A case of rhinofacial entomophthoromycosis in Soudano-Sahelian tropical climate in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, S; Konsegré, V; Zida, A; Sangaré, I; Cissé, M; Beogo, R; Diallo, B; Andonaba, J B; Guiguemdé, R T

    2017-06-01

    We describe a rhinofacial entomophthoramycosis case in a sexagenarian (65 years old) housewife. She was immunocompetent and resident of Burkina Faso. She consulted both the service of dermatology and the service of stomatology of the Teaching Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso in February 2016 for a diffuse facial tumefaction evolving over six months. This tumefaction was associated with headaches and a left nasal obstruction. Histological examination of the lesion showed an important and polymorphic inflammatory reaction. Also, a filamentous fungus with wide non-septated hyphae and right-angled fungal branching, consistent with mucormycosis was isolated. Mycological diagnosis based on fungal culture with Sabouraud medium without any antibiotic and cyclohexemide after incubation at 27°C and at 30°C was negative. Furthermore, it was not possible to amplify the DNA extracted from biopsy. Antifungal therapy based on the administration of fluconazole per os at 800mg/day was started allowing clinical improvement. This is the first case of a rhinofacial entomophtharomycosis documented in Bobo-Dioulasso. Rhinofacial entomophthoromycosis is largely unknown, even in tropical regions such as Burkina Faso. This lack of knowledge results in a delay in the diagnosis, and subsequently a bad prognosis. It is therefore urgent to improve knowledge on this disease to guide diagnostic steps, prognosis of outcome, and antifungal therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections among schoolchildren in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayan, M; Zongo, D; Oueda, A; Sorgho, H; Savadogo, B; Drabo, F; Ouedraogo, A; Poda, J N; Kabre, B G; Zhang, Y

    2016-08-01

    To determine the current status of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among schoolchildren after 10 years of mass treatment with praziquantel. Parasitological surveys were conducted in 2013 in 22 primary schools located in 11 regions of Burkina Faso. Urine filtration methods and Kato-Katz techniques for stool were used to detect the eggs of Schistosoma hæmatobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and STH. 3514 schoolchildren aged from 7 to 11 (1.415 ± 9) years participated in the study. The prevalence of S. hæmatobium was 8.1% and of S. mansoni, 1.2%. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis ranged from 0.6% to 26.2% and that of urinary schistosomiasis from 0.6% to 56.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was 1.1%, Ascaris lumbricoides 0.1%, and Trichuris trichiura 0.06%. The arithmetic mean of S. hæmatobium and S. mansoni were respectively 6 eggs/10 mL and 1.07 epg (eggs per gram). The arithmetic means of eggs were 0.07 epg, 0.03 epg, and 1.89 epg respectively for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and Ankylostoma spp. This study shows the current situation for schistosomiasis and STH infections in different regions of Burkina Faso. Elimination of this parasitic disease requires the inclusion of other control methods, in addition to mass treatment.

  19. Recombinant Viruses Initiated the Early HIV-1 Epidemic in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonjungo, Peter N.; Kalish, Marcia L.; Schaefer, Amanda; Rayfield, Mark; Mika, Jennifer; Rose, Laura E.; Heslop, Orville; Soudré, Robert; Pieniazek, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 124 HIV-1 and 19 HIV-2 strains in sera collected in 1986 from patients of the state hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Phylogenetic analysis of the HIV-1 env gp41 region of 65 sequences characterized 37 (56.9%) as CRF06_cpx strains, 25 (38.5%) as CRF02_AG, 2 (3.1%) as CRF09_cpx, and 1 (1.5%) as subtype A. Similarly, phylogenetic analysis of the protease (PR) gene region of 73 sequences identified 52 (71.2%) as CRF06_cpx, 15 (20.5%) as CRF02_AG, 5 (6.8%) as subtype A, and 1 (1.4%) was a unique strain that clustered along the B/D lineage but basal to the node connecting the two lineages. HIV-2 PR or integrase (INT) groups A (n = 17 [89.5%]) and B (n = 2 [10.5%]) were found in both monotypic (n = 11) and heterotypic HIV-1/HIV-2 (n = 8) infections, with few HIV-2 group B infections. Based on limited available sampling, evidence suggests two recombinant viruses, CRF06_cpx and CRF02_AG, appear to have driven the beginning of the mid-1980s HIV-1 epidemic in Burkina Faso. PMID:24647246

  20. Molecular characterization and genetic susceptibility of sapovirus in children with diarrhea in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matussek, Andreas; Dienus, Olaf; Djeneba, Ouermi; Simpore, Jacques; Nitiema, Leon; Nordgren, Johan

    2015-06-01

    Sapoviruses (SaVs) are a common cause of gastroenteritis in children. In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a scarcity of information regarding SaV as an etiological agent of diarrhea. Here, we investigated the prevalence, molecular characterization and clinico-epidemiological features of SaV infections in children less than 5years of age with diarrhea in Burkina Faso. We further investigated the role of type 1 histo blood group antigens as susceptibility factors. In total, 309 fecal and 208 saliva samples from diarrheal children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, were collected between May 2009 and March 2010. SaV was detected using real-time PCR, and genogrouped/genotyped by PCR or sequencing. Saliva samples were ABO, Lewis and secretor phenotyped using in house ELISA assays. We found a high prevalence (18%) and large genetic diversity with all 4 human genogroups, and 9 genotypes/genoclusters circulating during the study period. The SaV infections were generally associated with milder symptoms, and neither ABH, Lewis or secretor phenotypes affected susceptibility to SaV infections. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Terrorist attack of 15 January 2016 in Ouagadougou: how resilient was Burkina Faso's health system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Lechat, Lucie; Meda, Ivlabehire Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    In Africa, health systems are often not very responsive. Their resilience is often tested by health or geopolitical crises. The Ebola epidemic, for instance, exposed the fragility of health systems, and recent terrorist attacks have required countries to respond to urgent situations. Up until 2014, Burkina Faso's health system strongly resisted these pressures and reforms had always been minor. However, since late 2014, Burkina Faso has had to contend with several unprecedented crises. In October 2014, there was a popular insurrection. Then, in September 2015, the Security Regiment of the deposed president attempted a coup d’état. Finally, on 15 January 2016, a terrorist attack occurred in the capital, Ouagadougou. These events involved significant human injury and casualties. In these crises, the Burkinabè health system was sorely tried, testing its responsiveness, resiliency and adaptability. We describe the management of the recent terrorist attack from the standpoint of health system resilience. It would appear that the multiple crises that had occurred within the previous 2 years led to appropriate management of that terrorist attack thanks to the rapid mobilisation of personnel and good communication between centres. For example, the health system had put in place a committee and an emergency response plan, adapted blood bank services and psychology services, and made healthcare free for victims. Nevertheless, the system encountered several challenges, including the development of framework documents for resources (financial, material and human) and their use and coordination in crisis situations. PMID:28588927

  2. Medicinal Plants Used for Neuropsychiatric Disorders Treatment in the Hauts Bassins Region of Burkina Faso

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    Prosper T. Kinda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Burkina Faso, phytotherapy is the main medical alternative used by populations to manage various diseases that affect the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to report medicinal plants with psychoactive properties used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders in the Hauts Bassins region, in the western zone of Burkina Faso. Methods: Through an ethnobotanical survey using structured questionnaire, 53 traditional healers (TH were interviewed about neuropsychiatric disorders, medicinal plants and medical practices used to treat them. The survey was carried out over a period of three months. Results: The results report 66 plant species used to treat neuropsychiatric pathologies. Roots (36.2% and leaves (29% were the main plant parts used. Alone or associated, these parts were used to prepare drugs using mainly the decoction and the trituration methods. Remedies were administered via drink, fumigation and external applications. Conclusions: It appears from this study a real knowledge of neuropsychiatric disorders in the traditional medicine of Hauts Bassins area. The therapeutic remedies suggested in this work are a real interest in the fight against psychiatric and neurological diseases. In the future, identified plants could be used for searching antipsychotic or neuroprotective compounds.

  3. Recombinant viruses initiated the early HIV-1 epidemic in Burkina Faso.

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    Peter N Fonjungo

    Full Text Available We analyzed genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 124 HIV-1 and 19 HIV-2 strains in sera collected in 1986 from patients of the state hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Phylogenetic analysis of the HIV-1 env gp41 region of 65 sequences characterized 37 (56.9% as CRF06_cpx strains, 25 (38.5% as CRF02_AG, 2 (3.1% as CRF09_cpx, and 1 (1.5% as subtype A. Similarly, phylogenetic analysis of the protease (PR gene region of 73 sequences identified 52 (71.2% as CRF06_cpx, 15 (20.5% as CRF02_AG, 5 (6.8% as subtype A, and 1 (1.4% was a unique strain that clustered along the B/D lineage but basal to the node connecting the two lineages. HIV-2 PR or integrase (INT groups A (n = 17 [89.5%] and B (n = 2 [10.5%] were found in both monotypic (n = 11 and heterotypic HIV-1/HIV-2 (n = 8 infections, with few HIV-2 group B infections. Based on limited available sampling, evidence suggests two recombinant viruses, CRF06_cpx and CRF02_AG, appear to have driven the beginning of the mid-1980s HIV-1 epidemic in Burkina Faso.

  4. Opportunities and Challenges in Using Hydrologic Information and Decision Support Tools to Improve Livelihoods in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, P.; Jost, C.; Roncoli, M. C.; Hoogenboom, G.

    2006-12-01

    Burkina Faso is part of the Sahel-Sudan climatic zone south of the Sahara Desert. The rainfall of the region is characterized by extreme seasonal and annual temporal and spatial variability. Soils are generally of low fertility. The major livelihood activity in Burkina Faso, one of the lowest ranked countries in the world in the Human Development Index where 80 percent of the population rely on subsistence farming, is rainfed cultivation of cereal crops. Cotton is the dominant export crop and is mostly grown in the southwest. Livestock management is an important complement to farm activities, especially in the Sahelian zone. There are several major rivers flowing through the region and many ephemeral streams. Surface water resources are becoming more important to Burkina Faso as it tries to improve food security and water supplies, and increase energy production. One of the major opportunities to improve livelihoods in the region has been improvements in seasonal rainfall forecasting based upon global sea surface temperatures. In the past decade, the generation and use of forecasts in Burkina Faso has evolved from the nation just receiving forecasts almost as an after thought from USA and European meteorological services to the Burkina Faso Meteorological Services generating their own forecasts with support from these services. There is now also more focused international research on improving the forecasts for this region. The use of stochastic decision support tools (DST) that combine the seasonal forecasts with hydrologic and crop models, land conditions, and information on farmer and policy maker goals could improve both rainfed and irrigated agricultural systems. Their implementation requires overcoming many technical and socio-economic challenges. Examples include forecasting the start and end of rains, dissemination and explanation of forecasts, streamflow forecasting in data scarce regions, possible different incentives for subsistence and cash crop farmers

  5. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine coverage after the first national mass immunization campaign-Burkina Faso, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    In December 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to introduce PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), a new serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine developed to eliminate epidemic meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa, via a national mass-immunization campaign. This campaign targeted persons aged 1-29 years, approximately 70% of the 16 million residents of the country. More than 11 million vaccine doses were administered in a 10-day period, for an estimated administrative coverage of 102.6%. Accurate vaccination coverage estimates are critical for programmatic evaluation, identification of undervaccinated subpopulations, and for measurement of the impact of PsA-TT on serogroup A disease and carriage. In December 2011, the Burkina Faso Ministry of Health, in collaboration with CDC, conducted a stratified cluster survey to obtain regional and age-group-specific vaccination coverage estimates among campaign-eligible persons. National coverage was 95.9% (74.3% with vaccination card, 21.6% by recall), and coverage in the 13 regions of Burkina Faso ranged from 90.8% to 98.3%. Coverage was 97.0% in children aged 2-5 years, 97.4% in those aged 6-15 years, and 93.4% in those aged 16-30 years. The results of this survey demonstrate successful introduction of a new vaccine in Burkina Faso through a mass immunization campaign, the first step in a strategy aimed at rapidly interrupting transmission and carriage of serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis before introduction of the vaccine into national routine immunization programs. With phased introduction of PsA-TT planned through 2016 in Africa's "meningitis belt," lessons learned from the Burkina Faso experience will help guide successful introduction of serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine elsewhere.

  6. The value of trust in biotech crop development: a case study of Bt cotton in Burkina Faso

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    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural biotechnology public-private partnerships (PPPs have been recognized as having great potential in improving agricultural productivity and increasing food production in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is much public skepticism about the use of GM (genetically modified crops and suspicion about private sector involvement in agbiotech projects. This case study sought to understand the role of trust in the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton in Burkina Faso project by exploring practices and challenges associated with trust-building, and determining what makes these practices effective from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ understanding of trust in general as well as in the context of agbiotech PPPs. Relevant documents and articles were analyzed to generate descriptions of how trust was operationalized in this evolving agbiotech PPP. Data was analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We derived four key lessons from our findings. First, strong collaboration between research, industry and farmers greatly contributes to both the success of, and fostering of trust in, the partnership. Second, this case study also revealed the important, though often unrecognized, role of researchers as players in the communication strategy of the project. Third, effective and comprehensive communication takes into account issues such as illiteracy and diversity. Fourth, follow-up at the field level and the need for a multifaceted communications strategy is important for helping push the project forward. Conclusions Burkina Faso’s well-established and effective cotton selling system laid the foundation for the implementation of the Bt cotton project – particularly, the strong dialogue and the receptivity to collaboration

  7. Can budget support to the cotton sector be used more efficiently? An assessment of the policy support measures in Mali and Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Gourichon, Helene; Kone, Bourema; Lanos, Barthelemy; Aparisi, Alban Mas

    2014-01-01

    In Burkina Faso and in Mali, cotton is the main cash crop, export of cotton lint accounting for 60 percent and 15 percent of the value of national exports, respectively, in 2014. To maintain the level of cotton production, the Governments of Burkina Faso and Mali support the sector by ensuring stable and remunerative prices for producers. Indeed, analyses based on the Monitoring and Analysing Food and Agricultural Policies (MAFAP) methodology show that the policy environment supported produce...

  8. Maltreatment and Mental Health Outcomes among Ultra-Poor Children in Burkina Faso: A Latent Class Analysis.

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    Leyla Ismayilova

    Full Text Available Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso.This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity. We used a Latent Class Analysis to identify underlying patterns of maltreatment. Further, the relationships between latent classes and mental health outcomes were tested using mixed effected regression models adjusted for clustering within villages.About 15% of the children in the study scored above the clinical cut-off for depression, 17.8% for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and 6.4% for low self-esteem. The study identified five distinct sub-groups (or classes of children based on their exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Children with the highest exposure to violence at home, at work and in the community (Abused and Exploited class and children not attending school and working for other households, often away from their families (External Laborer class, demonstrated highest symptoms of depression and trauma. Despite living in adverse conditions and working to assist families, the study also identified a class of children who were not exposed to any violence at home or at work (Healthy and Non-abused class. Children in this class demonstrated significantly higher self-esteem (b = 0.92, SE = 0.45, p<0.05 and lower symptoms of trauma (b = -3.90, SE = 1.52, p<0.05.This study offers insight into the psychological well-being of children in the context of ultra-poverty in Burkina Faso and associated context-specific adverse childhood experiences. Identifying specific sub-groups of children with increased

  9. LA PELLAGRE: ASPECTS EPIDEMIOLOGIQUES ET CLINIQUES DANS LA REGION OUEST DU BURKINA FASO

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    Fatou Barro/Traoré

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: La pellagre est une carence en vitamine PP qui regroupe l’acide nicotinique ou niacine et le nicotinamide. Elle est encore fréquente dans notre pays. Le but de cette étude était de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques et cliniques de la pellagre dans la région Ouest du Burkina Faso. Patients et Méthodes: Il s’est agi d’une étude rétrospective, descriptive à partir des dossiers des patients ayant consulté ou ayant été hospitalisés dans les services de dermatologie-vénéréologie et de psychiatrie à Bobo-Dioulasso, de 2005 à 2012. Résultats: Durant la période, 223 cas de pellagre ont été enregistrés. L’âge moyen des patients était de 37,7+17,2 ans avec des extrêmes de 6 et 85 ans et un sex-ratio de 1/3. Ces cas ont été observés dans les zones aussi bien rurales qu’urbaines de l’Ouest du Burkina Faso. Les femmes étaient les plus atteintes (76,7%, particulièrement les femmes au foyer (47,1%. Les formes ulcéreuses représentaient 6,3% des cas, les atteintes neurologiques 62% et la diarrhée chronique (6,5%. Trois patients sont décédés (1,3%. Conclusion: La pellagre est une affection fréquente chez les femmes dans l’Ouest du Burkina Faso où le maïs constitue la céréale de base dans l’alimentation des populations. Les formes ulcéreuses pouvaient égarer le diagnostic. Une sensibilisation de la population est indispensable pour prévenir cette affection.

  10. Factors associated with female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso and its policy implications

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    Chung Donna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female genital mutilation (FGM usually undertaken between the ages of 1-9 years and is widely practised in some part of Africa and by migrants from African countries in other parts of the world. Laws prohibit FGM in almost every country. FGM can cause immediate complications (pain, bleeding and infection and delayed complications (sexual, obstetric, psychological problems. Several factors have been associated with an increased likelihood of FGM. In Burkina Faso, the prevalence of FGM appears to have increased in recent years. Methods We investigated social, demographic and economic factors associated with FGM in Burkina Faso using the 2003 Demographic Health Survey (DHS. The DHS is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey (multistage stratified random sampling of households of women of reproductive age (15-49 years. Associations between potential risk factors and the prevalence of FGM were explored using χ2 and t-tests and Mann Whitney U-test as appropriate. Logistic regression modelling was used to investigate social, demographic and economic risk factors associated with FGM. Main outcome measures i whether a woman herself had had FGM; ii whether she had one or more daughters with FGM. Results Data were available on 12,049 women. Response rates by region were at least 90%. Women interviewed were representative of the underlying populations of the different regions of Burkina Faso. Seventy seven percent (9267 of the women interviewed had had FGM. 7336 women had a daughter of whom 2216 (30.2% had a daughter with FGM and 334 (4.5% said that they intended that their daughter should have it. Univariate analysis showed that age, religion, wealth, ethnicity, literacy, years of education, household affluence, region and who had responsibility for health care decisions in the household had (RHCD were all significantly related to the two outcomes (p Conclusions and Policy implications Factors associated with FGM are varied

  11. Single motherhood and neonatal and infant mortality in Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso and Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, C

    2016-06-01

    Childhood mortality is a stubborn problem and remains highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Existing research on childhood mortality in SSA indicate that most of the childhood deaths are from preventable causes such as diarrhoea, pneumonia, measles, malaria, HIV and underlying malnutrition, acute respiratory infections, whooping cough, tuberculosis, bronchopneumonia, dirty feeding bottles and utensils, inadequate disposal of household refuse and poor storage of drinking water. However, insufficient attention has been given to maternal marital status and childhood mortality relationships. Understanding the implications of maternal marital status for childhood mortality can add to our knowledge of the correlates of neonatal and infant mortality and furnish insights to support the design and delivery of interventions to address the problem. To document and examine the extent to which the association between neonatal and infant mortality varies between single and ever-married mothers in Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, and Burundi. A single mother is defined in this study as a woman who has either lived with a partner, married before, widowed, separated during the survey periods and has given at least one life birth. Ever-married woman is woman who has been married at least once in their lives although their current marital status may not be married. Data for this study were drawn from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone and Burundi. The selected datasets came from 2010 Burkina Faso DHS (BFDHS), 2008 Sierra Leone DHS (SLDHS) and 2010 Burundi DHS (EDSB II). The relevant data for this study (women age 15-49 years who had at least one live birth within the five years preceding the survey) were extracted from the whole dataset of each country (Burkinabe (n = 17,087), Sierra Leonean (n = 7374) and Burundian (n = 9389). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to assess the association between neonatal and infant

  12. Diabetes and abnormal glucose regulation in the adult population of Burkina Faso: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo, Tieba; Bicaba, Brice W; Soubeiga, Joseph Kouesyandé; Dabiré, Estelle; Médah, Isaie; Kouanda, Séni

    2018-03-13

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is reportedly growing fast in sub-Saharan Africa. There is however a scarcity of epidemiologic data on DM in Burkina Faso. We carried out a secondary analysis of the first survey conducted in Burkina Faso on a nationally representative sample following the World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise approach to risk factors Surveillance (STEPS) for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with the aims of identifying the prevalence of NCDs and the prevalence of common risk factors for NCDs. We report here on the prevalence of diabetes and overall abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) and their associated risk factors. In the primary study 4800 individuals were randomly sampled using a stratified multistage clusters sampling process. We used fasting capillary whole blood glucose level to define three glucose regulation statuses using WHO's cut-off levels: normal, diabetes and overall abnormal glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose and diabetes). Appropriate statistical techniques for the analysis of survey data were used to identify the factors associated with diabetes and abnormal glucose regulation fitting a logistic regression model. Analyses were carried out using Stata Version 14 software. The prevalence of DM and AGR were respectively 5.8% (95% CI: 5-6.7) and 9% (95% CI: 8-10.1). Significant risk factors for DM include age (OR = 1.9; P = 0.009 for the age group of 55-64), obesity (OR: 2.6; P = 0.001), former smoke (OR:2; P = 0.03), second-hand smoke (OR = 1.7; P = 0.006) and total cholesterol level (OR: 2.1; P = 0.024). The same predictors were also found significantly associated with AGR. In addition, having an history family diabetes was protective against AGR (OR = 0.5; P = 0.032). Diabetes is no longer a rare disease in the adult active population of Burkina Faso. Its burden is significant in both rural and urban areas. Health policies that promote healthy life style are needed to give

  13. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Burkina Faso: Needs for Patient and Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaore, Salomon; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne M R; Koanda, Seni; Haynatzki, Gleb; Chamberlain, Robert M; Soliman, Amr S

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of cancer deaths for women in low-income African countries, such as Burkina Faso. Given that cervical cancer is a preventable disease through early detection and vaccination, this study aimed at understanding the barriers to cervical cancer early detection in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Women seeking screening and treatment for cervical cancer (n = 351) during the period of May-August 2014, at the Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital, were interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward cervical cancer. Interview questions elicited information about sociodemographic of participants, history of screening, knowledge of cervical cancer, and attitudes toward cervical screening. Scores were assigned to responses of questions and knowledge, and tertitles of distributions were used for comparison. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to predict cervical screening. Study participants were relatively young (37.5 ± 10.7 years) and predominately resident of urban areas (83.8 %), and over half had no or less than high school education. Over 90 % of participants had heard about cervical cancer, and about 55 % of them had intermediate-level knowledge of the disease, its screening, and/or risk factors. Knowledge level was lower among rural than urban residents. Predictors of screening included higher level of education (odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.48-3.23), older age (OR = 1.1; 95 % CI 1.06-1.12), higher socioeconomic standard (SES) (OR = 1.5; 95 % CI 1-2.37), urban residence (OR = 2.0; 95 % CI 1.19-3.25), encouragement for screening by a health care worker (1.98; 95 % CI 1.06-3.69), and employment (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI 1.13-3.11). Low awareness and socioeconomic barriers lead to underutilization of screening services of women. Motivation and education by healthcare workers are important factors for increasing screening

  14. PREPARATION OF POZZOLAN WITH A RAW CLAY MATERIAL FROM BURKINA FASO / PREPARATION D’UNE POUZZOLANE A BASE D’UNE MATIERE PREMIERE ARGILEUSE DU BURKINA FASO

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    François Ganon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A raw clay material from Burkina Faso has been characterized for pozzolan elaboration. The analysis showed that SiO2 (45.91 wt. %, Al2O3 (28.29 wt. % and Fe2O3 (9.75 wt. % are the main oxides and kaolinite (71 wt. % is the principle mineral. The sample has been activated at 680 °C during 2 or 5 hours. The pozzolanic activity has been accessed by coupling several methods. The chemical methods showed the good lime fixing ability by the activated sample. At the first 24 hours, more than 50 wt. % of the lime is fixed and at 28 days around 90 wt. % of lime are fixed. Mineralogical analyses showed the disappearing of portlandite (CH and the formation of new C-S-H hydrates. The pozzolanic index (81 % calculated from mechanical strength of mortars made with 25 wt. % substitution of cement by the pozzolan confirm it suitability for portland cement replacement in the field of building materials.

  15. Burkina Faso : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Date de début : 1 avril 2012. End Date: 31 mars 2015. Sujet: Food security, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, RURAL COMMUNITIES, LAND MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURAL POLICY. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, ...

  16. Tsetse fly eradication in Burkina Faso and evaluation of traps and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clair, M.; Cuisance, D.; Politzar, H.; Merot, P.; Bauer, B.

    1990-01-01

    Control operations against tsetse flies with the sterile insect technique (SIT) were conducted by the Centre de recherches sur les trypanosomoses animales (CRTA) (Institut d'elevage et de medecine veterinaire des pays tropicaux/Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (IEMVT/GTZ) Project), Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). The project ended in 1984 with the eradication in the Sideradougou pastoral zone of the three tsetse species present there (Glossina palpalis gambiensis, G. tachinoides and G. morsitans submorsitans). Since 1985, besides monitoring of this area, the CRTA oriented its activities towards improving trapping by carrying out research on the form and colour of targets as well as the use of olfactory attractants. (author). 34 refs, 5 figs

  17. Oral health status of children living in Gorom-Gorom, Oudalan District, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazza, Clelia; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo

    2010-01-01

    .3%) and 358 males (51.7%). Clinical and oral health related behaviours were collected. Results. 83.4% of the children were caries-free. Fluorosis was recorded in 41.3% of the sample, while only 37.9% of children showed healthy gingival condition. Toothbrushing was reported by 35.7% of children...... the dental needs of the local population are necessary for children living in this area of Africa.......Aim. In order to set up the needs for intervention and to plan oral health prevention and care programmes, this paper aims to describe the oral health status and behaviour in children living in the municipality of Gorom-Gorom, Burkina Faso. Design. The sample size was 692 children, 334 females (48...

  18. Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fourteen Wild Edible Fruits from Burkina Faso

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    Odile G. Nacoulma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of fourteen (14 species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso wereanalyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities usingthe DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic andtotal flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana andLannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the otherfruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit alsoshowed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with highantioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents.There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidantactivities.

  19. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2008-03-06

    A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities.

  20. Oral health behaviour of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2006-01-01

    differences were found in oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices according to location and gender. At age 12, important factors of high caries experience were location (urban), and consumption of soft drinks and fresh fruits. In 35-44-year-olds, gender (female), high education level, dental visit...... and occupation (government employee) were the significant factors of high dental caries experience whereas adults using traditional chewing sticks had lower DMFT. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes rather than......OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of dental knowledge and attitudes among 12 year-old children and 35-44 year-olds in Burkina Faso; to evaluate the pattern of oral health behaviour among these cohorts in relation to location, gender and social characteristics and; to evaluate the relative effect...

  1. Ethnobotanical survey and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, S; Ollivier, E; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Gasquet, M; Ouattara, C T; Nebie, I; Traore, A S; Esposito, F; Balansard, G; Timon-David, P; Fumoux, F

    2003-06-01

    In Burkina Faso, most people in particular, in rural areas, use traditional medicine and medicinal plants to treat usual diseases. In the course of new antimalarial compounds, an ethnobotanical survey has been conducted in different regions. Seven plants, often cited by traditional practitioners and not chemically investigated, have been selected for an antiplasmodial screening: Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum), Acanthospermum hispidum (DC), Terminalia macroptera (Guill. et Perr), Cassia siamea (Lam), Ficus sycomorus (L), Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (AFZ. Ex G. Don) Benth. Basic, chloroform, methanol, water-methanol and aqueous crude extracts have been prepared and tested on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant W2 strain. A significant activity has been observed with alkaloid extract of P. crassipes (IC(50)macroptera with an IC(50)=1 microg/ml. These results confirm the traditional use of these plants.

  2. Siting guidelines for concentrating solar power plants in the Sahel: Case study of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoumah, Y.; Tapsoba, G.; Thiam, S. [Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie d' Energie (LESEE), Fondation 2iE (International Institute of Water an Environmental Engineering), 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso); Ramde, E.W. [Solar Energy Application Laboratory (SEAL), KNUST, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-08-15

    Selecting a site that meets the technical requirements for a concentrating solar power plant (CSP) is a very critical exercise. This paper points out crucial factors and provides guidelines regarding the selection of suitable sites. It especially focuses on Sahelian countries which have their own climatic peculiarities. These countries, characterized by low access to electricity, are well endowed in solar resources. They are potentially good locations for concentrating solar power plants since their mean daily solar radiation exceeds 5.5 kWh/m{sup 2}. CSP presents therefore, a good opportunity for them to increase in a sustainable manner, their energy supply. The guidelines developed in this paper are applied to Burkina Faso as a case study. (author)

  3. Reaching adolescents and youth in Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardoux, Solène; N'Bouke, Afiwa

    2013-03-01

    Who are the young people reached by peer education programs and/or by youth centers? The present study intends to better know about the activities of the peer educators who are involved in organizations that promote reproductive health information and services in three West African countries. A special research tool was created to collect data to evaluate the composition and characteristics of the populations that such programs reach; therefore, to evaluate the populations left behind. We found that the typical profile of individuals in contact with peer educators or attending youth centers tended to be males aged 15 and more, schooled or highly educated, never married, and living in urban areas. We also found a relationship between peer educators' and peers' socio-demographic characteristics in rural Burkina Faso and urban Guinea Bissau. Finally, the main topics discussed included HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections, but omitting other aspects of sexual and reproductive health.

  4. Hydrologic studies at the savanna-agriculture interface in Burkina Faso (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlange, M. B.; Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Repetti, A.; Tyler, S. W.; van de Giesen, N.

    2010-12-01

    A distributed wireless weather station sensor network has been installed for two years in south-eastern Burkina Faso to understand the impact of agriculture on the local and regional hydrology. This region is primarily Savanna with some small villages and associated agricultural operations. Stream flow is monitored along with energy and hydrologic budgets. We will present first observations and discuss the applicability of sensor networks in West Africa for environmental monitoring and management. Turbulent fluxes obtained from the sensor network are compared with eddy correlation measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux. The pattern of soil moisture and the water table in the region and throughout the wet season are explored in more detail.

  5. Consommation de produits laitiers dans les centres urbains de Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens, F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of milk and dairy products in the urban centers of Burkina Faso. The consumption of milk and dairy products, in milk equivalents, in the urban centers of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso was 12, 4 kg per person and per year in October 1995, of which 10, 54 kg or 85 % came from imports. Consumption of local production comprises only local raw milk (1, 5 kg and curdled milk (0, 38 kg. Before the F. CFA devaluation, per capita milk consumption in milk equivalents was 22, 1 liters per year in urban areas, of which 91 % was imported. The impact of the devaluation was a decrease of imports in milk equivalents of about 50 %. The buying behavior of households is determined by income and the number and age of household members (especially the number of adults and children below 8 years.

  6. Oral health behaviour of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2006-01-01

    of social-behavioural risk factors on caries experience. DESIGN: Across sectional study including urban and rural subgroups of population. Sample and methods: Multistage cluster sampling of households in urban areas; in rural areas random samples of participants were based on the recent population census....... The final study population covered two age groups: 12 years (n = 505) and 35-44 years (n = 493). RESULTS: For both children and adults, levels of oral health knowledge, attitudes and self-care were low; 36% of 12-year-olds and 57% of 35-44-year-olds carried out toothcleaning on a daily basis. Pain......OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of dental knowledge and attitudes among 12 year-old children and 35-44 year-olds in Burkina Faso; to evaluate the pattern of oral health behaviour among these cohorts in relation to location, gender and social characteristics and; to evaluate the relative effect...

  7. Effet du parasitisme interne sur la productivité des pintades locales au Burkina Faso

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    Hien, OC.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Endoparasitism on the Local Production of Guinea Fowl in Burkina Faso. The objective of this study was to identify endoparasites and compare endoparasitic infestations, mortality, growth weight, reproductive groups of guinea fowl dewormed with poultry polyvalent vermifuge (PPV and non dewormed guinea fowl, kept in extensive mode in rural areas in two villages in the province of Houet, Matourkou and Samagan in Burkina Faso. The results showed that 41.9% of fowl were infected and that Eimeria always persisted even among birds dewormed. The parasites the most encountered were Eimeria (46.6%, Ascaridia spp. (22.4%, Hymenolepis carioca (7.1% and Rallietina spp. (7.7%. The OPG in simple forms of infection ranged from 0 to 700 for all species of pests but reached 13 600 for Eimeria. The OPG from 400 to 11 000 marked the infections for 2 and 3 types of parasites. The mortality rates were 20% in dewormed and 33.05% for non dewormed. At 32 weeks of age, the average weight of dewormed fowl compared with non dewormed males were, 1205 g vs. 965 g, females, 1251 g vs 1085 g. Parasitism showed itself harmful from the 2nd week. The dewormed fowl entered into laying to 168 days of age against 182 days for non dewormed. In eight weeks of laying, the dewormed female has laid eggs averaged 46.2 against 33.4 for female eggs non dewormed, with average weights of 37.0 g and 36.15 g respectively. Deworming of guinea fowl in PPV from young age to adulthood significantly improves productivity.

  8. Efficiency of primary care in rural Burkina Faso. A two-stage DEA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Paul; Flessa, Steffen

    2011-07-20

    Providing health care services in Africa is hampered by severe scarcity of personnel, medical supplies and financial funds. Consequently, managers of health care institutions are called to measure and improve the efficiency of their facilities in order to provide the best possible services with their resources. However, very little is known about the efficiency of health care facilities in Africa and instruments of performance measurement are hardly applied in this context. This study determines the relative efficiency of primary care facilities in Nouna, a rural health district in Burkina Faso. Furthermore, it analyses the factors influencing the efficiency of these institutions. We apply a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based on data from a comprehensive provider and household information system. In the first stage, the relative efficiency of each institution is calculated by a traditional DEA model. In the second stage, we identify the reasons for being inefficient by regression technique. The DEA projections suggest that inefficiency is mainly a result of poor utilization of health care facilities as they were either too big or the demand was too low. Regression results showed that distance is an important factor influencing the efficiency of a health care institution Compared to the findings of existing one-stage DEA analyses of health facilities in Africa, the share of relatively efficient units is slightly higher. The difference might be explained by a rather homogenous structure of the primary care facilities in the Burkina Faso sample. The study also indicates that improving the accessibility of primary care facilities will have a major impact on the efficiency of these institutions. Thus, health decision-makers are called to overcome the demand-side barriers in accessing health care.

  9. The Influence of Urbanization Modes on the Spatial Circulation of Flaviviruses within Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

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    Florence Fournet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Although this virus has been reported for a long time, its significance within the burden of diseases in West Africa is not obvious, especially in Burkina Faso. Our objective was to evaluate flavivirus presence in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and the link between anti-flavivirus antibody seroprevalence and urbanization modes. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted and 3015 children were enrolled from Ouagadougou districts with different types and degrees of urbanization (with/without equipment and high/low building density. Flavivirus (FLAV IgM MAC-ELISA and FLAV indirect IgG ELISA were performed. Associations between FLAV IgG presence (sign of past infection and various independent variables were assessed using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence of past flavivirus infections among the enrolled children was 22.7% (95% CI: 22.4–26.7 (n = 685. Eleven children (0.4%; 95% CI: 0.61–2.14 were positive for FLAV IgM, indicating active transmission. Factors associated with flavivirus infection were identified among the enrolled children (age, sex, householders (educational level, asset index and in the environment (building density, water access, waste management and house appearance; however, they showed great variability according to the city districts. The water access modality did not significantly influence FLAV IgG positivity. Conversely, apparently good practices of waste management had unexpected consequences (increased risk related to municipal dumpsters. Given the scale of ongoing urbanization and the spread of arboviral diseases, close collaboration between health and city stakeholders is needed.

