WorldWideScience

Sample records for burkina faso 1998-2003

  1. Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    2 juil. 2007 ... les œuvresde Salaka Sanou (2000) ; Nazi Boni, premier écrivain du Burkina Faso de Louis. Millogo (2002) ; et Ecritures du Burkina Faso de Marie-Ange Somdah (éd.) (2003). La publication d'un numéro spécial de la revue littéraire Tydskrif vir Letterkunde de l'Université de Pretoria (Afrique du Sud) sur le ...

  2. BURKINA FASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydie S. A. Yiougo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities in developing countries are faced waste management challenges in terms of quantity and quality. Most of the time, solid and liquid wastes are dumped on street and open spaces. Uncontrolled waste dumped has led to diverse kind of health problems. The purpose of this article is to characterize urban cities and evaluate their waste generation using the Geographical Info rmation System (GIS. The focus is on two cities in Burkina Faso. Specific variabl es which were considered during the survey include urban fabric, grey water outlets a nd household garbage dumps sites/techniques. The study shows that in the two cities, the most dominant urban fabric is low standard of living (about 64% of housing in Fada and 62% of housing in Pouytenga. The urban fabric is also characterized by the exis tence of empty spaces. Overall, the average density of grey water discharge points is 0.85 points and 5.7 points per ha of street in Fada N’Gourma and Pouytenga respectivel y. The average density of solid waste dumps is 1.45 waste dumps per ha street a nd 7 waste dumps per ha street in Fada N'Gourma and Pouytenga respectively. In case of urgent waste management intervention, the priority areas for speedy intervention are area 10 in Fada N’Gourma, areas 2 and 5 in Pouytenga. GIS applied to w aste management can be a decision making tool for urban planne rs in developing country.

  3. Migration in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. A recent World Bank investigation finds a significant positive relationship between international migration and poverty reduction at the country level (Adams and Page 2003). Burkina Faso, whose conditions for

  4. Country watch: Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navele, T; Timmermans, D; Ouedraogo, M L

    1999-01-01

    Working in partnership with the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the Association for the Well Being of Families initiated a sexual health program in Burkina Faso. Between 1995 and 1998, the project conducted a participatory survey on the sexual health of many communities. This approach gave the people, both men and women, boys and girls, the opportunity to make an inventory of their own problems, set priorities, and develop a village action plan. The major problems that surfaced include relationships between couples, poor communication between parents and children, unwanted pregnancies, and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. The decreasing importance of traditional initiation rights concerning sexual information, becoming sexually active at an early age and the tendency to marry later, as well as the poor access to family planning services and contraceptives were some of the identified causes of their problems. Given the effectiveness of the participatory method in addressing sex and reproduction, the association drew up a strategic plan for the year 2000 integrating the participatory approach in all its activities to improve reproductive health, particularly of women and girls. Some of these include the establishment of model clinics, youth program, community-based distribution of contraceptives, and income-generating activities for women.

  5. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  6. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Burkina Faso is among the poorest countries in the world. The energy situation in Burkina Faso is among the most critical issues which need to be addressed in the country. The electrical power grid is insufficient and only available in urban centers. Consequently wood and charcoal is used in order to meet the basic needs for heating, cooking, and lightning by the majority of the population. The resulting overuse of natural energy resources in Burkina Faso has been causing massive deforestation and desertification on the one hand and on the other hand scarcity in fuel wood availability. According to a recent feasibility study of the GTZ, biogas is thought to be one of the most sustainable solutions for developing energy self sufficiency in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Biogas is not a new concept in Burkina Faso, as the first biogas plants were already installed in the 70's. Recently a national biogas program and the activity of various NGOs lead to a rejuvenation of attempts to establish biogas in Burkina Faso. Although biogas has a long history in Burkina Faso, no significant breakthrough of this technology has happened so far. None of the biogas plants built during the last 40 years have been operational for a long time. This contribution presents a study aimed to analyze the partial success and failures of the attempts to install biogas plants so far. The study was conducted in May 2009 as part of a project for a model application of the technology in the frame of University cooperation between Austria (University of Innsbruck) and Burkina Faso (Universite Polytechnique du Bobo Dioulasso). During the field study four sites of existing biogas plants were visited, five interviews with experts conducted and two focus groups with potential users in a rural setting were conducted. The systemic approach, including technical as well as socioeconomic aspects, yielded a wealth of factors which can potentially influence the success of biogas projects in

  7. Analyzing Innovation Systems (Burkina Faso) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enjeux et perspectives d'une promotion durable du système d'innovation de la filière karité (Vitellaria paradoxa) au Burkina Faso : communication présentée à la IIIe Conférence Internationale de KMA « Knowledge Management Africa » sous le thème « le... Download PDF. Reports. Rapport final du projet « Analyse des ...

  8. Energy and Water Resources of Burkina Faso as Catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Water from open sources is a scarce resource and is not stable in Burkina Faso due to periods of .... industry including mining and building in .... day. As for natural gas, in Burkina Faso, there is neither the gas production, nor proven reserves. Fig.3 Uemoa. Electrical power capacity in 2001 was put at.

  9. African Tobacco Situational Analyses (ATSA) in Burkina Faso ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Project Leader. Kangoye, Larba Theodore. Project Leader. Ki/Ouedraogo, Salimata. Institution. Association Burkinabé de Santé Publique. Institution Country. Burkina Faso. Project Leader. DONALD MAKOKA, Ph.D. Institution. University of Malawi.

  10. Diébougou, eine Kleinstadt in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Enthält: Carola Lentz, Richard Kuba, Katja Werthmann: Danksagung ; Katja Werthmann Diébougou: Kleinstadtforschung in Burkina Faso ; Richard Kuba und Katja Werthmann: Eine kurze Geschichte von Diébougou ; Marlis Gensler Parzellierung und Geschichte in Diébougou: Zugang zu und Kontrolle von Bauland im rechtspluralistischen Kontext einer Kleinstadt in Burkina Faso ; Julia Weinmann Die Dagara-Dyula in Diébougou: Muslimische Identität in einer Kleinstadt in Burkina Faso ; Marc Hanke Anciens Combat...

  11. All projects related to Burkina Faso | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Poverty, SMALLHOLDERS, DESERTIFICATION, SOIL DEGRADATION, SOIL RESOURCES, SOIL CONSERVATION, AGRICULTURAL LAND, LAND USE, LAND DEVELOPMENT, LAND MANAGEMENT, Poverty alleviation, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. Region: Burkina Faso, Niger, North of Sahara, South of ...

  12. Local Government Discretion and Accountability in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, S.; Mahieu, S.

    2010-01-01

    Burkina Faso opted for a progressive approach to decentralization reforms, aiming at building local government capacity first before transferring responsibilities. We employ a diagnostic framework to analyze local government discretion and accountability in Burkina Faso. We find that local governments have a very low degree of discretionary power accompanied with weak accountability towards citizens at all levels. In the political and administrative spheres, the center plays a dominant role i...

  13. Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameogo Clotaire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106. The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86. Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59. Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60 had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58 had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.

  14. Valorizing Research Results and Innovations in Burkina Faso ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Burkina Faso, scientific research, invention and innovation have generated many results that could contribute to endogenous development. However, these results are little known, ... Gestion intégrée de l'eau et des nutriments pour la production durable des cultures vivrières (FCRSAI). Au Sahel, la sécheresse et la piètre ...

  15. Fiscal reforms and income inequalities in Senegal and Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been income and welfare redistribution in Burkina Faso and Senegal occasioned by fiscal reforms undertaken within the context of the WAEMU, where a unique VAT tax and common tariffs harmonization were adopted. The measure of redistributive effects and the costs of the horizontal inequality generated by ...

  16. Parental HIV disclosure in Burkina Faso: Experiences and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasingly parents living with HIV will have to confront the dilemmas of concealing their lifelong treatment or disclosing to their children exposed to their daily treatment practices. However, limited data are available regarding parental HIV disclosure to children in Burkina Faso. Do parents on antiretroviral therapy disclose ...

  17. Irrigation and climate information in Burkina Faso (AARC) | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the 1970s, the Sahel has experienced a marked decline in rainfall and a high variability in the timing of the rainy season (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). As a result, farmers have struggled to plan their crops and manage irrigation for food production. In Burkina Faso, many farmers have resorting ...

  18. Can local institutions reduce poverty? Rural decentralization in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly-Roark, Paula; Ouedraogo, Karim; Xiao Ye

    2001-01-01

    The authors present evidence that in Burkina Faso, certain high-performing local institutions contribute to equitable economic development. They link reduced levels of poverty, and inequality to a high degree of internal village organization. The structure of these high-performing local organizations means they can exist in a number of African countries, because they depend more on interna...

  19. Energy and water resources of Burkina Faso as catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is not available. It is therefore necessary to carry out the engineering and hydrological surveys on selected construction sites to power the refinery. The necessity of the construction of the reservoir on the river Mouhoun and the water treatment became inevitable. Key words: Burkina Faso, energy, water, Mouhoun river ...

  20. Survival or Accumulation: Migration and rural households in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.

    2006-01-01

    Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. Burkina Faso, a country where conditions for agriculture are far from favourable, has a long history of migratory movement. Migration within West Africa (continental migration) has since long taken place in

  1. Effect of sorghum seed treatment in Burkina Faso varies with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A meta-analysis of 118 field experiments was carried out to identify conditions in which two protective seed treatments could support a yield increase of sorghum in Burkina Faso. The two treatments were: i) treatment with the pesticide Calthio C (thiram and chlorpyrifos) and ii) treatment with an aqueous extract from the plant ...

  2. All projects related to Burkina Faso | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to reduce the vulnerability of poor populations in sub-Saharan Africa to climate change by mobilizing scientists and all the other actors concerned to inform political decision-making. Start Date: ... Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga Basin, Burkina Faso - Phase II. Project.

  3. All projects related to Burkina Faso | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to reduce the vulnerability of poor populations in sub-Saharan Africa to climate change by mobilizing scientists and all the other actors concerned to inform political decision-making. Start Date: ... Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga Basin, Burkina Faso - Phase II. Project.

  4. Burkina Faso : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 14 mars 2011. Sujet: DAMS, RIVER BASINS, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, WATER SUPPLY, DIARRHOEAL DISEASES. Région: Burkina Faso, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 489,200.00. Exemption communautaire du paiement des ...

  5. Burkina Faso : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 14 mars 2011. Sujet: DAMS, RIVER BASINS, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, WATER SUPPLY, DIARRHOEAL DISEASES. Région: Burkina Faso, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 489,200.00. Exemption communautaire du paiement des ...

  6. Regionalizing the Recruitment of Health Personnel in Burkina Faso ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regionalizing the Recruitment of Health Personnel in Burkina Faso. Human resources are essential to attaining the objectives of the Millennium development goals with respect to national health systems. In low-income countries, human health resources are characterized by a deficit of qualified personnel and an unequal ...

  7. Rotavirus in various animal species in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... 1Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire, d'Epidémiologie et de Surveillance des Bactéries et Virus Transmis par les. Aliments, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Biologiques Alimentaires et Nutritionnelles (CRSBAN), Université de. Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. 2 Laboratoire National de ...

  8. All projects related to Burkina Faso | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: WEST AFRICA, RURAL AREAS, SEXUAL ABUSE, MODELS, CRIME PREVENTION, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. Region: Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 528,700.00. Results-based financing for equitable access to maternal and child health care ...

  9. Analyzing Innovation Systems (Burkina Faso) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enjeux et perspectives d'une promotion durable du système d'innovation de la filière karité (Vitellaria paradoxa) au Burkina Faso : communication présentée à la IIIe Conférence Internationale de KMA « Knowledge Management Africa » sous le thème « le... Rapports. Rapport final du projet « Analyse des systèmes ...

  10. principales écologies rizicoles au Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Un inventaire des nématodes parasites du riz au Burkina Faso a été réalisé au cours de la campagne agricole humide 2016-2017. Ce travail de recherche vise à étudier la prévalence et l'abondance des principaux nématodes parasites associés au riz dans les 3 principales écologies rizicoles que sont la riziculture pluviale ...

  11. Survival or Accumulation : Migration and rural households in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Wouterse, F.S.

    2006-01-01

    Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. Burkina Faso, a country where conditions for agriculture are far from favourable, has a long history of migratory movement. Migration within West Africa (continental migration) has since long taken place in response to drought and low agricultural productivity. Migration to destinations outside the African continent and in particular to Western Europe (intercontinental migration) has become more importan...

  12. Gestion du parc agroforestier du terroir de Vipalogo (Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Burkina Faso, l'arbre rural fait partie des systèmes de production. Le choix des espèces, leur densité, les modes de gestion ainsi que les besoins à satisfaire, obéissent à des critères propres aux producteurs. C'est pour comprendre ces logiques paysannes de la gestion du parc agroforestier que la présente étude a été ...

  13. Irrigation et information climatique au Burkina Faso (CARA) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au Burkina Faso, nombre d'agriculteurs ont choisi de recourir à un mélange de techniques agricoles traditionnelles et modernes. Bien que ces techniques les aident à limiter les répercussions de la variabilité du climat, des améliorations continues sont nécessaires pour répondre à la demande croissante en aliments dans ...

  14. Burkina Faso : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Programme: Fondements pour l'innovation. Financement total : CA$ 689,900.00. Régionalisation du recrutement du personnel de santé au Burkina Faso. Projet. Les ressources humaines en santé sont essentielles dans l'atteinte des objectifs du millénaire pour le développement par les systèmes nationaux de santé.

  15. Results of the Burkina Faso Women in Physics Working Group's activities at the University of Ouagadougou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafando, Pétronille; Zerbo, Issa

    2015-12-01

    The Burkina Faso Women in Physics Working Group was formed as a result of the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008. The effect of the Working Group's activities on the amount and success of women in physics in Burkina Faso are presented.