  10. Linear Growth and Child Development in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Abbeddou, Souheila; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Arimond, Mary; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Lartey, Anna; Maleta, Kenneth; Ocansey, Eugenia; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Phuka, John; Somé, Jérôme W; Vosti, Steve A; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to produce quantitative estimates of the associations between 4 domains of child development and linear growth during 3 periods: before birth, early infancy, and later infancy. We also aimed to determine whether several factors attenuated these associations. In 3700 children in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi, growth was measured several times from birth to age 18 months. At 18 months, language, motor, socioemotional, and executive function development were assessed. In Burkina Faso (n = 1111), personal-social development was assessed rather than the latter 2 domains. Linear growth was significantly associated with language, motor, and personal-social development but not socioemotional development or executive function. For language, the pooled adjusted estimate of the association with length-for-age z score (LAZ) at 6 months was 0.13 ± 0.02 SD, and with ΔLAZ from 6 to 18 months it was 0.11 ± 0.03 SD. For motor, these estimates were 0.16 ± 0.02 SD and 0.22 ± 0.03 SD, respectively. In 1412 children measured at birth, estimates of the association with LAZ at birth were similar (0.07-0.16 SD for language and 0.09-0.18 SD for motor development). These associations were weaker or absent in certain subsets of children with high levels of developmental stimulation or mothers who received nutritional supplementation. Growth faltering during any period from before birth to 18 months is associated with poor development of language and motor skills. Interventions to provide developmental stimulation or maternal supplementation may protect children who are faltering in growth from poor language and motor development. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Determinants of unmet need for family planning in rural Burkina Faso: a multilevel logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulifan, Joseph K; Jahn, Albrecht; Hien, Hervé; Ilboudo, Patrick Christian; Meda, Nicolas; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Saidou Hamadou, T; Haidara, Ousmane; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-12-19

    Unmet need for family planning has implications for women and their families, such as unsafe abortion, physical abuse, and poor maternal health. Contraceptive knowledge has increased across low-income settings, yet unmet need remains high with little information on the factors explaining it. This study assessed factors associated with unmet need among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso. We collected data on pregnant women through a population-based survey conducted in 24 rural districts between October 2013 and March 2014. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between unmet need for family planning and a selection of relevant demand- and supply-side factors. Of the 1309 pregnant women covered in the survey, 239 (18.26%) reported experiencing unmet need for family planning. Pregnant women with more than three living children [OR = 1.80; 95% CI (1.11-2.91)], those with a child younger than 1 year [OR = 1.75; 95% CI (1.04-2.97)], pregnant women whose partners disapproves contraceptive use [OR = 1.51; 95% CI (1.03-2.21)] and women who desired fewer children compared to their partners preferred number of children [OR = 1.907; 95% CI (1.361-2.672)] were significantly more likely to experience unmet need for family planning, while health staff training in family planning logistics management (OR = 0.46; 95% CI (0.24-0.73)] was associated with a lower probability of experiencing unmet need for family planning. Findings suggest the need to strengthen family planning interventions in Burkina Faso to ensure greater uptake of contraceptive use and thus reduce unmet need for family planning.

  12. Performance-based financing to increase utilization of maternal health services: Evidence from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Steenland

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance-based financing (PBF programs are increasingly implemented in low and middle-income countries to improve health service quality and utilization. In April 2011, a PBF pilot program was launched in Boulsa, Leo and Titao districts in Burkina Faso with the objective of increasing the provision and quality of maternal health services. We evaluate the impact of this program using facility-level administrative data from the national health management information system (HMIS. Primary outcomes were the number of antenatal care visits, the proportion of antenatal care visits that occurred during the first trimester of pregnancy, the number of institutional deliveries and the number of postnatal care visits. To assess program impact we use a difference-in-differences approach, comparing changes in health service provision post-introduction with changes in matched comparison areas. All models were estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS regression models with standard errors clustered at the facility level. On average, PBF facilities had 2.3 more antenatal care visits (95% CI [0.446–4.225], 2.1 more deliveries (95% CI [0.034–4.069] and 9.5 more postnatal care visits (95% CI [6.099, 12.903] each month after the introduction of PBF. Compared to the service provision levels prior to the interventions, this implies a relative increase of 27.7 percent for ANC, of 9.2 percent for deliveries, and of 118.7 percent for postnatal care. Given the positive results observed during the pre-pilot period and the limited resources available in the health sector, the PBF program in Burkina Faso may be a low-cost, high impact intervention to improve maternal and child health.

  13. Prevalence and diversity of Salmonella enterica in water, fish and lettuce in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Oumar; Nyholm, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2015-07-31

    This study investigated the prevalence, serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella enterica in environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 476 samples, consisting of 36 samples of tap water, 51 samples of well water, 87 samples of channel water, 44 samples of reservoir water, 238 samples of fish, and 20 samples of lettuce were examined using standard bacteriological procedures for Salmonella. Salmonella were isolated from 98 samples. Salmonella were rare in drinking water, since they were not found at all from the tap water, and only in 2 % of well water. Salmonella were more common in the water of reservoir of Tanghin (15 %), reservoir of Yamtenga (20 %), and in the water channels in the city (from 20 to 31 %). Salmonella were commonly isolated from the fish (24 %) caught from the reservoir of Tanghin and from the lettuce (50 %) irrigated with water from Tanghin. The Salmonella isolates were found to represent 50 different serotypes. The 11 most common serotypes were Salmonella Bredeney and S. Colindale (both 8.2 %), S. Muenster (6.1 %), S. Korlebu (5.1 %), S. Eastbourne and S. Poona (both 4.1 %), and S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Drac, S. Senftenberg, S. Waycross (each 3.1 %), accounting for 51.3 % of all the isolates. In general, the Salmonella strains were sensitive to the antimicrobials tested, but two strains were resistant to streptomycin and many more intermediate to streptomycin or sulphonamide. This study highlights the common prevalence of Salmonella and the high diversity of Salmonella serotypes in aquatic environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Therefore, various human activities linked to water and consumption of water-related products, such as fish and lettuce, can lead to human Salmonella infections.

  14. Healthcare-associated infection in Burkina Faso: an assessment in a district hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Hien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, few data are available on healthcare-associated infections. In Burkina Faso, there has been a failure to take into account risk management and patient safety in the quality assurance program. The main objective of our study was to carry out an assessment of healthcare-associated infection in a first level hospital. We conducted a crosssectional study in June 2011 in the care units of Ziniaré District Hospital (Ziniaré, Burkina Faso. The hospital has been divided in three components: i hospital population (care providers, in-patients and patients’ guardians; ii healthcare and services organization; iii hospital environment. We included: care providers of the clinical services, hospital inpatients and patients’ guardians, hospitalization infrastructure and nursing units, and all the documents relating to standards and protocols. Data collection has been done by direct observation, interviews and biological samples taken at different settings. In hospital population, care providers and patients’ guardians represented a high source of infection: adherence to hygiene practice on the part of care providers was low (12/19, and no patients’ guardian experienced good conditions of staying in the hospital. In healthcare and services organization, healthcare waste management represented a high-risk source of infection. In hospital environment, hygiene level of the infrastructure in the hospital rooms was low (6.67%. Prevalence of isolated bacteria was 71.8%. Urinary-tract catheters infections were the most significant in our sample, followed by surgical-site infections. In total, 56.26% (9/19 of germs were -Lactamase producers (ESBL. They were represented by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Our analysis identified clearly healthcare-associated infection as a problem in Ziniaré district hospital. Hence, a national program of quality assurance in the hospitals should now integrate the risk infectious management

  15. Healthcare-associated infection in Burkina Faso: an assessment in a district hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Hervé; Drabo, Koiné Maxime; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Konfé, Salifou; Zeba, Sylvain; Sangaré, Lassana; Compaoré, Sidzabda C; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Ouendo, Edgard M; Makoutodé, Michel; Meda, Nicolas

    2012-10-22

    In developing countries, few data are available on healthcare-associated infections. In Burkina Faso, there has been a failure to take into account risk management and patient safety in the quality assurance program. The main objective of our study was to carry out an assessment of healthcare-associated infection in a first level hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional study in June 2011 in the care units of Ziniaré District Hospital (Ziniaré, Burkina Faso). The hospital has been divided in three components: i) hospital population (care providers, in-patients and patients' guardians); ii) healthcare and services organization; iii) hospital environment. We included: care providers of the clinical services, hospital in-patients and patients' guardians, hospitalization infrastructure and nursing units, and all the documents relating to standards and protocols. Data collection has been done by direct observation, interviews and biological samples taken at different settings. In hospital population, care providers and patients' guardians represented a high source of infection: adherence to hygiene practice on the part of care providers was low (12/19), and no patients' guardian experienced good conditions of staying in the hospital. In healthcare and services organization, healthcare waste management represented a high-risk source of infection. In hospital environment, hygiene level of the infrastructure in the hospital rooms was low (6.67%). Prevalence of isolated bacteria was 71.8%. Urinary-tract catheters infections were the most significant in our sample, followed by surgical-site infections. In total, 56.26% (9/19) of germs were -Lactamase producers (ESBL). They were represented by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Our analysis identified clearly healthcare-associated infection as a problem in Ziniaré district hospital. Hence, a national program of quality assurance in the hospitals should now integrate the risk infectious management of healthcare

  16. The Influence of Urbanization Modes on the Spatial Circulation of Flaviviruses within Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, Florence; Rican, Stéphane; Vaillant, Zoé; Roudot, Anna; Meunier-Nikiema, Aude; Kassié, Daouda; Dabiré, Roch K; Salem, Gérard

    2016-12-10

    Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Although this virus has been reported for a long time, its significance within the burden of diseases in West Africa is not obvious, especially in Burkina Faso. Our objective was to evaluate flavivirus presence in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and the link between anti-flavivirus antibody seroprevalence and urbanization modes. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted and 3015 children were enrolled from Ouagadougou districts with different types and degrees of urbanization (with/without equipment and high/low building density). Flavivirus (FLAV) IgM MAC-ELISA and FLAV indirect IgG ELISA were performed. Associations between FLAV IgG presence (sign of past infection) and various independent variables were assessed using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence of past flavivirus infections among the enrolled children was 22.7% (95% CI: 22.4-26.7) ( n = 685). Eleven children (0.4%; 95% CI: 0.61-2.14) were positive for FLAV IgM, indicating active transmission. Factors associated with flavivirus infection were identified among the enrolled children (age, sex), householders (educational level, asset index) and in the environment (building density, water access, waste management and house appearance); however, they showed great variability according to the city districts. The water access modality did not significantly influence FLAV IgG positivity. Conversely, apparently good practices of waste management had unexpected consequences (increased risk related to municipal dumpsters). Given the scale of ongoing urbanization and the spread of arboviral diseases, close collaboration between health and city stakeholders is needed.

  17. An insecticide-treated bed-net campaign and childhood malaria in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Valérie R; Schoeps, Anja; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Beiersmann, Claudia; Yé, Maurice; Damiba, Marie R; Lu, Guang Y; Mbayiha, André H; De Allegri, Manuela; Jahn, Albrecht; Sié, Ali; Becher, Heiko; Müller, Olaf

    2015-11-01

    To investigate if the first national insecticide-treated bed-net campaign in Burkina Faso, done in 2010, was followed by a decrease in childhood malaria in a district with high baseline transmission of the disease. We obtained data on the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in children aged 2 weeks to 36 months from malaria surveys in 2009 and 2011. We assessed morbidity in children younger than 5 years by comparing data from the Nouna health district's health management information system before and after the campaign in 2010. We analysed mortality data from 2008 to 2012 from Nouna's health and demographic surveillance system. The bed-net campaign was associated with an increase in the reported use of insecticide-treated nets. In 2009, 73% (630/869) of children reportedly slept under nets. In 2011, 92% (449/487) did. The campaign had no effect on the proportion of young children with P. falciparum parasitaemia after the rainy season; 52% (442/858) in 2009 and 53% (263/499) in 2011. Cases of malaria increased markedly after the campaign, as did the number of children presenting with other diseases. The campaign was not associated with any changes in child mortality. The 2010 insecticide-treated net campaign in Burkina Faso was not associated with a decrease in care-seeking for malaria or all-cause mortality in children younger than 5 years. The most likely explanation is the high coverage of nets in the study area before the campaign which could have had an effect on mosquito vectors, limiting the campaign's impact.

  18. Trypanosomosis: a priority disease in tsetse-challenged areas of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudré, Albert; Ouédraogo-Koné, Salifou; Wurzinger, Maria; Müller, Simone; Hanotte, Olivier; Ouédraogo, Anicet Georges; Sölkner, Johann

    2013-02-01

    Trypanosomosis is an important disease affecting humans as well as animals. It remains a big constraint to livestock productions in tropical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the importance of trypanosomosis among cattle diseases in Burkina Faso, mainly in tsetse-challenged areas, and to capture information on how farmers apply available methods for controlling the disease. A survey has been carried out in 29 villages of Burkina Faso in three regions (north, southwest, and west regions). One hundred and thirty-four cattle breeders were interviewed individually with a questionnaire. The results indicate that among the 16 diseases mentioned by cattle breeders, trypanosomosis is the most important one in tsetse-challenged areas. Overall, 76.12 % of the breeders mentioned it as the most important disease, while 54.55 % of the farmers in the southwest region and 70.91 % of the farmers in the west region ranked it as a priority disease. Chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy is widely used as a control method. Isometamidium chloride and diminazene aceturate were used by 53.49 and 46.52 % of the responders, respectively. Among farmers, 85.55 % ranked diminazene aceturate as the less efficient while 14.45 % ranked isometamidium chloride as the most efficient trypanocid. Trypanocidal drug quality and drug resistance were raised as a major concern by 30.77 and 50 % of the respondents, respectively. According to them, zebu cattle are more susceptible to trypanosomosis than taurine Baoule cattle and their crosses with zebu, emphasizing that crossing susceptible breeds with trypanotolerant ones, could be used as part of an integrated control strategy.

  19. Social Determinants and Access to Induced Abortion in Burkina Faso: From Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramatou Ouédraogo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso’s capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women’s personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc. may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences, take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion.

  20. To process or not to process? Factors enabling and constraining shea butter production and income in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Elias, Marlène

    2013-01-01

    countries is commercialised unprocessed. This paper examines the factors enabling and constraining the processing of shea nuts into shea butter in Burkina Faso. Our analysis is based on socio-economic survey data collected from 536 households in the Zoundwéogo and Cascades provinces of Burkina Faso, as well...... as qualitative interview data collected from 74 shea butter producers in the province of Sissili. The factors affecting the selection of shea butter production as a livelihood activity as well as the economic success of this activity are analysed using a Heckman selection model. Moreover, we study the effect...... of locality of residence, defined as place of residence along the rural–urban continuum, on shea butter processing and income. We demonstrate that, among members of a shea butter producer Union, women living in urban areas produce significantly larger quantities of shea butter for sale to the Union and earn...

  1. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aduragbemi O Banke-Thomas

    Full Text Available Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000 and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006. The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%. Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%. Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%. All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine

  2. The factors affecting the institutionalisation of two policy units in Burkina Faso's health system: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, Andre; Lavis, John N; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kouyate, Bocar; Moat, Kaelan

    2017-07-17

    This paper is one of three linked studies that attempts to understand the process of institutionalisation of policy units within Burkina Faso's health system. It examines the relationships between the existence of an institutional framework, data production capacity and other resource availability in the institutionalisation of policy units in health systems. It therefore contributes to our understanding of the dynamics linking the key drivers and indicators of institutionalisation. Additionally, it examines how factors within the managerial setting, including workplace environment, and budgetary and human resource availability, may influence the institutionalisation process. The study used an explanatory qualitative case study approach, examining two policy units in Burkina Faso's Ministry of Health, the first of which had been institutionalised successfully and the other less so. Data were collected from key policymakers, including 13 connected with the first policy unit and 10 with the second, plus two funders. We also conducted a documentary analysis of the National Program for Health Development, two mid-term strategic plans, 230 action plans, eight Ministry of Health state budgets, eight Ministry of Health annual statistics reports, 16 policy unit budgets and published literature. The framework within which the government gave the policy unit its mandate and policy focus had the strongest effect on the institutionalisation process. Institutionalisation depended on political will, in both the host government and any donors, and the priority given to the policy unit's focus. It was also affected by the leadership of the policy unit managers. These factors were influenced by human resource capacity, and our findings suggest that, for successful institutionalisation in Burkina Faso's health system, policy units need to be given sufficient human resources to achieve their objectives. Policy units' institutionalisation in Burkina Faso's health system depend on the

  3. The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso : the interface of local norms and global public health practice

    OpenAIRE

    Storeng, K. T.; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    : In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes ho...

  4. Les arbres fruitiers sahéliens dans l'économie rurale; Cas du Burkina Faso et du Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlman, J.W.; Coulibaly, K.; Yago, E.L.; Michels, R.; Berg, van den J.

    2010-01-01

    Ce document est le compte-rendu d’une enquête réalisée dans neuf villages au Mali et au Burkina Faso sur l’importance des fruits et d’autres produits provenant des arbres fruitiers indigènes. Ces arbres font partie du paysage agricole de la savane ouest-africaine. L’étude porte sur le rôle de ces

  5. Stratigraphy and properties of soil profiles along transects in Burkina Faso and Benin and their influence on phytodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Anne, Cheikh Amadou Tidiane

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to analyse in a first step the physical and chemical properties of soil profiles along pedomorphological transects in different land used conditions (protected, partly protected as well as cultivated and pastured areas) in North West Benin and in South East Burkina Faso. The information about soils, which are carried out in consideration of the pedogenesis processes like weathering types, saprolitisation, formation of laterite crusts and denudation within the planation surfac...

  6. What are the prospects for intensifying soil fertility management in the Sahel? A case study from Sanmatenga, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Elshout, S.; Sandwidi, B.; É. Ouédraogo; Kaboré, R.; Tapsoba, G.

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper discusses the results of a soil fertility management programme that was part of an integrated rural development project, and carried out as part of the pre-implementation phase of the soil fertility action plan (developed by the Burkina Faso government). It analyses the soil fertility management practices of a sample of 40 farming families that participated in project activities in 1998 and 1999.

  7. La dépression post-accident vasculaire cérébral au Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Lourde de conséquences sur la récupération motrice du patient, la dépression post-accident vasculaire cérébral (DPAVC) est souvent méconnue et sous-diagnostiquée. Notre objectif était d'en étudier les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques en milieu hospitalier au Burkina Faso. Méthodes: Il ...

  8. The cultural economy of soil and water conservation: Market principles and social networks in Eastern Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D.

    2000-01-01

    Metadata only record Soil and water conservation interventions in Africa have had a checkered history, calling into question the way in which soil and water conservation technologies have been studied in the past. This article draws on a case study from eastern Burkina Faso to explore an area usually ignored by soil and water conservation studies-the role of social institutions in guiding decisions regarding the use of technologies. It looks at soil and water conservation through the histo...

  9. Natural Resource Management Schemes as Entry Points for Integrated Landscape Approaches: Evidence from Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Samson; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A F; Reed, James; Sunderland, Terry

    2017-04-20

    In recognition of the failures of sectoral approaches to overcome global challenges of biodiversity loss, climate change, food insecurity and poverty, scientific discourse on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development is shifting towards integrated landscape governance arrangements. Current landscape initiatives however very much depend on external actors and funding, raising the question of whether, and how, and under what conditions, locally embedded resource management schemes can serve as entry points for the implementation of integrated landscape approaches. This paper assesses the entry point potential for three established natural resource management schemes in West Africa that target landscape degradation with involvement of local communities: the Chantier d'Aménagement Forestier scheme encompassing forest management sites across Burkina Faso and the Modified Taungya System and community wildlife resource management initiatives in Ghana. Based on a review of the current literature, we analyze the extent to which design principles that define a landscape approach apply to these schemes. We found that the CREMA meets most of the desired criteria, but that its scale may be too limited to guarantee effective landscape governance, hence requiring upscaling. Conversely, the other two initiatives are strongly lacking in their design principles on fundamental components regarding integrated approaches, continual learning, and capacity building. Monitoring and evaluation bodies and participatory learning and negotiation platforms could enhance the schemes' alignment with integrated landscape approaches.

  10. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli virulence genes in the feces of slaughtered cattle, chickens, and pigs in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Martikainen, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of the virulence genes specific for five major pathogroups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in primary cultures from feces of animals slaughtered for human consumption in Burkina Faso. For the study, 704 feces samples were collected from cattle (n = 304), chickens (n = 350), and pigs (n = 50) during carcass processing. The presence of the virulence-associated genes in the mixed bacterial cultures was assessed using 16-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Virulence genes indicating presence of DEC were detected in 48% of the cattle, 48% of the chicken, and 68% of the pig feces samples. Virulence genes specific for different DECs were detected in the following percentages of the cattle, chicken, and pig feces samples: Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in 37%, 6%, and 30%; enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in 8%, 37%, and 32%; enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in 4%, 5%, and 18%; and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) in 7%, 6%, and 32%. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) virulence genes were detected in 1% of chicken feces samples only. The study was the first of its kind in Burkina Faso and revealed the common occurrence of the diarrheal virulence genes in feces of food animals. This indicates that food animals are reservoirs of DEC that may contaminate meat because of the defective slaughter and storage conditions and pose a health risk to the consumers in Burkina Faso. PMID:23170227

  11. Relationships between climate and year-to-year variability in meningitis outbreaks: A case study in Burkina Faso and Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicot Serge

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year, West Africa is afflicted with Meningococcal Meningitis (MCM disease outbreaks. Although the seasonal and spatial patterns of disease cases have been shown to be linked to climate, the mechanisms responsible for these patterns are still not well identified. Results A statistical analysis of annual incidence of MCM and climatic variables has been performed to highlight the relationships between climate and MCM for two highly afflicted countries: Niger and Burkina Faso. We found that disease resurgence in Niger and in Burkina Faso is likely to be partly controlled by the winter climate through enhanced Harmattan winds. Statistical models based only on climate indexes work well in Niger showing that 25% of the disease variance from year-to-year in this country can be explained by the winter climate but fail to represent accurately the disease dynamics in Burkina Faso. Conclusion This study is an exploratory attempt to predict meningitis incidence by using only climate information. Although it points out significant statistical results it also stresses the difficulty of relating climate to interannual variability in meningitis outbreaks.

  12. Prevalence of Rift Valley fever in domestic ruminants in the central and northern regions of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussini, H; Lamien, C E; Nacoulma, O G; Kaboré, A; Poda, G; Viljoen, G

    2014-12-01

    The seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever was determined in cattle, sheep and goats in selected areas of northern and central Burkina Faso. A total of 520 serum samples were screened for anti-Rift Valley fever virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An average seroprevalence of 7.67% (range 5% to 20%) was found in ruminants in Seno and Soum provinces, and prevalences of 20% and 22.5% in cattle in Yatenga and Oubritenga provinces, respectively. The location, species and age of the animals were found to influence the seroprevalence. All the ELISA IgG-positive samples were tested for IgM in a competitive ELISA and were found negative, thus ruling out recent infections. The IgG-positive samples, including weak positives, were further tested in a serum neutralisation test for neutralising antibodies and 54.5% of these samples tested positive. The results show that the virus is in circulation in central and northern regions of Burkina Faso, suggesting the need for improved surveillance and control systems to prevent future outbreaks and the consequent economic impact of the disease in Burkina Faso livestock.

  13. Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    2 juil. 2007 ... Sur le plan végétal, on retrouve la même division du pays entre la savane boisée arborée, notamment à l'est, à l'ouest et au sud alors que le nord se .... d'une conscience nationale ; elle peut en être un ferment, surtout si elle met en scène la partie de l'histoire communément vécue par les différentes ...

  14. Impact des changements climatiques sur les revenus agricoles au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ouedraogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude évalue l’impact des changements climatiques sur les revenus agricoles des agriculteurs au Burkina Faso, en utilisant l’approche ricardienne. Cette méthode permet de modéliser les revenus agricoles en fonction des variables climatiques, édaphiques, hydrologiques et socio-économiques. Plusieurs modèles économétriques ont été testés sur la base des données primaires de la campagne agricole 2002-2003. Ces modèles ont permis d’établir d’une part la relation qui existe entre le revenu agricole et les variables climatiques (température et précipitation et d’autre part, d’analyser la sensibilité des revenus agricoles par rapport à ces variables climatiques. Des simulations ont été faites sur la base des prévisions du groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat (GIEC. Les résultats de l’étude ont montré que la relation entre le revenu et le climat est non linéaire. L’impact marginal de la température sur le revenu agricole est de -19,9 dollars US par hectare tandis que celui de la précipitation est de +2,7 dollars US par hectare. L’analyse des élasticités montre que l’agriculture est très sensible à la précipitation au Burkina. L’augmentation des précipitations de 1% entraine une hausse des revenus agricoles de 14,7%. Cependant, une augmentation des températures de 1% entraine une baisse des revenus agricoles de 3,6%. Les analyses de sensibilité ont montré que les paysans perdront 93% de leurs revenus suite à une augmentation de la température de 5°C. Ils perdront tout leur revenu suite à une diminution des précipitations de 14% (ceteris paribus. Du fait des conditions climatiques déjà difficiles, les scenarii de diminution des précipitations ou/et d’augmentation des températures sont très dommageables à l’agriculture au Burkina. Par ailleurs, l’étude a montré que la pratique de l’irrigation et l’accès à la vulgarisation ont un effet

  15. Prenatal food supplementation fortified with multiple micronutrients increases birth length: a randomized controlled trial in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Menten, Joris; Meda, Nicolas; Van Camp, John; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MMN) or balanced energy and protein supplementation has a limited effect on birth size of the offspring. The objective was to determine whether a prenatal MMN-fortified food supplement (FFS) improves anthropometric measures at birth compared with supplementation with an MMN pill alone. We conducted a nonblinded, individually randomized controlled trial in 1296 pregnant women in 2 villages in rural Burkina Faso. Supplements were provided on a daily basis, and compliance was closely verified by using a community-based network of home visitors. Anthropometric measures at birth were available for analysis for 87% of the 1175 live singleton deliveries enrolled. After adjustment for gestational age at birth, the FFS group had a significantly higher birth length (+4.6 mm; P = 0.001). FFS supplementation resulted in a modestly higher birth weight (+31 g; P = 0.197). Subgroup analyses showed clinically important treatment effects on birth length (+12.0 mm; P = 0.005) and on birth weight (+111 g; P = 0.133) for underweight [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) birth to longer newborns (+7.3 mm; P = 0.002) than did those who received MMN supplementation. The provision of FFS to pregnant women resulted in higher birth length than did MMN supplementation. For women with a suboptimal prepregnancy nutritional status, MMN supplementation should be complemented with a balanced energy and protein supplement to produce a clinical effect on birth size. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00909974.

  16. [Patient complaints: an opportunity to improve the quality of care of older people with multimorbidity in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Hervé; Ouédraogo, Macaire; Berthé, Abdramane; Konaté, Blahima; Toé, Nadia; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Millogo, Adiara; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Meda, Nicolas; Macq, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Little data exist on patient complaints to identify the strategy for the improvement of the quality of care of older people with multimorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the complaints of older people with multimorbidities at the health care facilities in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the health care facilities in Bobo-Dioulasso from November 2013 to February 2014. Older people aged 60 years or more, with at least a chronic disease, examined in ambulatory or in hospital during the study period were included. Qualitative interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. A content analysis was performed. We recorded the complaints related to long waiting time for health care, unsuitable hospital transfer service, lack of shared information on diseases and unsuitable hospitality conditions for older patients come to consultation and hospitalization. Improvement strategies should include the renovation and extension of the waiting rooms in the health care facilities, the separation of chronic care practice from acute care practice in ambulatory and in hospital, the support to the empowerment through a better communication with the patient, a community mutual assistance group and the involvement of family members.

  17. [Campaigns for HIV testing, an effective strategy for universal access to prevention and treatment? The experience of Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somé, J F; Desclaux, A; Ky-Zerbo, O; Lougué, M; Kéré, S; Obermeyer, C; Simaga, F

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the rate of people who know their HIV status is imperative, particularly in sub Saharan Africa, and this requires an assessment of strategies for increasing the utilization of testing services. This article discusses the relevance, feasibility, and effectiveness of national screening campaigns conducted between 2006 and 2010 in Burkina Faso. An analysis of all data regarding testing uptake from 2006 to 2010 was conducted, along with interviews of key participants in the process. The results show that the 8 screening campaigns led to HIV testing of 487,727 people, that is, 50% of the total number of people tested and 24.6 % of HIV+ people diagnosed during this period. Campaigns succeeded in testing populations that are difficult to reach (especially young people), at a low cost. This strategy is relevant and useful for identifying HIV+ people. Its utility for HIV prevention campaigns requires further study. Campaigns are effective and cost-effective even in this country with a low disease prevalence. These results underline the importance of the synergy between community-based organizations and health services in the provision of counseling and testing.

  18. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccination in Burkina Faso: analysis of national surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ryan T; Kambou, Jean Ludovic; Diomandé, Fabien Vk; Tarbangdo, Tiga F; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Sangaré, Lassana; Lingani, Clement; Martin, Stacey W; Hatcher, Cynthia; Mayer, Leonard W; Laforce, F Marc; Avokey, Fenella; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Messonnier, Nancy E; Tiendrébéogo, Sylvestre R; Clark, Thomas A

    2012-10-01

    An affordable, highly immunogenic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) was licensed for use in sub-Saharan Africa in 2009. In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to implement a national prevention campaign, vaccinating 11·4 million people aged 1-29 years. We analysed national surveillance data around PsA-TT introduction to investigate the early effect of the vaccine on meningitis incidence and epidemics. We examined national population-based meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso using two sources, one with cases and deaths aggregated at the district level from 1997 to 2011, and the other enhanced with results of cerebrospinal fluid examination and laboratory testing from 2007 to 2011. We compared mortality rates and incidence of suspected meningitis, probable meningococcal meningitis by age, and serogroup-specific meningococcal disease before and during the first year after PsA-TT implementation. We assessed the risk of meningitis disease and death between years. During the 14 year period before PsA-TT introduction, Burkina Faso had 148 603 cases of suspected meningitis with 17 965 deaths, and 174 district-level epidemics. After vaccine introduction, there was a 71% decline in risk of meningitis (hazard ratio 0·29, 95% CI 0·28-0·30, p<0·0001) and a 64% decline in risk of fatal meningitis (0·36, 0·33-0·40, p<0·0001). We identified a statistically significant decline in risk of probable meningococcal meningitis across the age group targeted for vaccination (62%, cumulative incidence ratio [CIR] 0·38, 95% CI 0·31-0·45, p<0·0001), and among children aged less than 1 year (54%, 0·46, 0·24-0·86, p=0·02) and people aged 30 years and older (55%, 0·45, 0·22-0·91, p=0·003) who were ineligible for vaccination. No cases of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis occurred among vaccinated individuals, and epidemics were eliminated. The incidence of laboratory-confirmed serogroup A N meningitidis dropped

  19. Mobile laboratory to improve response to meningitis epidemics, Burkina Faso epidemic season 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Ouedraogo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Laboratory was developed for use primarily during the epidemic meningitis season in Burkina Faso. This report describes the Mobile Laboratory characteristics, its use to date, problems encountered and their resolution, and future directions. During 2004, the mobile laboratory intervention in three remote Burkina Faso districts experiencing meningitis epidemics led to more specific case management and led directly to vaccination of one district. However, in a second district, the intervention occurred too late to allow vaccination. During 2006, the Mobile Laboratory was used to conduct an emergency carriage study that for the first time occurred during the peak of a meningococcal serogroup A epidemic. This information is critical for the design of meningococcal conjugate vaccine schedules and vaccine approaches. During 2004-6, technicians in 11 district laboratories received training by Mobile Laboratory staff. Numerous problems with the initial prototype laboratory were identified, namely that the solar power cells could not provide enough energy to the refrigerator and incubator to maintain appropriate temperatures and having a single integrated unit required use of a separate vehicle for specimen transport. A second laboratory was developed during 2005-6 that used a generator or local energy source for power and that had a laboratory that could be detached from the vehicle. Currently the main limitation of the Mobile Laboratory is that it has not been integrated into routine Ministry of Health activities, limiting its use both during and between meningitis seasons.Un Laboratoire Mobile a été développé pour être utilisé essentiellement pendant la saison d’épidémie de méningite au Burkina Faso. Ce rapport décrit les caractéristiques du Laboratoire Mobile, son utilisation à ce jour, les problèmes rencontrés et leur résolution ainsi que les orientations futures. Au cours de l’année 2004, l’intervention du

  20. Molecular detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance to guide chronic TB patient management in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinsi Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB is considered a real threat to the achievement of TB control. Testing of mycobacterial culture and testing of drug susceptibility (DST capacity are limited in resource-poor countries, therefore inadequate treatment may occur, favouring resistance development. We evaluated the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus (Hain Lifescience, Germany in order to detect DR-TB directly in clinical specimens as a means of providing a more accurate management of chronic TB patients in Burkina Faso, a country with a high TB-HIV co-infection prevalence. Methods Samples were collected in Burkina Faso where culture and DST are not currently available, and where chronic cases are therefore classified and treated based on clinical evaluation and sputum-smear microscopy results. One hundred and eight chronic TB patients (sputum smear-positive, after completing a re-treatment regimen for pulmonary TB under directly observed therapy were enrolled in the study from December 2006 to October 2008. Two early morning sputum samples were collected from each patient, immediately frozen, and shipped to Italy in dry ice. Samples were decontaminated, processed for smear microscopy and DNA extraction. Culture was attempted on MGIT960 (Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, USA and decontaminated specimens were analyzed for the presence of mutations conferring resistance to rifampin and isoniazid by the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus. Results We obtained a valid molecular test result in 60/61 smear-positive and 47/47 smear-negative patients. Among 108 chronic TB cases we identified patients who (i harboured rifampin- and isoniazid-susceptible strains (n 24, (ii were negative for MTB complex DNA (n 24, and (iii had non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections (n 13. The most represented mutation conferring rifampin-resistance was the D516V substitution in the hotspot region of the rpoB gene (43.8% of cases. Other mutations recognized

  1. Spatio-temporal dynamic of malaria in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Boukary; Inoue, Yasuko; Kambiré, Alinsa; Sallah, Kankoe; Dieng, Sokhna; Tine, Raphael; Rouamba, Toussaint; Herbreteau, Vincent; Sawadogo, Yacouba; Ouedraogo, Landaogo S L W; Yaka, Pascal; Ouedraogo, Ernest K; Dufour, Jean-Charles; Gaudart, Jean

    2018-04-02

    Given the scarcity of resources in developing countries, malaria treatment requires new strategies that target specific populations, time periods and geographical areas. While the spatial pattern of malaria transmission is known to vary depending on local conditions, its temporal evolution has yet to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the spatio-temporal dynamic of malaria in the central region of Burkina Faso, taking into account meteorological factors. Drawing on national databases, 101 health areas were studied from 2011 to 2015, together with weekly meteorological data (temperature, number of rain events, rainfall, humidity, wind speed). Meteorological factors were investigated using a principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce dimensions and avoid collinearities. The Box-Jenkins ARIMA model was used to test the stationarity of the time series. The impact of meteorological factors on malaria incidence was measured with a general additive model. A change-point analysis was performed to detect malaria transmission periods. For each transmission period, malaria incidence was mapped and hotspots were identified using spatial cluster detection. Malaria incidence never went below 13.7 cases/10,000 person-weeks. The first and second PCA components (constituted by rain/humidity and temperatures, respectively) were correlated with malaria incidence with a lag of 2 weeks. The impact of temperature was significantly non-linear: malaria incidence increased with temperature but declined sharply with high temperature. A significant positive linear trend was found for the entire time period. Three transmission periods were detected: low (16.8-29.9 cases/10,000 person-weeks), high (51.7-84.8 cases/10,000 person-weeks), and intermediate (26.7-32.2 cases/10,000 person-weeks). The location of clusters identified as high risk varied little across transmission periods. This study highlighted the spatial variability and relative temporal stability of malaria

  2. Meningococcal Seroepidemiology 1 Year After the PsA-TT Mass Immunization Campaign in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, Haoua; Yaro, Seydou; Kpoda, Hervé B N; Ouangraoua, Soumeya; Trotter, Caroline L; Njanpop Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Martin, Catherine; Nwakamma, Ikenna; Ouedraogo, Jean Bosco; Gessner, Bradford D; Borrow, Ray; Mueller, Judith E

    2015-11-15

    A group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), was introduced in Burkina Faso via mass campaigns between September and December 2010, targeting the 1- to 29-year-old population. This study describes specific antibody titers in the general population 11 months later and compares them to preintroduction data obtained during 2008 using the same protocol. During October-November 2011, we recruited a representative sample of the population of urban Bobo-Dioulasso aged 6 months to 29 years, who underwent standardized interviews and blood draws. We assessed anti-MenA immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations (n = 200) and, using rabbit complement, serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against 2 group A strains: reference strain F8238 (SBAref) (n = 562) and strain 3125 (SBA3125) (n = 200). Among the 562 participants, 481 (86%) were aged ≥23 months and had been eligible for the PsA-TT campaign. Among them, vaccine coverage was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.7%-89.9%). Prevalence of putatively protective antibodies among vaccine-eligible age groups was 97.3% (95% CI, 95.9%-98.7%) for SBAref titers ≥128, 83.6% (95% CI, 77.6%-89.7%) for SBA3125 ≥128, and 84.2% (95% CI, 78.7%-89.7%) for anti-MenA IgG ≥2 µg/mL. Compared to the population aged 23 months to 29 years during 2008, geometric mean titers of SBAref were 7.59-fold higher during 2011, 51.88-fold for SBA3125, and 10.56-fold for IgG. This study shows high seroprevalence against group A meningococci in Burkina Faso following MenAfriVac introduction. Follow-up surveys will provide evidence on the persistence of population-level immunity and the optimal vaccination strategy for long-term control of MenA meningitis in the African meningitis belt. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Explorative socio-environmental survey for honey quality assessment in six target provinces of Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Cencetti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Honeybees and bee products are optimal monitors for environment quality. Twelve honey and wax samples from six hives located in six different provinces of Burkina Faso, sited near agricultural crops, were analyzed. Two honey flow periods were taken into account: the main honey flow, during the dry season, and the second one, occurring at the end of the rainy season. Physico-chemical parameters (water, total sugars, hydroxy-methyl-furfural content, conductivity, pH and acidity and residual pesticide analysis were carried out to verify honey quality. Melissopalynological analysis was conducted to establish the botanical origin of honey samples. Five samples were identified as monoflorals, with a predominance of Lannea microcarpa Engl. & K.Krause, Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn., Cassia mimosoides L. and Combretum Loefl. genus. Pollen profiles obtained by palynological analysis were compared with plant biodiversity present in the sampling area, which covered seven square kilometers. Ninety beekeepers were interviewed about their perception of the impact of agricultural pesticide use on honeybee colonies. As a first result, pesticides were absent both in honey and in wax samples. On the other hand, data showed that honey quality needed to be increased and beekeeping techniques improved. In general, further researches are recommended, to enhance the knowledge on the characteristics of Burkina Faso’s honeys and verify the specific impact of pesticides on Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille life-cycle and bee-products. The improvement of honey quality could ensure a best-selling price, opening new sale channels for Burkinabé beekeepers and farmers; at the same time, it could guarantee ecosystem pollination service and biodiversity conservation.