  16. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Abdoulaye; Hounton, Sennen; Amouzou, Agbessi; Akinyemi, Akanni; Shiferaw, Solomon; Baya, Banza; Bahan, Dalomi; Barros, Aluisio J D; Walker, Neff; Friedman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have stressed the importance of spatial heterogeneity analysis in modern contraceptive use and the relationships with high-risk births. This paper aims to analyse the association between modern contraceptive use, distribution of birth risk, and under-five child mortality at both national and regional levels in Burkina Faso. The last three Demographic and Health Surveys - conducted in Burkina Faso in 1998, 2003, and 2010 - enabled descriptions of differentials, trends, and associations between modern contraceptive use, total fertility rates (TFR), and factors associated with high-risk births and under-five child mortality. Multivariate models, adjusted by covariates of cultural and socio-economic background and contact with health system, were used to investigate the relationship between birth risk factors and modern contraceptive prevalence rates (mCPR). Overall, Burkina Faso's modern contraception level remains low (15.4% in 2010), despite significant increases during the last decade. However, there are substantial variations in mCPR by region, and health facility contact was positively associated with mCPR increase. Women's fertility history and cultural and socio-economic background were also significant factors in predicting use of modern contraception. Low modern contraceptive use is associated with higher birth risks and increased child mortality. This association is stronger in the Sahel, Est, and Sud-Ouest regions. Even though all factors in high-risk births were associated with under-five mortality, it should be stressed that short birth spacing ranked as the highest risk in relation to mortality of children. Programmes that target sub-national differentials and leverage women's health system contacts to inform women about family planning opportunities may be effective in improving coverage, quality, and equity of modern contraceptive use. Improving the demand satisfied for modern contraception may result in a reduction

  17. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Maïga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have stressed the importance of spatial heterogeneity analysis in modern contraceptive use and the relationships with high-risk births. Objective: This paper aims to analyse the association between modern contraceptive use, distribution of birth risk, and under-five child mortality at both national and regional levels in Burkina Faso. Design: The last three Demographic and Health Surveys – conducted in Burkina Faso in 1998, 2003, and 2010 – enabled descriptions of differentials, trends, and associations between modern contraceptive use, total fertility rates (TFR, and factors associated with high-risk births and under-five child mortality. Multivariate models, adjusted by covariates of cultural and socio-economic background and contact with health system, were used to investigate the relationship between birth risk factors and modern contraceptive prevalence rates (mCPR. Results: Overall, Burkina Faso's modern contraception level remains low (15.4% in 2010, despite significant increases during the last decade. However, there are substantial variations in mCPR by region, and health facility contact was positively associated with mCPR increase. Women's fertility history and cultural and socio-economic background were also significant factors in predicting use of modern contraception. Low modern contraceptive use is associated with higher birth risks and increased child mortality. This association is stronger in the Sahel, Est, and Sud-Ouest regions. Even though all factors in high-risk births were associated with under-five mortality, it should be stressed that short birth spacing ranked as the highest risk in relation to mortality of children. Conclusions: Programmes that target sub-national differentials and leverage women's health system contacts to inform women about family planning opportunities may be effective in improving coverage, quality, and equity of modern contraceptive use. Improving

  18. Abortion in the North of Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dominandy pertains to young and childless urban women, because "it is die fact of bearing children which may change life courses by forcing marriage or cessation of ..... Abortion in Ле Nòrie of Burkina Fase 47. Observation of an induced Abortion. The Gurmance interviewer observed an attempted abortion in a 17-year-old ...

  19. irrigation de complement et culture du sorhgo au burkina faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    L'étude vise à comparer l'effet de l'irrigation de complément sur le sorgho avec les impacts liés à deux techniques d'économie en eau éprouvées en cultures pluviales que sont : le labour suivi de buttage cloisonné et les semis sur des billons cloisonnés. L'étude a été réalisée au Burkina Faso, d'une part à Saria en zone ...

  20. Learning from health system reforms: lessons from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Slim; Nougtara, Adrien; Fournier, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Burkina Faso has implemented a macroeconomic adjustment programme (MAP) along with an ambitious reform of the health care system. Our aim was (1) to verify whether MAPs led to a reduction in health resources, and (2) to analyze the consequences of health policies implemented. Cross-sectional and retrospective study, spanning the years 1983-2003. The macro aspect is based upon documents from national and international sources, a database of secondary socioeconomic data, and interviews of key informants working in upper management. Household and health facility surveys were conducted in three regions covering 53 communities. Within the reforms, the health sector benefited from an important flow of resources. There were significant increases in public expenditures, health care staff, the number of primary care facilities and the availability of generic drugs. However, health facilities in the public sector remain underused and major inequities subsist. Access to health care is constrained by the population's ability to pay. Health expenditures impoverish households, creating new poor and impoverishing the already poor. The success of reforms depends largely on the extent to which they remove financial barriers to access to services. The experience of Burkina Faso also reveals the need for fundamental changes that will motivate staff, improve productivity, and ensure good quality services. Integrating health development policies with strategic plans for poverty reduction can provide new opportunities for African countries to redesign their health systems within this type of perspective.

  1. Endorsement of universal health coverage financial principles in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agier, Isabelle; Ly, Antarou; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-02-01

    In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence. We used a sequential exploratory design. In a qualitative step (9 interviews, 12 focus groups), we adapted an instrument proposed by Goudge et al. (2012) to the local context and addressed desirability bias. Then, in a quantitative step (1255 respondents from the general population), we measured endorsement. Thematic analysis (qualitative) and logistic regressions (quantitative) were used. High levels of endorsement were found for each principle. Actual practices showed that anticipation and risk sharing were not only intentions. Preferences were given to solidarity between socio-economic status (SES) levels and progressivity. Although respondents seemed to prefer the national level for implementation, their current solidarity practices were mainly focused on close family. Thus, contribution levels should be set so that the entire family benefits from healthcare. Some critical conditions must be met to make UHC financial principles a reality through health insurance in Burkina Faso: trust, fair and mandatory contributions, and education. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Burden of acute gastrointestinal infections in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Simavé Dembele, Elisa Huovinen, Denis Yelbéogo, Markku Kuusi, Guétawendé Sawadogo, Kaisa Haukka, Isidore Bonkoungou, Anja Siitonen, Alfred S. Traoré

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal infections are one of the major health problems in developing countries. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. Methods: A door-to-door survey of selected residents in Ouagadougou city was conducted. Of the Ouagadougou’s 30 districts, nine most populated ones were selected to the study. The residents of these districts have middle incomes as those of the secondary cite of Burkina Faso. Results: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in the 30 days prior to the interview was 77/491 (15.7%: among children 44/223 (19.7% and among adults 33/268 (12.3%. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were the most com­mon symptoms among 33 adult cases while diarrhea and vomiting were the most common among children. None of the cases were hospitalized and a stool sample was taken in three of 77 cases. Medication for gastrointestinal infections was received by 55% percent of adults and 77% of children. Conclusions: Our results shown that antibiotics with and without prescription were the most common medicine used. Washing hands before meals and boiling milk before drinking had a protective effect against gastrointestinal infections. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 45-52

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karou, D.; Dicko, M.H.; Simpore, J.; Traore, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and

  4. principales écologies rizicoles au Burkina Faso Plant parasitic ne

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terre (UFR/SVT), Laboratoire de Biosciences03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso. *Auteur correspondant; E-mail: thiobouma@gmail.com. RESUME. Un inventaire des nématodes parasites du riz au Burkina Faso a été réalisé au cours de la campagne agricole humide 2016-2017. Ce travail de recherche vise à ...

  5. Climate change adaptation in Burkina Faso: Aid dependency and obstacles to political participation

    OpenAIRE

    Eguavoen, Irit; Wahren, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the climate change discourses and political dynamics in south-western Burkina Faso from three empirical entry points: (a) the production of the National Adaptation Programmes of Action; (b) climate change discourses in the Ioba province; and (c) the role of the public media. Climate change is not a popular discourse in Burkina Faso and seems limited to the national and international levels. Farmers in the Ioba province have experienced environmental degradation and changes...

  6. Magnitude of Maternal Anaemia in Rural Burkina Faso: Contribution of Nutritional Factors and Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Meda; Malik Coulibaly; Yacouba Nebie; Ibrahima Diallo; Yves Traore; Ouedraogo, Laurent T

    2016-01-01

    Background. Maternal anaemia is a worldwide public health problem affecting particularly developing countries. In Burkina Faso, little data is available for rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of maternal anaemia and the risk factors associated with it in the rural health district of Hounde in Burkina Faso but also to define better control measures of maternal anaemia. Methods. This cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 had a sample of 3,140 pregnant women attending an...

  7. SEROTYPING AND ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ISOLATED FROM LETTUCE AND HUMAN DIARRHEA SAMPLES IN BURKINA FASO.

    OpenAIRE

    Siourim?, Somda Namwin; Isidore, Bonkoungou Ouindgueta Juste; Oumar, Traor?; Nestor, Bassol? Ismael Henri; Yves, Traor?; Nicolas, Barro; Aly, Savadogo

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Burkina Faso dirty water in particular those of the stoppings and the gutter ones are used for vegetables irrigation in the gardens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella serotypes from humans and lettuce samples inBurkina Faso. Materials and Methods: Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2009 to 2015 and lettuce samples in 2014 in Burkina Faso were serotyped using specific antisera. All strains were subjected t...

  8. Magnoliophyta of the partial faunal reserve of Pama, Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinko, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The partial faunal reserve of Pama is situated in the province of Kompienga, in the South-East of BurkinaFaso, with typical Sudanian savanna vegetation. Adjacent to the Arli National Park and the Pendjari National Park, it ispart of the so-called WAP complex, one of the largest wildlife areas in West Africa. Up to now, only little has beenknown about its flora. The present study aimed at reducing this gap in knowledge, and represents an important tool forconservation and research. The list of species was compiled from the surveys carried out from 2001 to 2004, additionalrelevé data, and herbarium specimens. We found 450 species, which belong to 244 genera and 73 families. The mostspecies-rich family is Poaceae (83 species, followed by Fabaceae (64, Cyperaceae (24, Rubiaceae (22, Euphorbiaceae(20, Combretaceae (15, Asteraceae (14, Caesalpiniaceae (14, Mimosaceae (12, and Convolvulaceae (11.

  9. Baseline drivers of lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michelle C; Molyneux, David H; Kyelem, Dominique; Bougma, Roland W; Koudou, Benjamin G; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2013-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease that is endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa, infecting approximately 40 million people. In Burkina Faso, mass drug administration (MDA) for LF with ivermectin and albendazole has been ongoing since 2001, and by 2006 all endemic health districts were receiving MDA with a therapeutic coverage of at least 65%. As MDA activities scale down, the focus is now on targeting areas where LF transmission persists with alternative elimination strategies. This study explored the relationship between village-level, baseline LF prevalence data collected in 2000 with publicly available meteorological, environmental and demographic variables in order to determine the factors that influence the geographical distribution of the disease. A fitted multiple logistic regression model indicated that the length of the rainy season, variability in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and population density were significantly positively associated with LF prevalence, whereas total annual rainfall, average June-September temperature, mean NDVI, elevation and the area of cotton crops were significantly negatively associated. This model was used to produce a baseline LF risk map for Burkina Faso. An extended model which incorporated potential socio-demographic risk factors also indicated a significant positive relationship between LF prevalence and wealth. In overlaying the baseline LF risk map with the number of MDA rounds, plus an insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership measure, the central southern area of the country was highlighted as an area where baseline LF prevalence was high and ITN coverage relatively low (<50%), while at least 10 rounds of MDA had been undertaken, suggesting that more concentrated efforts will be needed to eliminate the disease in these areas.

  10. Baseline drivers of lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stanton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a parasitic disease that is endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa, infecting approximately 40 million people. In Burkina Faso, mass drug administration (MDA for LF with ivermectin and albendazole has been ongoing since 2001, and by 2006 all endemic health districts were receiving MDA with a therapeutic coverage of at least 65%. As MDA activities scale down, the focus is now on targeting areas where LF transmission persists with alternative elimination strategies. This study explored the relationship between village-level, baseline LF prevalence data collected in 2000 with publicly available meteorological, environmental and demographic variables in order to determine the factors that influence the geographical distribution of the disease. A fitted multiple logistic regression model indicated that the length of the rainy season, variability in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and population density were significantly positively associated with LF prevalence, whereas total annual rainfall, average June-September temperature, mean NDVI, elevation and the area of cotton crops were significantly negatively associated. This model was used to produce a baseline LF risk map for Burkina Faso. An extended model which incorporated potential socio-demographic risk factors also indicated a significant positive relationship between LF prevalence and wealth. In overlaying the baseline LF risk map with the number of MDA rounds, plus an insecticide-treated net (ITN ownership measure, the central southern area of the country was highlighted as an area where baseline LF prevalence was high and ITN coverage relatively low (<50%, while at least 10 rounds of MDA had been undertaken, suggesting that more concentrated efforts will be needed to eliminate the disease in these areas.

  11. Soil conservation in Burkina Faso: is international cooperation effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Coviello, Velio; Grimaldi, Stefania; Vezza, Paolo; Koussubé, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Challenges related to Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) have been documented in Burkina Faso for many decades so far. The ever-growing population of this country, a landlocked desertification-prone one, is daily facing the visible impact of increasingly intense rainfall and concentrated rainy days. Agricultural soil erosion and reservoir siltation are two of the main issues affecting Burkina Faso subsistence agriculture sector, whose revenues largely contribute to people's income. From the sixties onwards locally-developed SWC techniques (e.g. permeable rock dams and gabion check dams) have been widely, though geographically variably, employed in the country. The effectiveness of these techniques in locally increasing soil moisture and reducing soil erosion is well proven, while their long term effect in decreasing the reservoir siltation is still under debate and shall be addressed with a whole-catchment approach often overlooked by international donors. This research aims to analyze the history of the use of these techniques by reviewing the results of several cooperation projects that dealt with the implementation of nearly 200 conservation works. These case studies are representative of 5 out of 12 regions of Burkina Faso and span over two decades. Local people levels of (i) awareness, (ii) technique appropriation, (iii) involvement and the degree of (iv) effectiveness and (v) maintenance of these SWC works have been taken into account. The analysis of the afore-mentioned five indicators let the authors draw a list of features that are needed for this kind of projects to be successful in the SWC domain. Moreover the differences that exist between the approach to the community-works, normally employed for SWC realizations, of different ethnical groups is highlighted. The degree of degradation of the environment also plays an important role in the involvement of the local community together with the familiarity of the population with these techniques. For

  12. Universal access to electricity in Burkina Faso: scaling-up renewable energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that

  13. Epidemiology of rotavirus infection among young children with acute diarrhoea in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haukka Kaisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In anticipation of vaccine introduction, we assessed epidemiology of rotavirus disease among children visiting medical centre due to acute diarrhoea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods Between November 2008 and February 2010, stool specimens from 447 children less than 5 years of age suffering from diarrhoea were tested for the presence of rotavirus by antigen detection using an immunochromatographic test. Sociodemographic, environmental and clinical factors were assessed during the study. Results Rotavirus antigen was detected in 151 (33.8% of the patients. Most of the cases (94.2% were in children Conclusions The results of this study underscore the need to control rotavirus infections among young children in Burkina Faso and may argue a decision on the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Burkina Faso.

  14. Malnutrition determinants in young children from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersmann, Claudia; Bermejo Lorenzo, Justo; Bountogo, Mamadou; Tiendrébeogo, Justin; Gabrysch, Sabine; Yé, Maurice; Jahn, Albrecht; Müller, Olaf

    2013-10-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains a major challenge to public health in poor countries. Data on malnutrition determinants in African children are scarce. A cross-sectional survey was performed in eight villages of Burkina Faso in June 2009, including 460 children aged 6-31 months. Demographic, socioeconomic, parasitological, clinical and anthropometric characteristics were collected. The main outcome variable was weight-for-length (WFL) z-score (i.e. wasting). A multiple regression model identified village, age group, religion and the presence of younger siblings as significantly associated with wasting. Villages differed in their mean WFL z-score by up to one unit. Compared with younger children, the mean WFL z-score of children aged 24-35 months was 0.63 units higher than the WFL z-score in younger children. This study confirms the still unacceptable high level of malnutrition in young children of rural West Africa and supports the fact that childhood malnutrition is a complex phenomenon highly influenced by contextual variables.

  15. A case of imported dengue fever from Burkina Faso to Japan in October 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takehiro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Maeki, Takahiro; Tajima, Shigeru; Takaya, Saho; Katanami, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kei; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-09-11

    Dengue fever remains underreported in Africa due to lack of awareness among healthcare providers, the presence of other febrile illnesses, and insufficient laboratory testing. We present a case of imported dengue fever from Burkina Faso to Japan, where an outbreak of dengue was reported on October 18, 2016. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate from our patient belonged to a distinct of sylvatic dengue viruses, suggesting that dengue viruses have been maintained in the mosquitoes and human cycles in Burkina Faso for more than 30 years.

  16. LA DYNAMIQUE DES ONG AU BURKINA FASO: UNE EFFICACITE EN QUESTION

    OpenAIRE

    Enée, Grégory

    2007-01-01

    Looked upon by the International Institutions as one of the poorest countries in the world, especially since the periods of drought in the 70s and the 80s, Burkina-Faso, as a Sahelian area, has been for the last 30 years a special land for NGOs' actions. Multicultural, diversified, but also landlocked country, Burkina-Faso tries to be as open as possible to the Voluntary Services Overseas, and to any backer and sponsor. Here are the reasons why it is usually called « the NGOs' country ».After...

  17. Updating the Northern Tsetse Limit in Burkina Faso (1949–2009: Impact of Global Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Courtin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The northern distribution limit of tsetse flies was updated in Burkina Faso and compared to previous limits to revise the existing map of these vectors of African trypanosomiases dating from several decades ago. From 1949 to 2009, a 25- to 150-km shift has appeared toward the south. Tsetse are now discontinuously distributed in Burkina Faso with a western and an eastern tsetse belt. This range shift can be explained by a combination of decreased rainfall and increased human density. Within a context of international control, this study provides a better understanding of the factors influencing the distribution of tsetse flies.

  18. Respectful maternity care in three health facilities in Burkina Faso: the experience of the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Ali; Kiemtoré, Sibraogo; Zamané, Hyacinthe; Bonané, Blandine T; Akotionga, Michel; Lankoande, Jean

    2014-10-01

    The Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Burkina Faso (SOGOB) conducted a project to reinforce skills in respectful maternity care among its members and health workers at three facilities. The participatory process allowed health workers to self-diagnose quality of care, recognize their own responsibility, propose solutions, and pledge respectful care commitments that were specific for each unit. Key commitments included good reception; humanistic clinical examination; attentive listening and responsiveness to patient needs; privacy, discretion, and confidentiality; availability; and comfort. These commitments can potentially be modified after each evaluation by SOGOB. Poor working conditions were found to negatively impact on quality of care. High staff turnover, frequent technical malfunctions, and inadequate infrastructure were identified as issues that require future focus to ensure improvements in quality of care are sustainable. Programs that aim to improve the maternity experience by linking good practice with humanistic care merit rollout to all healthcare facilities in Burkina Faso. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. [Prognosis for motor deficits after strokes in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napon, C; Tougma, L; Kaboré, R; Kaboré, J

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a common, severe, and disabling condition that is recognized as a major public health problem. Our goal was to study the clinical features and prognosis of motor deficits in stroke patients hospitalized in the neurology department of the Yalgado-Oeudraogo University Hospital in Burkina Faso. This cross-sectional study took place from March 1 through September 30, 2012. The study included all patients with motor disabilities following a CT-confirmed stroke that had occurred within the previous month. Patients were reviewed at one month (M1) and three months (M3) to assess their current treatment and their autonomy, by the Barthel Index. During the study period, 59 patients were hospitalized for stroke, 56 with motor disabilities for a 95% prevalence of stroke with motor deficit. Their mean age was 57.8 ± 17.7 years (range: 20 to 84 years), and the sex-ratio of 1.6 (male/female). Overall, 61% of the strokes were ischemic and 39% hemorrhagic, with an equal distribution of right and left hemiplegia (46.4% each) and 7% of the patients showing bilateral involvement. The mortality rate before M1 was 29% and before M3, 40%. On admission, 4% of patients had a Barthel Index greater than 60, at M1 35%, and at M3, 60%. Only 51% of patients received physical therapy. Characteristics significantly associated with functional recovery were age younger than 65 years (p = 0.0026), sphincter disorders at M1 (p = 0.002), hemorrhagic stroke (compared to ischemic) (p = 0.0038), functional rehabilitation (p = 0.0012), and right (versus left) hemisphere damage (p = 0.010).

  20. The hydroelectric dam impacts on the Kompienga river basin (Burkina Faso); Les impacts du barrage hydro-electrique sur le bassin versant de la komoienga (Burkina Faso)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipama, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    This study takes stock on the physical and social environment negative impacts of the hydroelectric dam built in 1985 in the Burkina Faso. Th electric power of the country have been improved but the hydrocarbons consumption did not decrease. The vegetation decreased in the area of the dam from 15 km{sup 2} to 7,6 and soils are now more exposed to the erosion phenomena. Biological modifications of the ecosystem appeared as human diseases. (A.L.B.)

  1. Platform for resource management : case studies of success or failure in Benin and Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangbegnon, C.

    1998-01-01

    The present book focuses on platforms for (natural) resource management. It analyses various case studies in Benin and Burkina Faso. Conditions for collective resource management in conflict and interdependent situations are the most critical issues. The present study raises the importance

  2. Potential use of clay from Burkina Faso as filler in rubber production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raw clay materials deposit in Burkina Faso have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis to evaluate their potentialities to be used in rubber compounds production as filler. The samples are composed principally by aolinite, illite and quartz. The rubber ...

  3. Pirates or pioneers? unplanned irrigation around small reservoirs in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Kouali, G.N.; Sally, H.; Kabre, P.

    2014-01-01

    Small reservoirs in Burkina Faso are constructed for many purposes such as domestic water uses, livestock watering and irrigated rice production downstream of the dam. Increasingly farmers use individually owned motorized pumps to draw water directly from the reservoir and irrigate vegetables

  4. Conventionalization of the organic sesame network from Burkina Faso: shrinking into mainstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the structure and development of the organic sesame network from Burkina Faso to explain the declining trend in organic sesame export. The paper addresses particularly the question whether the organic sesame network is structurally (re)shaped as a conventional mainstream

  5. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondombo, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens

  6. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Michaela S.; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Zida, Elisabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven-day-old ...

  7. Burkina Faso - Promoting Growth, Competitiveness and Diversification : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...

  8. Burkina Faso - Promoting Growth, Competitiveness and Diversification : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 3. Enhancing Growth Factors

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...

  9. Implementation of contour vegetation barriers under farmer conditions in Burkina Faso and Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Bodnar, F.; Idoe, O.; Graaff, de J.

    2004-01-01

    Amongst the soil and water conservation (SWC) measures adopted in Burkina Faso and Mali, contour vegetation barriers (CVB) constitute a cheap option in terms of labour and material requirements. In order to understand the actual adoption and maintenance of CVB, labour requirements of five commonly

  10. Literature and translation in Burkina Faso: the case of Fidèle P ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is reflected in Burkinabè literature. Since literature is a fictional representation of reality, I shall examine the way literary communication mirrors this reality, i.e., the linguistic and cultural diversity of Burkina Faso. In addition, this paper goes beyond the classical and linguistic definitions of translation in terms of equivalence ...

  11. Prevention of intrauterine growth retardation by multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberfroid, D.A.G.

    2012-01-01

    This is the story of an idea. This is the account of its journey from birth to the delivery of new hypotheses. Reproduction, birth, but also death, are indeed at the heart of this research in which we assessed, in Burkina Faso, the health benefits of providing pregnant women with multiple

  12. Politics of Language: The Struggle for Power in Schools in Mali and Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kone, A'ame

    2010-01-01

    Power can be equated to the possession of a particular language used to navigate the world. In Mali and Burkina Faso, two former colonies of France, language choice for instruction in mainstream primary schools remains a struggle between the powerful and the powerless. Fifty years after independence from France, both countries continue to…

  13. Sowing rules for estimating rainfed yield potential of sorghum and maize in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Quattara, K.; Supit, I.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the dependence on local expert knowledge, which is important for large-scale crop modelling studies, we analyzed sowing dates and rules for maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)) at three locations in Burkina Faso with strongly decreasing rainfall amounts from south to

  14. Reference ranges of cholesterol sub-fractions in random healthy adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumaré, Alice T C R Kiba; Sakandé, Linda P L; Kabré, Elie; Sondé, Issaka; Simporé, Jacques; Sakandé, Jean

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the values that serve as clinical chemistry reference ranges are those provided by European manufacturers' insert sheets based on reference of the Western population. However, studies conducted so far in some African countries reported significant differences in normal laboratory ranges compared with those of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to determine reference values of cholesterol fractions in apparently normal adults in Burkina Faso that could be used to better assess the risks related to cardiovascular diseases. Study population was 279 healthy subjects aged from 15 to 50 years including 139 men and 140 women recruited at the Regional Center of Blood Transfusion of Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Exclusion criteria based on history and clinical examination were used for defining reference individuals. The dual-step precipitation of HDL cholesterol sub-fractions using dextran sulfate was performed according to the procedure described by Hirano. The medians were calculated and reference values were determined at 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The median and upper ranges for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol were observed to be higher in women in comparison to men (p values for limited resources countries. Our study provides the first cholesterol sub-fractions (HDL2 and HDL3) reference ranges for interpretation of laboratory results for cardiovascular risk management in Burkina Faso.

  15. Climate-Smart Farms? Case Studies in Burkina Faso and Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrieu, N.; Pédelahore, P.; Howland, F.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.

    2016-01-01

    The climate-smart agriculture concept aims to encourage reflection on
    the transition to sustainable agricultural systems adapted to climate change. This chapter is based on participatory research studies carried out in Colombia and Burkina Faso to investigate, with farmers, the relevance of new

  16. Decisions of cattle herdsmen in Burkina Faso and optimal foraging models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    1989-01-01

    Models of optimal foraging theory are used to evaluate the decisions of a sedentary herdsman and his family in Burkina Faso concerning the movement of his cattle from pasture to pasture. Generally, such models describe exploitation at the patch level, but are inadequate at higher levels. The

  17. Endogenous phenolics and starch modifying enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to screen for biochemical determinants in sorghum varieties cultivated in Burkina Faso to identify the best sorghum varieties to be used as source of bioactive components or for specific local foods, e.g. "tô", thin porridges for infants, granulated foods "couscous",

  18. Biological Control Of Witch Weed In Fields Of Burkina Faso Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen Fusarium oxysporum isolates from diseased parasitic weeds (Striga hermonthica plants) were evaluated over two years (1997-98) to identify the most effective isolates for the control of the parasite in infested sorghum fields in Burkina Faso. In both years the fungus was found to reduce Striga infection in sorghum by ...

  19. L'émergence de l' « artiste » au Burkina Faso | Rousseau | Tydskrif ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'art contemporain ne trouve d'acteurs au Burkina Faso que depuis une vingtaine d'années. Le gouvernement révolutionnaire de Thomas Sankara est le premier à offrir aux artistes un cadre de promotion et de perfectionnement technique. Dans les années 1980, les SNC (Semaines Nationales de la Culture), le FESPACO ...

  20. CASE STUDY: Burkina Faso — Learning how not to be poor in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-22

    Dec 22, 2010 ... When a community-based monitoring system showed Burkina Faso villagers just how poor they were, in so many ways, they did not like what they saw. They set out to take their development in hand. Community action has led to tangible improvements and new funding sources for key development projects ...

  1. effect of sorghum seed treatment in burkina faso varies with baseline

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    study was conducted on multiple farms in Burkina. Faso, during two ... sorghum seed treatment observed in several independent field trials in .... Reverse fusion primer. Sequencing primer B. 14 bp insertion. 2. Specific primer sequence. 18S. PyroB1 4i-18R2a. 5'CTA. TGCGCCTTGCCAGCCCGCTCAG. AGTTA. GA. CGCA.

  2. Performances zootechniques et rentabilité financière des ovins en embouche au Burkina Faso

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Somda J

    2001-01-01

    Sheep fattening in Burkina Faso: biological performances and profitability. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting the economical and biological performances of lamb fattening operations in rural area...

  3. Attitudes towards abortion and contraception in rural and urban Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Using results from the ethnographic literature and two qualitative studies on people's representations of different means of birth control (abstinence, contraception, abortion in two populations in Burkina Faso (one rural and one urban, we designed a multi-dimensional quantitative scale to measure individuals' attitudes towards varied means of birth control. We applied it in two representative surveys in rural and urban Burkina Faso. Relating individuals' attitudes towards birth control to their socio-demographic characteristics and to their attitudes towards other life dimensions, and applying N. Elias' theory of the civilization process, we seek to explain why abortion is less tolerated, while more widely practiced, in the city than in the villages.

  4. Survey data on key climate and environmental drivers of farmers' migration in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfo, Safiétou; Fonta, M William; Boubacar, Ibrahim; Lamers, P A John

    2016-12-01

    This article describes two datasets generated from various sources in south western Burkina Faso to identify the key climate and environmental drivers that cause farmers to migrate. The survey sampling is random but reasoned and rational. The first dataset from 367 farm households contains data on farmers' perception of climate change risks or hazards, their impacts on farmland productivity and farm households' risk management strategies. The second dataset from 58 farm households contains data on agricultural practices, environmental changes, and environmental migration. Three supplemental Excel sheets show the results of the surveys. Details on the sample as well as further interpretation and discussion of the surveys are available in the associated research article ('Field Facts for Crop Insurance Design: Empirical Evidence from South Western Burkina Faso' (W. M. Fonta, S. Sanfo, B. Ibrahim, B. Barry, 2015) [1]).