  4. Characterisation of the rural indigent population in Burkina Faso: a screening tool for setting priority healthcare services in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Samiratou; Ridde, Valéry; Atchessi, Nicole; Souares, Aurélia; Koulidiati, Jean-Louis; Stoeffler, Quentin; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2017-10-08

    In Africa, health research on indigent people has focused on how to target them for services, but little research has been conducted to identify the social groups that compose indigence. Our aim was to identify what makes someone indigent beyond being recognised by the community as needing a card for free healthcare. We used data from a survey conducted to evaluate a state-led intervention for performance-based financing of health services in two districts of Burkina Faso. In 2015, we analysed data of 1783 non-indigents and 829 people defined as indigents by their community in 21 villages following community-based targeting processes. Using a classification tree, we built a model to select socioeconomic and health characteristics that were likely to distinguish between non-indigents and indigents. We described the screening performance of the tree using data from specific nodes. Widow(er)s under 45 years of age, unmarried people aged 45 years and over, and married women aged 60 years and over were more likely to be identified as indigents by their community. Simple rules based on age, marital status and gender detected indigents with sensitivity of 75.6% and specificity of 55% among those 45 years and over; among those under 45, sensitivity was 85.5% and specificity 92.2%. For both tests combined, sensitivity was 78% and specificity 81%. In moving towards universal health coverage, Burkina Faso should extend free access to priority healthcare services to widow(er)s under 45, unmarried people aged 45 years and over, and married women aged 60 years and over, and services should be adapted to their health needs. The collection, storage and release of data for research purposes were authorised by a government ethics committee in Burkina Faso (Decision No. 2013-7-066). Respondent consent was obtained verbally. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  5. Mise en évidence au Burkina Faso d'un nouveau taxon de Colletotrichum dans l'étiologie de la maladie des taches brunes du niébé

    OpenAIRE

    Sérémé, P.; Diasso, GA.; Ake, S.

    2001-01-01

    Identification of New Taxum of Colletotrichum as a Causal Pathogen for Brown Blotch Disease of Cowpea in the Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso. Brown blotch disease of cowpea was, until recentiy, described as a disease of savannah and forested zones of Africa. However, in its latest progression, the disease also appeared in the sahelian zone of Burkina. In the present study on the etiology of brown blotch disease in Burkina Faso, analysis of isolates Colletotrichum spp. iead to the identification...

  6. Improving diets and nutrition through an integrated poultry value chain and nutrition intervention (SELEVER) in Burkina Faso: study protocol for a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Becquey, Elodie; Ganaba, Rasmane; Headey, Derek; Hidrobo, Melissa; Huybregts, Lieven; Verhoef, Hans; Kenfack, Romain; Zongouri, Sita; Guedenet, Hannah

    2017-09-06

    The SELEVER study is designed to evaluate the impact of an integrated agriculture-nutrition package of interventions (including poultry value chain development, women's empowerment activities, and a behavior change communications strategy to promote improved diets and feeding, care, and hygiene practices) on the diets, health, and nutritional status of women and children in Burkina Faso. This paper presents the rationale and study design. The impact evaluation involves a cluster randomized controlled trial design that will be implemented in 120 rural communities/villages within 60 communes supported by SELEVER in the Boucle de Mouhoun, Centre-Ouest, and Haut-Bassins regions of Burkina Faso. Communities will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms, including: (1) SELEVER intervention group; (2) SELEVER with an intensive WASH component; and (3) control group without intervention. Primary outcomes include the mean probability of adequacy of diets for women and children (aged 2-4 years at baseline), infant and young child feeding practices of caregivers of children aged 0-2 years, and household poultry production and sales. Intermediate outcomes along the agriculture and nutrition pathways will also be measured, including child nutrition status and development. The evaluation will follow a mixed-methods approach, including a panel of child-, household-, community-, and market-level surveys, and data collection points during post-harvest and lean seasons, as well as one year after implementation completion to examine sustainability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to rigorously examine from a food systems perspective, the simultaneous impact of scaling-up nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions through a livestock value-chain and community-intervention platform, across nutrition, health, and agriculture domains. The findings of this evaluation will provide evidence to support the design of market-based nutrition

  7. The impact of free healthcare on women's capability: A qualitative study in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, Oumar Mallé; Ridde, Valery

    2018-01-01

    In March 2006, the government of Burkina Faso implemented an 80% subsidy for emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC). To complement this subsidy, an NGO decided to cover the remaining 20% in two districts of the country, making EmONC completely free for women there. In addition, the NGO instituted fee exemptions for children under five years of age in those two districts. We conducted a qualitative study in 2011 to examine the impact of these free healthcare interventions on women's capability. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 women, 16 members of health centre management committees, and eight healthcare workers in three health districts, as well as a documentary analysis. Results showed free healthcare helped reinforce women's capability to make health decisions by eliminating the need for them to negotiate access to household resources, which in turn helped shorten delays in health services use. Other effects were also observed, such as increased self-esteem among the women and greater respect within their marital relationship. However, cultural barriers remained, limiting women's capability to achieve certain things they valued, such as contraception. In conclusion, this study's results illustrate the transformative effect that eliminating fees for obstetric care can have on women's capability to make health decisions and their social position. Furthermore, if women's capability is to be strengthened, the results impel us to go beyond health and to organize social and economic policies to reinforce their positions in other spheres of social life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Major Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Homocysteine Metabolism in Malaria Patients in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Noé Yameogo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the four main polymorphisms of the genes in homocysteine metabolism in malaria patients. Forty-two randomly selected subjects, diagnosed positive for Plasmodium falciparum, were included. The four genotypes were detected by real-time PCR using the MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, and MTRR 66A>G detection kit (Sacace Biotechnologies REF: T01002-96-S. The results revealed frequencies of 90% 677CC, 10% 677CT, and 00% 677TT for MTHFR C677T; 78.6% 1298AA, 19% 1298AC, and 2.4% 1298CC for MTHFR A1298C; 61.9% 2756AA, 33.3% 2756AG, and 4.8% 2756GG for MTR A2756G; and 50% of 66AA, 45% of 66AG, and 5% of 66GG for MTRR A66G. Correlations were found between A2756G MTR genotypes and parasitaemia (P=0.02, MTRR A66G and hemoglobin genotypes (P=0.009, and MTHFR A1298C and sex (P=0.01. This study demonstrated for the first time an association between the A2756G MTR alleles and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso and gave an overview of the genotypic distribution of the major SNPs influencing the metabolism of homocysteine.

  9. Safer Conception Needs for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Burkina Faso and Togo

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    Sheree R. Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reproductive health programming for female sex workers (FSW may include contraceptive services but rarely addresses safer pregnancy planning. Methods. Adult FSW were enrolled into a cross-sectional study across four sites in Burkina Faso and Togo using respondent-driven sampling. Sociobehavioral questionnaires and HIV counseling and testing were administered. Sample statistics and engagement in HIV treatment were described and compared using Chi-squared statistics. Results. 1,349 reproductive-aged FSW were enrolled from January to July 2013. Overall, 267 FSW (19.8% were currently trying to conceive. FSW trying to conceive were more likely to test positive for HIV at enrollment as compared to women not trying to become pregnant (24.5% versus 17.7%, P<0.01; however awareness of HIV status was similar across groups. Among FSW trying to conceive, 79.0% (211/267 had previously received HIV testing, yet only 33.8% (23/68 of HIV-infected FSW reported a previous HIV diagnosis. Overall 25.0% (17/68 of HIV-infected FSW trying to conceive were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion. FSW frequently desire children. However engagement in the HIV prevention and treatment cascade among FSW trying to conceive is poor potentiating periconception transmission risks to partners and infants. Programs to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis for FSW and safer conception counseling are needed as components of effective combination HIV prevention services.

  10. How Properties of Kenaf Fibers from Burkina Faso Contribute to the Reinforcement of Earth Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo, Younoussa; Aubert, Jean-Emmanuel; Hamard, Erwan; Morel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf) fibers from Burkina Faso were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical analysis and video microscopy. Kenaf fibers (3 cm long) were used to reinforce earth blocks, and the mechanical properties of reinforced blocks, with fiber contents ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 wt%, were investigated. The fibers were mainly composed of cellulose type I (70.4 wt%), hemicelluloses (18.9 wt%) and lignin (3 wt%) and were characterized by high tensile strength (1 ± 0.25 GPa) and Young’s modulus (136 ± 25 GPa), linked to their high cellulose content. The incorporation of short fibers of kenaf reduced the propagation of cracks in the blocks, through the good adherence of fibers to the clay matrix, and therefore improved their mechanical properties. Fiber incorporation was particularly beneficial for the bending strength of earth blocks because it reinforces these blocks after the failure of soil matrix observed for unreinforced blocks. Blocks reinforced with such fibers had a ductile tensile behavior that made them better building materials for masonry structures than unreinforced blocks.

  11. The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS in Nouna, Burkina Faso, 1993–2007

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    Ali Sié

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nouna1 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS is located in rural Burkina Faso and has existed since 1992. Currently, it has about 78,000 inhabitants. It is a member of the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH, a global network of memberswho conducts longitudinal health and demographic evaluation of populations in low- and middle-income countries. The health facilities consist of one hospital and 13 basic health centres (locally known as CSPS. The Nouna HDSS has been used as a sampling frame for numerous studies in the fields of clinical research, epidemiology, health economics, and health systems research. In this paper we review some of the main findings, and we describe the effects that almost 20 years of health research activities have shown in the population in general and in terms of the perception, economic implications, and other indicators. Longitudinal data analyses show that childhood, as well as overall mortality, has significantly decreased over the observation period 1993–2007. The under-five mortality rate dropped from about 40 per 1,000 person-years in the mid-1990s to below 30 per 1,000 in 2007. Further efforts are needed to meet goal four of the Millennium Development Goals, which is to reduce the under-five mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015.

  12. Digestive fungal flora in asymptomatic subjects in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanata, Bamba; Salam, Ouédraogo Abdoul; Ibrahim, Sangaré; Adama, Zida; Mamoudou, Cissé; Simplice, Karou D.; Jacques, Simpore; Robert, Guiguemdé T.; Christophe, Hennequin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify Candida species in asymptomatic subjects in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) by the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2013 in Bobo-Dioulasso to collect fecal and urine specimens from voluntary donors. Fungal strains were isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Results A total of 135 samples including stools (78.5%, 106/135) and urine (21.5%, 29/135) were analyzed. The results revealed that fecal specimens contained mainly Candida krusei (C. krusei) (42.5%) followed by Candida albicans (29.3%), Candida glabrata (18.0%) and Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis) (4.7%). C. krusei (34.6%) was also found to be the most frequently identified in urine samples followed by Candida albicans (27.0%), C. tropicalis (15.4%) and Candida parapsilosis. However, uncommon species such as Candida nivariensis, Candida kefyr, Candida norvegensis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae and Candida robusta were also identified from fecal and urines samples. Conclusions This study noted the emergence of species such as C. krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsiolosis, C. tropicalis, Candida nivariensis, Candida norvegensis, and others. It is an imperative to take into account the existence of these species in the therapeutic management of patients in Bobo-Dioulasso. PMID:25183337

  13. Defining Solutions, Finding Problems: Deforestation, Gender, and REDD+ in Burkina Faso

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    Lisa Westholm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ is a policy instrument meant to mitigate climate change while also achieving poverty reduction in tropical countries. It has garnered critics for homogenising environmental and development governance and for ignoring how similar efforts have tended to exacerbate gender inequalities. Nonetheless, regarding such schemes as inevitable, some feminists argue for requirements that include women′s empowerment and participation. In this paper we move beyond discussions about safeguards and examine whether the very framing of REDD+ programs can provide openings for a transformation as argued for by its proponents. Following the REDD+ policy process in Burkina Faso, we come to two important insights: REDD+ is a solution in need of a problem. Assumptions about gender are at the heart of creating ′actionable knowledge′ that enabled REDD+ to be presented as a policy solution to the problems of deforestation, poverty and gender inequality. Second, despite its ′safeguards′, REDD+ appears to be perpetuating gendered divisions of labour, as formal environmental decision-making moves upwards; and responsibility and the burden of actual environmental labour shifts further down in particularly gendered ways. We explore how this is enabled by the development of policies whose stated aims are to tackle inequalities.

  14. Burned area detection based on Landsat time series in savannas of southern Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxiu; Heiskanen, Janne; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Pellikka, Petri K. E.

    2018-02-01

    West African savannas are subject to regular fires, which have impacts on vegetation structure, biodiversity and carbon balance. An efficient and accurate mapping of burned area associated with seasonal fires can greatly benefit decision making in land management. Since coarse resolution burned area products cannot meet the accuracy needed for fire management and climate modelling at local scales, the medium resolution Landsat data is a promising alternative for local scale studies. In this study, we developed an algorithm for continuous monitoring of annual burned areas using Landsat time series. The algorithm is based on burned pixel detection using harmonic model fitting with Landsat time series and breakpoint identification in the time series data. This approach was tested in a savanna area in southern Burkina Faso using 281 images acquired between October 2000 and April 2016. An overall accuracy of 79.2% was obtained with balanced omission and commission errors. This represents a significant improvement in comparison with MODIS burned area product (67.6%), which had more omission errors than commission errors, indicating underestimation of the total burned area. By observing the spatial distribution of burned areas, we found that the Landsat based method misclassified cropland and cloud shadows as burned areas due to the similar spectral response, and MODIS burned area product omitted small and fragmented burned areas. The proposed algorithm is flexible and robust against decreased data availability caused by clouds and Landsat 7 missing lines, therefore having a high potential for being applied in other landscapes in future studies.

  15. [Lack of knowledge among blood donors in Burkina Faso (West Africa); potential obstacle to transfusion security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nébié, K Y; Olinger, C M; Kafando, E; Dahourou, H; Diallo, S; Kientega, Y; Domo, Y; Kienou, K; Ouattara, S; Sawadogo, I; Ky, L; Muller, C P

    2007-11-01

    The measures recommended to reduce TTD include clinical selection of donors, based on a standardized questionnaire which aims to find out antecedents and behaviours predicting transmitted diseases within donors. The effectiveness of this measure is well established in the industrialized countries where the level of education of the population may support a greater receptivity of donors about this procedure. What is happening in developing one? This study was carried out to assess knowledge attitude and behaviours among blood donors regarding blood and transfusion safety in Burkina Faso. A cross sectional study was carried out in the blood bank of the teaching hospital of Ouagadougou. In addition to the routine questionnaire, 544 included blood donors were subjected to additional questions seeking to specify their behaviours, knowledge and attitude towards TTD diseases and screening. Donors were from 16 to 57 years of age (mean age : 28+/-7.9 years). The majority of donors were male (71.2%). Family donors represent 52% and first time donors 55%. About 30.8% were illiterate or of primary school level. A percentage of 14.4 donate to access HIV testing and 30.7% will donate blood immediately to check any contamination in case of exposure. There was no difference between donors having been informed about their HIV status in the past and the other donors regarding HIV, HBs Ag and VHC results. This study suggests that there is some great need for donors' education on transfusion safety. There is also need for staff training in donors' management.

  16. Evaluation of enzymes inhibition activities of medicinal plant from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangou, Mindiédiba Jean; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Meda, Nâg-Tiero Roland; Coulibaly, Ahmed Yacouba; Compaoré, Moussa; Zeba, Boukaré; Millogo-Rasolodimby, Jeanne; Nacoulma, Odile Germaine

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate some enzymes inhibitory effects of 11 plant species belonging to 9 families from Burkina Faso. Methanolic extracts were used for their Glutathione-s-transferase (GST), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Carboxylesterase (CES) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities at final concentration of 100 microg mL(-1). The total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu, AlCl3 and ammonium citrate iron reagents, respectively. Among the 11 species tested, the best inhibitory percentages were found with Euphorbia hirta, Sclerocarya birrea and Scoparia dulcis (inhibition > 40%) followed by Annona senegalensis, Annona squamosa, Polygala arenaria and Ceratotheca sesamoides (inhibition > 25%). The best total phenolic and tannin contents were found with S. birrea with 56.10 mg GAE/100 mg extract and 47.75 mg TAE/100 mg extract, respectively. E hirta presented the higher total flavonoids (9.96 mg QE/100 mg extract). It's was found that Sclerocarya birrea has inhibited all enzymes at more than 30% and this activity is correlated to total tannins contents. Contrary to S. birrea, the enzymatic activities of E. hirta and S. dulcis are correlated to total flavonoids contents. Present findings suggest that the methanolic extracts of those plant species are potential inhibitors of GST, AChE, CES and XO and confirm their traditional uses in the treatment of mental disorders, gout, painful inflammations and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Renin-Angiotensin System Genes Polymorphisms and Essential Hypertension in Burkina Faso, West Africa

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    Daméhan Tchelougou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the association between three polymorphisms of renin-angiotensin system and the essential hypertension in the population of Burkina Faso. Methodology. This was a case-control study including 202 cases and 204 matched controls subjects. The polymorphisms were identified by a classical and a real-time PCR. Results. The AGT 235M/T and AT1R 1166A/C polymorphisms were not associated with the hypertension while the genotype frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism between patients and controls (DD: 66.83% and 35.78%, ID: 28.22% and 50.98%, II: 4.95% and 13.24%, resp. were significantly different (p < 10−4. The genotype DD of ACE gene (OR = 3.40, p < 0.0001, the increasing age (OR = 3.83, p < 0.0001, obesity (OR = 4.84, p < 0.0001, dyslipidemia (OR = 3.43, p = 0.021, and alcohol intake (OR = 2.76, p < 0.0001 were identified as the independent risk factors for hypertension by multinomial logistic regression. Conclusion. The DD genotype of the ACE gene is involved in susceptibility to hypertension. Further investigations are needed to better monitor and provide individualized care for hypertensive patients.

  18. High Contribution of Gallery Forests to Local Evaporation in Semi-Arid Burkina Faso

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    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Management of the hydrologic cycle is critical to the primary livelihood of a large part of semi-arid West Africa's primary livelihood, rain-fed farming. We use flux measurements from an eddy-covariance station coupled with a dense network of small wireless meteorological stations to examine the relationship between land surface properties (albedo, soil moisture, and roughness) and evapotranspiration in a small (3.5 km2) catchment in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The catchment is a matrix of savanna and agricultural land maintained under various regimes, providing a comparison of multiple land use types of Sudanian Wooded Savanna including a canyon gallery forest, agroforestry parklands, occasionally grazed semi-open savanna, a semi-closed wooded slope, fallow fields, rice paddies, and ephemeral wetlands. By filtering out times when dry air was entrained, we demonstrate the small control of soil moisture and vegetation on the evaporative fraction, which was not initially visible. Additionally we document the high contribution of the gallery forest to the the catchment evaporation, despite its small size. These small meteorological stations could be paired with currently available satellite data to calculate evaporation over a much larger area, even when eddy-covariance equipment is not available. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of gallery forests for climate regulation and may provide tools to key local decision makers, rural farmers.

  19. The plasticity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytaemia in relation to age in Burkina Faso

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    Drakeley Chris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission depends on the presence of gametocytes in the peripheral blood. In this study, the age-dependency of gametocytaemia was examined by microscopy and molecular tools. Methods A total of 5,383 blood samples from individuals of all ages were collected over six cross sectional surveys in Burkina Faso. One cross-sectional study used quantitative nucleic acid sequence based amplification (QT-NASBA for parasite quantification (n = 412. The proportion of infections with concurrent gametocytaemia and median proportion of gametocytes among all parasites were calculated. Results Asexual parasite prevalence and gametocyte prevalence decreased with age. Gametocytes made up 1.8% of the total parasite population detected by microscopy in the youngest age group. This proportion gradually increased to 18.2% in adults (p Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that although gametocytes are most commonly detected in children, the proportion of asexual parasites that is committed to develop into gametocytes may increase with age. These findings underscore the importance of adults for the human infectious reservoir for malaria.

  20. Assessment of water resource contamination by pesticides in vegetable-producing areas in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Edouard; Fargues, Morgan; Nfon Dibié, Jean-Jacques; Konaté, Yacouba; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe

    2018-02-01

    This study proposes a comprehensive approach to investigate water resource contamination by pesticides under the specific climatic and hydrological conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian climate. Samples were collected from traditional wells, boreholes, and a lake in Burkina Faso. A multiresidue analysis was developed for 25 pesticides identified during field surveys. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were used to confirm trends observed with grab samples. Uptake kinetics of POCIS were assessed by in situ calibration. The proposed use of nonlinear least squares regression proved to be a robust approach for estimating time-weighted average concentration in cases of nonlinear uptake. High sampling rates for triazines in a quasi-stagnant lake were attributed to warm water temperatures (30.8 ± 1.3 °C). The combination of sampling techniques during a 3-year monitoring period allowed for identifying potential interactions between resources, seasonal patterns, and origins of contaminants. Atrazine, azadirachtin, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dieldrin, imidacloprid, and profenofos exceeded 0.1 μg L -1 , indicating a potential risk for the consumers. Ecological risk assessment was performed using the Pesticide Tool Index for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. Peak concentrations of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were systematically associated with hazard to the studied taxa.

  1. [Vulnerability of male prisoners to HIV /AIDS in Ouagadougou/ Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Ousmane; Garanet, Franck; Sawadogo, Simeon; Mesenge, Christian; Guiard Schmid, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the vulnerability of male prisoners to HIV, risk behaviour and access to prevention. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in july and August 2012 in Ouagadougou Prison in Burkina Faso. Two trained investigators collected data by means of individual interviews in the prison visiting room using a questionnaire administered to male inmates 18 years and older, imprisoned for more than three months. Two focus groups were conducted with prison guards and healthcare personnel. A total of165 male prisoners were interviewed. The mean prison sentence was 19 months, the median age of the inmates was 28years and 45% of them were illiterate. About4% of male prisoners reported having had homosexual relations during their imprisonment. However, data indicate underreporting and denial of homosexual behaviour by prisoners. 49% of prisoners shared razors or razorblades in prison. None of the interviewees reported injected drug use or tattoos in prison. The majority (84%) of prisoners had a good knowledge of HIVjAIDS and 6% were aware of the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Only 5% of prisoners had had a screening test during their stay in prison. Prison conditions, homosexual behaviour and absence of condoms in prison accentuate the vulnerability of prisoners to HIV j AIDS. Implementation of a prevention programme and management HIV-positive prisoners would help to reduce significantly the risk of HIV transmission in prison.

  2. Seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in urban Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquey, Elodie; Delpeuch, Francis; Konaté, Amadou M; Delsol, Hervé; Lange, Matthias; Zoungrana, Mahama; Martin-Prevel, Yves

    2012-06-01

    Food insecurity is affecting an increasing number of urban poor in the developing world. Yet seasonal characteristics of food intakes have rarely been studied in West African cities. The objective of the present study was to assess the seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). In 2007, two sets of data were collected during the lean and post-harvest seasons, respectively, on a representative sample of 1056 households. At each season, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls were performed at the household level. Food prices were also recorded. Household food security was assessed by the household's mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for energy and eleven micronutrients. Changes in the MAR according to the season were analysed by mixed multivariate linear regression. Results showed that intakes of energy and of ten micronutrients were significantly lower during the lean season than during the post-harvest season, leading to a lower MAR in the lean season (49·61 v. 53·57, P social network (P = 0·054) and urban origin other than Ouagadougou (P = 0·040) played a positive role in food security. To achieve food security in Ouagadougou, access to micronutrient-dense foods needs to be ensured in all seasons.

  3. How Properties of Kenaf Fibers from Burkina Faso Contribute to the Reinforcement of Earth Blocks

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    Younoussa Millogo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics of Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf fibers from Burkina Faso were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD, infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, chemical analysis and video microscopy. Kenaf fibers (3 cm long were used to reinforce earth blocks, and the mechanical properties of reinforced blocks, with fiber contents ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 wt%, were investigated. The fibers were mainly composed of cellulose type I (70.4 wt%, hemicelluloses (18.9 wt% and lignin (3 wt% and were characterized by high tensile strength (1 ± 0.25 GPa and Young’s modulus (136 ± 25 GPa, linked to their high cellulose content. The incorporation of short fibers of kenaf reduced the propagation of cracks in the blocks, through the good adherence of fibers to the clay matrix, and therefore improved their mechanical properties. Fiber incorporation was particularly beneficial for the bending strength of earth blocks because it reinforces these blocks after the failure of soil matrix observed for unreinforced blocks. Blocks reinforced with such fibers had a ductile tensile behavior that made them better building materials for masonry structures than unreinforced blocks.

  4. Enhancing Sustainability of Cotton Production Systems in West Africa: A Summary of Empirical Evidence from Burkina Faso

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    Jeffrey Vitale

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Africa has been hesitant to adopt agricultural biotechnology, lagging behind global trends over the past decade. One exception is Burkina Faso, a West African country that commercially released 125,000 ha of Bt cotton in 2009. Bt cotton may serve as a working example of how African countries can enhance sustainability using modern, science-driven technology to increase production levels while reducing input use and energy consumption. This paper reports the potential impact that Bt cotton can have on sustainability in Burkina Faso’s cotton sector based by summarizing empirical evidence from previously published studies. Based on the summary of published data collected from six years of field trials and producer surveys, Bt cotton increased cotton yields by an average of 21.3% and raised income by $106.14 per ha. Using an energy balance model, the introduction of Bt cotton would also result in a 6.6% saving in energy use. The significant increase in productivity and economic returns could be the catalyst for Burkina Faso, and other African countries, to emerge from the decade or so of stagnation and regain their competitive stance in world cotton markets while providing environmental and social benefits.

  5. Challenges of scaling up and of knowledge transfer in an action research project in Burkina Faso to exempt the worst-off from health care user fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Systems to exempt the indigent from user fees have been put in place to prevent the worst-off from being excluded from health care services for lack of funds. Yet the implementation of these mechanisms is as rare as the operational research on this topic. This article analyzes an action research project aimed at finding an appropriate solution to make health care accessible to the indigent in a rural district of Burkina Faso. Research This action research project was initiated in 2007 to study the feasibility and effectiveness of a community-based, participative and financially sustainable process for exempting the indigent from user fees. A interdisciplinary team of researchers from Burkina Faso and Canada was mobilized to document this action research project. Results and knowledge sharing The action process was very well received. Indigent selection was effective and strengthened local solidarity, but coverage was reduced by the lack of local financial resources. Furthermore, the indigent have many other needs that cannot be addressed by exemption from user fees. Several knowledge transfer strategies were implemented to share research findings with residents and with local and national decision-makers. Partnership achievements and difficulties Using a mixed and interdisciplinary research approach was critical to grasping the complexity of this community-based process. The adoption of the process and the partnership with local decision-makers were very effective. Therefore, at the instigation of an NGO, four other districts in Burkina Faso and Niger reproduced this experiment. However, national decision-makers showed no interest in this action and still seem unconcerned about finding solutions that promote access to health care for the indigent. Lessons learned The lessons learned with regard to knowledge transfer and partnerships between researchers and associated decision-makers are: i) involve potential users of the research results from the

  6. Ebola vu de loin : les agents de la santé face au risque et à l'incertitude dans les campagnes du Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2015-01-01

    Although no cases of the Ebola virus disease occurred in Burkina Faso during the West African epidemic, it sparked front line health workers' reflections on issues of security, global equity and fairness. Based on an ethnographic study of rural dispensaries in Burkina Faso on the practical...... of the threat of Ebola has intensified existing tensions between health workers and the Government. Seeing Ebola from a distance entailed that the health workers perceived Ebola as a negative potentiality having immediate effects on their individual and collective reflections on risk acceptability. That made...

  7. Bacterial meningitis epidemiology and return of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A cases in Burkina Faso in the five years following MenAfriVac mass vaccination campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yameogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Aké, Flavien; Lingani, Clément; Wang, Xin; Bita, Andre; Fall, Amadou; Sangaré, Lassana; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Bicaba, Brice; Novak, Ryan T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Historically, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA) caused large meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to implement a national meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) campaign. We analyzed nationwide meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso for the 5 years following MACV introduction. Methods We examined Burkina Faso’s aggregate reporting and national laboratory-confirmed case-based meningitis surveillance data from 2011–2015. We calculated incidence (cases per 100,000 persons), and described reported NmA cases. Results In 2011–2015, Burkina Faso reported 20,389 cases of suspected meningitis. A quarter (4,503) of suspected meningitis cases with cerebrospinal fluid specimens were laboratory-confirmed as either S. pneumoniae (57%), N. meningitidis (40%), or H. influenzae (2%). Average adjusted annual national incidence of meningococcal meningitis was 3.8 (range: 2.0–10.2 annually) and was highest among infants aged Burkina Faso remains relatively low following MACV introduction. However, a substantial burden remains and NmA transmission has persisted. MACV integration into routine childhood immunization programs is essential to ensure continued protection. PMID:29095907

  8. REMOVAL OF Cd2+, Cu2+AND Pb2+ WITH A BURKINA FASO CLAY ELIMINATION DU Cd2+, DU Cu2+ ET DU Pb2+ PAR UNE ARGILE LOCALE DU BURKINA FASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAHIMA SORGHO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of water by heavy metals is often linked to human, industrial and agricultural activities, and cause health and ecological problems. The objective of this study is to remove water pollutants like Cd2+, Cu2+ and Pb2+ in synthetic solutions by adsorption on clay from Burkina Faso. Electrochemical characterizations revealed that 90 % of heavy metals can be removed. Structural studies evidenced that almost all clay mineral species participate to the removal of heavy metals through different physico-chemical mechanisms namely ion exchange, complexation and precipitation.

  9. Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders’ perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. Methods We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. Results The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. Conclusions This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive

  10. Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders' perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R; Gogognon, Patrick; Ridde, Valéry

    2014-02-20

    Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive ethical terrain of a participatory public

  11. Assessing the repeatability of verbal autopsy for determining cause of death: two case studies among women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso and Indonesia

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    Ouédraogo Moctar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is an established tool for assessing cause-specific mortality patterns in communities where deaths are not routinely medically certified, and is an important source of data on deaths among the poorer half of the world's population. However, the repeatability of the VA process has never been investigated, even though it is an important factor in its overall validity. This study analyses repeatability in terms of the overall VA process (from interview to cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMF, as well as specifically for interview material and individual causes of death, using data from Burkina Faso and Indonesia. Methods Two series of repeated VA interviews relating to women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso (n = 91 and Indonesia (n = 116 were analysed for repeatability in terms of interview material, individual causes of death and CSMFs. All the VA data were interpreted using the InterVA-M model, which provides 100% intrinsic repeatability for interpretation, and thus eliminated the need to consider variations or repeatability in physician coding. Results The repeatability of the overall VA process from interview to CSMFs was good in both countries. Repeatability was moderate in the interview material, and lower in terms of individual causes of death. Burkinabé data were less repeatable than Indonesian, and repeatability also declined with longer recall periods between the death and interview, particularly after two years. Conclusion While these analyses do not address the validity of the VA process in absolute terms, repeatability is a prerequisite for intrinsic validity. This study thus adds new understanding to the quest for reliable cause of death assessment in communities lacking routine medical certification of deaths, and confirms the status of VA as an important and reliable tool at the community level, but perhaps less so at the individual level.

  12. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso.

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    Hélène Carabin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso.Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis.This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control cysticercosis infection.

  13. Counselling on and women's awareness of pregnancy danger signs in selected rural health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duysburgh, Els; Ye, Maurice; Williams, Afua; Massawe, Siriel; Sié, Ali; Williams, John; Mpembeni, Rose; Loukanova, Svetla; Temmerman, Marleen

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) assess healthcare workers' counselling practices concerning danger signs during antenatal consultations in rural primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania; to (ii) assess pregnant women's awareness of these danger signs; and (iii) to identify factors affecting counselling practices and women's awareness. Cross-sectional study in rural PHC facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. In each country, 12 facilities were randomly selected. WHO guidelines were used as standard for good counselling. We assessed providers' counselling practice on seven danger signs through direct observation study (35 observations/facility). Exit interviews (63 interviews/facility) were used to assess women's awareness of the same seven danger signs. We used negative binomial regression to assess associations with health services' and socio-demographic characteristics and to estimate per study site the average number of danger signs on which counselling was provided and the average number of danger signs mentioned by women. About one in three women was not informed of any danger sign. For most danger signs, fewer than half of the women were counselled. Vaginal bleeding and severe abdominal pain were the signs most counselled on (between 52% and 66%). At study facilities in Burkina Faso, 58% of the pregnant women were not able to mention a danger sign, in Ghana this was 22% and in Tanzania 30%. Fever, vaginal bleeding and severe abdominal pain were the danger signs most frequently mentioned. The type of health worker (depending on the training they received) was significantly associated with counselling practices. Depending on the study site, characteristics significantly associated with awareness of signs were women's age, gestational age, gravidity and educational level. Counselling practice is poor and not very efficient. A new approach of informing pregnant women on danger signs is needed. However, as effects of

  14. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Maïga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have stressed the importance of spatial heterogeneity analysis in modern contraceptive use and the relationships with high-risk births. Objective: This paper aims to analyse the association between modern contraceptive use, distribution of birth risk, and under-five child mortality at both national and regional levels in Burkina Faso. Design: The last three Demographic and Health Surveys – conducted in Burkina Faso in 1998, 2003, and 2010 – enabled descriptions of differentials, trends, and associations between modern contraceptive use, total fertility rates (TFR, and factors associated with high-risk births and under-five child mortality. Multivariate models, adjusted by covariates of cultural and socio-economic background and contact with health system, were used to investigate the relationship between birth risk factors and modern contraceptive prevalence rates (mCPR. Results: Overall, Burkina Faso's modern contraception level remains low (15.4% in 2010, despite significant increases during the last decade. However, there are substantial variations in mCPR by region, and health facility contact was positively associated with mCPR increase. Women's fertility history and cultural and socio-economic background were also significant factors in predicting use of modern contraception. Low modern contraceptive use is associated with higher birth risks and increased child mortality. This association is stronger in the Sahel, Est, and Sud-Ouest regions. Even though all factors in high-risk births were associated with under-five mortality, it should be stressed that short birth spacing ranked as the highest risk in relation to mortality of children. Conclusions: Programmes that target sub-national differentials and leverage women's health system contacts to inform women about family planning opportunities may be effective in improving coverage, quality, and equity of modern contraceptive use. Improving

  15. Lessons learnt from 20 years surveillance of malaria drug resistance prior to the policy change in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Halidou; Valea, Innocent; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert

    2016-01-01

    The history of drug resistance to the previous antimalarial drugs, and the potential for resistance to evolve to Artemisinin-based combination therapies, demonstrates the necessity to set-up a good surveillance system in order to provide early warning of the development of resistance. Here we report a review summarizing the history of the surveillance of drug resistance that led to the policy change in Burkina Faso. The first Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-Resistance strain identified in Burkina Faso was detected by an in vitro test carried out in Koudougou in 1983. Nevertheless, no further cases were reported until 1987, suggesting that resistant strains had been circulating at a low prevalence before the beginning of the systematic surveillance system from 1984. We observed a marked increase of Chloroquine-Resistance in 2002-2003 probably due to the length of follow-up as the follow-up duration was 7 or 14 days before 2002 and 28 days from 2002 onwards. Therefore, pre-2002 studies have probably under-estimated the real prevalence of Chloroquine-Resistance by not detecting the late recrudescence. With a rate of 8.2% treatment failure reported in 2003, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine was still efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso but this rate might rapidly increase as the result of its spreading from neighboring countries and due to its current use for both the Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnant women and Seasonal Malaria Chemoprophylaxis. The current strategy for the surveillance of the Artemisinin-based combination treatments resistance should build on lessons learnt under the previous period of 20 years surveillance of Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine resistance (1994-2004). The most important aspect being to extend the number of sentinel sites so that data would be less patchy and could help understanding the dynamic of the resistance.