  5. Analyse des systèmes d'innovation (Burkina Faso) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enjeux et perspectives d'une promotion durable du système d'innovation de la filière karité (Vitellaria paradoxa) au Burkina Faso : communication présentée à la IIIe Conférence Internationale de KMA « Knowledge Management Africa » sous le thème « le... Download PDF. Reports. Rapport final du projet « Analyse des ...

  6. Analyse des systèmes d'innovation (Burkina Faso) | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enjeux et perspectives d'une promotion durable du système d'innovation de la filière karité (Vitellaria paradoxa) au Burkina Faso : communication présentée à la IIIe Conférence Internationale de KMA « Knowledge Management Africa » sous le thème « le... Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Rapport final du projet « Analyse ...

  7. Burkina Faso | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Depuis 1973, nous finançons la recherche au BurkinaFaso, l'un des quelques pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest ayant un centre de coordination national pour la recherche. L'appui du CRDI a permis à ce centre de créer un forum biennal qui constitue un cadre de discussion entre les décideurs politiques, les scientifiques et le ...

  8. 180 Teneurs en tanins de 15 ligneux fourragers du Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASUS

    3 Laboratoire de Biochimie et Chimie Appliquées (LABIOCA), Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre, Université de Ouagadougou, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso. 4 Laboratoire de Biologie et Ecologie Végétales, Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences de la Vie et.

  9. Prevalence and diversity of Salmonella enterica in water, fish and lettuce in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Traor?, Oumar; Nyholm, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traor?, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the prevalence, serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella enterica in environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 476 samples, consisting of 36 samples of tap water, 51 samples of well water, 87 samples of channel water, 44 samples of reservoir water, 238 samples of fish, and 20 samples of lettuce were examined using standard bacteriological procedures for Salmonel...

  10. Determinants of unmet need for family planning in rural Burkina Faso: a multilevel logistic regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wulifan, Joseph K.; Jahn, Albrecht; Hien, Hervé; Ilboudo, Patrick Christian; Meda, Nicolas; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Saidou Hamadou, T.; Haidara, Ousmane; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Background Unmet need for family planning has implications for women and their families, such as unsafe abortion, physical abuse, and poor maternal health. Contraceptive knowledge has increased across low-income settings, yet unmet need remains high with little information on the factors explaining it. This study assessed factors associated with unmet need among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso. Method We collected data on pregnant women through a population-based survey conducted in 24 r...

  11. Conservation′s Ambiguities: Rangers on the Periphery of the W Park, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Poppe

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the central role of ambiguity in the (re)production process of conservation practice. It argues that some current political economy as well as environmentality approaches to research conservation practice fail to capture the complexity of the lived experience of local conservationists. The article focuses on the multiple identities of rangers in interaction with other residents at the periphery of the W Park in Burkina Faso, as rangers are local conservationists who ...

  12. Gastro-intestinal nematodes and cestodes of cattle in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Belem A.M.G.; Ouedraogo O.P.; Bessin R.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of the parasites of abomasa, small, and large intestines of 94 bovines conveyed to the main slaughterhouse of Ouagadougou from the central and northern part of Burkina Faso allowed the identification of nine different worm species: Cooperia punctata, Cooperia pectinata, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Moniezia expensa, Avitellina sp., Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichuris sp. By far, Cooperia sp. was the most prevalent (89.4/), followed...

  13. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: epidemiologic and genetic links between human and cattle isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Sanou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations.Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5 or humans (1 or from both (1. Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1 clonal complex (81.8% and the putative African 5 (Af5 clonal complex (18.2%, in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing.This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.

  14. [Trends in caesarean section rates and places of delivery in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombié, Issiaka; Clément Méda, Ziemlé; Léon Savadogo, Gueswendé Blaise; Sanou, Gwladys; Dadjoari, Moussa

    2017-03-06

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the trends, mortality rates and places of caesarean section by level of care in Burkina Faso.Method: A retrospective study was conducted using data from Burkina Faso Ministry of Health annual health statistics and public hospital reports from 2000 to 2014. Linear regression was used to analyse caesarean section trends and mortality rates in District Hospitals (HD), Regional Hospitals (CHR) and University Hospitals (CHU).Results: From 2000 to 2014, the number of caesarean sections performed in Burkina Faso public hospitals increased almost tenfold from approximately 2,365 to 19,081, corresponding to a growth of the caesarean section rate from 0.5 to 2 per 100 deliveries. This growth was linear. Between 2000 and 2006, University Hospitals performed most of these caesarean sections. Starting from 2007, the majority of caesarean sections were performed by HD. The proportion of caesarean sections performed in Regional Hospitals remained almost constant, although the number of caesarean sections increased threefold. In 2014, HD performed 52% of caesarean sections, followed by University Hospitals (25%) and Regional Hospitals (23%). Analysis of mortality rates following caesarean section showed upward and downward trends, oscillating between 1 to 2% before 2008 and 0.15% in 2014. This same mortality trend was observed in each type of hospital.Conclusion: The results show an increase of better quality caesarean section rates, performed closer to the woman’s home in Burkina Faso. The health care services decentralization policy and quality of care approaches have helped to achieve these results.

  15. Patients are paying too much for tuberculosis: a direct cost-burden evaluation in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Laokri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paying for health care may exclude poor people. Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy implementing "free care" for Tuberculosis (TB diagnosis and treatment. This should increase universal health coverage and help to overcome social and economic barriers to health access. METHODS: Straddling 2007 and 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted over a year among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in six rural districts of Burkina Faso. Out-of-pocket expenses (direct costs associated with TB were collected according to the different stages of their healthcare pathway. RESULTS: Median direct cost associated with TB was US$101 (n = 229 (i.e. 2.8 months of household income. Respectively 72% of patients incurred direct costs during the pre-diagnosis stage (i.e. self-medication, travel, traditional healers' services, 95% during the diagnosis process (i.e. user fees, travel costs to various providers, extra sputum smears microscopy and chest radiology, 68% during the intensive treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs and 50% during the continuation treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs. For the diagnosis stage, median direct costs already amounted to 35% of overall direct costs. CONCLUSIONS: The patient care pathway analysis in rural Burkina Faso showed substantial direct costs and healthcare system delay within a "free care" policy for TB diagnosis and treatment. Whether in terms of redefining the free TB package or rationalizing the care pathway, serious efforts must be undertaken to make "free" health care more affordable for the patients. Locally relevant for TB, this case-study in Burkina Faso has a real potential to document how health programs' weaknesses can be identified and solved.

  16. Platform for resource management : case studies of success or failure in Benin and Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Dangbegnon, C.

    1998-01-01

    The present book focuses on platforms for (natural) resource management. It analyses various case studies in Benin and Burkina Faso. Conditions for collective resource management in conflict and interdependent situations are the most critical issues. The present study raises the importance of socio-economic sustainability. It aims at incorporating social perspective within economic growth by focusing on stakeholders needs and by learning with them to respond to evolving conditions.&l...

  17. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Eve; Chevalier, Véronique; Ayelet, Gelagay; Ben Bencheikh, Med Nadir; Boussini, Hiver; Chu, Daniel Kw; El Berbri, Ikhlass; Fassi-Fihri, Ouaffa; Faye, Bernard; Fekadu, Getnet; Grosbois, Vladimir; Ng, Bryan Cy; Perera, Ranawaka Apm; So, T Y; Traore, Amadou; Roger, François; Peiris, Malik

    2017-03-30

    Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February-March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2-28.0), followed by Burkina Faso (up to 12.2%; 95% CI: 7-20.4) and Morocco (up to 7.6%; 95% CI: 1.9-26.1). The RNA detection rate was higher in camels bred for milk or meat than in camels for transport (p = 0.01) as well as in younger camels (p = 0.06). High seropositivity rates (up to 100%; 95% CI: 100-100 and 99.4%; 95% CI: 95.4-99.9) were found in Morocco and Ethiopia, followed by Burkina Faso (up to 84.6%; 95% CI: 77.2-89.9). Seropositivity rates were higher in large/medium herds (≥51 camels) than small herds (p = 0.061), in camels raised for meat or milk than for transport (p = 0.01), and in nomadic or sedentary herds than in herds with a mix of these lifestyles (p < 0.005). This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  18. [Living conditions, nutritional status and morbidity in children in prisons and detention centers in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, D; Zoma, A; Kabore, A; Yonaba, C; Savadogo, H; Ouedraogo, S A P; Dao, L; Koueta, F

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, although children are sometimes separated from adults in prisons, they still live in the same conditions of overcrowding, which can reach 180% of the capacity. The aim of our study was to describe living conditions, nutritional status, and morbidity of children in detention centers of Burkina Faso. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to describe the social and health conditions of children held in 20 detention centers in Burkina Faso. During the study period, 109 children, with a mean age of 16.3 years, were examined in 20 correction centers. The main reason for incarceration was theft (66% cases, n = 72). Detention exceeded more than one month for 76 children (70%), and 59% (N = 46) had had fewer than one visit per month since their incarceration. Of these 20 facilities, 6 had no separate quarters for children. The main symptoms and diseases encountered in these children were fever in 19% of the cases (N = 16), macroscopic hematuria in 13% (N = 11), urinary tract infection in 12% (N = 10) and diarrhea in 12% (N = 10). These results show that there is a need to take preventive measures to protect these children's health, especially by improving the quality of living conditions in detention center.

  19. Who Is Going for VCT? A Case Study in Urban Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Yaro, Seydou; Fao, Paulin; Defer, Marie-Christine; Ilboudo, François; Langani, Youssouf; Meda, Nicolas; Robert, Annie; Nagot, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) is a key element of treatment and is essential for prevention of vertical HIV transmission. Little information is available on the uptake of VCT in Burkina Faso. This study aims to assess the prevalence of VCT in urban Burkina Faso, where the epidemic is still highly concentrated. Methods. We conducted a two-stage clustered population-based survey among 1,694 subjects living in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. After informed consent was obtained, a behavioural questionnaire was administered to participants. Results. Overall, 10.2% of individuals had used VCT, while 9% were women. Among women who had a child after the launch of the programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), only 10.4% have been tested for HIV. Almost all participants (99.3%) were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 65% knew the main methods of prevention. In multivariate analysis, older age and being married and better educated were independent factors associated with VCT. Conclusions. Despite high public knowledge and awareness about HIV, VCT uptake was still very low and PMTCT coverage was poor. New strategies are required to increase VCT uptake in urban areas, in particular among the youngest age. PMID:24052873

  20. Preliminary assessment of framework conditions for release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freece, Chenoa; Paré Toé, Léa; Esposito, Fulvio; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Favia, Guido

    2014-09-01

    Genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) are emerging as a measure to control mosquito-borne diseases, but before any genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are released into the environment, it is imperative to establish regulatory standards incorporating public engagement. A previous project in Burkina Faso introduced a type of genetically modified cotton [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] cotton) that produces insecticide, and incorporated policies on public engagement. We explored the perspectives of Burkinabè (citizens of Burkina Faso) on bio-agricultural exposure to GMOs and their receptiveness to the use of GMOs. Interviews were conducted in a village (Bondoukuy) and with representatives from stakeholder organizations. The population may be very receptive to the use of GMMs against malaria, but may voice unfounded concerns that GMMs can transmit other diseases. It is important to constantly supply the population with correct and factual information. Investigating the application of Burkina Faso's biotechnology policies with regard to Bt cotton has shown that it may be conceivable in the future to have open discussions about the merits of GMM release. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Epidemiology of rotavirus infection among young children with acute diarrhoea in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Sanou, Idrissa; Bon, Fabienne; Benon, Benoit; Coulibaly, Sheick O; Haukka, Kaisa; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas

    2010-12-20

    In anticipation of vaccine introduction, we assessed epidemiology of rotavirus disease among children visiting medical centre due to acute diarrhoea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Between November 2008 and February 2010, stool specimens from 447 children less than 5 years of age suffering from diarrhoea were tested for the presence of rotavirus by antigen detection using an immunochromatographic test. Sociodemographic, environmental and clinical factors were assessed during the study. Rotavirus antigen was detected in 151 (33.8%) of the patients. Most of the cases (94.2%) were in children Fever and vomiting were the symptoms most commonly reported in association with rotavirus diarrhoea and the patients were often hospitalized. Rotavirus-associated diarrhoea occurred mostly during the season from December to April (dry season). Rotavirus infection was significantly less frequent in breast-fed than among bottle-fed babies. The results of this study underscore the need to control rotavirus infections among young children in Burkina Faso and may argue a decision on the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Burkina Faso.

  2. Effectively introducing a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Africa: the Burkina Faso experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Barry, Rodrigue; Bonkoungou, Mete; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre; Sebgo, Rene; Kandolo, Denis; Lingani, Clement; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Zuber, Patrick L F; Perea, William; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Dellepiane de Rey Tolve, Nora; Tevi-Benissan, Carole; Clark, Thomas A; Mayer, Leonard W; Novak, Ryan; Messonier, Nancy E; Berlier, Monique; Toboe, Desire; Nshimirimana, Deo; Mihigo, Richard; Aguado, Teresa; Diomandé, Fabien; Kristiansen, Paul A; Caugant, Dominique A; Laforce, F Marc

    2012-05-30

    A new Group A meningococcal (Men A) conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac™, was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. Because Burkina Faso has repeatedly suffered meningitis epidemics due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis special efforts were made to conduct a country-wide campaign with the new vaccine in late 2010 and before the onset of the next epidemic meningococcal disease season beginning in January 2011. In the ensuing five months (July-November 2010) the following challenges were successfully managed: (1) doing a large safety study and registering the new vaccine in Burkina Faso; (2) developing a comprehensive communication plan; (3) strengthening the surveillance system with particular attention to improving the capacity for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of spinal fluid specimens; (4) improving cold chain capacity and waste disposal; (5) developing and funding a sound campaign strategy; and (6) ensuring effective collaboration across all partners. Each of these issues required specific strategies that were managed through a WHO-led consortium that included all major partners (Ministry of Health/Burkina Faso, Serum Institute of India Ltd., UNICEF, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, Meningitis Vaccine Project, CDC/Atlanta, and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health/Oslo). Biweekly teleconferences that were led by WHO ensured that problems were identified in a timely fashion. The new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine was introduced on December 6, 2010, in a national ceremony led by His Excellency Blaise Compaore, the President of Burkina Faso. The ensuing 10-day national campaign was hugely successful, and over 11.4 million Burkinabes between the ages of 1 and 29 years (100% of target population) were vaccinated. African national immunization programs are capable of achieving very high coverage for a vaccine desired by the public, introduced in a well-organized campaign, and supported at the highest

  3. Pharmacovigilance systems in developing countries: an evaluative case study in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabore, Lassane; Millet, Pascal; Fofana, Souleymane; Berdai, Driss; Adam, Caroline; Haramburu, Françoise

    2013-05-01

    Burkina Faso, like other Sub-Saharan African countries, has recently experienced a large-scale deployment of new medicines for the prevention and treatment of notable diseases of public health interest, including malaria, HIV/AIDS and meningitis. This new context rendered the implementation of pharmacovigilance necessary in order to monitor and establish the safety and effectiveness of these medicines. In 2008, the Ministry of Health of Burkina Faso, West Africa, launched a formal pharmacovigilance system to respond to this need. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early-stage pharmacovigilance system of Burkina Faso through a comprehensive and system-based approach with the prospect of identifying areas for improvements. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in Burkina Faso. Sixteen key informants from the National Drug Authority (NDA), public health programmes (PHPs) and hospitals were interviewed. Study participants were selected based on a convenience sampling in the NDA, three teaching hospitals, two regional hospitals and six PHPs. Data were collected using the Indicator-based Pharmacovigilance Assessment Tool (IPAT), a metric instrument recently designed and validated by 'Management Sciences for Health', a US non-profit organization. The evaluation also involved the collection and review of relevant pharmacovigilance-related documentation in the institutions assessed. A scoring system was used for the quantification of assessment results. The NDA of Burkina Faso, the institution statutorily in charge of pharmacovigilance, achieved a performance score of 70 %. The basic structures for pharmacovigilance activities were in place; however, the lack of specific laws dedicated to pharmacovigilance, the lack of national guidelines and standard operating procedures on pharmacovigilance, and the insufficient coordination of pharmacovigilance stakeholders in the country were identified as the main weaknesses. Safety data collected thus far have not

  4. Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namountougou, Moussa; Simard, Frédéric; Baldet, Thierry; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Martin, Thibaud; Dabiré, Roch K

    2012-01-01

    Malaria control programs are being jeopardized by the spread of insecticide resistance in mosquito vector populations. The situation in Burkina Faso is emblematic with Anopheles gambiae populations showing high levels of resistance to most available compounds. Although the frequency of insecticide target-site mutations including knockdown resistance (kdr) and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1(R)) alleles has been regularly monitored in the area, it is not known whether detoxifying enzymes contribute to the diversity of resistance phenotypes observed in the field. Here, we propose an update on the phenotypic diversity of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae populations sampled from 10 sites in Burkina Faso in 2010. Susceptibility to deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, bendiocarb and fenithrotion was assessed. Test specimens (N = 30 per locality) were identified to species and molecular form and their genotype at the kdr and Ace-1 loci was determined. Detoxifying enzymes activities including non-specific esterases (NSEs), oxydases (cytochrome P450) and Glutathione S-Transferases (GSTs) were measured on single mosquitoes (N = 50) from each test locality and compared with the An. gambiae Kisumu susceptible reference strain. In all sites, mosquitoes demonstrated multiple resistance phenotypes, showing reduced mortality to several insecticidal compounds at the same time, although with considerable site-to-site variation. Both the kdr 1014L and Ace-1(R) 119S resistant alleles were detected in the M and the S forms of An. gambiae, and were found together in specimens of the S form. Variation in detoxifying enzyme activities was observed within and between vector populations. Elevated levels of NSEs and GSTs were widespread, suggesting multiple resistance mechanisms segregate within An. gambiae populations from this country. By documenting the extent and diversity of insecticide resistance phenotypes and the putative combination of their underlying mechanisms in

  5. Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Namountougou

    Full Text Available Malaria control programs are being jeopardized by the spread of insecticide resistance in mosquito vector populations. The situation in Burkina Faso is emblematic with Anopheles gambiae populations showing high levels of resistance to most available compounds. Although the frequency of insecticide target-site mutations including knockdown resistance (kdr and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1(R alleles has been regularly monitored in the area, it is not known whether detoxifying enzymes contribute to the diversity of resistance phenotypes observed in the field. Here, we propose an update on the phenotypic diversity of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae populations sampled from 10 sites in Burkina Faso in 2010. Susceptibility to deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, bendiocarb and fenithrotion was assessed. Test specimens (N = 30 per locality were identified to species and molecular form and their genotype at the kdr and Ace-1 loci was determined. Detoxifying enzymes activities including non-specific esterases (NSEs, oxydases (cytochrome P450 and Glutathione S-Transferases (GSTs were measured on single mosquitoes (N = 50 from each test locality and compared with the An. gambiae Kisumu susceptible reference strain. In all sites, mosquitoes demonstrated multiple resistance phenotypes, showing reduced mortality to several insecticidal compounds at the same time, although with considerable site-to-site variation. Both the kdr 1014L and Ace-1(R 119S resistant alleles were detected in the M and the S forms of An. gambiae, and were found together in specimens of the S form. Variation in detoxifying enzyme activities was observed within and between vector populations. Elevated levels of NSEs and GSTs were widespread, suggesting multiple resistance mechanisms segregate within An. gambiae populations from this country. By documenting the extent and diversity of insecticide resistance phenotypes and the putative combination of their underlying

  6. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  7. Seroprevalence of fecal-oral transmitted hepatitis A and E virus antibodies in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Abdoulaye Traoré

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV and hepatitis E virus (HEV infections occur chiefly as a result of unhygienic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to both viruses in central Burkina Faso in the absence of a recorded hepatitis epidemic. Serum samples from 178 blood donors (131 males and 47 females and from 189 pregnant women were collected from November 2010 to March 2012, at blood banks and medical centers in Burkina Faso. An immunochromatography test was used to screen for Anti-HAV IgM and IgG in a subgroup of 91 blood donors and 100 pregnant women. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 14.3% [CI95, 7.1-21.4%] for all blood donors and 23% [CI95, 14.8-31.2%] for pregnant women. Anti-HEV IgG were detected using the ELISA kits Dia.pro and Wantai and were found in 19.1% [CI95, 13.3-24.9%] of the blood donors and 11.6% [CI95, 7.1-16.2%] of the pregnant women. The seroprevalences of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgGs did not differ significantly between men and women blood donors. Anti-HAV IgM was detected in 3.3% of the blood donors and in 2% of the pregnant women. These findings for asymptomatic individuals indicate that the HAV and HEV circulate at low but significant levels. This is the first evaluation of the acute hepatitis virus burden in Burkina Faso and the underlying epidemiologic status of the population.

  8. Seroprevalence of fecal-oral transmitted hepatitis A and E virus antibodies in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Kuan Abdoulaye; Rouamba, Hortense; Nébié, Yacouba; Sanou, Mahamadou; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Roques, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur chiefly as a result of unhygienic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to both viruses in central Burkina Faso in the absence of a recorded hepatitis epidemic. Serum samples from 178 blood donors (131 males and 47 females) and from 189 pregnant women were collected from November 2010 to March 2012, at blood banks and medical centers in Burkina Faso. An immunochromatography test was used to screen for Anti-HAV IgM and IgG in a subgroup of 91 blood donors and 100 pregnant women. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 14.3% [CI95, 7.1-21.4%] for all blood donors and 23% [CI95, 14.8-31.2%] for pregnant women. Anti-HEV IgG were detected using the ELISA kits Dia.pro and Wantai and were found in 19.1% [CI95, 13.3-24.9%] of the blood donors and 11.6% [CI95, 7.1-16.2%] of the pregnant women. The seroprevalences of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgGs did not differ significantly between men and women blood donors. Anti-HAV IgM was detected in 3.3% of the blood donors and in 2% of the pregnant women. These findings for asymptomatic individuals indicate that the HAV and HEV circulate at low but significant levels. This is the first evaluation of the acute hepatitis virus burden in Burkina Faso and the underlying epidemiologic status of the population.

  9. Farmers' knowledge and opinions towards bollgard II®implementation in cotton production in western Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Edouard I R; Gheysen, Godelieve; Koulibaly, Bazoumana; Roelofs, Caspar; Speelman, Stijn

    2018-01-24

    In 2008, the commercial cultivation of Genetically Modified (GM) cotton (Bollgard II ® ) started in Burkina Faso. The adoption rate increased rapidly in subsequent years to reach around 70% in 2014. Although some criticisms were raised concerning the suitability of the technology for the farming system in Burkina Faso, the introduction of transgenic cotton in the country was generally regarded as a great success. Despite this, during the 2016-2017 agricultural campaign, the government of Burkina Faso decided to suspend the cultivation of Bollgard II ® . In this context, this paper investigates farmers' knowledge, perceptions, opinions and attitudes towards Bollgard II ® as well as their views on the recent decision to suspend its cultivation. Data was collected from 324 cotton farmers, both growers of conventional and Bollgard II ® . The results showed that the farmers surveyed had a poor knowledge concerning the core concepts of biotechnology and Bollgard II ® in particular. Moreover, the regulatory oversight of the implementation of the technology was found insufficient, as illustrated by the lack of compliance with prescriptions concerning refuge areas and pesticide treatments. Nevertheless, overall, the farmers interviewed had a slightly positive opinion about the effects on yield, income and their wellbeing. In particular the reduction in pesticide treatments was perceived very positively by all respondents. Although the study finds that the majority of farmers disagreed with the recent suspension of Bt cotton cultivation by the government, it also makes clear that a thorough debate on the technology and its implementation is necessary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Measuring women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikiema Béatrice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, women must overcome numerous barriers when they need modern healthcare. Respect of gender norms within the household and the community may still influence women's ability to obtain care. A lack of gender-sensitive instruments for measuring women's ability to overcome barriers compromises attempts to adequately quantify the burden and risk of exclusion they face when seeking modern healthcare. The aim of this study was to create and validate a synthetic measure of women's access to healthcare from a publicly available and possibly internationally comparable population-based survey. Method Seven questionnaire items from the Burkina Faso 2003 DHS were combined to create the index. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the index. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA were applied to evaluate the factorial structure and construct validity of the index while taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data. Results The index has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.75, suggesting adequate reliability. In EFA, three correlated factors fitted the data best. In CFA, the construct of perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking emerged as a second-order latent variable with three domains: socioeconomic barriers, geographical barriers and psychosocial barriers. Model fit indices support the index's global validity for women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso. Evidence for construct validity comes from the finding that women's index scores increase with household living standard. Conclusion The DHS items can be combined into a reliable and valid, gender-sensitive index quantifying reproductive-age women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso. The index complies conceptually with the sector-cross-cutting capability approach and enables measuring directly the perceived access to healthcare. Therefore it

  11. Learning Transfer: The Missing Link to Learning among School Leaders in Burkina Faso and Ghana

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    Corinne Brion

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, billions of dollars are spent on development aid and training around the world. However, only 10% of this training results in the transfer of knowledge, skills, or behaviors learned in the training to the work place. Ideally, learning transfer produces effective and continued application by learners of the knowledge and skills they gained through their learning activities. Currently, there is a limited body of research examining the factors that hinder and promote learning transfer in professional development, particularly the professional development of school leaders in developing countries. This qualitative exploratory study sought to address the gap in the literature by examining six schools: three in Burkina Faso and three in Ghana, West Africa. This investigation explored what promoted and hindered learning transfer in both countries. The sample consisted of 13 West-African school leaders (6 in Burkina Faso and 7 in Ghana who attended a 3-day leadership training workshop. Data collection included in-depth interviews, document analysis, post-training site visits, and text messages to ascertain whether this mobile technology intervention enhanced learning transfer. The findings demonstrated that learning transfer occurred in both countries in all six schools. Data indicated that most of the transfer of learning happened in areas not requiring mindset and behavioral changes. Data suggested that the facilities in which the trainings took place, the facilitators’ dispositions and knowledge, the adequacy of the materials as well as the testimonials and certificate of completions enhanced the transfer of learning. Participants also indicated some inhibitors to the transfer of learning, such as financial, cultural, and human behavior constraints. This study helps increase our understanding of what promotes and inhibits learning transfer in educational settings in Burkina Faso and Ghana and provides suggestions for trainers and

  12. Survey data on key climate and environmental drivers of farmers’ migration in Burkina Faso, West Africa

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    Safiétou Sanfo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes two datasets generated from various sources in south western Burkina Faso to identify the key climate and environmental drivers that cause farmers to migrate. The survey sampling is random but reasoned and rational. The first dataset from 367 farm households1 1 100 interviewed households, and 10 Focus Group Discussions comprising 267 farmers. contains data on farmers’ perception of climate change risks or hazards, their impacts on farmland productivity and farm households’ risk management strategies. The second dataset from 58 farm households contains data on agricultural practices, environmental changes, and environmental migration. Three supplemental Excel sheets show the results of the surveys. Details on the sample as well as further interpretation and discussion of the surveys are available in the associated research article (‘Field Facts for Crop Insurance Design: Empirical Evidence from South Western Burkina Faso’ (W. M. Fonta, S. Sanfo, B. Ibrahim, B. Barry, 2015 [1].

  13. Oral health behaviour of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of dental knowledge and attitudes among 12 year-old children and 35-44 year-olds in Burkina Faso; to evaluate the pattern of oral health behaviour among these cohorts in relation to location, gender and social characteristics and; to evaluate the relative effect....... The final study population covered two age groups: 12 years (n = 505) and 35-44 years (n = 493). RESULTS: For both children and adults, levels of oral health knowledge, attitudes and self-care were low; 36% of 12-year-olds and 57% of 35-44-year-olds carried out toothcleaning on a daily basis. Pain...

  14. Oral health status of children living in Gorom-Gorom, Oudalan District, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazza, Clelia; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo

    2010-01-01

    Aim. In order to set up the needs for intervention and to plan oral health prevention and care programmes, this paper aims to describe the oral health status and behaviour in children living in the municipality of Gorom-Gorom, Burkina Faso. Design. The sample size was 692 children, 334 females (48....... A statistically significant association was found between caries experience and cleanliness of hands. Community Periodontal Index was statistically associated to toothbrushing and chewingstick use. Conclusion. As suggested by WHO's global strategies, integrated primary oral health care and services meeting...... the dental needs of the local population are necessary for children living in this area of Africa....