  16. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, Patrick Gc; Somda, Serge Ma; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59-30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42-19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08-11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03-0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted.

  17. Carriage of Neisseria lactamica in 1- to 29-year-old people in Burkina Faso: epidemiology and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Paul A; Diomandé, Fabien; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Sanou, Idrissa; Sangaré, Lassana; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ba, Absatou Ky; Kandolo, Denis; Dolan Thomas, Jennifer; Clark, Thomas A; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre; Laforce, F Marc; Caugant, Dominique A

    2012-12-01

    Neisseria lactamica is a true commensal bacterium occupying the same ecological niche as the pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis, which is responsible for outbreaks and large epidemics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand the epidemiology of N. lactamica in Africa and its relationship to N. meningitidis, we studied N. lactamica carriage in 1- to 29-year-old people living in three districts of Burkina Faso from 2009 to 2011. N. lactamica was detected in 18.2% of 45,847 oropharyngeal samples. Carriage prevalence was highest among the 2-year-olds (40.1%) and decreased with age. Overall prevalence was higher for males (19.1%) than females (17.5%) (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.18), while among the 18- to 29-year-olds, carriage prevalence was significantly higher in women (9.1%) than in men (3.9%) (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.94 to 3.19). Carriage prevalence of N. lactamica was remarkably homogeneous in the three districts of Burkina Faso and stable over time, in comparison with carriage of N. meningitidis (P. A. Kristiansen et al., Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 18:435-443, 2011). There was no significant seasonal variation of N. lactamica carriage and no significant change in carriage prevalence after introduction of the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on a selection of 142 isolates. The genetic diversity was high, as we identified 62 different genotypes, of which 56 were new. The epidemiology of N. lactamica carriage and the molecular characteristics of carried isolates were similar to those reported from industrialized countries, in contrast to the particularities of N. meningitidis carriage and disease epidemiology in Burkina Faso.

  18. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Abdoulaye; Hounton, Sennen; Amouzou, Agbessi; Akinyemi, Akanni; Shiferaw, Solomon; Baya, Banza; Bahan, Dalomi; Barros, Aluisio J D; Walker, Neff; Friedman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have stressed the importance of spatial heterogeneity analysis in modern contraceptive use and the relationships with high-risk births. This paper aims to analyse the association between modern contraceptive use, distribution of birth risk, and under-five child mortality at both national and regional levels in Burkina Faso. The last three Demographic and Health Surveys - conducted in Burkina Faso in 1998, 2003, and 2010 - enabled descriptions of differentials, trends, and associations between modern contraceptive use, total fertility rates (TFR), and factors associated with high-risk births and under-five child mortality. Multivariate models, adjusted by covariates of cultural and socio-economic background and contact with health system, were used to investigate the relationship between birth risk factors and modern contraceptive prevalence rates (mCPR). Overall, Burkina Faso's modern contraception level remains low (15.4% in 2010), despite significant increases during the last decade. However, there are substantial variations in mCPR by region, and health facility contact was positively associated with mCPR increase. Women's fertility history and cultural and socio-economic background were also significant factors in predicting use of modern contraception. Low modern contraceptive use is associated with higher birth risks and increased child mortality. This association is stronger in the Sahel, Est, and Sud-Ouest regions. Even though all factors in high-risk births were associated with under-five mortality, it should be stressed that short birth spacing ranked as the highest risk in relation to mortality of children. Programmes that target sub-national differentials and leverage women's health system contacts to inform women about family planning opportunities may be effective in improving coverage, quality, and equity of modern contraceptive use. Improving the demand satisfied for modern contraception may result in a reduction

  19. La gratuité des soins est rentable : la preuve par un projet pilote au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet, Karl; Zonon, Noël Adannou; Aggagliate, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Karl Blanchet est chercheur à la London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Noël Adannou Zonon est expert en santé publique pour Terre des Hommes et Thierry Aggagliate est le directeur de Programmes de Terre des Hommes au Burkina Faso. Cet article est un résumé du document de capitalisation : K. Blanchet, N. Adannou Zonon, B. Nébié, T. Agagliate, G. Viala, Exemption de paiement : pour l’accès universel aux soins de santé des enfants de moins de 5 ans et des femmes enceintes. Bonnes prati...

  20. Early impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis-Burkina Faso, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiré, Dinanibè; Soeters, Heidi M; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Sangaré, Lassana; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ouangraoua, Soumeya; McGee, Lesley; Srinivasan, Velusamy; Aké, Flavien; Congo-Ouédraogo, Malika; Ky Ba, Absatou; Whitney, Cynthia G; Novak, Ryan T; Van Beneden, Chris

    2018-03-01

    We evaluate early impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on pneumococcal meningitis in Burkina Faso. Nationwide surveillance gathered demographic/clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results for meningitis cases. Pneumococcal cases were confirmed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or latex agglutination, and strains serotyped using PCR. We compared incidence (cases per 100,000) in the early post-PCV13 period (2014 and 2015) to average pre-PCV13 incidence (2011-2013). In 2015, age-specific pneumococcal meningitis incidences were 8.7 (disease in older children and adults requires continued monitoring. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino

    2010-01-01

    esculentum Mill.), paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), bambara [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam were tested for seed-borne viruses using various techniques including......The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon...

  2. The positive impact of red palm oil in school meals on vitamin A status: study in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somé Issa T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A (VA deficiency is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and school-age children are a vulnerable group. In Burkina Faso, the production and consumption of red palm oil (RPO is being promoted as a food supplement for VA. The objective of the study was to assess the impact on serum retinol of adding RPO to school lunch in two test zones of Burkina Faso. Methods Over one school year, 15 ml RPO was added to individual meals 3 times a week in selected primary schools in two sites. Serum retinol was measured with HPLC at baseline and exactly 12 months later to take account of seasonality. A simple pre-post test design was used in the Kaya area (north-central Burkina, where 239 pupils from 15 intervention schools were randomly selected for the evaluation. In Bogandé (eastern Burkina, 24 schools were randomised for the controlled intervention trial: 8 negative controls (G1 with only the regular school lunch; 8 positive controls (G2 where the pupils received a single VA capsule (60 mg at the end of the school year; and 8 schools with RPO through the school year (G3. A random sample of 128 pupils in each school group took part in the evaluation. Results In Kaya, serum retinol went from 0.77 ± 0.37 μmol/L at baseline to 1.07 ± 0.40 μmol/L one year later (p Conclusion RPO given regularly in small amounts appears highly effective in the reduction of VA deficiency. RPO deserves more attention as a food supplement for VA and as a potential source of rural income in Sahelian countries.

  3. Re-greening the Sahel: farmer-led innovation in Burkina Faso and Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reij, Chris; Smale, Melinda; Tappan, G. Gray; Spielman, David J.; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

    2009-01-01

    The Sahel—the belt of land that stretches across Africa on the southern edge of the Sahara—has always been a tough place to farm. Rainfall is low and droughts are frequent. The crust of hard soil is, at times, almost impermeable, and harsh winds threaten to sweep away everything in their path. Over the past three decades, however, hundreds of thousands of farmers in Burkina Faso and Niger have transformed large swaths of the region’s arid landscape into productive agricultural land, improving food security for about 3 million people. Once-denuded landscapes are now home to abundant trees, crops, and livestock. Although rainfall has improved slightly from the mid-1990s relative to earlier decades, indications are that farmer management is a stronger determinant of land and agroforestry regeneration. Sahelian farmers achieved their success by ingeniously modifying traditional agroforestry, water, and soil-management practices. To improve water availability and soil fertility in Burkina Faso’s Central Plateau, farmers have sown crops in planting pits and built stone contour bunds, which are stones piled up in long narrow rows that follow the contours of the land in order to capture rainwater runoff and soil. These practices have helped rehabilitate between 200,000 and 300,000 hectares of land and produce an additional 80,000 tons of food per year. In southern Niger, farmers have developed innovative ways of regenerating and multiplying valuable trees whose roots already lay underneath their land, thus improving about 5 million hectares of land and producing more than 500,000 additional tons of food per year. While the specific calculations of farm-level benefits are subject to various methodological and data limitations, the order of magnitude of these benefits is high, as evidenced by the wide-scale adoption of the improved practices by large numbers of farmers. Today, the agricultural landscapes of southern Niger have considerably more tree cover than they

  4. Costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient's perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents' guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11-16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households' poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014.

  5. Costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient’s perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents’ guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11–16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households’ poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. PMID:24829315

  6. Evaluation of the implementation fidelity of the seasonal malaria chemoprevention intervention in Kaya health district, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaoré, Rachidatou; Yameogo, Maurice Wambi Evariste; Millogo, Tieba; Tougri, Halima; Kouanda, Seni

    2017-01-01

    Burkina Faso implemented the seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in 2014 in seven pilot health districts, following the new recommendation by the WHO in 2012 for the prevention of the disease in children under five years old, for areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission.The objective of this study was to assess the implementation fidelity of the seasonal malaria chemoprevention strategy in one of the districts, Kaya Health District. We conducted a case study, with a quantitative and qualitative mixed methods. Data were collected after two campaigns of implementation of the intervention, in 2014 and 2015, through a review of specific documents of SMC intervention, and individual interview with key informants (n = 21) involved at various levels in the implementation of the strategy and a household survey with the parents (n = 284) of eligible children for the SMC strategy in 2015 in the Kaya health district. The analysis framework focused on the fidelity of the intervention's content, its coverage, and its schedule, as well as the potential moderating factors, using the model proposed by Hasson, originally from Carroll. All components of the intervention were implemented. Villages and sectors were covered at 100%. In terms of intervention doses received, less than one-third of eligible children (32.3%) received the recommended four doses in 2015. Implementation of the strategy faced some difficulties due to insufficient training of community distributors, inadequate supply of inputs and insufficient financial resources for remuneration, advocacy and supervision, but also because of the contextual constraints due to the rainy season. Moreover, an interaction between the different moderating factors, influencing the degree of implementation of the strategy was noted. Taking into account the moderating factors of the implementation is necessary for achieving the highest possible degree of implementation fidelity and then, reach the expected beneficial effects.

  7. Evaluation of the implementation fidelity of the seasonal malaria chemoprevention intervention in Kaya health district, Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachidatou Compaoré

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso implemented the seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC in 2014 in seven pilot health districts, following the new recommendation by the WHO in 2012 for the prevention of the disease in children under five years old, for areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission.The objective of this study was to assess the implementation fidelity of the seasonal malaria chemoprevention strategy in one of the districts, Kaya Health District.We conducted a case study, with a quantitative and qualitative mixed methods. Data were collected after two campaigns of implementation of the intervention, in 2014 and 2015, through a review of specific documents of SMC intervention, and individual interview with key informants (n = 21 involved at various levels in the implementation of the strategy and a household survey with the parents (n = 284 of eligible children for the SMC strategy in 2015 in the Kaya health district. The analysis framework focused on the fidelity of the intervention's content, its coverage, and its schedule, as well as the potential moderating factors, using the model proposed by Hasson, originally from Carroll.All components of the intervention were implemented. Villages and sectors were covered at 100%. In terms of intervention doses received, less than one-third of eligible children (32.3% received the recommended four doses in 2015. Implementation of the strategy faced some difficulties due to insufficient training of community distributors, inadequate supply of inputs and insufficient financial resources for remuneration, advocacy and supervision, but also because of the contextual constraints due to the rainy season. Moreover, an interaction between the different moderating factors, influencing the degree of implementation of the strategy was noted.Taking into account the moderating factors of the implementation is necessary for achieving the highest possible degree of implementation fidelity and then, reach the expected

  8. Aménagement forestier et lutte contre la pauvreté au Burkina Faso

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    Boukary Ouedraogo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article utilise des données d’enquêtes sur les 8 principaux chantiers forestiers aménagés pour l’exploitation du bois-énergie au Burkina Faso, pour analyser l’impact de cette politique forestière sur les conditions de vie des ménages riverains de ces zones forestières. Ces enquêtes qui ont été financées par USAID à travers l’Antenne Régionale du Centre International de Recherche en Foresterie (CIFOR en mai-juin 2005, ont couvert 355 bûcherons de 24 villages situés entre 35 km et 250 km de la ville de Ouagadougou. Une première approche de la structure des revenus des bûcherons a révélé la prédominance des revenus issus de l’exploitation forestière sur les autres sources de revenus de ceux-ci, et aussi la contribution de cette activité à l’amélioration des conditions de vie des bûcherons. Les méthodes des percentiles et des indices de pauvreté ont été utilisées pour appréhender l’incidence, la profondeur et la sévérité de pauvreté parmi les bûcherons exploitant ces zones forestières. Il en ressort que l’incidence de pauvreté des bûcherons est inférieure à celle évaluée au plan national en 2003. Il en est de même pour la profondeur de la pauvreté dans ces zones forestières qui s’est révélée être inférieure à celle obtenue au niveau national. Cependant, la sévérité moyenne de pauvreté sur ces zones forestières observées est supérieure à celle observée au niveau national bien qu’il existence une forte disparité de ce seuil entre zones forestières et villages de ces zones.This article uses data from a large survey funded by US-AID and implemented by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR on the main eight managed forest areas for wood fuel production in Burkina Faso (may-june, 2005, for analyzing the effects of this forest management policy on peasants living conditions around these forest areas. This survey has covered 355 woodcutters of 24

  9. Willingness-to-Pay for Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements in Burkina Faso

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    Guissou, Rosemonde; Adams, Katherine; Xu Yingying; Vosti, Stephen; Hess, Sonja; Ouedraogo, Jean Bosco

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Supplementing young children’s diets with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) is a promising strategy to prevent growth restriction and improve development. It is uncertain how best to scale up the distribution of SQ-LNS and both private and public approaches are being considered. This paper reports on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) by households in rural Burkina Faso for SQ-LNS designed to prevent childhood undernutrition. In a recent randomized controlled nutrition efficacy trial in the Dandé Health District in rural Burkina Faso, 20 g of SQ-LNS per day along with selected health care services have been shown to increase the linear growth and weight gain of children who received the supplement daily from 9-18 months of age. Given the frequency and duration of prescribed consumption of SQ-LNS (one sachet per day, per child) and inter-household differences in poverty, a hybrid distribution system that reaches target consumers through both public channels and retail markets may be recommended; the viability of the latter will hinge on demand. Therefore, policy makers will need to consider household-level demand for SQ-LNS and the factors that influence demand to guide decisions regarding the cost burden borne by recipients versus public sector programs. Using a contingent valuation approach, we solicited, at baseline and six months later, the hypothetical WTP for a daily dose of 20 g of SQ-LNS and a traditional substitute, herbal teas, from a subsample (N = 319) of households participating in the efficacy trial. WTP for SQ-LNS is positive for almost all households, but WTP for SQ-LNS is, on average, lower than WTP for herbal teas. At baseline, average WTP for a day’s supply of SQ-LNS is $0.22 (4th quarter 2011 USD), while average WTP for herbal teas is $0.28. Approximately six months later, average WTP for LNS and for herbal teas, respectively, are $0.21 and $0.25. These results suggest that while households do value SQ

  10. Effects of Parental Union Dissolution on Child Mortality and Child Schooling in Burkina Faso

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    Jean-François Kobiané

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family structure and union dissolution has been one of the most thoroughly studied determinants of children's wellbeing worldwide. To date, however, few of these studies have examined sub-Saharan Africa, especially countries in West Africa where marital breakdowns are not uncommon. Objective: We attempt to examine the effects of a mother's divorce and widowhood on children's risk of mortality under age 5 and on their probability of entering primary school. Methods: Survival data analysis methods, specifically Kaplan-Meier and piecewise exponential models, are used for analysis, based on data come from the 2000 Migration and Urban Integration Survey of Burkina Faso. Results: Compared to those of intact families, children of divorced parents experience higher estimated mortality risks under age 5 and a lower probability of entering school, even after controlling for various other factors. This effect is large and significant during the first two years after the divorce. The death of the father is also found to greatly reduce a child's likelihood of entering school, but its effect on mortality is not significant. Conclusions: The results indicate that the family context plays an important role in determining two important aspects of children's welfare: their probabilities of dying before age 5 and of entering school. Comments: Children of divorced parents or a deceased father are living in precarious situations and their specific needs should be taken into account in policies in order to improve the wellbeing of all children. Attention must be directed to the first two years following the union dissolution.

  11. Local Water Management of Small Reservoirs: Lessons from Two Case Studies in Burkina Faso

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    Hilmy Sally

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso is actively pursuing the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in its development plans. Several policy and institutional mechanisms have been put in place, including the adoption of a national IWRM action plan (PAGIRE and the establishment so far of 30 local water management committees (Comités Locaux de l’Eau, or CLE. The stated purpose of the CLE is to take responsibility for managing water at sub-basin level. The two case studies discussed in this paper illustrate gaps between the policy objective of promoting IWRM on the one hand, and the realities associated with its practical on-the-ground implementation on the other. A significant adjustment that occurred in practice is the fact that the two CLE studied have been set up as entities focused on reservoir management, whereas it is envisioned that a CLE would constitute a platform for sub-basin management. This reflects a concern to minimise conflict and optimally manage the country’s primary water resource and illustrates the type of pragmatic actions that have to be taken to make IWRM a reality. It is also observed that the local water management committees have not been able to satisfactorily address questions regarding access to, and allocation of, water, which are crucial for the satisfactory functioning of the reservoirs. Water resources in the reservoirs appear to be controlled by the dominant user. In order to correct this trend, measures to build mutual trust and confidence among water users 'condemned' to work together to manage their common resource are suggested, foremost of which is the need to collect and share reliable data. Awareness of power relationships among water user groups and building on functioning, already existing formal or informal arrangements for water sharing are key determinants for successful implementation of the water reform process underway.

  12. Approvisionnement en porcs vifs et viande porcine de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso

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    Kiendrebeogo Timbilfou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Résumé : L’étude a évalué l’approvisionnement en porcs et viande de porc de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso. Les données ont été collectées par enquête transversale et rétrospective  auprès de 623 éleveurs en 2003, de 34 commerçants/transformateurs en 2005 et 2006 et auprès de l’Abattoir Frigorifique de Bobo-Dioulasso (AFB en 2009. Les résultats ont montré que les porcs provenaient des élevages urbains et périurbains (38% et des villages au-delà de la périphérie de Bobo-Dioulasso (62%. La production de viande de porc à l’AFB s’est accrue entre 2001 et 2006. Les carcasses, les poumons et le foie ont été surtout saisis aux motifs de tuberculose, de congestions et de cysticerques. Sur 982kg de viande traitée quotidiennement par les acteurs (35, 80% l’a été par des rôtisseurs (88,24% des acteurs, 17% par des charcutiers (5,88%, 2% par les bouchers (2,94% et 1% par les restaurateurs (2,94%. Des études complémentaires sur la rémunération de la production et de la commercialisation et sur la qualité des produits (porcs, viande et produits transformés seront nécessaires pour impulser l’accroissement de la part des viandes porcines dans l’approvisionnement de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso Mots clés : Approvisionnement, porcs,  viande de porc, Ville de Bobo-Dioulasso

  13. Assisted Natural Regeneration with Fencing in the Central and Northern Zones of Burkina Faso

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    Belem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite their socio-economic importance, forests and other woodland vegetation are declining rapidly in Africa. In the Sahel, climate change and desertification intensify this problem and the local population is lacking woodland resources for daily life. Therefore, there is a need for improved and long-term restoration of degraded ecosystems. The present article investigates an approach of sustainable forest restoration by Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR with fencing, a technique adopted by newTree, a Swiss NGO, since 2003 in the Central and Northern zones of Burkina Faso. The present article investigates the effects of ANR on vegetation restoration and on population's livelihood. Methods include vegetation inventories, literature review, analysis of newTree technical reports from 2003 to 2012, stakeholders' interviews and cost-benefit examination. Results show a striking development of vegetation within only nine years of protection. Inventories of trees inside and outside fences show that variety of tree species and number of trees is much higher inside the protected areas than outside fencing. Moreover, the approach of newTree contributes to farmers' livelihood improvement by the valorization of non-wood forest products (NWFP and sustainable agriculture. Costs for fencing are relatively high but on the other hand the approach is very effective by involving the population in a participatory way. The double objective – biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction - can be effectively achieved by the whole approach of newTree using ANR technique. ANR could be applied in areas where tree planting is made difficult by the poverty and the lack of water for the creation of nurseries.

  14. Fostering low-cost soil moisture monitoring techniques to improve irrigation efficiency in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouleau, Clémence; Baracchini, Theo; Razurel, Pierre; Gorla, Lorenzo; Bolay, Jean-Claude; Perona, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a significant activity in water stressed semi-arid (e.g., the Sahel) regions, thereby yield and water management are fundamental aspects of irrigation success. Small farmers have often difficulties in managing crops and in evaluating water needs resulting in low yield with excessive water consumption, elevated pumping costs and soil degradation. In different proportions, this overuse of water concerns all irrigation techniques: gravity flows from reservoirs, watering cans irrigation from groundwater wells, micro- or drip irrigation. Baseline requirements for supporting sustainable technology are low costs, easy installation, minimal maintenance, and local production. We present and discuss results from the Info4Dourou2.0 explorative project in Burkina Faso, the main goal of which is to improve small-scale agriculture by the use of sensing and communication technologies. In particular, a support system that couples autonomous and continuous measurements of meteorological variables and soil matrix potential as well as soil humidity with agronomic models has been tested in drip-irrigated fields over a three-year period. In particular, the system is collecting data from three water potential sensors at different locations per field and informs the farmers through a simple interface of the correct amount of water needed by the plant. In its simplicity this system provides an easy to use and install irrigation management setup, and is therefore an ideal candidate in favor of sustainability. Info4Dourou2.0 pilot experiments have shown that farmers can obtain significantly higher yields using lower amounts of water. Overall, this methodology allows facing multiple urgent problems such as the use of environmental data to improve agricultural production towards ecosystem conservation, food security issues and adaptation to climatic change scenarios.

  15. [Factors associated with the satisfaction of prescribers of blood products in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawadogo, S; Kafando, E; Nébié, K; Ouédraogo, A-S; Ouattara, S; Dahourou, H; Fretz, C; Deneys, V

    2017-11-01

    The National Blood Transfusion Centre, unique operator of blood transfusion in Burkina Faso is engaged into the quality process according to ISO 9001. Therefore, the assessment of customer satisfaction is a main part of its system. Our study conceives "customer satisfaction" as dependant to the perceived service quality based on SERVQUAL model. To identify factors associated with the satisfaction of blood products prescribers in order to help decision-makers for continuous improvement of services. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among prescribers of blood components in Ouagadougou, between February 27 and April 30, 2015. We used an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, including 13 items associated to the 5 dimensions of SERVQUAL model. The different satisfaction gaps were calculated and linear regression was used to determine statistical associations with a significance level of 5%. The return rate was 94.5% about the 256 questionnaires distributed. A total of 30% of respondents were satisfied to very satisfied. The overall global gap of satisfaction was -5.74. The product delivery time, the efficacy and safety of blood products, the medical and clinical support, the pro-activity of the communication, the management of blood products reservation and the satisfaction of needs in blood products were the factors associated with the prescribers' satisfaction. This first study in blood transfusion services in our context was been useful to assess customer satisfaction and identify the main axes on which targeting priority actions in order to effectively use available resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Tsetse diversity and abundance in Southern Burkina Faso in relation with the vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaisse, J-B; Salou, E; Kiema, S; Akoudjin, M; Kaba, D; Kagbadouno, M; Djohan, V; Camara, M; Dayo, G-K; Courtin, F; Solano, P; Bouyer, J

    2015-09-01

    The increase of human population, combined with climatic changes, contributed to the modification of spatial distribution of tsetse flies, main vector of trypanosomiasis. In order to establish and compare tsetse presence and their relationship with vegetation, entomological survey was performed using biconical traps deployed in transects, simultaneously with phyto-sociological study, on the Comoe river at its source in the village of Moussodougou, and in the semi-protected area of Folonzo, both localities in Southern Burkina Faso. In Folonzo, the survey revealed a diversity of tsetse with 4 species occurring with apparent densities as follows: Glossina tachinoides (8.9 tsetse/trap/day); G. morsitans submorsitans (1.8 tsetse/trap/day); G. palpalis gambiensis (0.6/trap/day) and G. medicorum (0.15 tsetse/trap/day). In Moussodougou, a highly anthropized area, mainly G. p. gambiensis was caught (2.06 tsetse/trap/day), and rarely G. tachinoides. The phyto-sociological study allowed discrimination of 6 types of vegetation in both localities, with 3 concordances that are riparian forest, shrubby and woody savannah. In Moussodougou, all tsetse were caught in the riparian forest. That was also the case in Folonzo where a great proportion (95 to 99 % following the season) of G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides were caught in the gallery, while G. m. submorsitans was occurring as well in the gallery as in the savannah, and G. medicorum in the forest gallery. This study showed that although G. tachinoides and G.p. gambiensis are both riparian, they do not have the same preference in terms of biotope.

  17. Spatial patterns of schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso: relevance of human mobility and water resources development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Frohelich, Jean-Marc; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Sou, Mariam; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Hamadou; Sokolow, Susanne; De Leo, Giulio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    We study the spatial geography of schistosomiasis in the african context of Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of disease dynamics and spread. The relevance of our work lies in its ability to describe quantitatively a geographic stratification of the disease burden capable of reproducing important spatial differences, and drivers/controls of disease spread. Among the latters, we consider specifically the development and management of water resources which have been singled out empirically as an important risk factor for schistosomiasis. The model includes remotely acquired and objectively manipulated information on the distributions of population, infrastructure, elevation and climatic drivers. It also includes a general description of human mobility and addresses a first-order characterization of the ecology of the intermediate host of the parasite causing the disease based on maximum entropy learning of relevant environmenal covariates. Spatial patterns of the disease were analyzed about their disease-free equilibrium by proper extraction and mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming all stability properties of the system. Human mobility was found to be a primary control of both pathogen invasion success and of the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development were studied by accounting for the (prior and posterior) average distances of human settlements from water bodies that may serve as suitable habitats to the intermediate host of the parasite. Water developments, in combination with human mobility, were quantitatively related to disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free and to large-scale empirical incidence patterns. We concluded that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the framework proposed provides a powerful tool for large-scale, long-term public health planning and management of schistosomiasis.

  18. Accessibility and utilisation of delivery care within a Skilled Care Initiative in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounton, Sennen; Chapman, Glyn; Menten, Joris; De Brouwere, Vincent; Ensor, Tim; Sombié, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas; Ronsmans, Carine

    2008-07-01

    The Skilled Care Initiative (SCI) was a comprehensive skilled attendance at delivery strategy implemented by the Ministry of Health and Family Care International in Ouargaye district (Burkina Faso) from 2002 to 2005. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between accessibility, functioning of health centres and utilisation of delivery care in the SCI intervention district (Ouargaye) and compare this with another district (Diapaga). Data were collected on staffing, equipment, water and energy supply for all health centres and a functionality index for health centres were constructed. A household census was carried out in 2006 to assess assets of all household members, and document pregnancies lasting more than 6 months between 2001 and 2005, with place of delivery and delivery attendant. Utilisation of delivery care was defined as birth in a health institution or birth by Caesarean section. Analyses included univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Distance to health facility, education and asset ownership were major determinants of delivery care utilisation, but no association was found between the functioning of health centres (as measured by infrastructure, energy supply and equipment) and institutional birth rates or births by Caesarean section. The proportion of births in an institution increased more substantially in the SCI district over time but no changes were seen in Caesarean section rates. The SCI has increased uptake of institutional deliveries but there is little evidence that it has increased access to emergency obstetric care, at least in terms of uptake of Caesarean sections. Its success is contingent on large-scale coverage and 24-h availability of referral for life saving drugs, skilled personnel and surgery for pregnant women.

  19. Prevalence and control of zoonotic diseases: collaboration between public health workers and veterinarians in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, N D; Yameogo, K R

    2000-07-21

    Zoonotic diseases constitute a public health problem throughout the world, particularly in the tropics, where their control is restricted by inadequate infrastructure and financial resources. Additionally, there is a lack of information on their significance and distribution. This study, conducted jointly by the Ministries of Health and Animal Resources, aimed to assess the prevalence of zoonotic diseases in Burkina Faso. The data were taken from internal reports of each ministry covering the period January 1-December 31 1996 for the Ministry of Health and for January 1-December 31 1997 for the Ministry of Animal Resources. Zoonotic diseases were divided into viral (rabies, yellow fever, HIV infection/AIDS, and measles), bacterial (tuberculosis, brucellosis, and anthrax) and parasitic (cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis). For the period under study, the following diseases were reported by the Ministry of Health, tuberculosis, 1314 cases; anthrax, 145 cases; leishmania, 271 cases; rabies, 110 cases; and measles, 46490 cases. The Ministry of Animal Resources reported 69% of rabies cases occurred in dogs; cysticercosis occurred in swine at a prevalence of 0.57%; the prevalence of tuberculosis in cattle, small ruminants and pigs was 0. 13, 0.013, and 0.029%, respectively; the prevalence of anthrax and echinococcosis was 0.012 and 0.007%, respectively; and finally, the prevalence of bovine brucellosis was 8% in the peri-urban areas. This study revealed that there was a lack of collaboration between the organisational structures and workers in both ministries involved in the control of zoonoses. Links between the two ministries in the field of public health need strengthening.

  20. [Semiological features and risk factors associated with osteoarthritis of the hip in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, D D; Ouédraogo, T; Tiéno, H; Zabsonré-Tiendrébéogo, J; Pédro, C; Draho, J

    2015-01-01

    To study the epidemiological and clinical aspects of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip in Ouagadougou, as well as its risk factors. This retrospective study covered cases treated over a 3-year period (February 2006 through January 2009) in the internal medicine department of the Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and the surgery department of the private hospital Notre-Dame-de la Paix of Ouagadougou. All patients included had OA of the hip that met the Kellgren and Lawrence criteria. There were 46 patients who met the study criteria, but only 40 files could be used. The patients' mean age was 46.4 years ± 15.2 years (range 25-80 years; 10 patients were older than 56 years). Men accounted for more than half (n=23, 57.5%). The mean duration of disease was 6.2 years ± 4.5 years (range: 1-19 years). The right hip alone was concerned in 20 patients (50%), the left hip in 16 (40%), and the OA was bilateral in four (10%). Seventeen patients had sickle cell disease (42.5%), 11 SC and 6 SS. The risk factors included necrosis of the femoral head in 19 cases (59.37%), hip dysplasia in 6 (18.74%), hip trauma in 3 (9.37%), inflammatory arthropathy in 3 more (9.37%), and epiphysitis in one (3.13%). The OA of the hip was primary in 8 cases (20%). Three patients were at stage 1, 9 at stage 2, 15 at stage 3, and 13 at stage 4 according to the Arlet-Ficat classification. OA of the hip arises in a young population and is dominated by secondary OA. The dominant risk factor was aseptic necrosis of the femoral head associated with sickle cell disease. In view of the small number of patients with primary OA, no definitive conclusions can be drawn about it.

  1. Assessment of providers' referral decisions in Rural Burkina Faso: a retrospective analysis of medical records

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    Ilboudo Tegawende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A well-functioning referral system is fundamental to primary health care delivery. Understanding the providers' referral decision-making process becomes critical. This study's aim was to assess the correctness of diagnoses and appropriateness of the providers' referral decisions from health centers (HCs to district hospitals (DHs among patients with severe malaria and pneumonia. Methods A record review of twelve months of consultations was conducted covering eight randomly selected HCs to identify severe malaria (SM cases among children under five and pneumonia cases among adults. The correctness of the diagnosis and appropriateness of providers' referral decisions were determined using the National Clinical Guidebook as a 'gold standard'. Results Among the 457 SM cases affecting children under five, only 66 cases (14.4% were correctly diagnosed and of those 66 correctly diagnosed cases, 40 cases (60.6% received an appropriate referral decision from their providers. Within these 66 correctly diagnosed SM cases, only 60.6% were appropriately referred. Among the adult pneumonia cases, 5.9% (79/1331 of the diagnoses were correctly diagnosed; however, the appropriateness rate of the provider's referral decision was 98.7% (78/79. There was only one case that should not have been referred but was referred. Conclusions The adherence to the National Guidelines among the health center providers when making a diagnosis was low for both severe malaria cases and pneumonia cases. The appropriateness of the referral decisions was particularly poor for children with severe malaria. Health center providers need to be better trained in the diagnostic process and in disease management in order to improve the performance of the referral system in rural Burkina Faso.

  2. Definition and characterization of localised meningitis epidemics in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal retrospective study

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    Tall Haoua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt is characterised by seasonality, localised epidemics and epidemic waves. To facilitate research and surveillance, we aimed to develop a definition for localised epidemics to be used in real-time surveillance based on weekly case reports at the health centre level. Methods We used national routine surveillance data on suspected meningitis from January 2004 to December 2008 in six health districts in western and central Burkina Faso. We evaluated eight thresholds composed of weekly incidence rates at health centre level for their performance in predicting annual incidences of 0.4%and 0.8% in health centre areas. The eventually chosen definition was used to describe the spatiotemporal epidemiology and size of localised meningitis epidemics during the included district years. Results Among eight weekly thresholds evaluated, a weekly incidence rate of 75 cases per 100,000 inhabitants during at least two consecutive weeks with at least 5 cases per week had 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity for predicting an annual incidence of at least 0.8% in health centres. Using this definition, localised epidemics were identified in all but one years during 2004-2008, concerned less than 10% of the districts' population and often were geographically dispersed. Where sufficient laboratory data were available, localised epidemics were exclusively due to meningococci. Conclusions This definition of localised epidemics a the health centre level will be useful for risk factor and modelling studies to understand the meningitis belt phenomenon and help documenting vaccine impact against epidemic meningitis where no widespread laboratory surveillance exists for quantifying disease reduction after vaccination.

  3. Medication-adherence predictors among patients with tuberculosis or human immunodeficiency virus infection in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méda, Ziemlé Clément; Lin, Yu-Ting; Sombié, Issiaka; Maré, Daouda; Morisky, Donald E; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2014-06-01

    Adherence to treatment remains a key issue for tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programs. The study objective was to identify potential determinants of medication adherence (MA) among patients with TB, HIV, or both. In this cross-sectional study, adult patients attending TB or HIV clinics were recruited in two main regions (Centre and Hauts-Bassins) of Burkina Faso from August to October 2010. Questionnaires were collected and simple and multiple step-wise linear regression models were used to identify predictors of MA. In total, 1043 patients (309 with TB, 553 with HIV, and 181 coinfected with both) participated in this study. For patients with TB, adjusted predictors of good MA were no alcohol use, ever been lost to follow-up, and awareness of disease transmission. For patients with HIV, adjusted predictors of good MA were less stigma, good knowledge about TB transmission, and awareness of disease transmission. For patients with dual infection, adjusted predictors of good MA was good attitude. Furthermore, adjusted predictors of poor MA for patients with TB or with dual infection were poor financial access to care and high number of persons sleeping in the household, respectively. This study provides information on MA in patients infected with TB, HIV, and those coinfected with TB and HIV. TB and HIV programs have to consider the environment of the patient and its characteristics, including stigma, attitude, status of loss to follow-up, TB knowledge, financial access to care, alcohol use, awareness of disease transmission, and number of persons sleeping in the household. These identified factors in this study need to be taken into account for a specific patient profile and during sensitization, project planning, and research stages. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Male breast cancer: diagnosis stages, treatment and survival in a country with limited resources (Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, Nayi; Ouédraogo, Smaïla; Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Somé, Ollo Roland; Go, Naïma; Ouangré, Edgar; Zida, Maurice; Bonkoungou, Gilbert; Ouédraogo, Aimé Sosthène; Bambara, Aboubacar Hirrum; Tozoula, Bambara Augustin; Traoré, Si Simon; Dem, Ahmadou; Niamba, Pascal; Traoré, Adama; Sanou, Adama; Soares, Danielé Grazziotin; Lotz, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-11

    Male breast cancer is a rare and less known disease. Therapeutic modalities affect survival. In Burkina Faso, male breast cancers are diagnosed in everyday practice, but the prognosis at short-, middle-, and long-term remains unknown. The objective of this study is to study the diagnosis stages, therapeutic modalities, and 5-year survival in male breast cancer at the General Surgery Unit of Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital from 1990 to 2009. A cohort longitudinal study concerning cases of breast cancer diagnosed in man. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and survival curves were compared through the LogRank test. Fifty-one cases of male breast cancer were followed-up, i.e., 2.6% of all breast cancers. Stages III and IV represented 88% of cases. Eleven patients (21.6%) were at metastatic stage. Patients were operated in 60.8% of cases. The surgery included axillary dissection in 25 (80.6%) out of 31 cases. Lumpectomy was performed on 6.5% of patients (2 cases). Fifteen (29.4%) and 11 (21.6%) patients underwent chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, respectively. The FAC protocol was mostly used. Radiation therapy was possible in two cases. The median deadline for follow-up was 14.8 months. A local recurrence was noticed in 3.2% of cases. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49.9%. The median survival was over 5 years for stages I and II. It was 54 down to 36 months for stages III and IV. Diagnosis is late. The lack of immunohistochemistry makes it difficult to define the proportion of their hormonal dependence. Surgery is the basic treatment. Five-year survival is slow and the median survival depends on the diagnosis stage. It can be improved through awareness-raising campaigns and the conduct of individual screening.

  5. [Understanding local concepts of equity to formulate public health policies in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry

    2006-01-01

    Equity is an essential health promotion concept and must be included at the heart of public health policy making. However, equity, which can also be referred to as social justice, is a polysemic and contextual term which definition must stem from the discourse and values of the society where the policies are implemented. Using a case study from Burkina Faso, we try to show that the non-acknowledgement of the local concept of social justice in the policy making process partly explains the resulting policies' relative failure to achieve social justice. Data collection methods vary (individual and group interviews, concept mapping, participant observation, document analyses) and there are qualitative and quantitative analyses. The four groups of actors who generally participate in the policy making process participated in the data collection. With no intention to generalise the results to the entire country, the results show that mass social mobilisation for justice is egalitarian in type. Health or social inequalities are understood by individuals as facts which we cannot act upon, while the inequalities to access care are qualified as unjust, and it is possible to intervene to reduce them if incentive measures to this effect are taken. We also observed a certain social difficulty to conceive sub-groups of population and fierce will to not destabilise social peace, which can be provoked when looking for justice for the impoverished sectors of the population. This research allows better understanding about the emic aspect of equity and seems to confirm the importance of taking into account local values, especially social justice, when determining public policy.

  6. First assessment of individual monitoring of medical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakoro, A.; Nobila Ouédraogo, Salimata Traoré

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of monitoring of medical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation as a consequence of exposure to X-rays, from 2007 to 2010, in Burkina Faso. The radiation exposure monitoring was made with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) type 0110 and the reader used was Harshaw 4500. The medical establishments. subscribers were provided with personal dosimeters (measuring Hp (10) and Hp (0.07)) and dosimeters for background and workplace exposure (H*10) measurement. The dosimeters have been worn for periods of 2 months each. The number of establishments subscribed and workers monitored has gradually increased from 4 radiology establishments with 13 workers monitored at September 2007 to 23 subscribers with 121 workers monitored at the end of April 2010. 13 establishments were still working without monitoring. From September 2007 to April 2010, no individual annual dose limit has really been reached. 88.16% of the 2 months dose values of personal dosimeters were below 0.1mSv, the detection limit and 96.61% of Hp (10) bimonthly values were below 3.33mSv. The workplace exposure monitoring values were often low (varying from 0.00mSv to 40.45mSv). 87.08% of the values of H*(10) were below 3.33mSv, the upper limit of Hp (10) for a period of 2 months. Low values of individual dose have also been recorded despite of high values of workplace monitoring. This allowed to state that the workers monitored were not exposed to a major risk. Nevertheless, 13 TLD have been lost and 3 damaged by subscribers (out of 1504 TLD provided). 26 times (out of 240), background measurement and workplace exposure monitoring dosimeters have been placed at the improper location. Therefore, sensitization of the establishments using ionizing radiation should be reinforced and the national regulations should impose radiation monitoring (author)

  7. Poor procedures and quality control among non-affiliated blood centers in Burkina Faso: an argument for expanding the reach of the national blood transfusion center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nébié, Koumpingnin; Ouattara, Siaka; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Kientega, Youssouphe; Dahourou, Honorine; Ky, Lassina; Kienou, Kisito; Diallo, Samba; Bigirimana, Françoise; Fretz, Catherine; Murphy, Edward L.; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the creation of national blood transfusion services. Burkina Faso has a CNTS (Centre national de transfusion sanguine - National Blood Transfusion Center) but it currently covers only 53% of the national blood supply versus 47% produced by independent hospital blood banks. Study design To evaluate blood collection, testing, preparation and prescription practices in the regions of Burkina Faso that are not covered by the CNTS, we conducted a cross-sectional survey. Methodology Data were collected by trained professionals from May to June 2009, at 42 autonomous blood centers not covered by the CNTS. Results Blood collection was supervised in all sites by laboratory technicians without specific training. There was no marketing of community blood donation nor mobile collection. Donation was restricted to replacement (family) donors in 21.4% of sites. Pre-donation screening of donors was performed in 63.4% of sites, but some did not use written questionnaires. Testing for HIV, hepatitis B virus and syphilis was universal, although some sites did not screen for hepatitis C virus. In 83.3% of the sites blood typing was performed without reverse ABO typing. In 97.6% of the sites, nurses acted alone or in conjunction with a physician to order blood transfusions. Conclusion Shortcomings in non-CNTS blood centers argue for the development of a truly national CNTS. Such a national center should coordinate and supervise all blood transfusion activities, and is the essential first step for improving and institutionalizing blood transfusion safety and efficacy in a developing country. PMID:21736582

  8. School Children's Intestinal Parasite and Nutritional Status One Year after Complementary School Garden, Nutrition, Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismann, Séverine; Diagbouga, Serge; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Gerold, Jana; Leuenberger, Andrea; Shrestha, Akina; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-09-01

    The potential health benefits of combined agricultural, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether complementary school garden, nutrition, and WASH interventions reduce intestinal parasites and improve school children's nutritional status in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Plateau Central and Center-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. A total of 360 randomly selected children, aged 8-15 years, had complete baseline and end-line survey data. Mixed regression models were used to assess the impact of the interventions, controlling for baseline characteristics. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections decreased both in intervention and control schools, but the decrease was significantly higher in the intervention schools related to the control schools (odds ratio [OR] of the intervention effect = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.5). Indices of undernutrition did not decrease at end-line in intervention schools. Safe handwashing practices before eating and the use of latrines at schools were significantly higher in the intervention schools than in the control schools at end-line (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.4-34.4, and OR = 14.9, 95% CI = 1.4-153.9, respectively). Parameters of water quality remained unchanged. A combination of agricultural, nutritional, and WASH-related interventions embedded in the social-ecological systems and delivered through the school platform improved several child health outcomes, including intestinal parasitic infections and some WASH-related behaviors. Sustained interventions with stronger household and community-based components are, however, needed to improve school children's health in the long-term.

  9. Poor procedures and quality control among nonaffiliated blood centers in Burkina Faso: an argument for expanding the reach of the national blood transfusion center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nébié, Koumpingnin; Ouattara, Siaka; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Kientega, Youssouphe; Dahourou, Honorine; Ky, Lassina; Kienou, Kisito; Diallo, Samba; Bigirimana, Françoise; Fretz, Catherine; Murphy, Edward L; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques

    2011-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the creation of national blood transfusion services. Burkina Faso has a CNTS (Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine-National Blood Transfusion Center) but it currently covers only 53% of the national blood supply versus 47% produced by independent hospital blood banks. To evaluate blood collection, testing, preparation, and prescription practices in the regions of Burkina Faso that are not covered by the CNTS, a cross-sectional survey was conducted. Data were collected by trained professionals from May to June 2009 at 42 autonomous blood centers not covered by the CNTS. Blood collection was supervised in all sites by laboratory technicians without specific training. There was no marketing of community blood donation nor mobile collection. Donation was restricted to replacement (family) donors in 21.4% of sites. Predonation screening of donors was performed in 63.4% of sites, but some did not use written questionnaires. Testing for HIV, hepatitis B virus, and syphilis was universal, although some sites did not screen for hepatitis C virus. In 83.3% of the sites, blood typing was performed without reverse ABO typing. In 97.6% of the sites, nurses acted alone or in conjunction with a physician to order blood transfusions. Shortcomings in non-CNTS blood centers argue for the development of a truly national CNTS. Such a national center should coordinate and supervise all blood transfusion activities, and is the essential first step for improving and institutionalizing blood transfusion safety and efficacy in a developing country. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. Possible role of specific immunoglobulin M antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in immunoprotection of humans living in a hyperendemic area, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudin, C; Chumpitazi, B; Dziegiel, M

    1993-01-01

    Two seroepidemiological studies were performed in an area of Burkina Faso hyperendemic for malaria to estimate the protective role of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Six cross-sectional surveys were carried out on children (ages, < 16 years) in the village of Karankasso. The evolution of antib...

  11. Possible role of specific immunoglobulin M antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in immunoprotection of humans living in a hyperendemic area, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudin, C; Chumpitazi, B; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    1993-01-01

    Two seroepidemiological studies were performed in an area of Burkina Faso hyperendemic for malaria to estimate the protective role of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Six cross-sectional surveys were carried out on children (ages, <16 years) in the village of Karankasso. The evolution of antibo...

  12. Information Technologies as a Tool for Agricultural Extension and Farmer-to-Farmer Exchange: Mobile-Phone Video Use in Mali and Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernando; Nicolay, Gian; Home, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are widespread in the rural areas of Mali and Burkina Faso, but their potential as a tool for knowledge transfer by extension services in the region remains largely unexplored. The aim of this contribution is to evaluate the potential of video on mobile phones as a tool for farmer-to-farmer exchange and agricultural extension in…

  13. Nitrogen flows and balances as affected by water and nutrient management in a sorghum cropping system of semi-arid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Guillobez, S.

    2004-01-01

    Efficient use of external inputs and water conservation are a prerequisite of sustainable agricultural productivity in semiarid West Africa. A field experiment was carried out during 3 years (2000–2002) at Saria in semiarid Burkina Faso (800 mm of annual rainfall, PET of 2000 mm per year) to assess

  14. The impact of transport- and transaction-cost reductions on food markets in developing countries : evidence for tempered expectations for Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.; Schweigman, C.; Lutz, C.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For Burkina Faso, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium

  15. The impact of transport- and transaction-cost reductions on food markets in developing countries: evidence for tempered expectations for Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.; Schweigman, C.; Lutz, C.

    2004-01-01

    Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For Burkina Faso, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium

  16. Managing Parkia biglobosa and Vitellaria paradoxa prunings for crop production and improved soil properties in the sub-Sudanian zone of Burkina-Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayala, J.; Mando, A.; Ouédraogo, E.; Teklehaimanot, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Tree pruning generates organic resources whose nitrogen content is not always recycled appropriately. A field experiment was conducted in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to test the possibilities of improving soil properties and crop production through the application of Parkia biglobosa (néré)

  17. Why do savings institutions differ within the same region? The role of environment and social capital in the creation of savings arrangements in eastern Burkina Faso.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes two different savings arrangements around cattle that have been developed in two villages in the eastern region of Burkina Faso and raises the question of why two forms have evolved in the same region, populated by the same ethnic groups, and where crop and livestock production

  18. The Saturation+ Approach to Behavior Change: Case Study of a Child Survival Radio Campaign in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy

    2015-11-03

    A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice. © Murray et al.

  19. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii palm wines from Burkina Faso in comparison to other African beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsoba, François; Legras, Jean-Luc; Savadogo, Aly; Dequin, Sylvie; Traore, Alfred Sababenedyo

    2015-10-15

    In South-West of Burkina Faso, palm wine is produced by spontaneous fermentation of the sap from a specific palm tree Borassus akeassii and plays an important role in people's lives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main agent of this alcoholic fermentation but little is known about the diversity of the isolates from palm. In this work, 39 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated from palm wine samples collected from 14 sites in Burkina Faso, as well as 7 isolates obtained from sorghum beer (Dolo) from 3 distant sites. Their diversity was analyzed at 12 microsatellite loci, and compared to the genotypes obtained for other African yeast populations isolated from Cocoa hulks from Ghana, sorghum beer from Ivory Coast, palm wine from Djibouti Republic, and to our database of strains from miscellaneous origins (bread, beer, wine, sake, oaks…). The ploidy of these strains has been assessed as well by flow cytometry. Our results show that B. akeassii palm wine contains a specific yeast population of diploid strains, different from Dolo produced in the same area and from other palm wine strains from Ivory Coast, Nigeria, or Djibouti Republic. In contrast, Dolo strains appeared as a group of related and mainly tetraploid strains despite being isolated from different countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Climate Information Services: Evidence from Cowpea and Sesame Producers in Northern Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ouédraogo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate information is recognized as a powerful tool to reduce the effect of climate risk and uncertainty on crop production and increase the resilience and the adaptive capacity of farmers in semi-arid zones. This paper estimates farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP for climate information within cowpea and sesame value chains in Northern Burkina Faso. The study used the contingent valuation method for a monetary valuation of farmers’ preferences for climate information. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 170 farmers. The study found that 63% of respondents were willing to pay for climate information services (CIS such as seasonal climate forecast (SCF, decadal climate information (10-DCI, daily climate information (1-DCI and agro-advisories. The predicted value for the WTP was XOF 3496 for SCF, XOF 1066 for 10-DCI, XOF 1985 for 1-DCI and XOF 1628 for agro-advisories. The study also showed that several socioeconomic and motivation factors have greater influence on farmers’ WTP for CIS. These included the gender, age, education of the farm head and the awareness of farm head to climate information. The outcomes of this paper should support policy makers to better design an efficient mechanism for the dissemination of climate information to improve the adaptive capacity of farmers to climate risks in Burkina Faso.

  1. The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: the interface of local norms and global public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Katerini T; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is 'life-saving care' which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a 'first step' towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion.

  2. Assessment of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Producers’ Exposure Level to Pesticides, in Kouka and Toussiana (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diakalia Son

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess producers’ exposure level to pesticides in vegetable production in Burkina Faso, a study was carried out in 2016 and 2017 among 30 tomato producers in the municipalities of Kouka and Toussiana. Eighteen (18 commercial formulations were identified, with more than 50% of pesticides destined for cotton production. Eleven active substances have been identified and the most frequently used are λ-cyhalothrin (35%, acetamiprid (22% and profenofos (13%. The most commonly used chemical families are pyrethroids (28% and organophosphates (18%. The study revealed a low level of training for producers, a high use of pesticides according to the Frequency Treatment Indicator, and a very low level of protection used by producers. The Health Risk Index shows that active substances such as methomyl, λ-cyhalothrin and profenofos present very high risk to operators’ health. Based on the UK-POEM model, the predictive exposure levels obtained varied from 0.0105 mg/kg body weight/day to 1.7855 mg/kg body weight/day, which is several times higher than the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level. However, the study also shows that exposure can be greatly reduced if the required Personal Protective Equipment is worn. Producers’ awareness and training on integrated pest management are necessary to reduce the risks linked to the pesticides use in Burkina Faso.

  3. HOUSEHOLDS DEMAND FOR STAPLE CEREAL COMMODITIES AND ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION OF STAPLE CEREALS' PRICES IN BURKINA FASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togo M. Traore

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With a population increasing rapidly and agricultural yields almost stagnant over the years, access to food is a major challenge in Burkina Faso. This study investigates households demand for staple cereal commodities in Burkina Faso, using data from the 2009-2010 Integrated Household Living Condition Survey. A complete almost ideal demand system (AIDS model is estimated taking into account demographics and zero consumption. Results show that maize, millet and sorghum are necessities while rice is considered a superior cereal commodity. Demand for maize, millet and sorghum are less price elastic than rice and these results are consistent for most households except for wealthy, educated households living in urban areas where rice becomes a necessity. The analysis of the evolution of cereal prices shows an overall increase leaving many people in food insecurity and the country in political instability. Therefore, the country must adopt agricultural reforms to boost production and productivity by exploiting unfarmed land, building more storage facilities, roads and rural infrastructure, using improved seeds and more fertilizer, and installing irrigation systems.

  4. Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services from Small-Scale Agricultural Management Interventions in Burkina Faso: A Discrete Choice Experiment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper Houessionon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to estimate farmers’ preferences and their willingness to pay (WTP for ecosystem services derived from four agricultural water management (AWM and resource recovery and reuse (RRR intervention options in Burkina Faso, using a choice experiment (CE. These include; small water infrastructure, drip irrigation, recovery of organic matter from waste, and treated wastewater. The design decisions relating to attribute selection, the level of attributes, alternatives and choice tasks were guided by literature, field visits, focus group discussions, expert input and an iterative process of the STATA software to generate an orthogonal main-effects CE design. The data used was generated from a random sample of 300 farm households in the Dano and Ouagadougou municipalities in Burkina Faso. Results from conditional logit, latent class logit and mixt logit models show that farmers have positive and significant preferences for drip irrigation, treated wastewater, and organic matter. However, they are WTP on average more for drip irrigation and organic matter for agricultural sustainability. In line with economic theory, the cost of an intervention reduces demand for a given intervention. These findings can provide policy makers with evidence for agricultural policy design to build farmers’ resilience in the Sahel.

  5. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine—Burkina Faso, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Sangare, Lassana; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Hema-Ouangraoua, Soumeya; McGee, Lesley; Srinivasan, Velusamy; Aké, Flavien; Congo-Ouédraogo, Malika; Sanou, Soufian; Ba, Absatou Ky; Novak, Ryan T.; Van Beneden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. Methods Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR). Results During 2011–2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (Burkina Faso, the highest morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden. PMID:27832151

  6. Seroprevalence of six different viruses among pregnant women and blood donors in rural and urban Burkina Faso: A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collenberg, Ellen; Ouedraogo, Thierry; Ganamé, Jean; Fickenscher, Helmut; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Becher, Heiko; Kouyaté, Bocar; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Sangaré, Lassana; Tebit, Denis M

    2006-05-01

    A seroprevalence study was carried out of six different human pathogenic viruses, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8), and dengue virus among pregnant women and blood donors from rural (Nouna) and urban (Ouagadougou) Burkina Faso, West Africa. A total of 683 samples from blood donors (n = 191) and pregnant women (n = 492) were collected from both sites and screened for the different virus infection markers resulting in the following prevalence values for Nouna or Ouagadougou, respectively: HIV 3.6/4.6, anti-HBV core (anti-HBc) 69.6/76.4, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)14.3/17.3, HCV 2.2/1.5, HTLV 1.4/0.5, HHV-8 11.5/13.5, dengue virus 26.3/36.5. Individuals aged > or =25 years were more likely to be infected with HIV than those below 24 years (P dengue virus prevalence was relatively lower in rural (26.3%) than in urban (36.5%) Burkina Faso. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. [Surveillance system for adverse events following immunization against yellow fever in Burkina Faso in 2008. Good practice recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaméogo, T M; Breugelmans, J G; Kambou, J L; Badolo, O; Tiendrebéogo, S; Traoré, E; Avokey, F; Yactayo, S

    2009-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a public health problem in Africa. In 2007 and 2008, Togo, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso became the first countries to implement mass YF immunization campaigns within the framework of the Yellow Fever Initiative. The goal of this initiative led by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) with the support of The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is to organize mass YF immunization campaigns in 12 African countries at high risk forYF transmission between 2006 and 2013. A total of 290 million USD have been allocated for vaccination of 180 million people with the highly effective attenuated 17DYF vaccine. Working in partnership with the WHO, the 12 member states are to identify and target high risk areas with the dual aim of preventing epidemics and increasing immunization coverage. Surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is a mandatory component for organization of these campaigns. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe the AEFI surveillance system implemented in Burkina Faso in 2008. Methods. The strategy used in Burkina Faso was based on a combination of regular passive surveillance and active surveillance. General guidelines and related operational processes were established including reporting forms, investigation forms, and procedures for collection, storage and transport of biological specimens. Classification of cases was based on clearly defined criteria. Any patient meeting the defined criteria and requiring hospitalization was considered as a serious case. In addition to case definition criteria, serious cases were tracked according to presented signs and symptoms using a line-listing form at two university hospital centers in Ouagadougou and one regional hospital center. Emergency room admission records and patient charts were examined during the surveillance period (30 days after the end of the immunization campaign) and on

  8. Bacterial meningitis epidemiology and return of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A cases in Burkina Faso in the five years following MenAfriVac mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha Oumar Diallo

    Full Text Available Historically, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA caused large meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to implement a national meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV campaign. We analyzed nationwide meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso for the 5 years following MACV introduction.We examined Burkina Faso's aggregate reporting and national laboratory-confirmed case-based meningitis surveillance data from 2011-2015. We calculated incidence (cases per 100,000 persons, and described reported NmA cases.In 2011-2015, Burkina Faso reported 20,389 cases of suspected meningitis. A quarter (4,503 of suspected meningitis cases with cerebrospinal fluid specimens were laboratory-confirmed as either S. pneumoniae (57%, N. meningitidis (40%, or H. influenzae (2%. Average adjusted annual national incidence of meningococcal meningitis was 3.8 (range: 2.0-10.2 annually and was highest among infants aged <1 year (8.4. N. meningitidis serogroup W caused the majority (64% of meningococcal meningitis among all age groups. Only six confirmed NmA cases were reported in 2011-2015. Five cases were in children who were too young (n = 2 or otherwise not vaccinated (n = 3 during the 2010 MACV mass vaccination campaign; one case had documented MACV receipt, representing the first documented MACV failure.Meningococcal meningitis incidence in Burkina Faso remains relatively low following MACV introduction. However, a substantial burden remains and NmA transmission has persisted. MACV integration into routine childhood immunization programs is essential to ensure continued protection.

  9. Bacterial meningitis epidemiology and return of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A cases in Burkina Faso in the five years following MenAfriVac mass vaccination campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Alpha Oumar; Soeters, Heidi M; Yameogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Aké, Flavien; Lingani, Clément; Wang, Xin; Bita, Andre; Fall, Amadou; Sangaré, Lassana; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Bicaba, Brice; Novak, Ryan T

    2017-01-01

    Historically, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA) caused large meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to implement a national meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) campaign. We analyzed nationwide meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso for the 5 years following MACV introduction. We examined Burkina Faso's aggregate reporting and national laboratory-confirmed case-based meningitis surveillance data from 2011-2015. We calculated incidence (cases per 100,000 persons), and described reported NmA cases. In 2011-2015, Burkina Faso reported 20,389 cases of suspected meningitis. A quarter (4,503) of suspected meningitis cases with cerebrospinal fluid specimens were laboratory-confirmed as either S. pneumoniae (57%), N. meningitidis (40%), or H. influenzae (2%). Average adjusted annual national incidence of meningococcal meningitis was 3.8 (range: 2.0-10.2 annually) and was highest among infants aged <1 year (8.4). N. meningitidis serogroup W caused the majority (64%) of meningococcal meningitis among all age groups. Only six confirmed NmA cases were reported in 2011-2015. Five cases were in children who were too young (n = 2) or otherwise not vaccinated (n = 3) during the 2010 MACV mass vaccination campaign; one case had documented MACV receipt, representing the first documented MACV failure. Meningococcal meningitis incidence in Burkina Faso remains relatively low following MACV introduction. However, a substantial burden remains and NmA transmission has persisted. MACV integration into routine childhood immunization programs is essential to ensure continued protection.

  10. L'approche communicative des campagnes de sensibilisation en santé publique au Burkina Faso : les cas de la planification familiale, du sida et de l'excision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougaïré-Zangréyanogho, Marie Danielle

    2004-01-01

    Danielle Bougaïré onderzocht de redenen waarom in Burkina Faso de voorlichtingscampagnes over gezinsplanning, vrouwenbesnijdenis en aidsbestrijding geen merkbare attitudeverandering teweegbrengen. Ze concludeert dat de dramatische levensomstandigheden van de bevolking (armoede, analfabetisme,

  11. Social and environmental malaria risk factors in urban areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragatti, Meili; Fournet, Florence; Henry, Marie-Claire; Assi, Serge; Ouedraogo, Herman; Rogier, Christophe; Salem, Gérard

    2009-01-13

    Despite low endemicity, malaria remains a major health problem in urban areas where a high proportion of fevers are presumptively treated using anti-malarial drugs. Low acquired malaria immunity, behaviour of city-dwellers, access to health care and preventive interventions, and heterogenic suitability of urban ecosystems for malaria transmission contribute to the complexity of the malaria epidemiology in urban areas. The study was designed to identify the determinants of malaria transmission estimated by the prevalence of anti-circumsporozoite (CSP) antibodies, the prevalence and density of Plasmodium falciparum infection, and the prevalence of malarial disease in areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina-Faso. Thick blood smears, dried blood spots and clinical status have been collected from 3,354 randomly chosen children aged 6 months to 12 years using two cross-sectional surveys (during the dry and rainy seasons) in eight areas from four ecological strata defined according to building density and land tenure (regular versus irregular). Demographic characteristics, socio-economic information, and sanitary and environmental data concerning the children or their households were simultaneously collected. Dependent variables were analysed using mixed multivariable models with random effects, taking into account the clustering of participants within compounds and areas. Overall prevalences of CSP-antibodies and P. falciparum infections were 7.7% and 16.6% during the dry season, and 12.4% and 26.1% during the rainy season, respectively, with significant differences according to ecological strata. Malaria risk was significantly higher among children who i) lived in households with lower economic or education levels, iii) near the hydrographic network, iv) in sparsely built-up areas, v) in irregularly built areas, vi) who did not use a bed net, vii) were sampled during the rainy season or ii) had traveled outside of Ouagadougou. Malaria control should be focused in areas which are

  12. Evaluation d'un ecosysteme pastoral sahelien: Apport de la geomatique (Oursi, Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabore, Seraphine Sawadogo

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est la mise au point d'une architecture d'integration de donnees socio-bio-geographiques et de donnees satellitales dans un Systeme d'Information Geographique (SIG) en vue d'une aide a la prise de decisions dans un environnement semi-aride au nord du Burkina Faso. Elle repond a la question fondamentale de l'interpretation des effets des facteurs climatiques et socioeconomiques sur le milieu pastoral. La recherche s'est appuyee sur plusieurs hypotheses de travail: possibilite d'utilisation de modele de simulation, d'approche multicritere et de donnees de teledetection dans un cadre de systeme d'information geographique. L'evolution spatiotemporelle des parametres de productivite du milieu a ete evaluee par approche dynamique selon le modele de Wu et al. (1996) qui modelise les interactions entre le climat, le milieu physique, le vegetal et l'animal pour mieux quantifier la biomasse primaire. A ce modele, quatre parametres ont ete integres par approche floue et multicritere afin de prendre en compte la dimension socioeconomique de la productivite pastorale (apport majeur de la recherche): la sante, l'education, l'agriculture et l'eau. La teledetection (imagerie SPOT) a permis de definir la production primaire a partir de laquelle les simulations ont ete realisees sur 10 annees. Les resultats obtenus montrent une bonne correlation entre biomasse primaire in situ et celle calculee pour les deux modeles, avec toutefois une meilleure efficacite du modele modifie (4 fois plus) dans les zones de forte productivite ou l'on note un taux de surexploitation agricole eleve. A cause de la variabilite spatiale de la production primaire in situ, les erreurs des resultats de simulation (8 a 11%) sont acceptables et montrent la pertinence de l'approche grace a l'utilisation des SIG pour la spatialisation et l'integration des differents parametres des modeles. Les types de production secondaire preconises (production de lait pendant 7 mois ou

  13. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ouedraogo, Albertine Wendpagnagdé

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The objectives of the present paper are to compare relevant national policies, training materials, programmes, and monitoring and evaluation activities with internationally accepted IYCN recommendations. These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Burkina Faso were interviewed, and 153 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and treatment of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security and hygienic practices. National policy documents addressed nearly all of the key IYCN topics, specifically or generally. Formative research has identified some local barriers and beliefs related to general breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, and other formative research addressed about half of the IYCN topics included in this review. However, there was little evidence that this formative research was being utilized in developing training materials and designing programme interventions. Nevertheless, the training materials that were reviewed do provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics. Although many of the IYCN programmes are intended for national coverage, we could only confirm with available reports that programme coverage extended to certain regions. Some programme monitoring and evaluation were conducted, but few of these provided information on whether the specific IYCN programme components were implemented as designed. Most surveys that were identified reported on general nutrition status indicators, but did not provide the detail

  14. Taenia hydatigena in pigs in Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional abattoir study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Veronique; Ganaba, Rasmané; Cissé, Assana; Ouedraogo, Boubacar; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Van Hul, Anke; Gabriël, Sarah; Carabin, Hélène; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-10-30

    Taenia hydatigena is a non-zoonotic cestode that has canines as definitive hosts and ruminants and pigs as intermediate hosts. In pigs, its presence causes cross-reactivity in serological testing for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowledge on the occurrence of T. hydatigena is paramount for validly estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. In a cross-sectional abattoir study, we estimated the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs slaughtered in Koudougou, Burkina Faso. Carcasses of 452 pigs were examined by investigators for perceived and suspected T. hydatigena cysticercus lesions in the abdominal cavity or on the surface of abdominal organs. Routine meat inspection was performed by local inspectors to identify T. solium cysticerci. All lesions were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis in order to differentiate Taenia spp. Additionally, individual blood samples were examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigens using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Perceived T. hydatigena cysticerci were found in 13 pigs, whereas meat inspectors found seven carcasses infected with T. solium cysticerci. All were confirmed by molecular analysis. Of pigs with other suspected lesions, mostly located in the liver, 27 and six were found to harbour T. hydatigena and T. solium cysticerci, respectively. Overall, 8.8% of pigs (40/452) were found infected with T. hydatigena and 2.9% (13/452) with T. solium. Of these positive pigs, one was found infected with both Taenia spp. (0.2%, 1/452). Blood samples of 48.5% of pigs (219/452) were positive in the Ag-ELISA. Pigs with confirmed cysts of T. hydatigena and T. solium had a positive Ag-ELISA result in 57.5% (23/40) and 61.5% (8/13) of cases, respectively. The observed T. hydatigena prevalence in this study is relatively high in comparison to other studies in Africa. Estimates of the occurrence of active porcine T. solium infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA should therefore be adjusted for the presence of T

  15. Assessing Land Management Changes and Population Dynamics in Central Burkina Faso in Response to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabore Bontogho, P. E.; Boubacar, I.; Afouda, A.; Joerg, H.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing landscape and population's dynamics at watershed level contribute to address anthropogenic aspect of climate change issue owing to the close link between LULC and climate changes. The objective of this study is to explore the dependencies of population to land management changes in Massili basin (2612 km²) located in central Burkina Faso. A set of three satellite scenes was acquired for the years 1990 (Landsat 7 ETM), 2002 (Landsat 7 ETM+) and 2013 (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS) from the Global Land Cover Facility's (GLCF) website. Census data were provided by the National institute of statistics and demographic (INSD). The satellites images were classified using object-oriented classification method which was supported by historic maps and field data. Those were collected in order to allow for class definition, verification and accuracy assessments. Based on the developed land use maps, change analysis was carried out using post classification comparison in GIS. Finally, derived land use changes were compared with census data in order to explore links between population dynamics and the land use changes. It was found in 1990 that Massili watershed LULC was dominated by Tree/shrub savannah (69%, 1802.28 km2 ), Farm/Fallow was representing 22%, Gallery forest (4%), Settlement (3%), Barre soil (1%), Water bodies (1%). In 2002, the major landscape was Farm (54%). Tree/Shrub savannas were reduced to 36% while the Gallery Forest was decreased to1% of the basin area. The situation has also slightly changed in 2013 with an increase of the area devoted to farm/fallow and settlement at a rate of 3% and Gallery forest has increased to 4%. The changes in land use are in agreement with a notable increase in population. The analysis of census data showed that the number of inhabitants increased from 338 inhabitants per km2 in 1990 to 1150 inhabitants per km2 in 2013. As shown by statistical analysis (Kendall correlation tau=0.9), there is a close relation between both dynamics.

  16. Malaria morbidity in high and seasonal malaria transmission area of Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Ouédraogo

    Full Text Available Malariometric parameters are often primary endpoints of efficacy trials of malaria vaccine candidates. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of malaria prior to the conduct of a series of drug and vaccine trials in a rural area of Burkina Faso.Malaria incidence was prospectively evaluated over one year follow-up among two cohorts of children aged 0-5 years living in the Saponé health district. The parents of 1089 children comprising a passive case detection cohort were encouraged to seek care from the local health clinic at any time their child felt sick. Among this cohort, 555 children were randomly selected for inclusion in an active surveillance sub-cohort evaluated for clinical malaria during twice weekly home visits. Malaria prevalence was evaluated by cross-sectional survey during the low and high transmission seasons.Number of episodes per child ranged from 0 to 6 per year. Cumulative incidence was 67.4% in the passive and 86.2% in the active cohort and was highest among children 0-1 years. Clinical malaria prevalence was 9.8% in the low and 13.0% in the high season (p>0.05. Median days to first malaria episode ranged from 187 (95% CI 180-193 among children 0-1 years to 228 (95% CI 212, 242 among children 4-5 years. The alternative parasite thresholds for the malaria case definition that achieved optimal sensitivity and specificity (70-80% were 3150 parasites/µl in the high and 1350 parasites/µl in the low season.Clinical malaria burden was highest among the youngest age group children, who may represent the most appropriate target population for malaria vaccine candidate development. The pyrogenic threshold of parasitaemia varied markedly by season, suggesting a value for alternative parasitaemia levels in the malaria case defintion. Regional epidemiology of malaria described, Sapone area field centers are positioned for future conduct of malaria vaccine trials.

  17. Adapting to an innovation: Solar cooking in the urban households of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Hilde M.