  15. HIV prevalence and poverty in Africa: micro- and macro-econometric evidences applied to Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaud, Jean-Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Based on the data of the Demographic and Health Survey, and of the Household Priority Survey, carried out in 2003, the present study, examining the factors of HIV prevalence in Burkina Faso, provides two conclusions. Firstly, the fight against poverty is not necessarily a means of reducing simultaneously and drastically HIV/AIDS prevalence, an assertion based on several elements of empirical analysis. First of all, the micro-econometric estimates of the probit models suggest a positive relationship between HIV prevalence in adult women and men, and living standards of individuals. Then, the macro-econometric approach reveals the existence of a positive (negative) relationship between, on the one hand, the level of regional HIV prevalence, and, on the other hand, the average monetary provincial standard of living (poverty) of households. At the same time, the relationship between HIV prevalence and poverty, apprehended at the regional level, is not linear. Secondly, and correlatively, the relationship between HIV prevalence and poverty is called into question. First of all, some structural factors may contribute to a distortion of the relationship between resources of households and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. This may be due, on the one hand, to the persistence of cognitive and behavioural factors inherent in a traditional society, and in particular, to the fact that the social construction of female attributes and roles confers to men a statute of "decision-makers" with regard to sexual intercourse, while the persistence of secular beliefs contributes to minimizing the perception of HIV/AIDS in terms of risk, independently of standards of living. In addition, the enclavement of Burkina Faso required development of road and railway traffic with neighbouring countries, in particular Côte d'Ivoire. Therefore, it may be that the structural conditions of the process of development of Burkina Faso, concomitant with significant flows of the exchange of goods, services

  16. Parkia biglobosa as an economic resource for rural women in south-western Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette-Helene Kronborg; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ilboudo, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    An approach for commercialising a product from Parkia biglobosa in order to improve the economic situation of rural women in south-western Burkina Faso was explored. Income is generated from sales of a derivative from the fermented seeds called soumbala. About one fifth of the women (18%) were...... of seeds and amount of seeds harvested per year. In addition, 90% of the informants managed Parkia sustainably, suggesting that enhanced exploitation of Parkia for commercial purposes can be ecologically sustainable if present management techniques are maintained. The results suggest that Parkia have...

  17. Treatment plant design using natural products for the purification of surface waters in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    López Grimau, Víctor; Smith, Tarik; Amante García, Beatriz; Heras, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    La climatología semi-árida de Burkina Faso (África occidental) es propensa a variaciones estacionales extremas, encadenando largos periodos de sequía con fuertes lluvias concentradas entre los meses de mayo y octubre. Las deficiencias tanto en el suministro de agua como en su calidad, especialmente en zonas rurales, supone la principal causa de enfermedades causadas por parásitos intestinales, con particular incidencia en la población infantil. Este estudio está locali...

  18. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Eve; Chevalier, Véronique; Ayelet, Gelagay; Ben Bencheikh, M.N.; Boussini, H.; Chu, D. K. W.; El Berbri, I.; Fassi Fihri, O.; Faye, Bernard; Fekadu, G.; Grosbois, Vladimir; Ng, B.C.; Perera, Ranawaka A. P. M.; So, T; Traoré, A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February–March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2–28.0), followed by B...

  19. Three years of insecticide resistance monitoring in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso: resistance on the rise?

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    Badolo Athanase

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide-resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Burkina Faso. For three years, between 2008 and 2010, WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of resistance to all the major classes of insecticides at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season. Species identification and genotyping for target site mutations was also performed and the sporozoite rate in adults determined. Results At the onset of the study, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was already prevalent in An. gambiae s.l. from the south-west of the country but mosquitoes from the two sites in central Burkina Faso were largely susceptible. Within three years, DDT and permethrin resistance was established in all four sites. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance remains relatively rare and largely confined to the south-western areas although a small number of bendiocarb survivors were found in all sites by the final round of monitoring. The ace-1R target site resistance allele was present in all localities and its frequency exceeded 20% in 2010 in two of the sites. The frequency of the 1014F kdr mutation increased throughout the three years and by 2010, the frequency of 1014F in all sites combined was 0.02 in Anopheles arabiensis, 0.56 in An. gambiae M form and 0.96 in An. gambiae S form. This frequency did not differ significantly between the sites. The 1014S kdr allele was only found in An. arabiensis but its frequency increased significantly throughout the study (P = 0.0003 and in 2010 the 1014S allele frequency was 0.08 in An. arabiensis. Maximum sporozoite rates (12% were observed in Soumousso in 2009 and the difference between sites is significant for each year. Conclusion Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is now established in An. gambiae s.l. throughout Burkina Faso. Results from diagnostic dose assays are highly variable within and

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with hypertension in Burkina Faso: a countrywide cross-sectional study

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    Joseph Kouesyandé Soubeiga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High blood pressure (HBP is an increasing public health issue for developing countries. HBP is an important contributing factor to many non-communicable diseases that were until very recently thought to be rare in developing countries. There is not enough evidence on its burden and risk factors in Africa. We report in this study on the prevalence and factors associated with HBP in the adult and active population of Burkina Faso from a nationally representative sample. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the World Health Organization (WHO Stepwise approach to Surveillance(STEPS survey on the prevalence of major risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Burkina Faso. This survey was conducted between September 26 and November 18, 2013 and involved a nationally representative sample of 4,800 adults aged 25 to 64 years. The risk factors were identified using a binary logistic regression in STATA Version 13.1 software. Results The analysis was conducted on a sample of 4629 participants of whom 72.18% lived in rural areas. The overall prevalence of hypertension in Burkina Faso was 18% (95% CI: 16.19%–19.96%. In urban areas the prevalence was 24.81% (95% CI 20.21%–30.07% and 15.37% (95% CI 13.67%–17.24% in rural areas. Increased Body Mass Index (BMI and older age were consistently associated with higher odds of HBP in both residential areas. In addition, being of male sex, fat intake, family history of HBP and low level of HDL cholesterol were significantly associated with increased odds of HBP in rural residents. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension is high in Burkina Faso with roughly one person in five affected. There is a predominant burden in urban areas with prevalence of ten-point percent higher compared to rural area. Modifiable risk factors should be targeted with appropriate and effective strategies to curb the rising burden of hypertension and its consequences.

  1. Ecole Supérieure de Droit à l'Université de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

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    Meyer, P.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher school of law at the University of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso. Insect flight populations infesting traditional millet storage have been followed by sticky trap during fifteen months in Senegal. Distribution analysis of species show that Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. (52 % of insect total number is most abundant, following by Ephestia cautella WLK. (7V, 6 %, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. (17, 4 % o, Cryptolestes sp. (10, 1 % o and Rhyzopertha dominica F. (9, 9 %&gt;. Infestation has been discussed in relation between storage methodology. Relation between seasonal fluctuation of S. cerealella and several abiotic factors of ecosystem has been found.

  2. The role of transportation to access maternal care services for women in rural Bangladesh and Burkina Faso: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Kouanda, Seni; Seppey, Mathieu; Alam, Anadil; Savadogo, Justin Ragnessi; Sia, Drissa; Fournier, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    To understand the role of transportation in accessing health care during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period among women in rural Bangladesh and Burkina Faso. An exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Mymensingh district in Bangladesh and Kaya district in Burkina Faso. We recruited 300 women from Bangladesh and 340 from Burkina Faso with a delivery outcome within one year of interview. Key informant interviews were conducted with 19 participants and 12 focus group discussions took place with attendees in selected community clinics. Of the interviewees, 45.7% in Bangladesh and 73.2% in Burkina Faso reported having had health complications during their last pregnancy, delivery, or postpartum period. Of all women, 42.7% in Bangladesh and 67.4% in Burkina Faso sought facility care for their complications. Facility-based delivery was much higher in Burkina Faso (87.7%) than Bangladesh (38.2%). Literacy, transport availability, transportation costs, and travel time were associated with care seeking behavior. Lack of reliable transportation was reported as a significant barrier to accessing care during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum by women in Bangladesh and Burkina Faso. Effort should be made to improve access to emergency obstetric care, and transport intervention should be strengthened. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino

    2010-01-01

    esculentum Mill.), paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), bambara [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam were tested for seed-borne viruses using various techniques including...

  4. Total Quality Management in the African business community of Burkina Faso : a change in perspective on knowledge development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, L.; Pennink, B.

    2007-01-01

    During the 1990s Total Quality Management (TQM) became diffused to Burkina Faso. The overarching logic of privatization due to Structural Adjustment Programs prepared the ground for far-reaching changes in management practices. TQM became exhorted as a new way of manufacturing. This new management

  5. Burkina Faso - Promoting Growth, Competitiveness and Diversification : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 2. Sources of Growth - Key Sectors for Tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...

  6. Consuming the savings : Water Conservation in a Vegetation Barrier System at the Central Plateau in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    The vast majority of land users at the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso make a living by farming small plots, where mainly staple crops are produced for subsistence use. Both area interventions and line interventions comprising indigenous techniques as well as introduced techniques can be encountered

  7. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  8. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum cultivars from Burkina Faso.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Hilhorst, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Laane, N.C.M.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was

  9. Role of nutrient amendments in the success of half-moon soil and water conservation practice in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Kambou, N.F.; Zida, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The half-moon technique has been recently introduced in northern Burkina Faso as a method for the rehabilitation of sealed and crusted bare soils locally called zipellé. As this technique, like zaï and mulching practices, interested many farmers, a trial was conducted to study the effect on soil

  10. Soil nutrient and sediment loss as affected by erosion barriers and nutrient source in semi-arid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmore, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2009-01-01

    In semi-arid Sahel, soil erosion by water is one major factor accounting for negative nutrient balances in agricultural systems. A field experiment was conducted on a Ferric Lixisol in Burkina Faso to assess the effects of soil and water conservation barriers (stone rows or grass strips of

  11. Heterogeneous migration flows from the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso: the role of natural and social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a system of labour supply equations and data from Burkina Faso collected in 2003 to test the conditions underlying two different migratory movements: continental and intercontinental migration. We provide theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence that heterogeneity in migration is

  12. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, Elisabeth Pawindé; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi re...

  13. Participatory Assessment of Development Interventions: Lessons Learned from a New Evaluation Methodology in Ghana and Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouw, Nicky; Dietz, Ton; Bélemvire, Adame; de Groot, Dieneke; Millar, David; Obeng, Francis; Rijneveld, Wouter; Van der Geest, Kees; Vlaminck, Zjos; Zaal, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the principles and findings of developing a new participatory assessment of development (PADev) evaluation approach that was codesigned with Dutch nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and northern and southern research institutes over a period of 4 years in the context of rural development in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Although…

  14. Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly in Burkina Faso: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Hervé; Berthé, Abdramane; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Meda, Nicolas; Konaté, Blahima; Tou, Fatoumata; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2014-11-01

    To assess the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among urban older adults in Burkina Faso. Cross-sectional study among community-dwelling elderly people aged ≥60 in Bobo-Dioulasso. We performed interviews, clinical examination and medical record review. Multimorbidity was defined as co-occurrence of at least two chronic diseases in one person whether as a coincidence or not. The overall prevalence of multimorbidity among older adults was 65%. Age ≥70 was associated with multimorbidity in multivariate analysis: adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI (1.01-2.68, P = 0.04). The most common chronic diseases were hypertension (82%) 95% CI (78; 86), malnutrition (39%) 95% CI (34; 44), visual impairments (28%) 95% CI (24; 33) and diabetes mellitus (27%) 95% CI (22; 31). Those aged ≥70 had significantly more malnutrition (50% vs. 31%, P = 0.0003) and osteoarthritis (8% vs. 3%, P = 0.01) than those aged 60-69. The high prevalence of multimorbidity requires a reorganization of healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Burkina Faso. Interventions and care guidelines usually focused on individual diseases should be improved to better reflect this reality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella in pregnant women attending antenatal private clinic at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguissi, Laure Stella Ghoma; Nagalo, Bolni Marius; Bisseye, Cyrille; Kagoné, Thérése S; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Tao, Issoufou; Benao, Victoire; Simporé, Jacques; Koné, Bibiane

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella among pregnant women at Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. All patient sera were tested for rubella and toxoplasmosis anti-IgG using commercial ELISA kits (Platelia™ Rubella IgG and Platelia™ Toxo IgG). The presence of anti-rubella and anti-toxoplasmosis IgM in serum samples was tested using commercial ELISA kits Platelia Rubella IgM and Platelia Toxo IgM. Among all the pregnant women tested for toxoplasmosis and rubella, their prevalence were 20.3% and 77.0%, respectively. Pregnant women in the age group of 18-25 years showed the highest frequency of anti-toxoplasmosis (34.5%) and anti-rubella IgG (84.6%). The prevalence of anti-toxoplasma and anti-rubella IgG decreased between 2006 and 2008 from 32.7% to 12.1% and 84.6% to 65.0%, respectively. There was no significant association between age and the mean titer of anti-toxoplasmosis IgG among pregnant women. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and rubella is necessary in pregnant women in Burkina Faso because of the low immunization coverage rate of rubella and the high level of exposure to these two infections which can be harmful to the newborn if contracted by women before the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of zooprophylaxis and other mosquito control measures against malaria in Nouna, Burkina Faso

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    Sié Ali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of large scale, organized vector control programmes, individual protective measures against mosquitoes are essential for reducing the transmission of diseases like malaria. Knowledge of the types and effectiveness of mosquito control methods used by households can aid in the development and promotion of preventive measures. Methods A matched, population-based case control study was carried out in the semi-urban region of Nouna, Burkina Faso. Surveys and mosquito captures were conducted for each participating household. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression and Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results In Nouna, Burkina Faso, the main types of reported mosquito control measures used included sleeping under bed nets (insecticide-treated and untreated and burning mosquito coils. Most of the study households kept animals within the compound or house at night. Insecticide house sprays, donkeys, rabbits and pigs were significantly associated with a reduced risk of malaria only in univariate analyses. Conclusion Given the conflicting results of the effects of zooprophylaxis from previous studies, other community-based preventive measures, such as bed nets, coils and insecticide house-spraying, may be of more benefit.