    Most households in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on wood as primary energy source. The availability of wood is decreasing and deforestation is a major ecological problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The scarcity of wood is demanding for a sustainable solution. The sun seems to provide a good alternative. Solar energy is free, without unhealthy smoke or chances to burns. The idea of using solar energy for cooking is not new: many different techniques have already been tested. Most variants are expensive, and therefore not available for most families in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cheap solar cooking device is the CooKit, a cardboard panel cooker covered with aluminium foil. In the adaptation to the CooKit, as to all innovations, it is important that the users are convinced of the advantages. An important step in the adaptation process is learning how to use the cooking device; the best way to do this is by home practice. Monitoring and evaluating the real use is needed, for it is interesting to know if the CooKit is actually used, and also to find out how women have implemented the new technique in their kitchens. In 2005, the SUPO foundation started a project in Burkina Faso: Programme Energie Solaire Grand-Ouaga (PESGO). The aim of PESGO is to introduce the CooKit in the urban households in Ouagadougou by providing training sessions and home assistance. In this paper, a mid-term review on this small-scale cooking project is presented. The possibilities and challenges of solar cooking are outlined, taking the urban context of Ouagadougou in account. In PESGO, dependence on weather conditions is found to be one of the challenges: if sunrays are blocked by clouds or dust in the air, the cooking will be slowed down. The CooKit cannot replace firewood entirely, and a complementary element has to be found. SUPO is exploring the use of Jatropha oil as a complement to the CooKit. The Jatropha plant is drought tolerant and its fruits contain oil which can be used as fuel substitute. Further

  18. Missed Opportunities for Early Access to Care of HIV-Infected Infants in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Malik; Meda, Nicolas; Yonaba, Caroline; Ouedraogo, Sylvie; Congo, Malika; Barry, Mamoudou; Thio, Elisabeth; Siribié, Issa; Koueta, Fla; Ye, Diarra; Kam, Ludovic; Blanche, Stéphane; Van De Perre, Phillipe; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    Objective The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-infected children before the age of two since 2010, but this implies an early identification of these infants. We described the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission (PMTCT) cascade, the staffing and the quality of infrastructures in pediatric HIV care facilities, in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2011 in all health care facilities involved in PMTCT and pediatric HIV care in Ouagadougou. We assessed them according to their coverage in pediatric HIV care and WHO standards, through a desk review of medical registers and a semi-structured questionnaire administered to health-care workers (HCW). Results In 2011, there was no offer of care in primary health care facilities for HIV-infected children in Ouagadougou. Six district hospitals and two university hospitals provided pediatric HIV care. Among the 67 592 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 2011, 85.9% were tested for HIV. The prevalence of HIV was 1.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 1.7%–1.9%). Among the 1 064 HIV-infected pregnant women attending antenatal clinics, 41.4% received a mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention intervention. Among the HIV-exposed infants, 313 (29.4%) had an early infant HIV test, and 306 (97.8%) of these infants tested received their result within a four-month period. Among the 40 children initially tested HIV-infected, 33 (82.5%) were referred to a health care facility, 3 (9.0%) were false positive, and 27 (90.0%) were initiated on ART. Although health care facilities were adequately supplied with HIV drugs, they were hindered by operational challenges such as shortage of infrastructures, laboratory reagents, and trained HCW. Conclusions The PMTCT cascade revealed bottle necks in PMTCT intervention and HIV early infant diagnosis. The staffing in HIV care and quality of health care infrastructures were also

  19. Social and environmental malaria risk factors in urban areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouedraogo Herman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite low endemicity, malaria remains a major health problem in urban areas where a high proportion of fevers are presumptively treated using anti-malarial drugs. Low acquired malaria immunity, behaviour of city-dwellers, access to health care and preventive interventions, and heterogenic suitability of urban ecosystems for malaria transmission contribute to the complexity of the malaria epidemiology in urban areas. Methods The study was designed to identify the determinants of malaria transmission estimated by the prevalence of anti-circumsporozoite (CSP antibodies, the prevalence and density of Plasmodium falciparum infection, and the prevalence of malarial disease in areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina-Faso. Thick blood smears, dried blood spots and clinical status have been collected from 3,354 randomly chosen children aged 6 months to 12 years using two cross-sectional surveys (during the dry and rainy seasons in eight areas from four ecological strata defined according to building density and land tenure (regular versus irregular. Demographic characteristics, socio-economic information, and sanitary and environmental data concerning the children or their households were simultaneously collected. Dependent variables were analysed using mixed multivariable models with random effects, taking into account the clustering of participants within compounds and areas. Results Overall prevalences of CSP-antibodies and P. falciparum infections were 7.7% and 16.6% during the dry season, and 12.4% and 26.1% during the rainy season, respectively, with significant differences according to ecological strata. Malaria risk was significantly higher among children who i lived in households with lower economic or education levels, iii near the hydrographic network, iv in sparsely built-up areas, v in irregularly built areas, vi who did not use a bed net, vii were sampled during the rainy season or ii had traveled outside of Ouagadougou

  20. Equity and health policy in Africa: Using concept mapping in Moore (Burkina Faso

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    Ridde Valéry

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This methodological article is based on a health policy research project conducted in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Concept mapping (CM was used as a research method to understand the local views of equity among stakeholders, who were concerned by the health policy under consideration. While this technique has been used in North America and elsewhere, to our knowledge it has not yet been applied in Africa in any vernacular language. Its application raises many issues and certain methodological limitations. Our objective in this article is to present its use in this particular context, and to share a number of methodological observations on the subject. Methods Two CMs were done among two different groups of local stakeholders following four steps: generating ideas, structuring the ideas, computing maps using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis methods, and interpreting maps. Fifteen nurses were invited to take part in the study, all of whom had undergone training on health policies. Of these, nine nurses (60% ultimately attended the two-day meeting, conducted in French. Of 45 members of village health committees who attended training on health policies, only eight were literate in the local language (Moore. Seven of these (88% came to the meeting. Results The local perception of equity seems close to the egalitarian model. The actors are not ready to compromise social stability and peace for the benefit of the worst-off. The discussion on the methodological limitations of CM raises the limitations of asking a single question in Moore and the challenge of translating a concept as complex as equity. While the translation of equity into Moore undoubtedly oriented the discussions toward social relations, we believe that, in the context of this study, the open-ended question concerning social justice has a threefold relevance. At the same time, those limitations were transformed into strengths. We understand that it was

  1. A guideline for sizing Photovoltaic panels across different climatic zones in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waongo, M; Koalaga, Z; Zougmore, F

    2012-01-01

    In many developing countries a long time series of solar radiation measurements are not often available. This is due to the cost, maintenance and calibration requirements of measuring devices. Consequently, the use of solar energy by Photovoltaic (PV) conversion copes with the choice and the optimization of the PV system. This work concerned the analysis of climate parameters strongly influencing the Photovoltaic (PV) systems energy production and the simulation of an ideal system based on a single PV module. Estimation and analysis of time series of climate parameters covered a set of six weather stations with respect to the three climatic zones in Burkina Faso (BF), over 38 years. The analysis showed that the solar irradiation in BF lies between 3 kWh/m 2 /day and 7.5 kWh/m 2 /day. The highest values of the solar irradiation are measured in the Northern part of the country while lowest values are measured in the Southern part. Daily mean temperature for all weather stations was greater than the Standard Test Condition (STC) temperature (25°C) over a long period of the year. Information on solar irradiation and temperature is fundamental for PV systems sizing process. For PV performance evaluation, a simulation is carried out using an ideal system composed of a single PV module from TENESOL Company. This simulation is performed for three classes of climatic conditions 'Mean situation', 'Adverse situation', and 'Beneficial situation', and evaluated for six sitesacross BF. The results revealed intra-annual and spatial variability of Maximum Power (MP). Across BF, MP varied between 60 W/day and 190 W/day in Sahelian zone, between 65 W/day and 185 W/day in soudano-sahelian zone, and between 67 W/day and 208 W/day in Soudanian zone. MP intra-annual variability is higher during the period July-August, mainly for 'Beneficial situation'. The negative effect of temperature on PV energy production is specially amplified in Sahelian zone due to its highest temperatures

  2. Diet, Environments, and Gut Microbiota. A Preliminary Investigation in Children Living in Rural and Urban Burkina Faso and Italy

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    Carlotta De Filippo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the main factors that affects the composition of gut microbiota. When people move from a rural environment to urban areas, and experience improved socio-economic conditions, they are often exposed to a “globalized” Western type diet. Here, we present preliminary observations on the metagenomic scale of microbial changes in small groups of African children belonging to the same ethnicity and living in different environments, compared to children living on the urban area of Florence (Italy. We analyzed dietary habits and, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, gut microbiota profiles from fecal samples of children living in a rural village of Burkina Faso (n = 11, of two groups of children living in different urban settings (Nanoro town, n = 8; Ouagadougou, the capital city, n = 5 and of a group of Italian children (n = 13. We observed that when foods of animal origin, those rich in fat and simple sugars are introduced into a traditional African diet, composed of cereals, legumes and vegetables, the gut microbiota profiles changes. Microbiota of rural children retain a geographically unique bacterial reservoir (Prevotella, Treponema, and Succinivibrio, assigned to ferment fiber and polysaccharides from vegetables. Independently of geography and ethnicity, in children living in urban areas these bacterial genera were progressively outcompeted by bacteria more suited to the metabolism of animal protein, fat and sugar rich foods, similarly to Italian children, as resulted by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, a predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene. Consequently, we observed a progressive reduction of SCFAs measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, in urban populations, especially in Italian children, respect to rural ones. Our results even if in a limited number of individuals point out that dietary habit modifications

  3. Measuring self-reported health in low-income countries: piloting three instruments in semi-rural Burkina Faso

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    Yulia Blomstedt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: National surveys in low-income countries increasingly rely on self-reported measures of health. The ease, speed, and economy of collecting self-reports of health make such collection attractive for rapid appraisals. However, the interpretation of these measures is complicated since different cultures understand and respond to the same question in different ways. Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to develop a culturally sensitive tool to study the self-reported health (SRH of the local adult population in Burkina Faso. Design: The study was carried out in the 2009 rainy season. The sample included 27 men and 25 women aged 18 or older who live in semi-urban Nouna, Burkina Faso. Three culturally adapted instruments were tested: a SRH question, a wooden visual analogue scale (VAS, and a drawn VAS. Respondents were asked to explain their answers to each instrument. The narratives were analyzed with the content analysis technique, and the prevalence of poor SRH was estimated from the quantitative data by stratification for respondent background variables (sex, age, literacy, education, marital status, ethnicity, chronic diseases. The correlation between the instruments was tested with Spearman's correlation test. Results: The SRH question showed a 38.5% prevalence of poor SRH and 44.2% prevalence with both VAS. The correlation between the VAS was 0.89, whereas the correlation between the VAS and the SRH question was 0.60–0.64. Nevertheless, the question used as the basis of each instrument was culturally sensitive and clear to all respondents. Analysis of the narratives shows that respondents clearly differentiated between the various health statuses. Conclusion: In this pilot, we developed and tested a new version of the SRH question that may be more culturally sensitive than its non-adapted equivalents. Additional insight into this population's understanding and reporting of health was also obtained. A larger sample is needed

  4. HBV/HIV co-infection and APOBEC3G polymorphisms in a population from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaore, Tegwinde Rebeca; Diarra, Birama; Assih, Maleki; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Tchelougou, Damehan; Bisseye, Cyrille; Bakouan, Didier Romuald; Compaore, Issaka Pierre; Dembele, Augustine; Djigma, Wendkuuni Florencia; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-07-22

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) is a potent host defense factor, which interferes with HIV-1 and HBV. Our study had three objectives, to screen a population of HIV-1 infected and uninfected patients in Burkina Faso for HBV, to screen the population for APOBEC3G variants rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 previously described, and to analyze the effect of these three variants and their haplotypes on HIV-1/HBV co-infection in Burkina Faso. HBV detection was performed on samples from HIV-1 infected and uninfected subjects using rapid detection tests and real-time PCR. APOBEC3 genotyping was done by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. Fisher Exact test, Odds ratio (OR), confidence intervals (CI) at 95 %, Linkage disequilibrium (LD) summary statistics and haplotype frequencies were calculated. The prevalence of HBV was 56.7 % among HIV-1 positive patients of our study while it was about 12.8 % among HIV-1 seronegative subjects. Genotype E was the genotype of HBV present in our hepatitis B positive samples. Minor allele frequencies of rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 were higher in seronegative subjects. The T minor allele of variant rs35228531 was protective against HIV-1/HBV co-infection with OR = 0.61, 95 % CI (0.42-0.90), p = 0.013. There was also an association between the GGT haplotype and protection against HIV-1/HBV co-infection, OR = 0.57, 95 % CI (0.33-0.99), p = 0.050. The other haplotypes present in the population were not statistically significant. There minor allele T of the rs35228531 was protective against HIV mono-infection OR = 0.53, 95 % CI (0.3-0.93), P = 0.030. But there was no effect of protection against HBV mono-infection. APOBEC3G through its variants rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531, in this study interferes with HIV-1/HBV co-infection could be due the HIV-1 mono-infection in a population from Burkina Faso.

  5. The positive impact of red palm oil in school meals on vitamin A status: study in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeba, Augustin N; Martin Prével, Yves; Somé, Issa T; Delisle, Hélène F

    2006-07-17

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and school-age children are a vulnerable group. In Burkina Faso, the production and consumption of red palm oil (RPO) is being promoted as a food supplement for VA. The objective of the study was to assess the impact on serum retinol of adding RPO to school lunch in two test zones of Burkina Faso. Over one school year, 15 ml RPO was added to individual meals 3 times a week in selected primary schools in two sites. Serum retinol was measured with HPLC at baseline and exactly 12 months later to take account of seasonality. A simple pre-post test design was used in the Kaya area (north-central Burkina), where 239 pupils from 15 intervention schools were randomly selected for the evaluation. In Bogandé (eastern Burkina), 24 schools were randomised for the controlled intervention trial: 8 negative controls (G1) with only the regular school lunch; 8 positive controls (G2) where the pupils received a single VA capsule (60 mg) at the end of the school year; and 8 schools with RPO through the school year (G3). A random sample of 128 pupils in each school group took part in the evaluation. In Kaya, serum retinol went from 0.77 +/- 0.37 micromol/L at baseline to 1.07 +/- 0.40 micromol/L one year later (p < 0.001). The rate of low serum retinol (< 0.7 micromol/L) declined from 47.2% to 13.1%. In Bogandé, serum retinol increased significantly (p < 0.001) only in the capsule and RPO groups, going from 0.77 +/- 0.28 to 0.98 +/- 0.33 micromol/L in the former, and from 0.82 +/- 0.3 to 0.98 +/- 0.33 micromol/L in the latter. The rate of low serum retinol went from 46.1 to 17.1% in the VA capsule group and from 40.4% to 14.9% in the RPO group. VA-deficient children benefited the most from the capsule or RPO. Female sex, age and height-for-age were positively associated with the response to VA capsules or RPO. RPO given regularly in small amounts appears highly effective in the reduction of VA deficiency. RPO deserves

  6. Pratiques phytosanitaires des producteurs de tomates du Burkina Faso et risques pour la santé et l’environnement

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Diakalia; Somda, Irénée; Legrève, Anne; Schiffers, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Pour évaluer les pratiques phytosanitaires des maraîchers du Burkina Faso, des enquêtes ont été réalisées en 2015 et 2016 auprès de 316 producteurs dans les zones Ouest et Nord du pays. Seuls 9 % d’entre eux ont reçu une formation en protection des végétaux. Quatre-vingt-dix pour cent des pesticides utilisés sont achetés sur les marchés locaux sans garantie de conformité et de qualité. La lambdacyhalothrine de la famille des pyréthrinoïdes est la substance active la plus utilisée. L’utilis...

  7. Marché du crédit et travail décent au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Adama Zerbo

    2006-01-01

    Cette étude visait à dégager des pistes de réflexions pour une meilleure coordination des politiques visant à faciliter l’accès au crédit et à optimiser son allocation dans l’économie pour plus de travail décent au Burkina Faso. Elle montre que le marché du crédit burkinabé est compartimenté en quatre segments qui se distinguent par les mécanismes d’offre de crédit, de gestion de l’information et du risque de crédit. Par ailleurs, l’appel public à l’épargne de l’Etat s’apparente au financemen...

  8. Genetic complexity of Plasmodium falciparum in two ethnic groups of Burkina Faso with marked differences in susceptibility to malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganotti, Giacomo M; Babiker, Hamza A; Modiano, David; Sirima, Bienvenu S; Verra, Federica; Konaté, Amadou; Ouedraogo, Andre L; Diarra, Amidou; Mackinnon, Margaret J; Coluzzi, Mario; Walliker, David

    2004-08-01

    We have characterized Plasmodium falciparum genotypes among the Mossi and Fulani sympatric ethnic groups in villages in Burkina Faso during the rainy season. Differences in clinical malaria presentation and in immune responses to malaria occur between the two groups. Asexual parasite rate, density, and gametocyte rate were higher among the Mossi than the Fulani. There was no difference in frequencies of alleles of the P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (msp-1), msp-2, and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) genes among the parasites in each group. However, there were significant differences in the mean number of P. falciparum clones in the two populations, with there being more in the Mossi than in the Fulani. This effect was especially marked in older children. These differences can most probably be attributed to genetic differences in immune responsiveness to malaria between the two ethnic groups.

  9. Labor markets as a transmission channel from growth to poverty reduction: Evidence from Vietnam and Burkina Faso, 1993-2003

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    Bernab Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Employment is widely perceived as being amongst the most important channels for translating growth into poverty reduction. This paper focuses on two countries, Burkina Faso and Vietnam, with very distinct patterns of growth and poverty reduction between 1993-2003. We use household survey data to examine how employment transmitted growth to the poor in these two countries and find that there are two important factors that maximize the effectiveness of this transmission channel: (1 an increase in labor productivity that is (a broad based and (b concentrated in sectors where the poor are disproportionately employed or to which they have access, and (2 strong (domestic and foreign demand for the goods and services produced by the poor, and access to these markets.

  10. Environnement familial et disparités de santé dentaire des enfants en milieu urbain au Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, B; Fournet, F; Cadot, E

    2011-01-01

    . For the overall group the total caries prevalence rate was 48.2%. Results showed that the dental health status of the mother, social integration of the householder and socioeconomic level of the household were associated with the dental health of children. Disparities in dental health were prominent; poor dental...... experience. The rapidly changing lifestyle affects oral health and the burden of oral diseases is expected to increase initially in people of upper classes and later in disadvantaged people. Disease prevention focussing on common risk factors of chronic diseases should be enhanced. In addition...... study were firstly to assess the level of prevalence and severity of dental caries of children in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso and secondly to determine whether or not individual factors, family and living conditions are linked with dental health disparities within the population...

  11. Mineral values of selected plant foods common to southern Burkina Faso and to Niamey, Niger, west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Clegg, M S; Keen, C L; Grivetti, L E

    1996-01-01

    Wild and cultivated fruits, leaves, nuts, seeds, spices and vegetables from southern Burkina Faso and Niamey, Niger, were analysed for their copper, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc concentrations and compared to imported, exotic reference foods found within the study area. The species analysed covered a broad spectrum of local diet; 33 were wild and 16 were cultivated. The edible wild plants were often the highest in mineral concentrations. Five species analysed, exhibited consistently high mineral values, specifically, Adansonia digitata, Boerhavia diffusa, Cerathoteca sesamoides, Sclerocarya birrea and Xylopia sp. The latter was particularly high in zinc, an observation which suggests that there may be a solid rationale for local traditions which recommended its consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Respondents indicated that during times of drought, wild plants were not consumed in the volume they once were, due to changes of infrastructure and in famine relief programmes.

  12. [Pepper's syndrome: report of two cases at the Charles de Gaulle University Pediatric Hospital Center, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Madibèlè; Douamba, Sonia; Nagalo, Kisito; Dao, Lassina; Kouéta, Fla; Lougué, Claudine; Yé, Diarra

    2017-01-01

    Pepper's syndrome is a neuroblastoma that metastasizes to the liver. It affects infants younger than six months of age. It can regress spontaneously and is associated with a favorable prognosis in 80% of cases. Given its rarity, we here report two cases of Pepper's syndrome observed at the Charles de Gaulle university pediatric hospital center, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Our study involved two female infants in whom the disease manifested as an increase in abdominal volume, hepatomegaly and signs of respiratory distress. Ultrasound enabled diagnosis, which was based on the nodular appearance of the liver in both cases and determination of the primary tumor in one case. Urinary catecholamine test confirmed the diagnosis in one case. Both patients died from complications related to liver compression, chemotherapy (in one of the cases) and lack of treatment (in the other case).

  13. Congenital vitiligo: A case observed in the cohort of HIV-exposed infants in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

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    Makoura Barro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a dermatological disease; its exact prevalence is unknown among the paediatric population. We are reporting a case of vitiligo at birth for the first time in Burkina Faso, in the Teaching Hospital Souro Sanou of Bobo-Dioulasso, Paediatric Department. He is a male child, born from HIV-1 positive parents; we received him when he was 2 months to be followed in connection with the prevention of motherto- child transmission. He showed achromic lesions on the skin and on skin appendages at birth. In addition to congenital vitiligo we mentioned, several diagnostic hypotheses were discussed. No treatment was decided to face these skin lesions given the very young age of the patient. Psychological support is planned in the long run.

  14. Congenital vitiligo: A case observed in the cohort of HIV-exposed infants in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Makoura; Diallo, Jean W; Ouattara, Ad Bafa Ibrahim; Nacro, Boubacar

    2017-10-06

    Vitiligo is a dermatological disease; its exact prevalence is unknown among the paediatric population. We are reporting a case of vitiligo at birth for the first time in Burkina Faso, in the Teaching Hospital Souro Sanou of Bobo-Dioulasso, Paediatric Department. He is a male child, born from HIV-1 positive parents; we received him when he was 2 months to be followed in connection with the prevention of motherto-child transmission. He showed achromic lesions on the skin and on skin appendages at birth. In addition to congenital vitiligo we mentioned, several diagnostic hypotheses were discussed. No treatment was decided to face these skin lesions given the very young age of the patient. Psychological support is planned in the long run.

  15. Illness-related behaviour and utilization of oral health services among adult city-dwellers in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Fournet, Florence

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the availability and accessibility of oral health services are seriously constrained and the provision of essential oral care is limited. Reports from the region show a very low utilization of oral health care services, and visits to dental-care facilities...... are mostly undertaken for symptomatic reasons. The objectives of the present study were to describe the prevalence of oral symptoms among adults in Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso and the use of oral health services and self-medication in response to these symptoms and to measure the associations......-economic and socio-cultural factors such as religious affiliation, material living conditions and participation in a social network were significantly associated with the use of oral health care services by adults who had experienced oral health problems during the previous year. CONCLUSION: The proportion of people...

  16. Portrait of a lengthy vaccination trajectory in Burkina Faso: from cultural acceptance of vaccines to actual immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Marylène; Dubé, Eric; Kouyaté, Bocar; Sanou, Aboubakary; Bibeau, Gilles

    2009-10-14

    The global recognition of vaccination is strongly related to the fact that it has proved in the past able to dramatically reduce the incidence of certain diseases. Nevertheless, reactions regarding the practice of vaccination still vary among communities, affecting the worldwide vaccination coverage. Numerous studies, conducted from varying perspectives, have focused on explaining this active refusal or resistance to vaccination. Although in some cases low immunization coverage has been well explained by active refusal or resistance to vaccination, little is known about the reasons for low coverage where those reactions are absent or play a minor role, especially outside an epidemic context. This study attempts to explain this situation, which is found in the health district of Nouna in Burkina Faso. An in-depth ethnographic study was undertaken in the health district of Nouna in an effort to understand, from an anthropological point of view, the logic behind the parental decision-making process regarding the vaccination or non-vaccination of children, in a context where rejection of, and reservations concerning vaccination are not major obstacles. Three elements emerged from the analysis: the empirical conceptions of childhood diseases, the perceived efficacy of vaccine and the knowledge of appropriate age for vaccination uptake; the gap between the decision-making process and the actual achievement of vaccination; and the vaccination procedure leading to vaccination uptake in the particular context of the health district of Nouna. The procedures parents must follow in order to obtain vaccination for their children appear complex and constraining, and on certain points discord with the traditional systems of meaning and idioms of distress related to pregnancy, the prevention of childhood diseases and with the cultural matrix shaping decision-making and behaviour. Attention needs to be directed at certain promotional, logistical and structural elements, and at the

  17. Women's sexual health and contraceptive needs after a severe obstetric complication ("near-miss": a cohort study in Burkina Faso

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    Ganaba Rasmané

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the reproductive health of women who survive obstetric complications in poor countries. Our aim was to determine how severe obstetric complications in Burkina Faso affect reproductive events in the first year postpartum. Methods Data were collected from a prospective cohort of women who either experienced life threatening (near-miss pregnancy-related complications or an uncomplicated childbirth, followed from the end of pregnancy to one year postpartum or post-abortum. Documented outcomes include menses resumption, sexual activity resumption, dyspareunia, uptake of contraceptives, unmet needs for contraception and women's reproductive intentions. Participants were recruited in seven hospitals between December 2004 and March 2005 in six towns in Burkina Faso. Results Reproductive events were associated with pregnancy outcome. The frequency of contraceptive use was low in all groups and the method used varied according to the presence or not of a live baby. The proportion with unmet need for contraception was high and varied according to the time since end of pregnancy. Desire for another pregnancy was highest among near-miss women with perinatal death or natural abortion. Women in the near-miss group with induced abortion, perinatal death and natural abortion had significantly higher odds of subsequent pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies were observed mainly in women in the near-miss group with live birth and the uncomplicated delivery group. Conclusions Considering the potential deleterious impact (on health and socio-economic life of new pregnancies in near-miss women, it is important to ensure family planning coverage includes those who survive a severe complication.

  18. Sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviors among young female hawkers in Burkina Faso: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Saide Yacine Y A; Sisawo, Ebrima J; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-01-04

    Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-demographic status and work characteristics of young female hawkers, describe their sexual behavior and their experience with regards to sex-related violence at the workplace. The study used a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative methods. It was carried out in two traffic stations in Burkina Faso namely Bittou customs station and Boromo bus station. Female hawkers aged 13 - 24 years were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey and local key informants were recruited to partake in an in-depth interview. The recruitment was based on their duties related to the hawkers. The study included 264 participants in the survey and 16 interviewees. The survey showed that three quarter of participants had primary education or lower. About half of them had been sexually harassed, with clients, public members and co-hawkers as the most common source of assault. Most (68.6%) hawkers were sexually active; among them 43.7% had received money or gifts for sex. Positive factors associated with commercial sex include working in Boromo and age above 17, while negative factors include being Muslim and having female genital mutilation. The interviews confirmed the relationship between hawking and the socio-economic situation of participant's family, and pointed out societal factors that expose hawkers to risky sexual behaviors. This study provides a better understanding of young female hawking activity in Boromo and Bittou. Implementing an empowerment program for female street vendors and their families, and an efficient surveillance system might help reduce these hazards.

  19. Factors associated with the prevalence of circulating antigens to porcine cysticercosis in three villages of burkina faso.

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    Rasmané Ganaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available little is known about porcine cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. We conducted a pilot study to estimate the prevalence of antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis and to identify associated factors in pigs of three villages in Burkina Faso, selected to represent different pig management practices: one village where pigs are allowed to roam freely (Batondo, one village where pigs are penned part of the time (Pabré and one village with limited pig farming (Nyonyogo.a clustered random sampling design was used. Data on socio-demographic characteristics (source of drinking water, presence of latrines in the household, type and number of breeding animals and pig management practices were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from one pig per household to determine the presence of antigens of the larval stages of T. solium by the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. The associations between seropositivity and socio-demographic and pig management practices were estimated using logistic regression. Proportions of 32.5% (95% CI 25.4-40.3, 39.6% (31.9-47.8, and 0% of pigs, were found positive for the presence of circulating antigens of T. solium in Batondo, Pabré, and Nyonyogo, respectively. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggested that people acquire knowledge on porcine cysticercosis following the contamination of their animals. The presence of antigens in the pigs' sera was not associated with the absence of latrines in the household, the source of drinking water or the status of infection in humans but was associated with pig rearing practices during the rainy season.the results suggest that education of pig farmers is urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of this infection.

  20. NGO-provided free HIV treatment and services in Burkina Faso: scarcity, therapeutic rationality and unfair process

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    Ridde Valéry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Until 2010, Burkina Faso was an exception to the international trend of abolishing user fees for antiretroviral treatment (ART. Patients were still expected to pay 1,500F CFA (2 Euros per month for ART. Nevertheless, many non-governmental organizations (NGOs exempted patients from payment. The objective of this study was to investigate how NGOs selected the beneficiaries of payment exemptions for government-provided ART and rationed out complementary medical and psychosocial services. For this qualitative study, we conducted 13 individual interviews and three focus group discussions (n = 13 persons with program staff in nine NGOs (4,000 patients, two NGO coordinating structures and one national program. These encounters were recorded and transcribed, and their content was thematically analyzed. The results were presented to the NGOs for feedback. Results indicate that there are no concrete guidelines for identifying patients warranting payment exemptions. Formerly, ART was scarce in Burkina Faso and the primary criterion for treatment selection was clinical. Our results suggest that this scarcity, mediated by an approach we call sociotherapeutic rationality (i.e. maximization of clinical success, may have led to inequities in the provision of free ART. This approach may be detrimental to assuring equity since the most impoverished lack resources to pay for services that maximize clinical success (e.g. viral load that would increase their chances of being selected for treatment. However, once selected into treatment, attempts were made to ration-out complementary services more equitably. This study demonstrates the risks entailed by medication scarcity, which presents NGOs and health professionals with impossible choices that run counter to the philosophy of equity in access to treatment. Amid growing concerns of an international funding retreat for ART, it is important to learn from the past in order to better manage the potentially

  1. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine-Burkina Faso, 2011-2013.

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    Dinanibè Kambiré

    Full Text Available Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013.Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR, or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR.During 2011-2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (<1 year, 5.4 (1-4 years, 7.2 (5-14 years, and 3.0 (≥15 years. Overall CFR was 23% and highest among children aged <1 year (32% and adults ≥30 years (30%. Of 1,528 cases, 1,036 (68% were serotyped: 71% were PCV13-associated serotypes, 14% were non-PCV13-associated serotypes, and 15% were non-typeable by PCR. Serotypes 1 (45% and 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (8% were most common. Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 5 (15%, 6A/6B (13% and 1 (12% predominated.In Burkina Faso, the highest morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden.

  2. Rewards and challenges of providing HIV testing and counselling services: health worker perspectives from Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2015-10-01

    The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients' rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers' fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some

  3. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Lietz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality

  4. Malaria incidence and prevalence during the first year of life in Nanoro, Burkina Faso: a birth-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natama, Hamtandi Magloire; Rovira-Vallbona, Eduard; Somé, M Athanase; Zango, Serge Henri; Sorgho, Hermann; Guetens, Pieter; Coulibaly-Traoré, Maminata; Valea, Innocent; Mens, Petra F; Schallig, Henk D F H; Kestens, Luc; Tinto, Halidou; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna

    2018-04-12

    Infants are thought to be protected against malaria during the first months of life mainly due to passage of maternal antibodies. However, in high transmission settings, malaria in early infancy is not uncommon and susceptibility to the infections varies between individuals. This study aimed to determine malaria morbidity and infection during early childhood in rural Burkina Faso. Malariometric indices were determined over 1-year follow-up in a birth cohort of 734 infants living in Nanoro health district. Clinical malaria episodes were determined by passive case detection at peripheral health centres while asymptomatic malaria infections were identified during  4 cross-sectional surveys at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. Plasmodium falciparum infections were detected by rapid diagnostic test and/or light microscopy (LM) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). In total, 717 clinical episodes were diagnosed by qPCR over 8335.18 person-months at risk. The overall malaria incidence was 1.03 per child-year and increased from 0.27 per child-year at 0-3 months of age to 1.92 per child-year at 9-12 months of age. Some 59% of children experienced at least one clinical episode with a median survival time estimated at 9.9 months, while 20% of infants experienced the first episode before 6 months of age. The majority of the clinical episodes were attributable to microscopic parasitaemia (84.2%), and there was a positive correlation between parasite density and age (Spearman's rho = 0.30; P disease during the first year of life in Nanoro, calling for intensified efforts to control malaria in rural Burkina Faso.

  5. Cost analysis of an integrated disease surveillance and response system: case of Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali

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    Touré Kandioura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR. This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and approaches to better detect and respond to the region's priority communicable disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incremental costs of establishing and subsequently operating activities for detection and response to the priority diseases under the IDSR. Methods We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Results Over the period studied (2002–2005, the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines, service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR.

  6. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Henrike; Lingani, Moustapha; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Souares, Aurelia; Tozan, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS) were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA). The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS) and integrated (CDA) surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality of population health data requires further exploration.

  7. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in Eastern Centre province, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Tamboura

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages ( 12 months were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91 % were infected by one or more para sites. Ascaris suum (40 %; 100-1 400 EPG was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21 %; 100-4 200 EPG, Oesophagostomum spp. (18 %; 100-1 000 EPG, Hyostrongylus rubidus (11 %; 100-1 800 EPG, Globocephalus spp. 10 %; 100-400 EPG and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG. The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239 than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05 more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  8. River contract in Wallonia (Belgium) and its application for water management in the Sourou valley (Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosillon, F; Vander Borght, P; Bado Sama, H

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the experience of a river contract in Wallonia (Belgium) since 1990, the implementation of a first river contract has been initiated in a West African country, Burkina Faso. This application is not limited to a simple transposition of the Walloon model. The Burkina context calls for adaptation to the local environmental and socio-economical realities with an adequate partnership management. The importance of the mobilization around this project of institutional partners, as well as local collectivities, agricultural producers and water users in general reveals the great expectations of the actors concerning this new tool of water participative management. But will the latter be equal to the task? A first assessment has been drawn up one year after the launch. During the first year of the project, a participative diagnostic was implemented but the understanding of basic notions of water management such as 'river' (not translatable in the local language), 'watershed', 'contract' were not obvious. After the identification of functions and uses of water in the basin, an environmental survey was started. This approach allows study with the river committees of the priority actions to be developed as a first project of restoration of the gallery forest alongside the stream to fight against desertification. This project of integrated and participative management of water at sub-basin level is a concrete example of solidarity and exchange know-how between North and South in the context of a sustainable development.

  9. Gender and Media: An Autopsy of Women’s Journalism in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassané Yameogo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, using a qualitative research, analyzes the gender stereotypes present in Burkina Faso media. It will show that gender is a social construct around which journalistic activities are organized and realized. It adapts on an informal level within the microcosm of media and strengthening the subtle inferiorization of female journalists. Both the vertical level of organized labour and the horizontal scale of repetitive duties hinder opportunities for female journalists and give them a bad name. They are restricted to subaltern functions referred to as being “cute” or “easy”. This gender segregation integrates a dynamic that occurs within the universe of journalism. It is also the result of a social dynamic outside of journalism characterized by prejudgments and a priori that portray female journalists as a symbol of emancipation, insubordination, and infidelity. Este artigo analisa, a partir de uma pesquisa qualitativa, os estereótipos de gênero presentes nas mídias burquinenses.  Demonstra que o gênero é um construto social ao redor do qual se organiza e se realiza a atividade jornalística. No interior do microcosmo midiático, desdobram-se acomodações informais, atuando para reforçar uma sutil inferiorização da mulher jornalista. Tanto no nível da organização vertical do trabalho quanto na escala da repetição horizontal das tarefas, a jornalista não goza de uma boa visibilidade e de uma boa imagem. Ela permanece restrita a funções subalternas e a temáticas "doces" ou "leves". Esta segregação determinada pelo gênero integra uma dinâmica que ocorre no interior do universo jornalístico, é também o resultado de uma dinâmica social para-jornalística, caracterizada por pré-julgamentos e a priori apresentando a mulher jornalista como símbolo de emancipação, de indocilidade, para não dizer, também, infidelidade. Este artículo analiza, a partir de una investigación cualitativa, los estereotipos de g

  10. La cardiothyréose au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaméogo, Aimé Arsène; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Compaoré, Yves Daniel; Ouédraogo, Tinoago Laurent; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La cardiothyréose est une affection fréquente et grave à l’ouest du Burkina Faso. Notre objectif était d’étudier les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des cardiothyréoses au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Etude prospective de 12 mois pourtant sur des cas de cardiothyréose colligés dans les services de cardiologie et de médecine interne. Résultats Quatorze (14) cas de cardiothyréose ont été colligés soit 33,3% des patients hospitalisés pour hyperthyroïdies. L’âge moyen des patients était de 53,57 ans ± 9,97. Les femmes au foyer (71,40%) aux conditions socio-économiques défavorables étaient les plus touchées. Parmi nos cas 21,42% des patients avaient déjà un antécédent d’hyperthyroïdie et l’HTA était le facteur de risque cardiovasculaire majeur (64,28%). Tous les patients présentaient une insuffisance cardiaque associée à un trouble du rythme (57,14%), essentiellement à type de fibrillation auriculaire (42,9%), une insuffisance coronarienne (7,14%) et un trouble de la conduction (7,14%). Le goitre multi-nodulaire a été l’entité étiopathogénique la plus fréquente (57,10%). Les antithyroïdiens de synthèse, les mesures hygiéno-diététiques et un traitement spécifique de l’insuffisance cardiaque ont été constamment utilisés pendant une durée d’hospitalisation moyenne de 23,57 jours ± 7,54. Si l’évolution immédiate peut être satisfaisante avec une euthyroïdie à 28,5% à moyen terme, les ruptures thérapeutiques peuvent être mortelles (un patient soit 7,14%) chez des patients généralement âgés majoritairement de sexe féminin avec un niveau socio-économique bas. Conclusion Le traitement de la cardiothyréose est efficace d’où l’intérêt d’une politique sanitaire pour une prise en charge adéquate. PMID:22593774

  11. Les péricardites tuberculeuses au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaméogo, Aimé Arsène; Kyelem, Carole Gilberte; Nikiéma, Zakari; Birba, Emile; Yaméogo, Téné Marceline; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose constitue toujours un problème de santé publique. Sa localisation péricardique reste fréquente. L’objectif de cette étude rétrospective descriptive était de décrire les caractéristiques cliniques et évolutives des cas de péricardites tuberculeuses dans le service de cardiologie du centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective descriptive des cas de péricardite tuberculeuse colligés en deux ans à partir des dossiers et registres dans le service de cardiologie du CHU de Bobo-Dioulasso de janvier 2009 à décembre 2010. Résultats De janvier 2009 à décembre 2010, parmi 945 hospitalisations dans le service de cardiologie, une péricardite tuberculeuse a été diagnostiquée chez dix patients âgés de 18 à 82 ans. L’âge moyen était de 46,8±25 ans avec un sexe ratio de un. Soixante pour cent des patients avaient moins de 40 ans. Tous les patients avaient un niveau socio-économique bas. Une notion de contage tuberculeux a été retrouvée chez six patients. Trois patients présentaient une tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive. L’insuffisance cardiaque était constante chez tous les patients avec deux cas de tamponnade à l’admission ayant nécessité une ponction péricardique d’urgence. Tous les patients avaient une sérologie VIH négative. L’échocardiographie a été importante pour le diagnostic positif et dans la prise en charge. L’évolution sous traitement antituberculeux et de l’IC a été bonne chez neuf patients à la fin de la première phase du traitement antituberculeux. Un cas de décès a cependant été enregistré chez un patient avec une HTA déjà compliquée d’accident vasculaire cérébrale ischémique. Conclusion Les péricardiques tuberculeuses sont fréquentes au Burkina Faso. Elles touchent surtout les sujets jeunes et un intérêt particulier devrait être accordé au dépistage et au traitement précoce des

  12. Geology of the world-class Kiaka polyphase gold deposit, West African Craton, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Arnaud; Eglinger, Aurélien; Ada, Koumangdiwè; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Reisberg, Laurie; Siebenaller, Luc; Le Mignot, Elodie; Ganne, Jérôme; Poujol, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The Kiaka gold deposit is a major resource in West Africa, with measured and indicated resources of 124 Mt at 1.09 g/t Au (3.9 Moz) and inferred resources of 27 Mt at 0.83 g/t Au (0.8 Moz). Located within the Manga-Fada N'Gourma greenstone and plutonic belt in south of the Burkina Faso, the deposit is hosted by a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary sequence of lithic-, quartz-biotite metagreywackes, aluminosilicate-bearing metapelites and garnet-orthopyroxene-bearing schists and volcanic units. Structural observations indicate four local deformation events: DK1, DK2 and DK3 and DK4. Respectively, these events are linked to regional D1 E-W compression, D2 NW-SE compression and lastly, D3- and D4-related reactivations along D2 shear zones. The S2 foliation and D2 shear zones are developed during lower amphibolite facies metamorphism whereas retrogression occurs during D3-4 reactivations along these shear zones at upper greenschist facies conditions. The emplacement of a dioritic intrusion, dated at 2140 ± 7 Ma (Concordia U-Pb age on magmatic zircon), is interpreted to be contemporaneous with sinistral displacement along mineralized, NE-trending D2 shear zones. The intersection of these shears zones and the Markoye shear zone (dextral-reverse D1 and sinistral-reverse D2 reactivations) controlled the final geometry of the host rocks and the ore zones. Four subparallel elongated ore bodies are mainly hosted within D2-related shear zones and some are developed in an apparent axial plane of a F2 isoclinal fold. Detailed petrographic studies have identified two main types of hydrothermal alteration associated with two stages of gold mineralization. The stage (1) corresponds to replacement zones with biotite and clinozoisite during the D2 event associated with pyrrhotite ± pyrite, chalcopyrite (disseminated gold stage). The stage (2) occurs during reactivations of the D2-related auriferous shear zones (vein stage) and is characterized by diopside ± actinolite D3 veins and

  13. Facteurs affectant l'adoption des cultures fourragères dans les élevages laitiers péri-urbains de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye, AT.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors Affecting the Adoption of Fodder Crops in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso Peri-urban Dairy Farms. The study aims to identify the factors affecting the adoption of annual (Dolichos lablab and perennial (Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Panicum maximum fodder crops on peri-urban dairy farms of Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso. The results of a logistic regression model (LIMDEP © revealed a number of significant factors (P< 0.05 associated with five main constraints preventing wider use of fodder crops in cultural practices. These include increased labor demand at peak cropping season, land tenure rights, field protection, availability of fodder seeds, and low productivity gain associated with the introduction of fodder crops. Fodder crops adoption rates would be higher with the adaptation of the technology to local conditions and increased emphasis on farmers' training and sensitization campaigns.