  17. Climate, cattle rearing systems and African Animal Trypanosomosis risk in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Sangaré, Mamadou; Bengaly, Zakaria; Akoudjin, Massouroudin; Belem, Adrien M G; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2012-01-01

    In sub-Saharan countries infested by tsetse flies, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is considered as the main pathological constraint to cattle breeding. Africa has known a strong climatic change and its population was multiplied by four during the last half-century. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of production practices and climate on tsetse occurrence and abundance, and the associated prevalence of AAT in Burkina Faso. Four sites were selected along a South-north transect of increasing aridity. The study combines parasitological and entomological surveys. For the parasitological aspect, blood samples were collected from 1,041 cattle selected through a stratified sampling procedure including location and livestock management system (long transhumance, short transhumance, sedentary). Parasitological and serological prevalence specific to livestock management systems show a gradual increase from the Sahelian to the Sudano-Guinean area (PLivestock management system had also a significant impact on parasitological prevalence (Pclimatic pressure clearly had a negative impact on tsetse abundance and AAT risk. However, the persistency of tsetse habitats along the Mouhoun river loop maintains a high risk of cyclical transmission of T. vivax. Moreover, an "epidemic mechanical livestock trypanosomosis" cycle is likely to occur in the northern site, where trypanosomes are brought in by cattle transhuming from the tsetse infested area and are locally transmitted by mechanical vectors. In Burkina Faso, the impact of tsetse thus extends to a buffer area around their distribution belt, corresponding to the herd transhumance radius.

  18. Recombinant viruses initiated the early HIV-1 epidemic in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N Fonjungo

    Full Text Available We analyzed genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 124 HIV-1 and 19 HIV-2 strains in sera collected in 1986 from patients of the state hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Phylogenetic analysis of the HIV-1 env gp41 region of 65 sequences characterized 37 (56.9% as CRF06_cpx strains, 25 (38.5% as CRF02_AG, 2 (3.1% as CRF09_cpx, and 1 (1.5% as subtype A. Similarly, phylogenetic analysis of the protease (PR gene region of 73 sequences identified 52 (71.2% as CRF06_cpx, 15 (20.5% as CRF02_AG, 5 (6.8% as subtype A, and 1 (1.4% was a unique strain that clustered along the B/D lineage but basal to the node connecting the two lineages. HIV-2 PR or integrase (INT groups A (n = 17 [89.5%] and B (n = 2 [10.5%] were found in both monotypic (n = 11 and heterotypic HIV-1/HIV-2 (n = 8 infections, with few HIV-2 group B infections. Based on limited available sampling, evidence suggests two recombinant viruses, CRF06_cpx and CRF02_AG, appear to have driven the beginning of the mid-1980s HIV-1 epidemic in Burkina Faso.

  19. Magnitude of Maternal Anaemia in Rural Burkina Faso: Contribution of Nutritional Factors and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Meda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal anaemia is a worldwide public health problem affecting particularly developing countries. In Burkina Faso, little data is available for rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of maternal anaemia and the risk factors associated with it in the rural health district of Hounde in Burkina Faso but also to define better control measures of maternal anaemia. Methods. This cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 had a sample of 3,140 pregnant women attending antenatal care in all the 18 primary health care facilities of the district. The women’s characteristics and their knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STI were collected. Also, physical and gynaecological examination, completed by vaginal, cervix, blood, and stool samplings, were collected. Results. A prevalence of 63.1% was recorded for maternal anaemia. Geophagy rate was 16.3% and vitamin A deficiency 69.3%. In addition, anaemia was independently associated with low education, low brachial perimeter, geophagy, and primigravida. But no statically significant relationship was found between maternal anaemia and infectious diseases or vitamin A deficiency. Conclusion. The magnitude of maternal anaemia was found to be higher in rural Hounde health district and should be addressed by adequate policy including education and the fight against malnutrition.

  20. Medicinal Plants Used for Neuropsychiatric Disorders Treatment in the Hauts Bassins Region of Burkina Faso

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    Prosper T. Kinda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Burkina Faso, phytotherapy is the main medical alternative used by populations to manage various diseases that affect the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to report medicinal plants with psychoactive properties used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders in the Hauts Bassins region, in the western zone of Burkina Faso. Methods: Through an ethnobotanical survey using structured questionnaire, 53 traditional healers (TH were interviewed about neuropsychiatric disorders, medicinal plants and medical practices used to treat them. The survey was carried out over a period of three months. Results: The results report 66 plant species used to treat neuropsychiatric pathologies. Roots (36.2% and leaves (29% were the main plant parts used. Alone or associated, these parts were used to prepare drugs using mainly the decoction and the trituration methods. Remedies were administered via drink, fumigation and external applications. Conclusions: It appears from this study a real knowledge of neuropsychiatric disorders in the traditional medicine of Hauts Bassins area. The therapeutic remedies suggested in this work are a real interest in the fight against psychiatric and neurological diseases. In the future, identified plants could be used for searching antipsychotic or neuroprotective compounds.

  1. Transplacental Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Highly Malaria Endemic Area of Burkina Faso

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    Alphonse Ouédraogo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria congenital infection constitutes a major risk in malaria endemic areas. In this study, we report the prevalence of transplacental malaria in Burkina Faso. In labour and delivery units, thick and thin blood films were made from maternal, placental, and umbilical cord blood to determine malaria infection. A total of 1,309 mother/baby pairs were recruited. Eighteen cord blood samples (1.4% contained malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum. Out of the 369 (28.2% women with peripheral positive parasitemia, 211 (57.2% had placental malaria and 14 (3.8% had malaria parasites in their umbilical cord blood. The umbilical cord parasitemia levels were statistically associated with the presence of maternal peripheral parasitemia (OR=9.24, ≪0.001, placental parasitemia (OR=10.74, ≪0.001, high-density peripheral parasitemia (OR=9.62, ≪0.001, and high-density placental parasitemia (OR=4.91, =0.03. In Burkina Faso, the mother-to-child transmission rate of malaria appears to be low.

  2. [Physicochemical composition of bottled drinking water marketed in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Issa Touridomon; Banao, Issouf; Gouado, Inocent; Tapsoba, Théophile Lincoln

    2009-01-01

    The bottled drinking water marketed in urban areas includes natural mineral water, spring water, and treated drinking water. Their physicochemical qualities depend on the type and quantity of their components and define their safe use. Bottled water is widely consumed in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), and many brand names exist. Although many publications have examined the microbiological qualities of such water, no study has examined the physicochemical quality of water from Burkina Faso. This study, conducted from March 2005 through January 2006, aimed to assess the physicochemical composition of drinking water sold in Ouagadougou to facilitate better choices and use by consumers. Results showed that all the water analyzed in Ouagadougou is soft (TH water, however, is hard and highly mineralized. French standards do not set limit values for the natural mineral water parameters described above, and much of the water sold in Ouagadougou was natural mineral water. The spring water met potability standards, except for the Montagne d'Arrée brand, which had a pH value of 5.8, below the WHO standards of 6.5 < pH 8.5.

  3. Transplacental Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Highly Malaria Endemic Area of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Tiono, Alfred B.; Diarra, Amidou; Bougouma, Edith C. Christiane; Nébié, Issa; Konaté, Amadou T.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria congenital infection constitutes a major risk in malaria endemic areas. In this study, we report the prevalence of transplacental malaria in Burkina Faso. In labour and delivery units, thick and thin blood films were made from maternal, placental, and umbilical cord blood to determine malaria infection. A total of 1,309 mother/baby pairs were recruited. Eighteen cord blood samples (1.4%) contained malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum). Out of the 369 (28.2%) women with peripheral positive parasitemia, 211 (57.2%) had placental malaria and 14 (3.8%) had malaria parasites in their umbilical cord blood. The umbilical cord parasitemia levels were statistically associated with the presence of maternal peripheral parasitemia (OR = 9.24, P ≪ 0.001), placental parasitemia (OR = 10.74, P ≪ 0.001), high-density peripheral parasitemia (OR = 9.62, P ≪ 0.001), and high-density placental parasitemia (OR = 4.91, P = 0.03). In Burkina Faso, the mother-to-child transmission rate of malaria appears to be low. PMID:22174725

  4. An epidemiological study to assess Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence and malaria control measures in Burkina Faso and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Aldiouma; Sié, Ali; Sirima, Sodiomon; Sylla, Khadime; Ndiaye, Mahmadou; Bountogo, Mamadou; Ouedraogo, Espérance; Tine, Roger; Ndiaye, Assane; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Ouedraogo, Alphonse; Faye, Babacar; Ba, El Hadji; Compaore, Guillaume; Tiono, Alfred; Sokhna, Cheikh; Yé, Maurice; Diarra, Amidou; Bahmanyar, Edith Roset; De Boer, Melanie; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Usuf, Effua Abigail

    2017-02-06

    Malariometric information is needed to decide how to introduce malaria vaccines and evaluate their impact in sub-Saharan African countries. This cross-sectional study (NCT01954264) was conducted between October and November, 2013, corresponding to the high malaria transmission season, in four sites with Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (DSS) [two sites with moderate-to-high malaria endemicity in Burkina Faso (Nouna and Saponé) and two sites with low malaria endemicity in Senegal (Keur Socé and Niakhar)]. Children (N = 2421) were randomly selected from the DSS lists of the study sites and were stratified into two age groups (6 months-4 years and 5-9 years). A blood sample was collected from each child to evaluate parasite prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and other Plasmodium species and gametocyte density by microscopy, and rapid diagnosis test in the event of fever within 24 h. Case report forms were used to evaluate malaria control measures and other factors. Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 707 (29.2%) children, with a higher prevalence in Burkina Faso than Senegal (57.5 vs 0.9% of children). In Burkina Faso, prevalence was 57.7% in Nouna and 41.9% in Saponé in the 6 months-4 years age group, and 75.4% in Nouna and 70.1% in Saponé in the 5-9 years age group. Infections with other Plasmodium species were rare and only detected in Burkina Faso. While mosquito nets were used by 88.6-97.0 and 64.7-80.2% of children in Burkina Faso and Senegal, other malaria control measures evaluated at individual level were uncommon. In Burkina Faso, exploratory analyses suggested that use of malaria treatment or any other medication within 14 days, and use of insecticide spray within 7 days decreased the prevalence of malaria infection; older age, rural residence, natural floor, grass/palm roof, and unavailability of electricity in the house were factors associated with increased malaria occurrence. Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in children

  5. Knowledge of prevention, cause, symptom and practices of malaria among women in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Sanni; Bishwajit, Ghose; Ekholuenetale, Michael; Shah, Vaibhav; Kadio, Bernard; Udenigwe, Ogochukwu

    2017-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health issue in most southern African countries as the disease remains hyper endemic. Burkina Faso continues to face challenges in the treatment of malaria, as the utilization of preventive measures remains low on a national scale. While it has been acknowledged that understanding women's health-seeking behaviours, perception of malaria and its preventive measures will aid in the control of malaria, there is paucity of information on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among women in the reproductive age of 15-49 years in Burkina Faso. This study investigated women's knowledge of malaria, attitudes towards malaria, and practices of malaria control in order to create a synergy between community efforts and governmental/non-governmental malaria control interventions in Burkina Faso. The analysis used data from the 2014 Burkina Faso Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS). In total 8111 women aged between 15-49 years were included in the present study. We assessed women's knowledge about 1) preventive measures, 2) causes and 3) symptoms of malaria, as well as malaria prevention practices for their children and during pregnancy. The socio-demographic characteristics were considered for Age, Religion, Education, Wealth index, Number of household members, Sex of household head, Household possession of radio, TV and Received antenatal care. Data were analyzed using STATA, version 14. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square and logistic regression, with the level of statistical significance set at 95%. A preponderant proportion of respondents were aged 15-29 years (mean age was 28.63±9.41). About three-quarters of the respondents had no formal education. An estimated two-third of the participants were of Islamic faith, while access to media and behavioural communication were generally poor. The level of knowledge was 53% for rural women and 68.2% for urban dwellers. In sum, there was 56.1% level of accurate knowledge of malaria

  6. [Emigration from Burkina Faso from 1960 to 1985. Analysis of demographic and socioeconomic consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, P

    1991-04-01

    Labor migration from Burkina Faso did not end when direct recruitment of workers by planters from the Ivory Coast was terminated at independence in 1960. Methodological problems and differences in the objectives of the 1975 and 1985 censuses and the 1960-61 sample survey have limited the usefulness of existing data on migration. Migrants from Burkina Faso have always been unskilled workers in search of wage employment. The migrant population in 1960-61 was estimated at 152,442, of whom 90% were males primarily under 40 years old. The proportion of women and children increased from 8.2% in 1961 to 12.8% in 1973. Between the 1975 and 1985 censuses, there were few significant changes in the dominant characteristics of migrants. 80% of the 808,000 residents living abroad according to official sources were male and 80% were aged 15-40 years. 53% of migrants according to a 1975 study were under 20 years old at the 1st departure, and most were single. At the national level, labor migration is viewed as a necessary evil that should continue as long as possible in the absence of employment opportunities at home. After independence in 1960, 56.6% of migrants from Burkina Faso went to the Ivory Coast, 31.3% to Ghana, and 3.9% to Mali. In 1975 and 1985 respectively, 74.4% and 91.2% went to the Ivory Coast and 11.8% and 8.8% to Ghana. The demographic consequences of migration in Burkina Faso include a lowering of the natural increase rate and a reduction of the economically active population amounting to about 16% between 1975-85. The disproportionate departure of men has left an increasing number of women in charge of agricultural operations. A strong current of return migration has also developed, including many children under 15. It was estimated in 1990 that half of migrants to the Ivory Coast receive professional training, with the other half exposed to new agricultural techniques and methods of organizing work. 87% of returning male migrants in 1985 went back to their

  7. Knowledge of prevention, cause, symptom and practices of malaria among women in Burkina Faso.

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    Sanni Yaya

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health issue in most southern African countries as the disease remains hyper endemic. Burkina Faso continues to face challenges in the treatment of malaria, as the utilization of preventive measures remains low on a national scale. While it has been acknowledged that understanding women's health-seeking behaviours, perception of malaria and its preventive measures will aid in the control of malaria, there is paucity of information on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among women in the reproductive age of 15-49 years in Burkina Faso. This study investigated women's knowledge of malaria, attitudes towards malaria, and practices of malaria control in order to create a synergy between community efforts and governmental/non-governmental malaria control interventions in Burkina Faso.The analysis used data from the 2014 Burkina Faso Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS. In total 8111 women aged between 15-49 years were included in the present study. We assessed women's knowledge about 1 preventive measures, 2 causes and 3 symptoms of malaria, as well as malaria prevention practices for their children and during pregnancy. The socio-demographic characteristics were considered for Age, Religion, Education, Wealth index, Number of household members, Sex of household head, Household possession of radio, TV and Received antenatal care. Data were analyzed using STATA, version 14. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square and logistic regression, with the level of statistical significance set at 95%.A preponderant proportion of respondents were aged 15-29 years (mean age was 28.63±9.41. About three-quarters of the respondents had no formal education. An estimated two-third of the participants were of Islamic faith, while access to media and behavioural communication were generally poor. The level of knowledge was 53% for rural women and 68.2% for urban dwellers. In sum, there was 56.1% level of accurate knowledge

  8. SEROTYPING AND ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ISOLATED FROM LETTUCE AND HUMAN DIARRHEA SAMPLES IN BURKINA FASO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siourimè, Somda Namwin; Isidore, Bonkoungou Ouindgueta Juste; Oumar, Traoré; Nestor, Bassolé Ismael Henri; Yves, Traoré; Nicolas, Barro; Aly, Savadogo

    2017-01-01

    In Burkina Faso dirty water in particular those of the stoppings and the gutter ones are used for vegetables irrigation in the gardens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella serotypes from humans and lettuce samples inBurkina Faso. Materials and Methods:Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2009 to 2015 and lettuce samples in 2014 in Burkina Faso were serotyped using specific antisera. All strains were subjected to a set of 14 antibiotics to study their antibiogram by using Baeur-Kirby disk diffusion method. Out of 154 Salmonella isolated, 60 were from human and 94 from lettuce samples. Serotyping revealed four different serotypes and 39% (60) untypeable strains from human and lettuce (14 and 46 strains). Salmonella serotypes from human and lettuce samples were: Paratyphi A (10% and 22%), Paratyphi B (34% and 8%), Paratyphi C (14% and 18%) and Typhi (21% and 1%). A high resistance of Salmonella Paratyphi B and Salmonella spp to tetracycline were 70% from human and 35 % from lettuce samples. Multiresistance was observed to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin/clavulanic-acid or ampicillin with Salmonella ParatyphiB 35% and Salmonella Typhi 33% from human samples and Salmonella spp 4% from lettuce samples. This study showed the diversity of Salmonella serotypes from both clinical and environmental samples and emergence of multiresistant Salmonella to antibiotics in Burkina Faso. A lettuce is a potential source of transmission of Salmonella causing diarrhea among human in Burkina Faso. List of non-standard Abbreviations : HDB: Hôpital du District de Bogodogo, LNSP: Laboratoire National de Santé Publique, DSG : District Sanitaire de Gourcy, DSB : District Sanitaire de Boromo.