  14. Study of competitiveness, survival and dispersal of a strain of sterile males from Burkina Faso in Senegal with a view to a project for the eradication of tsetse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaila; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Lo, Mbargou; Vreysen, Marc; Lancelot, Renaud; Bouyer, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study defines the context in which the ''project to combat the tsetse in the zone of the Niayes in Senegal'' was launched. This project has benefited from the scientific and technical support of ISRA, IAEA and CIRAD. This study defines the context in which the ''project to combat the tsetse in the zone of the Niayes in Senegal'' was launched. This project has benefited from the scientific and technical support of ISRA, IAEA, CIRAD. In the same vein, it highlights the implementation strategy and the problem on the definition of the target population, the compatibility of the tsetse to livestock from Burkina Faso (BKF strain) confirmed in experimental conditions and competitiveness of the tsetse to livestock from Burkina Faso (BKF strain) in these conditions.

  15. [Parasitological profile of two forms of schistosomiasis (urinary and intestinal forms) at ten sites in Burkina Faso (Sub-Saharan Africa country)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, Dramane; Kabre, B Gustave; Dayeri, Dianou; Savadogo, Boubacar; Poda, Jean-Noël

    2013-01-01

    In spite of great progress in schistosomiasis control during the last decade in Burkina Faso, this disease remains a public health concern in the country. Indeed, our study consisted of the analysis of parasitological data related to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni and in malacological investigations. The prevalence rate of Schistosoma haematobium varies from 3.3% to 50.4% and from 3.3% to 39.1% for Schistosoma mansoni, but only in the western part of Burkina Faso. Schoolboys are more infested than girls, but the phenomenon is reversed in adults. Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus senegalensis and Bulinus globosus were collected during this study. Thus, the behavioral factors as well as the dynamics and the distribution of the intermediate mollusks play a major role in the persistence of the disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Native entomopathogenic Metarhizium spp. from Burkina Faso and their virulence against the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii and non-target insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgo, Etienne; Lovett, Brian; St Leger, Raymond J; Sanon, Antoine; Dabiré, Roch K; Diabaté, Abdoulaye

    2018-03-27

    Genetically enhanced Metarhizium pingshaense are being developed for malaria vector control in Burkina Faso. However, not much is known about the local prevalence and pathogenicity of this fungus, so we prospected mosquitoes and plant roots (a common habitat for Metarhizium spp.) for entomopathogenic fungi. Our investigations showed that Metarhizium spp. represented between 29-74% of fungi isolated from plant root rhizospheres in diverse collection sites. At low spore dosages (1 × 10 6 conidia/ml), two mosquito-derived M. pingshaense isolates (Met_S26 and Met_S10) showed greater virulence against Anopheles coluzzii (LT 80 of ~7 days) than isolates tested in previous studies (LT 80 of ~10 days). In addition, the local isolates did not cause disease in non-target insects (honeybees and cockroaches). Our work provides promising findings for isolating local Metarhizium strains for application in mosquito biological control and for future transgenic biocontrol strategies in Burkina Faso.

  17. Prévalence de Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, agent des rayures bactériennes du riz dans les semences de base produites au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Dakouo, D.; Ouedraogo, SL.; Somda, I.; Mortensen, CN.

    2005-01-01

    Prevalence of Bacterial Stripe Organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, in Breeder Rice Seed Samples from Burkina Faso. Nine rice seed samples of improved and local varieties were tested at DGISP (Denmark) for the incidence of seed-borne bacterial stripe organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, using the cassette holder method. Twenty-six suspected bacterial colonies were identified by different methods including colony morphology, pigmentation, biochemical and pathogenicity tests. Using ...

  18. To What Extent Do Protected Areas Determine the Conservation of Native Flora? A Case Study in the Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Traoré, Lassina; Ouédraogo, Amadé; Thiombiano, Adjima

    2012-01-01

    Natural vegetation contributes significantly to the daily needs of local people especially in the developing countries. This exerts a high pressure on freely accessible natural savannas and jeopardizes the conservation of protected areas. In Burkina Faso, conservation measures, such as the creation of protected forests, have been taken to safeguard the remaining indigenous vegetation. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these protected areas in conserving biodiversity. This st...

  19. Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera defatted cake versus seed in the treatment of unsafe drinking water : case study of surface and well waters in Burkina Faso.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabore, Aminata; Savadogo, Boubacar; Rosillon, Francis; Traore, Alfred S.; Dianou, Dayéri

    2013-01-01

    Safe drinking water access for rural populations in developing countries remains a challenge for a sustainable develop-ment, particularly in rural and periurban areas of Burkina Faso. The study aims to investigate the purifying capacity of Moringa oleifera defatted cake as compared to Moringa oleifera seed in the treatment of surface and well waters used for populations alimentation. A total of 90 water samples were collected in sterile glass bottles from 3 dams’ water reservoirs, a river, an...

  20. Prévalence, circulation et caractérisation des bactéries multirésistantes au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo , Abdoul-Salam

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major public health issue, particularly in developing countries where health conditions are still inadequate and antibiotic use is often unjustified and not properly regulated. The main objective of this thesis was to study the prevalence, spread and genetic features of multi-resistant bacteria (MRB) in Burkina Faso, a developing country. This work allows better understanding MRB spread in this country and gives essential information for the development of public he...

  1. Evaluating the Process and Extent of Institutionalization: A Case Study of a Rapid Response Unit for Health Policy in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, Andre; Lavis, John N; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kouyate, Bocar; Ouedraogo, Salimata

    2017-04-10

    Good decision-making requires gathering and using sufficient information. Several knowledge translation platforms have been introduced in Burkina Faso to support evidence-informed decision-making. One of these is the rapid response service for health. This platform aims to provide quick access for policy-makers in Burkina Faso to highquality research evidence about health systems. The purpose of this study is to describe the process and extent of the institutionalization of the rapid response service. A qualitative case study design was used, drawing on interviews with policy-makers, together with documentary analysis. Previously used institutionalization frameworks were combined to guide the analysis. Burkina Faso's rapid response service has largely reached the consolidation phase of the institutionalization process but not yet the final phase of maturity. The impetus for the project came from designated project leaders, who convinced policy-makers of the importance of the rapid response service, and obtained resources to run a pilot. During the expansion stage, additional policy-makers at national and sub-national levels began to use the service. Unit staff also tried to improve the way it was delivered, based on lessons learned during the pilot stage. The service has, however, stagnated at the consolidation stage, and not moved into the final phase of maturity. The institutionalization process for the rapid response service in Burkina Faso has been fluid rather than linear, with some areas developing faster than others. The service has reached the consolidation stage, but now requires additional efforts to reach maturity. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly

  2. Identification of dengue type 2 virus in febrile travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France, related to an ongoing outbreak, October to November 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Eldin, Carole; Gautret, Philippe; Nougairede, Antoine; Sentis, M?lanie; Ninove, Laetitia; Saidani, Nadia; Million, Matthieu; Brouqui, Philippe; Charrel, Remi; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is rarely reported in travellers returning from Africa. We report two cases of dengue fever in travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France. One of them presented a severe dengue fever with ALT?>?1,000 IU/L and pericarditis. Serotype 2 was identified. The cases reflect a large ongoing outbreak with over 1,000 reported cases between August and November in the capital city. Clinicians should consider dengue fever in malaria-negative febrile travellers returning from Africa.

  3. Mental health and urban living in sub-Saharan Africa : major depressive episodes among the urban poor in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Duthe, G.; Rossier, C.; Bonnet, Doris; Soura, A. B.; Corker, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In sub-Saharan African cities, the epidemiological transition has shifted a greater proportion of the burden of non-communicable diseases, including mental and behavioral disorder, to the adult population. The burden of major depressive disorder and its social risk factors in the urban sub-Saharan African population are not well understood and estimates vary widely. We conducted a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in order to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episodes ...

  4. An exploratory study assessing psychological distress of indigents in Burkina Faso: a step forward in understanding mental health needs in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon-Gagné, Émilie; Hassan, Ghayga; Yaogo, Maurice; Ridde, Valéry

    2017-08-14

    Poverty is known as an important determinant of health, but empirical data are still missing on the relationships between poverty, other adverse living conditions, and psychological distress, particularly in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess mental health needs and psychological distress among the poorest in rural settings in Burkina Faso where food security and access to water, electricity, schooling, and healthcare are limited. We randomly selected 2000 individuals previously identified as indigents by a community-targeting process. Interviewers visited participants (n = 1652) in their homes and completed a questionnaire on mental health variables that included presence and intensity of anxious, depressive, psychotic, and aggressive symptoms, as well as level of psychological distress. Descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, and logistic regressions were performed. In all, 40.2% of the sample reported 10 or more anxious/depressive symptoms in the past 30 days, and 25.5% reported having experienced at least one psychotic symptom over their lifetime, 65.6% of whom had had those symptoms for many years. The number of anxious and depressive symptoms was significantly associated with the level of psychological distress (r = 0.423, p < .001). Predictors of distress level included: poor health condition (F(1) = 23.743, p <. 001), being a woman (F(1) = 43.926, p < .001), not having any income (F(1) = 16.185, p < .001), having begged for food in the past 30 days (F(1) = 12.387, p < .001), being illiterate, and being older (F(1) = 21.487, p < .001). Approximately one third of respondents reporting anxious/depressive or psychotic symptoms (28.2 and 30.0%, respectively) had not talked about their symptoms to anyone in their social network. These results suggest alarmingly high levels of psychological distress and reported symptoms among the poorest in rural settings in Burkina Faso, which can be explained by their difficult

  5. Seasonal And Intra-seasonal Hydrological Responses To Change In Climate Pattern And Small Dams of the Faga Watershed In Burkina-Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamounata, K.

    2015-12-01

    In response to the increasing demand for food linked to the substantial growth of population in Burkina Faso, irrigation has been widely used by the farming community to support agricultural production. Thus a promising option for water resources development in such a context is to increase the number of small dams. It is assumed that the great number of small dams may have effect on sub-basins' hydrological dynamic. This study aims to assess the seasonal and the intra-seasonal change in river basins hydrology with the case study of the Faga River sub-basin located in Burkina-Faso, West Africa, using Water Simulation Model (WaSiM). For this watershed the number of small dams is slightly very important (More than 60) and their impact on the watershed runoff has been estimated simultaneously with the change in climate pattern. The coefficient of variation for rainfall in this sub-basin from 1982 to 2010 is 0.097 and the stream flow presents a seasonal average of 25.58Km3 per month for the same period. The intra-seasonal climate variation for the same period is estimated at 0.087 in the scenario where any dam has not been considered. Results based on simulation including the five important dams over the sub-basin show that the overall effect of small dams is on average a 20.76% in runoff. Projections using the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 climate scenarios with increase of 25% of dams' number show a probable decrease of about 29.54% and 35.25% of the average during the next fifty years runoff. The study findings show that small dams reduce significantly the runoff from their watershed and the uncertainties related to the sustainability of the resource seems to be increasing during the same period. Therefore, despite the very large number of water storage infrastructures, reservoirs operating strategies have to be achieved for water sustainability within the Faga sub-basin.

  6. Stratégies paysannes en matière de sécurité alimentaire et de commercialisation céréalière : le rôle des banques de Céréales dans le nord du plateau central du Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yonli, Paramanga Ernest

    1997-01-01

    ln dit proefschrift wordt de rol van graanbanken op het Centrale Plateau in Burkina Faso bestudeerd. Dit Plateau, dat ongeveer twee keer zo groot is als Nederland, is de dichtst bevolkte streek van Burkina Faso. Het grootste deel van de bevolking bestaat uit boeren en hun gezinnen, die vooral voor

  7. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children's nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismann, Séverine; Shrestha, Akina; Diagbouga, Serge; Knoblauch, Astrid; Gerold, Jana; Herz, Ramona; Sharma, Subodh; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Drescher, Axel; Yang, Ray-Yu; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-03-09

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled "Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification" (VgtS), a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i) describe schoolchildren's health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii) provide an evidence-base for programme decisions on the relevance of complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The studies will be conducted in the Centre Ouest and the Plateau Central regions of Burkina Faso and the Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Data will be collected and combined at the level of schools, children and their households. A range of indicators will be used to examine nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and WASH conditions in 24 schools among 1144 children aged 8-14 years at baseline and a 1-year follow-up. The studies are designed as cluster randomised trials and the schools will be assigned to two core study arms: (i) the 'complementary school garden, nutrition and WASH intervention' arm; and the (ii) 'control' arm with no interventions. Children will be subjected to parasitological examinations using stool and urine samples and to quality-controlled anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements. Drinking water will be assessed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. A questionnaire survey on nutritional and health knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) will be administered to children and their caregivers, also assessing socioeconomic, food-security and WASH conditions at household level. Focus group and key-informant interviews on children's nutrition and hygiene perceptions and behaviours will be conducted with their caregivers and school personnel. The studies will

  8. Monitoring Agricultural Expansion in Burkina Faso over 14 Years with 30 m Resolution Time Series: The Role of Population Growth and Implications for the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Knauer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso ranges amongst the fastest growing countries in the world with an annual population growth rate of more than three percent. This trend has consequences for food security since agricultural productivity is still on a comparatively low level in Burkina Faso. In order to compensate for the low productivity, the agricultural areas are expanding quickly. The mapping and monitoring of this expansion is difficult, even on the basis of remote sensing imagery, since the extensive farming practices and frequent cloud coverage in the area make the delineation of cultivated land from other land cover and land use types a challenging task. However, as the rapidly increasing population could have considerable effects on the natural resources and on the regional development of the country, methods for improved mapping of LULCC (land use and land cover change are needed. For this study, we applied the newly developed ESTARFM (Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model framework to generate high temporal (8-day and high spatial (30 m resolution NDVI time series for all of Burkina Faso for the years 2001, 2007, and 2014. For this purpose, more than 500 Landsat scenes and 3000 MODIS scenes were processed with this automated framework. The generated ESTARFM NDVI time series enabled extraction of per-pixel phenological features that all together served as input for the delineation of agricultural areas via random forest classification at 30 m spatial resolution for entire Burkina Faso and the three years. For training and validation, a randomly sampled reference dataset was generated from Google Earth images and based on expert knowledge. The overall accuracies of 92% (2001, 91% (2007, and 91% (2014 indicate the well-functioning of the applied methodology. The results show an expansion of agricultural area of 91% between 2001 and 2014 to a total of 116,900 km². While rainfed agricultural areas account for the major part of this

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of meningococcal carriage and disease isolates in Burkina Faso after mass vaccination with a serogroup a conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Paul A; Ba, Absatou Ky; Sanou, Idrissa; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Sangaré, Lassana; Diomandé, Fabien; Kandolo, Denis; Thomas, Jennifer Dolan; Clark, Thomas A; Laforce, Marc; Caugant, Dominique A

    2013-08-02

    The conjugate vaccine against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA), MenAfriVac, was first introduced in mass vaccination campaigns of the 1-29-year-olds in Burkina Faso in 2010. The aim of this study was to genetically characterize meningococcal isolates circulating in Burkina Faso before and up to 13 months after MenAfriVac mass vaccination. A total of 1,659 meningococcal carriage isolates were collected in a repeated cross-sectional carriage study of the 1-29-year-olds in three districts of Burkina Faso in 2010 and 2011, before and up to 13 months after mass vaccination. Forty-two invasive isolates were collected through the national surveillance in Burkina Faso in the same period. All the invasive isolates and 817 carriage isolates were characterized by serogroup, multilocus sequence typing and porA-fetA sequencing. Seven serogroup A isolates were identified, six in 2010, before vaccination (4 from carriers and 2 from patients), and one in 2011 from an unvaccinated patient; all were assigned to sequence type (ST)-2859 of the ST-5 clonal complex. No NmA carriage isolate and no ST-2859 isolate with another capsule were identified after vaccination. Serogroup X carriage and disease prevalence increased before vaccine introduction, due to the expansion of ST-181, which comprised 48.5% of all the characterized carriage isolates. The hypervirulent serogroup W ST-11 clone that was responsible for most of meningococcal disease in 2011 and 2012 was not observed in 2010; it appeared during the epidemic season of 2011, when it represented 40.6% of the serogroup W carriage isolates. Successive clonal waves of ST-181 and ST-11 may explain the changing epidemiology in Burkina Faso after the virtual disappearance of NmA disease and carriage. No ST-2859 strain of any serogroup was found after vaccination, suggesting that capsule switching of ST-2859 did not occur, at least not during the first 13 months after vaccination.

  10. Spatially explicit multi-threat assessment of food tree species in Burkina Faso: A fine-scale approach.

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    Hannes Gaisberger

    Full Text Available Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change. We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs, climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as 'highly threatened' due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted

  11. Introducing onsite antenatal syphilis screening in Burkina Faso: implementation and evaluation of a feasibility intervention tailored to a local context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Bationo, Fabrice; Savadogo, Justin R; Nacro, Sarata; Kouanda, Séni; Zarowsky, Christina

    2017-05-30

    Although the advantages of introducing point of care testing for syphilis in antenatal care (ANC) are well documented, there is little evidence on how to address structural issues within health systems. A better understanding of how these interventions work in a range of settings and contexts is needed in order to overcome bottlenecks at health system level. To better understand the relationships between implementation and context we developed and implemented an intervention focused on integrating a rapid screening test for syphilis in ANC services in rural primary health care facilities in Burkina Faso. This manuscript describes the intervention and reports on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention, the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of this intervention and the likelihood that point of care test for syphilis will become routinely incorporated in practice. In Kaya Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kaya HDSS), all 7 primary healthcare facilities were selected for intervention in 2013. A participatory approach was used to design and implement an antenatal syphilis screening intervention. The Normalization Process Model (NPM) proposed by May et al. was adapted in order to identify barriers and facilitators and to explore the likelihood to become routinely incorporated in practice. Registers, Observations (n = 14 ANC 1) of interactions between patients and health workers during ANC and interviews with health workers (n = 14) were our data sources. An intervention that included onsite training, provision of supplies and medicines, quality control and supervision was implemented in 7 health facilities in 2013. Rapid syphilis test and treatment were delivered during ANC within the examination room with no specific additional mechanism regarding staff organization. The perceived barriers were lack of training of all staff, workload, stock-outs of consumables and lack of motivation of staff. Key facilitators included political

  12. Spatially explicit multi-threat assessment of food tree species in Burkina Faso: A fine-scale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisberger, Hannes; Kindt, Roeland; Loo, Judy; Schmidt, Marco; Bognounou, Fidèle; Da, Sié Sylvestre; Diallo, Ousmane Boukary; Ganaba, Souleymane; Gnoumou, Assan; Lompo, Djingdia; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mbayngone, Elisée; Nacoulma, Blandine Marie Ivette; Ouedraogo, Moussa; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Parkouda, Charles; Porembski, Stefan; Savadogo, Patrice; Thiombiano, Adjima; Zerbo, Guibien; Vinceti, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana) and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change). We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs), climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as 'highly threatened' due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted regeneration in the

  13. Irradiated Male Tsetse from a 40-Year-Old Colony Are Still Competitive in a Riparian Forest in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Adama; Sidibé, Issa; Bengaly, Zakaria; Bancé, Augustin Z.; Sawadogo, Germain J.; Solano, Philippe; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Lancelot, Renaud; Bouyer, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of African trypanosomosis that constitute a major constraint to development in Africa. Their control is an important component of the integrated management of these diseases, and among the techniques available, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is the sole that is efficient at low densities. The government of Burkina Faso has embarked on a tsetse eradication programme in the framework of the PATTEC, where SIT is an important component. The project plans to use flies from a Glossina palpalis gambiensis colony that has been maintained for about 40 years at the Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES). It was thus necessary to test the competitiveness of the sterile males originating from this colony. Methodology/Principal Findings During the period January–February 2010, 16,000 sterile male G. p. gambiensis were released along a tributary of the Mouhoun river. The study revealed that with a mean sterile to wild male ratio of 1.16 (s.d. 0.38), the abortion rate of the wild female flies was significantly higher than before (p = 0.026) and after (p = 0.019) the release period. The estimated competitiveness of the sterile males (Fried index) was 0.07 (s.d. 0.02), indicating that a sterile to wild male ratio of 14.4 would be necessary to obtain nearly complete induced sterility in the female population. The aggregation patterns of sterile and wild male flies were similar. The survival rate of the released sterile male flies was similar to that observed in 1983–1985 for the same colony. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that gamma sterilised male G. p. gambiensis derived from the CIRDES colony have a competitiveness that is comparable to their competitiveness obtained 35 years ago and can still be used for an area-wide integrated pest management campaign with a sterile insect component in Burkina Faso. PMID:22590652

  14. Identification of driving factors of land degradation and deforestation in the Wildlife Reserve of Bontioli (Burkina Faso, West Africa

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    Kangbéni Dimobe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, protected areas can play an important role in mitigating the effects of climate change through carbon sequestration but they are threatened due to increasing land degradation and deforestation (LDD. The Total Wildlife Reserve of Bontioli (TWRB in Burkina Faso is one of the country’s refuges with high biodiversity. This reserve is seriously threatened by human activities, and little information is available about the on-site causes of degradation extent. This study was carried out to investigate drivers and extent of LDD in the TWRB. Household surveys, focus group discussions and field observations were used to identify socio-economic factors that influence land use and land cover (LULC changes. The socio-economic data were analyzed using rankings and binary logistic regression techniques. Logistic regression model was used to establish the relationship between socio-economic drivers and land cover change. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to analyze land use and LULC changes over 29 years, employing Landsat images of 1984, 2001 and 2013. We performed a supervised classification based on the maximum likelihood algorithm to derive vegetation maps. The results revealed significant (p <0.05 LULC change from one class of LULC to another. From 1984 to 2001, tree savannas, bare soils and agricultural lands increased by 17.55%, 18.79% and 21778.79%, respectively, while woodland, gallery forest, shrub savannas and water bodies decreased by 22.02%, 5.03%, 40.08% and 31.2%, respectively. From 2001 to 2013, gallery forests decreased by 14.33%, tree savannas by 22.30% and shrub savannas by 5.14%, while agricultural lands increased by 167.87% and woodlands by 3.21%. LDD occurred at a higher rate in areas bordering the reserve compared to the core-protected area and the inaccessible areas. Agricultural expansion and wood cutting activities were the main direct causes of LDD. Extensive land utilization for agriculture is a major threat to

  15. Evaluating the Process and Extent of Institutionalization: A Case Study of a Rapid Response Unit for Health Policy in Burkina Faso

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    Andre Zida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Good decision-making requires gathering and using sufficient information. Several knowledge translation platforms have been introduced in Burkina Faso to support evidence-informed decision-making. One of these is the rapid response service for health. This platform aims to provide quick access for policy-makers in Burkina Faso to highquality research evidence about health systems. The purpose of this study is to describe the process and extent of the institutionalization of the rapid response service. Methods A qualitative case study design was used, drawing on interviews with policy-makers, together with documentary analysis. Previously used institutionalization frameworks were combined to guide the analysis. Results Burkina Faso’s rapid response service has largely reached the consolidation phase of the institutionalization process but not yet the final phase of maturity. The impetus for the project came from designated project leaders, who convinced policy-makers of the importance of the rapid response service, and obtained resources to run a pilot. During the expansion stage, additional policy-makers at national and sub-national levels began to use the service. Unit staff also tried to improve the way it was delivered, based on lessons learned during the pilot stage. The service has, however, stagnated at the consolidation stage, and not moved into the final phase of maturity. Conclusion The institutionalization process for the rapid response service in Burkina Faso has been fluid rather than linear, with some areas developing faster than others. The service has reached the consolidation stage, but now requires additional efforts to reach maturity.

  16. Histoire et intégration des communautés: le cas du Burkina-Faso

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    Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available On est aujourd’hui en passe, grâce aux efforts de générations d’historiens, au Burkina comme ailleurs en Afrique, de dresser un tableau déjà à fort complet, même s’il y a encore beaucoup à faire, de l’histoire ancienne des groupes, des communautés. On a bien avancé les connaissances sur l’histoire ancienne, sur l’histoire des traumatismes et des métissages de toute nature de l’époque coloniale, et aujourd’hui sur l’histoire des temps de l’indépendance: histoire rurale, histoire des villes, histoire des échanges fondamentaux et des ? ux et re? ux entre ville et campagne, histoire des migrations, histoire économique et politique, histoire des femmes aussi, etc. (cf. bibliographie indicative, même si beaucoup de ces travaux n’ont pas été publiés. Le Burkina-Faso, en dé? nitive, est un des pays de l’Afrique francophone où la connaissance et la ré? exion historiques ont le plus progressé. Nous en sommes aujourd’hui à la troisième génération d’historiens, puisque le Burki-nabe Joseph Ki-Zerbo fut le premier historien africain francophone à avoir proposé, à l’époque, et en dépit du faible nombre de travaux pré-existants, une magistrale histoire générale de l’Afrique qui fait encore autorité.

  17. Community engagement for better health in Burkina Faso | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... Text and interactive voice messaging systems issue messages in five local languages to ensure inclusiveness and greater accessibility. All messages follow national guidelines for pre- and post-natal care, assisted delivery, vaccination against polio and tetanus, malaria prevention, and patient follow-up.

  18. Impact économique des variétés améliorées du niébé sur les revenus des exploitations agricoles du plateau central du Burkina Faso

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    Ouédraogo, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Improved Varieties of Cowpea on Farm Income in the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso. Cereal crops account for 90% of the total cultivated area in the central plateau of Burkina Faso. Cash crops that promote crop production diversity and substantial farm income improvement are still scarce in this zone. The devaluation of CFA currency in 1994 has increased interest in cowpea production and this can significantly improve the cropping systems in the central plateau. This paper assesses the economical impact of new varieties of cowpea adopted by farmers using partial budget analysis methods and linear programming. The results point out that if suitable credit policy that support this production is implemented, it constitutes an interesting alternative for farmer's income improvement in the central plateau of Burkina Faso.

  19. A case-control study of risk factors for surgical site infection after cesarean delivery in eastern Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Boezemwendé; Soudouem, Georges; Seck, Ibrahima; Millogo, Tieba; Evariste Yaméogo, Wambi Maurice; Kouanda, Seni

    2016-11-01

    To identify the risk factors for surgical site infection after cesarean delivery in a rural area in eastern Burkina Faso. A matched case-control study was conducted in Fada N'Gourma Regional Hospital Center and the Diapaga Medical Center with Surgical Antenna using data from 2011-2014. A total of 99 cases of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery were included in the study. Each case was matched with a control patient similar for age, admission date, and facility where the cesarean took place. Risk factors were identified using conditional logistic regression. Multivariate analysis identified hyperthermia at admission (OR 2.37; P=0.035), the presence of caput succedaneum in newborns (OR 7.07; P=0.001), and difficult delivery (OR 3.69; P=0. 019) as risk factors for surgical site infection. Provision of quality prenatal care, use of the partograph during labor, and the responsiveness of health workers during labor can reduce surgical site infection after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Impact and effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in children <5 years of age in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Aliabadi, Negar; Leshem, Eyal; Kam, Madibèlè; Nezien, Désiré; Drabo, Maxime K; Nikiema, Moumouni; Ouedraogo, Boureima; Medah, Isaïe; Konaté, Souleymane; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Sangaré, Lassana; Kam, Ludovic; Yé, Diarra; Ouattara, Ma; Biey, Joseph N; Mwenda, Jason M; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D

    2017-12-28

    Burkina Faso was one of the first African nations to introduce pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5, RotaTeq) into its national immunization program in October 2013. We describe the impact and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations among Burkinabe children. Sentinel hospital-based surveillance for AGE was conducted at four hospitals during December 2013 - February 2017. Demographic, clinical, and vaccination information was collected and stool specimens were tested by EIA. Trends in rotavirus AGE hospitalizations and changes in the proportion of AGE hospitalizations due to rotavirus were examined at two sentinel sites from January 2014 - December 2016. Unconditional logistic regression models using data from all 4 surveillance sites were used to calculate vaccine effectiveness (VE, defined as 1-odds ratio) by comparing the odds of vaccination among rotavirus AGE (cases) and non-rotavirus AGE (controls) patients, controlling for age, season, hospital site and socioeconomic factors. The proportion of AGE hospitalizations that tested positive for rotavirus declined significantly among children effectiveness decreased in older children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Competitiveness Level of Photovoltaic Solar Systems in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso: Study Based on the Domestic Electric Meters Calibration

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    Konan Lambert Amani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean cost price of electricity in Burkina Faso at the end of the last quarter of 2012 was 158 FCFA/kWh for a country where more than 46% of the population lives below the national poverty threshold. To look for solution to that problem, the resort to photovoltaic solar energy is justified for that country. The purpose of this study is to promote the integration of both technical and economical surveys in solar energy preliminary projects in Ouagadougou. To reach that, investigations were carried out in some households and attention was paid from the calibration of the domestic electric meters. Energy demands collected within each household allow us to design a corresponding solar kit through optimization rules. An estimate was edited and financial viability study for each household was also carried out thereafter. In this study, only households using the national electricity network calibration meter on their disadvantage favorably answered to all financial indicators and appear as the only one that could profit from such project. This work is helpful to note that photovoltaic solar energy still stays at a primitive level of competitiveness compared to conventional energy resources for small systems in Ouagadougou.

  2. Measuring health workers' motivation composition: validation of a scale based on Self-Determination Theory in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Julia; Souares, Aurélia; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Houlfort, Nathalie; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Somda, Serge M A; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-05-22

    Although motivation of health workers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has become a topic of increasing interest by policy makers and researchers in recent years, many aspects are not well understood to date. This is partly due to a lack of appropriate measurement instruments. This article presents evidence on the construct validity of a psychometric scale developed to measure motivation composition, i.e., the extent to which motivation of different origin within and outside of a person contributes to their overall work motivation. It is theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1142 nurses in 522 government health facilities in 24 districts of Burkina Faso. We assessed the scale's validity in a confirmatory factor analysis framework, investigating whether the scale measures what it was intended to measure (content, structural, and convergent/discriminant validity) and whether it does so equally well across health worker subgroups (measurement invariance). Our results show that the scale measures a slightly modified version of the SDT continuum of motivation well. Measurements were overall comparable between subgroups, but results indicate that caution is warranted if a comparison of motivation scores between groups is the focus of analysis. The scale is a valuable addition to the repository of measurement tools for health worker motivation in LMICs. We expect it to prove useful in the quest for a more comprehensive understanding of motivation as well as of the effects and potential side effects of interventions intended to enhance motivation.

  3. [Prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in intra-urban and peri-urban dairy cattle farms in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussini, H; Traoré, A; Tamboura, H H; Bessin, R; Boly, H; Ouédraogo, A

    2012-12-01

    A study of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis was conducted in dairy cattle farms in and around the city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. It reveals the potential economic and health impact of these two major zoonoses in the study area. Three farming systems were included in the study. A total of 1,420 cattle were tested for tuberculosis and 1,689 cattle were tested for brucellosis. The intradermal tuberculin test was used for tuberculosis, and the buffered antigen test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for brucellosis. The overall prevalence rate is estimated to be 6.05% for tuberculosis and 3.61% for brucellosis. The prevalence rates of tuberculosis and brucellosis in urban and peri-urban dairy cattle farms in Ouagadougou were found to be high. As these two production-linked diseases are zoonotic, they could pose a major risk to human health and contribute significantly to reducing animal production and productivity in the areas covered by the study. Animals should be checked systematically prior to introducing them into dairy herds, with the ultimate goal of eradicating these two zoonoses.

  4. Effects of a Cereal and Soy Dietary Formula on Rehabilitation of Undernourished Children at Ouagadougou, in Burkina Faso

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    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The New Misola consists of millet soybean, peanut, vitamins, minerals, and industrial amylase. Our objective is to demonstrate that porridge made from local grains and legumes restores the nutritional balance of malnourished children. The study was carried on 304 malnourished children aged 6–48 months including 172 girls and 132 boys from Saint Camille Medical Centre. At the beginning, these malnourished children had a WHZ z-score of −3.10 and a WAZ z-score of −3.85, which reflected, according to WHO, a severe malnutrition. After eight weeks of nutritional rehabilitation, a normal WHZ of −1.41 was obtained. These children recovered more than those in a similar study performed in 2006 with the old formula of Misola. This study shows that malnutrition remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso. It should be necessary that public health services and the epidemiologists work in synergy with nutritionists and “nutrigenetics” in order to combat malnutrition efficiently.

  5. The Effect of Vegetation Productivity on Millet Prices in the Informal Markets of Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.E. [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 923, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pinzon, J.E. [Science Systems and Applications Inc., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 923, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Prince, S.D. [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Systematic evaluation of food security throughout the Sahel has been attempted for nearly two decades. Food security analyses have used both food prices to determine the ability of the population to access food, and satellite-derived vegetation indices that measure vegetation production to establish how much food is available each year. The relationship between these two food security indicators is explored here using correspondence analysis and through the use of Markov chain models. Two sources of quantitative data were used: 8 km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) carried on the NOAA series of satellites, and monthly millet prices from 445 markets in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. The results show that the growing season vegetation production is related to the price of millet at the annual and the seasonal time scales. If the growing season was characterized by erratic, sparse rainfall, it resulted in higher prices, and well-distributed, abundant rainfall resulted in lower prices. The correspondence between vegetation production and millet prices is used to produce maps of millet prices for West Africa.

  6. The Sensitivity of Food Prices to Climate Dynamics in the Informal Markets of Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Pinzon, J. E.; Prince, S. D.

    2006-05-01

    Systematic evaluation of food security throughout the West African Sahel has been attempted for nearly two decades. Food security analyses use food prices to determine the ability of the population to access food, and satellite derived vegetation indices to establish how much food is available each year. The relationship between these different food security indicators was explored in this study using correspondence analysis and through the use of Markov chain models. Two sources of quantitative data were used in these analysis that are readily available: 8km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the NOAA series of satellites carrying the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and monthly millet grain prices from 445 markets in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. The results of this study show that the quality of the growing season affects the price of millet at the annual and the seasonal time scales. If the growing season was characterized by erratic, sparse rainfall it resulted in higher prices, and well- distributed, abundant rainfall resulted in lower prices. Model output was used to determine the impact of coupled price pressure and production deficits on the livelihoods of three demographic groups in Niger, demonstrating the power of integrating disparate datasets for food security estimation. The model can be used to estimate the economic and societal impacts resulting from climate variation, causing significant changes in human consumptions patterns. These changes can have global consequences when drought affects large portions of the growing regions simultaneously in the same year.

  7. Additional selection for insecticide resistance in urban malaria vectors: DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

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    Christopher M Jones

    Full Text Available In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose=65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively. An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency=0.4, which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa.

  8. Vegetation Structure and Carbon Stocks of Two Protected Areas within the South-Sudanian Savannas of Burkina Faso

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    Mohammad Qasim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Savannas and adjacent vegetation types like gallery forests are highly valuable ecosystems contributing to several ecosystem services including carbon budgeting. Financial mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation can provide an opportunity for developing countries to alleviate poverty through conservation of its forestry resources. However, for availing such opportunities carbon stock assessments are essential. Therefore, a research study for this purpose was conducted at two protected areas (Nazinga Game Ranch and Bontioli Nature Reserve in Burkina Faso. Similarly, analysis of various vegetation parameters was also conducted to understand the overall vegetation structure of these two protected areas. For estimating above ground biomass, existing allometric equations for dry tropical woody vegetation types were used. Compositional structure was described by applying tree species and family importance indices. The results show that both sites collectively contain a mean carbon stock of 3.41 ± 4.98 Mg·C·ha−1. Among different savanna vegetation types, gallery forests recorded the highest mean carbon stock of 9.38 ± 6.90 Mg·C·ha−1. This study was an attempt at addressing the knowledge gap particularly on carbon stocks of protected savannas—it can serve as a baseline for carbon stocks for future initiatives such as REDD+ within these areas.

  9. HIV treatment and reproductive health in the health system in Burkina Faso: resource allocation and the need for integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Ricarda; de Savigny, Don; Onadja, Geneviève; Somda, Antoine; Wyss, Kaspar; Sié, Ali; Kouyaté, Bocar

    2011-11-01

    Organizational changes, increased funding and the demands of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) treatment create particular challenges for governance in the health sector. We assess resource allocation, policy making and integration of the national responses to ARV provision and reproductive health in Burkina Faso, using national and district budgets related to disease burden, policy documents, organizational structures, and coordination and implementation processes. ARV provision represents the concept of a "crisis scenario", in which reforms are pushed due to a perception of urgent need, whereas the national reproductive health programme, which is older and more integrated, represents a "politics-as-usual scenario". Findings show that the early years of the national response to HIV and AIDS were characterized by new institutions with overlapping functions, and failure to integrate with and strengthen existing structures. National and district budget allocations for HIV compared to other interventions were disproportionately high when assessed against burden of disease. Strategic documents for ARV provision were relatively less developed and referred to, compared to those of the Ministry of Health Directorates for HIV and for Family Health and district health planning teams for reproductive health services. Imbalances and new structures potentially trigger important adverse effects which are difficult to remedy and likely to increase due to the dynamics they create. It therefore becomes crucial, from the outset, to integrate HIV/AIDS funding and responses into health systems. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing the diversity of preferences of suburban smallholder sheep keepers for breeding rams in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindano, K; Moula, N; Traoré, A; Leroy, P; Antoine-Moussiaux, N

    2017-08-01

    Urbanisation in developing countries entails deep changes in the livestock sector and the management of animal genetic resources (AnGR). Sheep breeding around Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) illustrates these changes and the need to coordinate genetic improvement in general and the use of crossbreeding in particular. For this, it is important to understand breeders' choices and improvement strategy, to accompany them within a national plan for AnGR management. In a context of missing market for breeding rams, a stated choice experiment was conducted with 137 farmers, together with a characterisation of herd management practices. This survey analyses farmers' preferences for breeding rams, estimating their willingness to pay (WTP) for different traits (attributes). Their practices were characterised by a high reliance on natural pastures (82% of farmers) and a minority of crossbreeding (23%). The highest WTP was observed for disease resistance. However, the subgroup of farmers practicing crossbreeding showed a tolerance to high susceptibility. A strong preference for the white colour was revealed. Although significant, the influence of sheep body size on decision-making showed a lesser importance, again with a distinct behaviour in the subgroup practicing crossbreeding. These results illustrate the need to take account of the diversity of goals and preferences among smallholder sheep keepers to gain their adhesion to a coordinated genetic improvement framework.

  11. Modeling the cost-effectiveness of the integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR system: meningitis in Burkina Faso.

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    Zana C Somda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective surveillance for infectious diseases is an essential component of public health. There are few studies estimating the cost-effectiveness of starting or improving disease surveillance. We present a cost-effectiveness analysis the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR strategy in Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the impact of the IDSR in Africa, we used pre- and post- IDSR meningococcal meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso (1996-2002 and 2003-2007. IDSR implementation was correlated with a median reduction of 2 weeks to peak of outbreaks (25(th percentile 1 week; 75(th percentile 4 weeks. IDSR was also correlated with a reduction of 43 meningitis cases per 100,000 (25(th-40: 75(th-129. Assuming the correlations between reductions in time to peak of outbreaks and cases are related, the cost-effectiveness of IDSR was $23 per case averted (25(th-$30; 75(th--cost saving, and $98 per meningitis-related death averted (25(th-$140: 75(th--cost saving. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We cannot absolutely claim that the measured differences were due to IDSR. We believe, however, that it is reasonable to claim that IDSR can improve the cost-effectiveness of public health surveillance.

  12. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine-Burkina Faso, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiré, Dinanibè; Soeters, Heidi M; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Sangare, Lassana; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Hema-Ouangraoua, Soumeya; McGee, Lesley; Srinivasan, Velusamy; Aké, Flavien; Congo-Ouédraogo, Malika; Sanou, Soufian; Ba, Absatou Ky; Novak, Ryan T; Van Beneden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR). During 2011-2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden.

  13. WÉGOUBRI, the sahelian bocage: an integrate approach for environment preservation and social development in sahelian agriculture (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Girard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The NGO Terre Verte pursues the realisation of bocage perimeters (wégoubri in the mooré language in Burkina Faso. They are an innovative concept of rural development that has been established in the 1990s in the experimental farm of Guiè and is now adopted in other experimental farms in Burkina Faso. The deterioration of the rural landscape in the Sahel region has worsened in the last decades, endangering local populations. The creation of bocage perimeters in this rural landscape is a way to remediate problems linked to overly extensive agriculture. Through a holistic approach to the problem, the experimental farm of Guiè has been able to integrate environmental preservation into the Sahel agriculture thanks to three axes of intervention: applied research, education and direct help to the peasants. An experimental farm relies on five technical teams, each supervised by a coordinator.The concept is based on the creation of bocage perimeters in a mixed propriety regime, comprising individually owned plots and common grounds, managed by an association of beneficiaries. The result is a restored environment, in which agriculture is no longer tantamount to erosion and livestock farming to overgrazing, where trees and bushes are harmoniously integrated into the environment.The increase in agricultural yields observed after a few years of soil restoration leads to the conclusion that those projects will be economically viable. A system of credits for farmers could allow the implementation of such a system, which represents the only solution for the millions of hectares of degraded soil in the Sahel region.L’ONG Terre Verte réalise au Burkina Faso des périmètres bocagers (wégoubri en langue mooré. Il s’agit d’un concept novateur de développement rural mis au point dans la ferme pilote de Guiè dans les années 1990, adopté depuis par d’autres fermes pilotes du pays. La dégradation du paysage rural du Sahel s’est aggravée au

  14. Mise en évidence au Burkina Faso d'un nouveau taxon de Colletotrichum dans l'étiologie de la maladie des taches brunes du niébé

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    Sérémé, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of New Taxum of Colletotrichum as a Causal Pathogen for Brown Blotch Disease of Cowpea in the Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso. Brown blotch disease of cowpea was, until recentiy, described as a disease of savannah and forested zones of Africa. However, in its latest progression, the disease also appeared in the sahelian zone of Burkina. In the present study on the etiology of brown blotch disease in Burkina Faso, analysis of isolates Colletotrichum spp. iead to the identification of a new Colletotrichum taxum causing the disease in the sahelian area of Burkina Faso. Based on its growth and microscopic characteristics, the new taxum differs from Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum truncatum already reported as the 2 pathogens involved in the occurrence of the disease. Observed differences between studied isolates IMI 379432, IMI 379433, IMI 379434, and IMI 379435 of the new taxum, specifie to Pobe area in Burkina Faso, and those of C. capsici andC. truncatum was confirmed by CABI-BIOSCIENCE (England. Additional work, using molecular techniques, is projected in near future for a better characterization of the new taxum of Colletotrichum reported in the present study.

  15. Free versus subsidised healthcare: options for fee exemptions, access to care for vulnerable groups and effects on the health system in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaogo, Maurice

    2017-07-12

    The many forms of healthcare fee exemptions implemented in Burkina Faso since the 2000s have varied between total exemption (free) and cost subsidisation. This article examines both options, their contextual variations and the ways in which they affect access to healthcare for vulnerable people as well as the operation of the health system. This research is part of an interdisciplinary regional program on the elimination of user fees for health services in West Africa (Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger). A conceptual framework and a chronological review of policy interventions are used as references to summarise the results of the three qualitative studies presented. Historical reference points are used to describe the emergence of healthcare fee exemption policies in Burkina Faso and the events that influenced their adoption. The joint analysis of opinions on options for fee exemption focuses on the different types of repercussions on access to healthcare and the operation of the health system. In conjunction with the twists and turns of the gradual development of a national health policy and in response to international recommendations, healthcare fee exemptions have evolved since colonisation. The limitations of the changes introduced with cost recovery and the barriers to healthcare access for the poorest people led to the adoption of the current sectorial fee exemptions. The results provide information on the reasons for the changes that have occurred over time. The nuanced perspectives of different categories of people surveyed about fee exemption options show that, beyond the perceived effects on healthcare access and the health system, the issue is one of more equitable governance. In principle, the fee exemption measures are intended to provide improved healthcare access for vulnerable groups. In practice, the negative effects on the operation of the health system advocate for reforms to harmonise the changes to multifaceted fee exemptions and the actual needs

  16. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Burkina Faso: evaluation of vertical transmission by PCR, molecular characterization of subtypes and determination of antiretroviral drugs resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagna, Tani; Bisseye, Cyrille; Compaore, Tegewende R; Kagone, Therese S; Djigma, Florencia W; Ouermi, Djeneba; Pirkle, Catherine M; Zeba, Moctar T A; Bazie, Valerie J T; Douamba, Zoenabo; Moret, Remy; Pietra, Virginio; Koama, Adjirita; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Sia, Joseph D; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is a public health problem in Burkina Faso. The main objective of this study on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission was to determine the residual risk of HIV transmission in infants born to mothers receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Moreover, we detect HIV antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance among mother-infant pairs and identify subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF) in Burkina Faso. In this study, 3,215 samples of pregnant women were analyzed for HIV using rapid tests. Vertical transmission was estimated by polymerase chain reaction in 6-month-old infants born to women who tested HIV positive. HIV-1 resistance to ARV, subtypes, and CRFs was determined through ViroSeq kit using the ABI PRISM 3,130 sequencer. In this study, 12.26% (394/3,215) of the pregnant women were diagnosed HIV positive. There was 0.52% (2/388) overall vertical transmission of HIV, with rates of 1.75% (2/114) among mothers under prophylaxis and 0.00% (0/274) for those under HAART. Genetic mutations were also isolated that induce resistance to ARV such as M184V, Y115F, K103N, Y181C, V179E, and G190A. There were subtypes and CRF of HIV-1 present, the most common being: CRF06_CPX (58.8%), CRF02_AG (35.3%), and subtype G (5.9%). ARV drugs reduce the residual rate of HIV vertical transmission. However, the virus has developed resistance to ARV, which could limit future therapeutic options when treatment is needed. Resistance to ARV therefore requires a permanent interaction between researchers, physicians, and pharmacists, to strengthen the network of monitoring and surveillance of drug resistance in Burkina Faso.

  17. Readiness of district and regional hospitals in Burkina Faso to provide caesarean section and blood transfusion services: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaoré, Georges Dayitaba; Sombié, Issiaka; Ganaba, Rasmané; Hounton, Sennen; Meda, Nicolas; Brouwere, Vincent De; Borchert, Matthias

    2014-05-02

    Health centres and hospitals play a crucial role in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity by offering respectively Basic Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (BEmONC) and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (CEmONC). The readiness of hospitals to provide CEmONC depends on the availability of qualified human resources, infrastructure like surgical theatres, and supplies like drugs and blood for transfusion. We assessed the readiness of district and regional hospitals in Burkina Faso to provide two key CEmONC functions, namely caesarean section and blood transfusion. As countries conduct EmONC needs assessments it is critical to provide national and subnational data, e.g. on the distribution of EmONC facilities as well as on facilities lacking the selected signal functions, to support the planning process for upgrading facilities so that they are ready to provide CEmONC. In a cross-sectional study we assessed the availability of relevant health workers, obstetric guidelines, caesarean section and blood transfusion services and experience with quality assurance approaches across all forty-three (43) district and nine (9) regional hospitals. The indicator corresponding to one comprehensive emergency care unit for 500,000 inhabitants was not achieved in Burkina Faso. Physicians with surgical skills, surgical assistants and anaesthesiologist assistants are sufficiently available in only 51.2%, 88.3% and 72.0% of district hospitals, respectively. Two thirds of regional and 20.9% of district hospitals had blood banks. Most district hospitals as opposed to only one third of regional hospitals had experience in maternal death reviews. Our findings suggest that only 27.8% of hospitals in Burkina Faso at the time of the study could continuously offer caesarean sections and blood transfusion services. Four years later, progress has likely been made but many challenges remain to be overcome. Information provided in this study can serve as a baseline for

  18. Vaccination coverage and factors associated with adherence to the vaccination schedule in young children of a rural area in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoné, Moubassira; Yé, Maurice; Nébié, Eric; Sie, Ali; Schoeps, Anja; Becher, Heiko; Muller, Olaf; Fisker, Ane Baerent

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is an important tool for reducing infectious disease morbidity and mortality. In the past, less than 80% of children 12-23 months of age were fully immunized in Burkina Faso. To describe coverage and assess factors associated with adherence to the vaccination schedule in rural area Burkina Faso. The study population was extracted from the Nouna Health and Demographic surveillance system cohort. Data from four rounds of interviews conducted between November 2012 and June 2014 were considered. This study included 4016 children aged 12-23 months. We assessed the effects of several background factors, including sex, factors reflecting access to health care (residence, place of birth), and maternal factors (age, education, marital status), on being fully immunized defined as having received Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and oral polio vaccine, and measles vaccine by 12 months of age. The associations were studied using binomial regression to derive prevalence ratios (PRs) in univariate and multivariate regression models. The full vaccination coverage increased significantly over time (72% in 2012, 79% in 2013, and 81% in 2014, p = 0.003), and the coverage was significantly lower in urban than in rural areas (PR 0.84; 0.80-0.89). Vaccination coverage was neither influenced by sex nor influenced by place of birth or by maternal factors. The study documented a further improvement in full vaccination coverage in Burkina Faso in recent years and better vaccination coverage in rural than in urban areas. The organization of healthcare systems with systematic outreach activities in the rural areas may explain the difference between rural and urban areas.

  19. Inégalité intra-ménage et genre au Burkina Faso : un test économétrique

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Lachaud

    1998-01-01

    Based on the estimate of demand functions for adult goods and the evaluation of outlay equivalents, the present study suggests that, contrary to what is sometimes asserted, the hypothesis of a gender bias within the household - so that girls receive less than boys - seems more probable in Africa. Indeed, using the data from the 1994_95 household survey of the Burkina Faso, it is found that, for the whole of the goods consumed by the adults and whatever the demographic group considered, the eq...

  20. Use of Non Wood Forest Products by local people bordering the “Parc National Kaboré Tambi”, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gausset, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    this issue in the case of the “Parc National Kaboré Tambi” in Burkina Faso, by proposing a combination of ethno-botanical surveys and botanical inventories. The article analyses the importance of the park plant species, identify the constraints faced by local people to harvest the park plant products....... They harvest in the park Non Wood Forest Products (NWFPs), although the Forest Code bans free access. About one hundred plants species are used, but the pattern of extraction of the products or some plant parts could destroy the resource base. Technically, conservation by domestication of the source species...

  1. The meaning of African and “White man’s” food at Muslim and civil wedding celebrations in urban Burkina Faso

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    Liza Debevec

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chez les Musulmans du Burkina Faso, les mariages sont célébrés selon deux modes différents: d’une part, on trouve le mariage « traditionnel » qui s’accompagne d’une cérémonie religieuse et d’autre part, il y a le mariage “civil”, qui est marqué par une cérémonie officielle ayant lieu à la mairie. Les contrastes existants entre ces deux fêtes se révèlent notamment à travers les repas servis à cette occasion. La fête traditionnelle offre des plats et des boissons considérés comme « africains », tandis que le repas servi lors de la fête civile se compose essentiellement de tubabu dumuni ou « nourriture des Blancs ». La manière de manger amplifie également la distinction observée entre les deux fêtes: lors du repas traditionnel, les gens mangent dans les mêmes plats et avec la main, alors qu’à l’occasion de la cérémonie civile, ils utilisent assiettes, fourchettes et couteaux. A travers l’analyse de ces deux formes de cérémonies comme de leurs différences, cet article s'intéresse au discours très présent sur l’opposition entre « traditionnel » et « moderne » au Burkina Faso urbain.Muslims of Burkina Faso celebrate weddings in two distinct ways; a “traditional” celebration accompanies the religious ceremony, while a “civil” wedding party marks the official marriage which takes place at the town hall. The foods served are important markers of the contrasts between these two occasions. While so-called “African” food and drink is served at the traditional ceremony, the civil ceremony is marked by the serving of tubabu dumuni or “white man’s food”. Another distinction is the manner of eating. At the traditional meal guests eat from shared bowls, using their hands, while at the “civil” celebration the food is served on plates and is meant to be eaten with cutlery. Drawing on these two ceremonial forms and the marked distinctions between them, this paper

  2. Acceptability of new formulations of corn-soy blends and lipid-based nutrient supplements in Province du Passoré, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iuel-Brockdorff, Ann-Sophie Julie D; Dræbel, Tania; Fabiansen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    children in rural Burkina Faso based on general appreciation of the supplements and organoleptic properties. All experimental foods received good ratings and there was no significant difference between the foods. However, after the take-home ration, 58% of participants receiving CSB reported having left...... foods, used for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition, were well appreciated in the study location. LNS were to a higher degree associated with medicine or foods with medicinal properties, but both LNS and CSB were perceived as beneficial to child health....

  3. Challenges and opportunities associated with the introduction of next-generation long-lasting insecticidal nets for malaria control: a case study from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfazghi, Kemi; Traore, Adama; Ranson, Hilary; N'Fale, Sagnon; Hill, Jenny; Worrall, Eve

    2016-07-22

    Reductions in malaria incidence in Africa can largely be attributed to increases in malaria vector control activities; predominately the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). With insecticide resistance affecting an increasing number of malaria-endemic countries and threatening the effectiveness of conventional LLINs, there is an increasing urgency to implement alternative tools that control these resistant populations. The aim of this study was to identify potential challenges and opportunities for accelerating access to next-generation LLINs in Burkina Faso, a country with areas of high levels of insecticide resistance. An analytical framework was used to guide the selection of interviewees, data collection and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with key informants in April 2014 in Burkina Faso. Interviews were conducted in French and English, audio recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo 10 for data management and analysis. Data were coded according to the framework themes and then analysed to provide a description of the key points and explain patterns in the data. Interviewees reported that the policy architecture in Burkina Faso is characterised by a strong framework of actors that contribute to policymaking and strong national research capacity which indirectly contributes to national policy change via collaboration with internationally led research. Financing significantly impacts the potential adoption, availability and affordability of next-generation LLINs. This confers significant power on international donors that fund vector control. National decisions around which LLINs to procure were restricted to quantity and delivery dates; the potential to tackle insecticide resistance was not part of the decision-making process. Furthermore, at the time of the study, there was no World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on where and when next-generation LLINs might positively impact on malaria transmission, severely limiting

  4. Integrated monitoring and evaluation and environmental risk factors for urogenital schistosomiasis and active trachoma in Burkina Faso before preventative chemotherapy using sentinel sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukounari, Artemis; Touré, Seydou; Donnelly, Christl A; Ouedraogo, Amadou; Yoda, Bernadette; Ky, Cesaire; Kaboré, Martin; Bosqué-Oliva, Elisa; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Fenwick, Alan; Webster, Joanne P

    2011-07-12

    Over 1 billion of the world's poorest inhabitants are afflicted by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Integrated control programmes aimed at tackling these debilitating NTDs have been recently initiated, mainly using preventative chemotherapy. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of these integrated programs presents particular challenges over and above those required for single disease vertical programmes. We used baseline data from the National NTD Control Programme in Burkina Faso in order to assess the feasibility of an integrated survey design, as well as to elucidate the contribution of environmental variables to the risk of either Schistosoma haematobium, trachoma, or both among school-aged children. S. haematobium infection was diagnosed by detecting eggs in urine. A trachoma case was defined by the presence of Trachomatous inflammation-Follicular (TF) and/or Trachomatous inflammation-Intense (TI) in either eye. Baseline data collected from 3,324 children aged 7-11 years in 21 sentinel sites across 11 regions of Burkina Faso were analyzed using simple and multivariable hierarchical binomial logistic regression models fitted by Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation methods. Probabilities of the risk of belonging to each infection/disease category were estimated as a function of age, gender (individual level), and environmental variables (at sentinel site level, interpolated from national meteorological stations). Overall prevalence at the sentinel sites was 11.79% (95% CI: 10.70-12.89) for S. haematobium; 13.30% (12.14-14.45) for trachoma and 0.84% (0.53-1.15) for co-infections. The only significant predictor of S. haematobium infection was altitude. There were significant negative associations between the prevalence of active trachoma signs and minimum temperature, and air pressure. Conditional upon these predictors, these data are consistent with the two pathogens being independent. Urogenital schistosomiasis and trachoma constitute public health problems in

  5. Integrated monitoring and evaluation and environmental risk factors for urogenital schistosomiasis and active trachoma in Burkina Faso before preventative chemotherapy using sentinel sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosqué-Oliva Elisa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 1 billion of the world's poorest inhabitants are afflicted by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Integrated control programmes aimed at tackling these debilitating NTDs have been recently initiated, mainly using preventative chemotherapy. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E of these integrated programs presents particular challenges over and above those required for single disease vertical programmes. We used baseline data from the National NTD Control Programme in Burkina Faso in order to assess the feasibility of an integrated survey design, as well as to elucidate the contribution of environmental variables to the risk of either Schistosoma haematobium, trachoma, or both among school-aged children. Methods S. haematobium infection was diagnosed by detecting eggs in urine. A trachoma case was defined by the presence of Trachomatous inflammation-Follicular (TF and/or Trachomatous inflammation-Intense (TI in either eye. Baseline data collected from 3,324 children aged 7-11 years in 21 sentinel sites across 11 regions of Burkina Faso were analyzed using simple and multivariable hierarchical binomial logistic regression models fitted by Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation methods. Probabilities of the risk of belonging to each infection/disease category were estimated as a function of age, gender (individual level, and environmental variables (at sentinel site level, interpolated from national meteorological stations. Results Overall prevalence at the sentinel sites was 11.79% (95% CI: 10.70-12.89 for S. haematobium; 13.30% (12.14-14.45 for trachoma and 0.84% (0.53-1.15 for co-infections. The only significant predictor of S. haematobium infection was altitude. There were significant negative associations between the prevalence of active trachoma signs and minimum temperature, and air pressure. Conditional upon these predictors, these data are consistent with the two pathogens being independent. Conclusions Urogenital

  6. Identification of dengue type 2 virus in febrile travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France, related to an ongoing outbreak, October to November 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin, Carole; Gautret, Philippe; Nougairede, Antoine; Sentis, Mélanie; Ninove, Laetitia; Saidani, Nadia; Million, Matthieu; Brouqui, Philippe; Charrel, Remi; Parola, Philippe

    2016-12-15

    Dengue fever is rarely reported in travellers returning from Africa. We report two cases of dengue fever in travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France. One of them presented a severe dengue fever with ALT > 1,000 IU/L and pericarditis. Serotype 2 was identified. The cases reflect a large ongoing outbreak with over 1,000 reported cases between August and November in the capital city. Clinicians should consider dengue fever in malaria-negative febrile travellers returning from Africa. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  7. Droughts, Irrigation Development, and Hydropower: Different Development Priorities in Ghana and Burkina Faso and Their Effect on Management of the Volta River, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; van Edig, A.

    2001-05-01

    The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36 km3 becomes available as runoff in the Volta River. Small variations in rainfall cause relatively large variations in runoff. The Volta Basin is undergoing rapid changes in land use and water resource development, mainly driven by the high population growth of 3% per year. However, different countries pursue economic development in different ways. At independence in 1957, Ghana's leaders saw industrialization as essential to development and electric power from the Volta Dam as central to that industrialization. In 1964, the Volta Dam was built and Ghana's economic growth in the mining, industrial, and service sectors has depended on the dam's hydropower ever since. In contrast, land-locked Burkina Faso has less industrial potential and seeks to develop through its agriculture, both for subsistence and export crops. Given the extremely unreliable rainfall, irrigation development is seen as the only way to increase agricultural production. In general, irrigation in Burkina Faso takes the form of many small scale, village-based schemes of which the downstream impact is difficult to gauge. A minor drought in 1997 and 1998 caused the level of Lake Volta to drop, resulting in widespread power outages. In the ensuing public discussion, hydraulic development in Burkina Faso was seen as one of the potential causes of the lack of water. No firm data were available to substantiate this claim. In fact, over-withdrawals in previous years combined with climate variability were more likely culprits. A recently initiated multi-disciplinary research project will be presented that seeks to provide a scientific basis on which future discussions between the two

  8. User fee exemptions and excessive household spending for normal delivery in Burkina Faso: the need for careful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameur Amal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Parliament of Burkina Faso passed a policy to reduce the direct costs of obstetric services and neonatal care in the country’s health centres, aiming to lower the country’s high national maternal mortality and morbidity rates. Implementation was via a “partial exemption” covering 80% of the costs. In 2008 the German NGO HELP launched a pilot project in two health districts to eliminate the remaining 20% of user fees. Regardless of any exemptions, women giving birth in Burkina Faso’s health centres face additional expenses that often represent an additional barrier to accessing health services. We compared the total cost of giving birth in health centres offering partial exemption versus those with full exemption to assess the impact on additional out-of-pocket fees. Methods A case–control study was performed to compare medical expenses. Case subjects were women who gave birth in 12 health centres located in the Dori and Sebba districts, where HELP provided full fee exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Controls were from six health centres in the neighbouring Djibo district where a partial fee exemption was in place. A random sample of approximately 50 women per health centre was selected for a total of 870 women. Results There was an implementation gap regarding the full exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Only 1.1% of the sample from Sebba but 17.5% of the group from Dori had excessive spending on birth related costs, indicating that women who delivered in Sebba were much less exposed to excessive medical expenses than women from Dori. Additional out-of-pocket fees in the full exemption health districts took into account household ability to pay, with poorer women generally paying less. Conclusions We found that the elimination of fees for facility-based births benefits especially the poorest households. The existence of excessive spending related to direct costs of

  9. Revisiting plant conservation on wooded shrines by a transversal approach: "Core" vs. "satellite" species and anthropological knowledge in Bwaba land, Burkina Faso

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    Anne Fournier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on plant conservation in sacred groves provide mixed results, with some showing their effectiveness while others do not. We argue that beyond the variety of field cases, studies usually suffer from overrating rare species and insufficient consideration of societal data. The sacred sites of Bondoukuy department in Bwaba cultural area (Burkina Faso were geo-referenced and measured; the most abundant ligneous species were listed and their abundance recorded. Their conservation status and dynamics were assessed based on the core vs. satellite species model of Hanski. Data interpretations relied on the phytogeographical affinities of abundant species and on anthropological knowledge of the Bwaba society. The vast majority of shrines were less than 1 ha, located in or near villages in specific landscape features, and covered with trees. The most abundant species of shrines belonged mostly to local phytochories, but were subject to rather high anthropisation. The results support the concept that wooded shrines preserve local biodiversity, but indicate threats from an invasive alien species. The location and condition of shrines appeared to be constitutive features: the Bwaba system of thought involves a series of sacred sites (with and without trees located in remarkable features of the landscape, and their way of life has resulted in the proximity of these sites to the villages. The beliefs that promote plant cover conservation do so only to a certain extent and regardless of the species content, which raises the concern that alien species may upset the established communities. These beliefs have led the Bwaba to choose the most humid environments in which to set up their wooded shrines, which is interesting from a conservation perspective. The study advocates for a better consideration of social data to identify the key elements of the dynamics of the vegetation of sacred groves.

  10. The cost-effectiveness of alternative vaccination strategies for polyvalent meningococcal vaccines in Burkina Faso: A transmission dynamic modeling study.

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    Yaesoubi, Reza; Trotter, Caroline; Colijn, Caroline; Yaesoubi, Maziar; Colombini, Anaïs; Resch, Stephen; Kristiansen, Paul A; LaForce, F Marc; Cohen, Ted

    2018-01-01

    The introduction of a conjugate vaccine for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis has dramatically reduced disease in the African meningitis belt. In this context, important questions remain about the performance of different vaccine policies that target remaining serogroups. Here, we estimate the health impact and cost associated with several alternative vaccination policies in Burkina Faso. We developed and calibrated a mathematical model of meningococcal transmission to project the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and costs associated with the current Base policy (serogroup A conjugate vaccination at 9 months, as part of the Expanded Program on Immunization [EPI], plus district-specific reactive vaccination campaigns using polyvalent meningococcal polysaccharide [PMP] vaccine in response to outbreaks) and three alternative policies: (1) Base Prime: novel polyvalent meningococcal conjugate (PMC) vaccine replaces the serogroup A conjugate in EPI and is also used in reactive campaigns; (2) Prevention 1: PMC used in EPI and in a nationwide catch-up campaign for 1-18-year-olds; and (3) Prevention 2: Prevention 1, except the nationwide campaign includes individuals up to 29 years old. Over a 30-year simulation period, Prevention 2 would avert 78% of the meningococcal cases (95% prediction interval: 63%-90%) expected under the Base policy if serogroup A is not replaced by remaining serogroups after elimination, and would avert 87% (77%-93%) of meningococcal cases if complete strain replacement occurs. Compared to the Base policy and at the PMC vaccine price of US$4 per dose, strategies that use PMC vaccine (i.e., Base Prime and Preventions 1 and 2) are expected to be cost saving if strain replacement occurs, and would cost US$51 (-US$236, US$490), US$188 (-US$97, US$626), and US$246 (-US$53, US$703) per DALY averted, respectively, if strain replacement does not occur. An important potential limitation of our study is the simplifying assumption that all

  11. The cost-effectiveness of alternative vaccination strategies for polyvalent meningococcal vaccines in Burkina Faso: A transmission dynamic modeling study.

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    Reza Yaesoubi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a conjugate vaccine for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis has dramatically reduced disease in the African meningitis belt. In this context, important questions remain about the performance of different vaccine policies that target remaining serogroups. Here, we estimate the health impact and cost associated with several alternative vaccination policies in Burkina Faso.We developed and calibrated a mathematical model of meningococcal transmission to project the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted and costs associated with the current Base policy (serogroup A conjugate vaccination at 9 months, as part of the Expanded Program on Immunization [EPI], plus district-specific reactive vaccination campaigns using polyvalent meningococcal polysaccharide [PMP] vaccine in response to outbreaks and three alternative policies: (1 Base Prime: novel polyvalent meningococcal conjugate (PMC vaccine replaces the serogroup A conjugate in EPI and is also used in reactive campaigns; (2 Prevention 1: PMC used in EPI and in a nationwide catch-up campaign for 1-18-year-olds; and (3 Prevention 2: Prevention 1, except the nationwide campaign includes individuals up to 29 years old. Over a 30-year simulation period, Prevention 2 would avert 78% of the meningococcal cases (95% prediction interval: 63%-90% expected under the Base policy if serogroup A is not replaced by remaining serogroups after elimination, and would avert 87% (77%-93% of meningococcal cases if complete strain replacement occurs. Compared to the Base policy and at the PMC vaccine price of US$4 per dose, strategies that use PMC vaccine (i.e., Base Prime and Preventions 1 and 2 are expected to be cost saving if strain replacement occurs, and would cost US$51 (-US$236, US$490, US$188 (-US$97, US$626, and US$246 (-US$53, US$703 per DALY averted, respectively, if strain replacement does not occur. An important potential limitation of our study is the simplifying assumption that

  12. The challenge of religious and language diversity in Burkina Faso formal education: students’ mobility and social networks

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    Pingrewaoga Bema Abdoul Hadi Savadogo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the education of young Muslims in Burkina Faso through relevant literature analysis and the authors’ observations, highlighting the pathways of study in Arabic-speaking countries and the social dynamics around them. The central theme is associated with the more general debate about education and diversity, because it discusses, on the one hand, the educational hegemony of secular orientation carried out in French adopted by part of the society and made official by the nation-state; on the other hand, it stresses the movement of another part of society that continues to enroll their children in Muslim schools where teaching is conducted in Arabic or bilingual (French and Arabic. The study describes the sociopolitical contexts that constitute the institutions of Islamic education, emphasizing the importance of Franco-Arabic schools and new Muslim private universities from the non-public higher education network. Following this discussion, there is a debate about the contribution of these young graduated men and women (inside and outside the country to hold and maintain the educational system. This paper also highlights the political action of these groups that claims for citizenship through religious practices. We conclude by stressing the existence of the fundamental contribution of Islam, which remains a powerful space for the construction of social and interpersonal meanings even in post-colonial dynamics. This is the scenario in which the reconstruction of networks may be converted into an overall challenge for social occupational therapy to mediate conflicts emerging from the confrontation of values and social practices.

  13. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury and selenium in african sub-tropical fluvial reservoirs food webs (Burkina Faso.

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    Ousséni Ouédraogo

    Full Text Available The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg and selenium (Se were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg, methylmercury (MeHg, and total Se (TSe. Ratios of δ13C and δ15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs were calculated using mean δ15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted δ15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area.

  14. Factors Affecting the Uptake of HIV Testing among Men: A Mixed-Methods Study in Rural Burkina Faso.

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    Manuela De Allegri

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore factors shaping the decision to undergo Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV testing among men in rural Burkina Faso.The study took place in 2009 in the Nouna Health District and adopted a triangulation mixed methods design. The quantitative component relied on data collected through a structured survey on a representative sample of 1130 households. The qualitative component relied on 38 in-depth interviews, with men purposely selected to represent variation in testing decision, age, and place of residence. A two-part model was conducted, with two distinct outcome variables, i.e. "being offered an HIV test" and "having done an HIV test". The qualitative data analysis relied on inductive coding conducted by three independent analysts.Of the 937 men, 357 had been offered an HIV test and 97 had taken the test. Younger age, household wealth, living in a village under demographic surveillance, and knowing that HIV testing is available at primary health facilities were all positively associated with the probability of being offered an HIV test. Household wealth and literacy were found to be positively associated, and distance was found to be negatively associated with the probability of having taken an HIV test. Qualitative findings indicated that the limited uptake of HIV testing was linked to poor knowledge on service availability and to low risk perceptions.With only 10% of the total sample ever having tested for HIV, our study confirmed that male HIV testing remains unacceptably low in Sub-Saharan Africa. This results from a combination of health system factors, indicating general barriers to access, and motivational factors, such as one's own knowledge of service availability and risk perceptions. Our findings suggested that using antenatal care and curative services as the exclusive entry points into HIV testing may not be sufficient to reach large portions of the male population. Thus, additional strategies are urgently

  15. Weather and mortality: a 10 year retrospective analysis of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso

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    Rainer Sauerborn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing body of evidence points to the emission of greenhouse gases from human activity as a key factor in climate change. This in turn affects human health and wellbeing through consequential changes in weather extremes. At present, little is known about the effects of weather on the health of sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the related anticipated effects of climate change partly due to scarcity of good quality data. We aimed to study the association between weather patterns and daily mortality in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS area during 1999–2009. Methods: Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station in the Nouna HDSS area and linked to mortality data on a daily basis. Time series Poisson regression models were established to estimate the association between the lags of weather and daily population-level mortality, adjusting for time trends. The analyses were stratified by age and sex to study differential population susceptibility. Results: We found profound associations between higher temperature and daily mortality in the Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso. The short-term direct heat effect was particularly strong on the under-five child mortality rate. We also found independent coherent effects and strong associations between rainfall events and daily mortality, particularly in elderly populations. Conclusion: Mortality patterns in the Nouna HDSS appear to be closely related to weather conditions. Further investigation on cause-specific mortality, as well as on vulnerability and susceptibility is required. Studies on local adaptation and mitigation measures to avoid health impacts from weather and climate change is also needed to reduce negative effects from weather and climate change on population health in rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Malaria in rural Burkina Faso: local illness concepts, patterns of traditional treatment and influence on health-seeking behaviour

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    Kouyaté Bocar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on health care seeking behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa for children suffering from malaria is quite extensive. This literature, however, is predominately quantitative and, inevitably, fails to explore how the local concepts of illness may affect people's choices. Understanding local concepts of illness and their influence on health care-seeking behaviour can complement existing knowledge and lead to the development of more effective malaria control interventions. Methods In a rural area of Burkina Faso, four local concepts of illness resembling the biomedical picture of malaria were described according to symptoms, aetiology, and treatment. Data were collected through eight focus group discussions, 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants, and through the analysis of 100 verbal autopsy questionnaires of children under-five diagnosed with malaria. Results Sumaya, dusukun yelema, kono, and djoliban were identified as the four main local illness concepts resembling respectively uncomplicated malaria, respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, and severe anaemia. The local disease categorization was found to affect both treatment and provider choice. While sumaya is usually treated by a mix of traditional and modern methods, dusukun yelema and kono are preferably treated by traditional healers, and djoliban is preferably treated in modern health facilities. Besides the conceptualization of illness, poverty was found to be another important influencing factor of health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusion The findings complement previous evidence on health care-seeking behaviour, by showing how local concepts of illness strongly in