  9. Women's dietary diversity scores and childhood anthropometric measurements as indices of nutrition insecurity along the urban-rural continuum in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger; Marschner, Bernd; Schlesinger, Johannes; Nyandoro, George

    2016-01-01

    .... A survey was carried out in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between August and September 2014 to map household nutrition insecurity along the urban-rural continuum, using a transect approach...

  10. Heavy burden of non-communicable diseases at early age and gender disparities in an adult population of Burkina Faso: world health survey

    OpenAIRE

    Miszkurka Malgorzata; Haddad Slim; Langlois Étienne V; Freeman Ellen E; Kouanda Seni; Zunzunegui Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background WHO estimates suggest that age-specific death rates from non-communicable diseases are higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in high-income countries. The objectives of this study were to examine, in Burkina Faso, the prevalence of non-communicable disease symptoms by age, gender, socioeconomic group and setting (rural/urban), and to assess gender and socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of these symptoms. Methods We obtained data from the Burkina Faso World Health Sur...

  11. A comparative analysis of nebkhas in central Tunisia and northern Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengberg, Anna; Chen, Deliang

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports a comparative analysis of nebkha morphology in central Tunisia and northern Burkina Faso based on a total of 473 measured nebkhas. Nebkhas are mounds composed of wind-borne sediment that accumulated around shrubs. The size of the mounds was measured by height ( H) and a horizontal component ( L), the latter being the mean of the length and width of the mound. In the Tunisian data set, three trends of development of the mounds were distinguished for Ziziphus lotus nebkhas. Initially, the height increases linearly with the increase in the horizontal component until it reaches about 17 m. When the horizontal component exceeds 17 m, the height stabilizes before a decreasing trend of the height occurs. These results provided the basis for mathematical modelling of nebkha development. A non-linear and a linear fit were compared and a second-order polynomial function was found to best fit the data on nebkha size from Tunisia. The results indicate that nebkhas have three stages of development: a growing, a stabilizing, and a degrading stage. The model was applied to data on Acacia sp. nebkhas and Balanites aegyptiaca nebkhas from Burkina Faso with good results. The non-linear fit was slightly better than the linear fit. Nebkhas exist at all three stages of development in Tunisia, whereas Burkina Faso has nebkhas that are mainly at the growing stage. These differences are a function of time lag in land degradation between the two study areas, because the wind transport of sediment and the sediment supply are highly related to the density of the vegetation cover in semiarid areas. This conclusion in further supported by dating of nebkhas and of historical and recent vegetation changes in the study areas reported in the literature. The results show that differences in plant ecologies, however, are also very important for the rate of development of nebkhas, which is demonstrated by the much faster growth of Balanites nebkhas as compared to Acacia nebkhas

  12. Factors associated with female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso and its policy implications

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    Chung Donna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female genital mutilation (FGM usually undertaken between the ages of 1-9 years and is widely practised in some part of Africa and by migrants from African countries in other parts of the world. Laws prohibit FGM in almost every country. FGM can cause immediate complications (pain, bleeding and infection and delayed complications (sexual, obstetric, psychological problems. Several factors have been associated with an increased likelihood of FGM. In Burkina Faso, the prevalence of FGM appears to have increased in recent years. Methods We investigated social, demographic and economic factors associated with FGM in Burkina Faso using the 2003 Demographic Health Survey (DHS. The DHS is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey (multistage stratified random sampling of households of women of reproductive age (15-49 years. Associations between potential risk factors and the prevalence of FGM were explored using χ2 and t-tests and Mann Whitney U-test as appropriate. Logistic regression modelling was used to investigate social, demographic and economic risk factors associated with FGM. Main outcome measures i whether a woman herself had had FGM; ii whether she had one or more daughters with FGM. Results Data were available on 12,049 women. Response rates by region were at least 90%. Women interviewed were representative of the underlying populations of the different regions of Burkina Faso. Seventy seven percent (9267 of the women interviewed had had FGM. 7336 women had a daughter of whom 2216 (30.2% had a daughter with FGM and 334 (4.5% said that they intended that their daughter should have it. Univariate analysis showed that age, religion, wealth, ethnicity, literacy, years of education, household affluence, region and who had responsibility for health care decisions in the household had (RHCD were all significantly related to the two outcomes (p Conclusions and Policy implications Factors associated with FGM are varied

  13. LA PELLAGRE: ASPECTS EPIDEMIOLOGIQUES ET CLINIQUES DANS LA REGION OUEST DU BURKINA FASO

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    Fatou Barro/Traoré

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: La pellagre est une carence en vitamine PP qui regroupe l’acide nicotinique ou niacine et le nicotinamide. Elle est encore fréquente dans notre pays. Le but de cette étude était de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques et cliniques de la pellagre dans la région Ouest du Burkina Faso. Patients et Méthodes: Il s’est agi d’une étude rétrospective, descriptive à partir des dossiers des patients ayant consulté ou ayant été hospitalisés dans les services de dermatologie-vénéréologie et de psychiatrie à Bobo-Dioulasso, de 2005 à 2012. Résultats: Durant la période, 223 cas de pellagre ont été enregistrés. L’âge moyen des patients était de 37,7+17,2 ans avec des extrêmes de 6 et 85 ans et un sex-ratio de 1/3. Ces cas ont été observés dans les zones aussi bien rurales qu’urbaines de l’Ouest du Burkina Faso. Les femmes étaient les plus atteintes (76,7%, particulièrement les femmes au foyer (47,1%. Les formes ulcéreuses représentaient 6,3% des cas, les atteintes neurologiques 62% et la diarrhée chronique (6,5%. Trois patients sont décédés (1,3%. Conclusion: La pellagre est une affection fréquente chez les femmes dans l’Ouest du Burkina Faso où le maïs constitue la céréale de base dans l’alimentation des populations. Les formes ulcéreuses pouvaient égarer le diagnostic. Une sensibilisation de la population est indispensable pour prévenir cette affection.

  14. PREPARATION OF POZZOLAN WITH A RAW CLAY MATERIAL FROM BURKINA FASO / PREPARATION D’UNE POUZZOLANE A BASE D’UNE MATIERE PREMIERE ARGILEUSE DU BURKINA FASO

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    François Ganon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A raw clay material from Burkina Faso has been characterized for pozzolan elaboration. The analysis showed that SiO2 (45.91 wt. %, Al2O3 (28.29 wt. % and Fe2O3 (9.75 wt. % are the main oxides and kaolinite (71 wt. % is the principle mineral. The sample has been activated at 680 °C during 2 or 5 hours. The pozzolanic activity has been accessed by coupling several methods. The chemical methods showed the good lime fixing ability by the activated sample. At the first 24 hours, more than 50 wt. % of the lime is fixed and at 28 days around 90 wt. % of lime are fixed. Mineralogical analyses showed the disappearing of portlandite (CH and the formation of new C-S-H hydrates. The pozzolanic index (81 % calculated from mechanical strength of mortars made with 25 wt. % substitution of cement by the pozzolan confirm it suitability for portland cement replacement in the field of building materials.

  15. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Ilboudo PGC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patrick GC Ilboudo,1–3 Serge MA Somda,4 Johanne Sundby3 1Département de Santé Publique, Unité de Recherche sur les Politiques et Systèmes de Santé, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 2Agence de Formation, de Recherche et d'Expertise en Santé pour l'Afrique (AFRICSanté, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 4Département des Maladies Non Transmissibles, Unité de Formation et d'Appui Méthodologique, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Introduction: Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results: The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41; whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24; and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95

  16. Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fourteen Wild Edible Fruits from Burkina Faso

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    Odile G. Nacoulma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of fourteen (14 species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso wereanalyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities usingthe DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic andtotal flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana andLannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the otherfruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit alsoshowed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with highantioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents.There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidantactivities.

  17. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2008-03-06

    A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities.

  18. Le droit des enfants à l’éducation au Burkina-Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Kabore Konkobo, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    Le droit à l’éducation est une question importante qui concerne toutes les sociétés humaines. Le Burkina,Faso, pays en voie de développement, veut faire du droit des enfants à l’éducation une priorité. Des plans d’actions sont élaborés et appliqués à tous les niveaux du système éducatif et à toutes les échelles de la vie courante tels la gratuité de l’éducation jusqu’à seize ans, l’égalité de chance à l’éducation sans discrimination. L’application de ces droits bute sur divers obstacles socio...

  19. Consommation de produits laitiers dans les centres urbains de Burkina Faso

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    Goossens, F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of milk and dairy products in the urban centers of Burkina Faso. The consumption of milk and dairy products, in milk equivalents, in the urban centers of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso was 12, 4 kg per person and per year in October 1995, of which 10, 54 kg or 85 % came from imports. Consumption of local production comprises only local raw milk (1, 5 kg and curdled milk (0, 38 kg. Before the F. CFA devaluation, per capita milk consumption in milk equivalents was 22, 1 liters per year in urban areas, of which 91 % was imported. The impact of the devaluation was a decrease of imports in milk equivalents of about 50 %. The buying behavior of households is determined by income and the number and age of household members (especially the number of adults and children below 8 years.

  20. Monitoring agricultural expansion in Burkina Faso over 14 years with 30 m resolution time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knauer, Kim; Gessner, Ursula; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    for the low productivity, the agricultural areas are expanding quickly. The mapping and monitoring of this expansion is difficult, even on the basis of remote sensing imagery, since the extensive farming practices and frequent cloud coverage in the area make the delineation of cultivated land from other land...... cover and land use types a challenging task. However, as the rapidly increasing population could have considerable effects on the natural resources and on the regional development of the country, methods for improved mapping of LULCC (land use and land cover change) are needed. For this study, we...... applied the newly developed ESTARFM (Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model) framework to generate high temporal (8-day) and high spatial (30 m) resolution NDVI time series for all of Burkina Faso for the years 2001, 2007, and 2014. For this purpose, more than 500 Landsat scenes...

  1. Ethnobotanical survey and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, S; Ollivier, E; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Gasquet, M; Ouattara, C T; Nebie, I; Traore, A S; Esposito, F; Balansard, G; Timon-David, P; Fumoux, F

    2003-06-01

    In Burkina Faso, most people in particular, in rural areas, use traditional medicine and medicinal plants to treat usual diseases. In the course of new antimalarial compounds, an ethnobotanical survey has been conducted in different regions. Seven plants, often cited by traditional practitioners and not chemically investigated, have been selected for an antiplasmodial screening: Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum), Acanthospermum hispidum (DC), Terminalia macroptera (Guill. et Perr), Cassia siamea (Lam), Ficus sycomorus (L), Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (AFZ. Ex G. Don) Benth. Basic, chloroform, methanol, water-methanol and aqueous crude extracts have been prepared and tested on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant W2 strain. A significant activity has been observed with alkaloid extract of P. crassipes (IC(50)agrestis (4

  2. BoulSat Project: Low-Cost Wireless Metropolitan Network Implementation in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catusian, Samuele S.; Longobardi, Federico; Panicucci, Francesco; Bartalesi, Raphael P.; Demi, Libertario; Cuomo, Antonio D.; Orlandi, Silvano

    The BoulSat Project involves the realization of a bidirectional VSAT (satellite connection system) and the study of "poor" a Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) to extend the Internet connectivity to the public institutions in the town area. Low-cost or waste materials have been used to build components where possible, thus to make possible for the local technicians with no specific and theoretical skills to build their network components by hand. This pilot scheme has been applied in Boulsa, in the Sahel region at the north of Burkina Faso. Besides the Boulsa case study, the whole work analyses a typical situation, due to the wide range of problems which have been handled, of remote communities in the South of the World. The aim is to characterize a standard of intervention, suitable for Developing Countries, to set up low-cost wireless telecommunication infrastructures.

  3. Impact des changements climatiques sur les revenus agricoles au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Ouedraogo

    2012-01-01

    Cette étude évalue l’impact des changements climatiques sur les revenus agricoles des agriculteurs au Burkina Faso, en utilisant l’approche ricardienne. Cette méthode permet de modéliser les revenus agricoles en fonction des variables climatiques, édaphiques, hydrologiques et socio-économiques. Plusieurs modèles économétriques ont été testés sur la base des données primaires de la campagne agricole 2002-2003. Ces modèles ont permis d’établir d’une part la relation qui existe entre le revenu a...

  4. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the oral health status of children and adults in rural and urban areas of Burkina Faso; to provide epidemiological data for planning and evaluation of oral health care programmes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey including different ethnic and socio-economic groups. SAMPLE...... AND METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling of households in urban areas and random samples of participants selected based on the recent population census in rural areas. The final study population covered four age groups: 6 years (n = 424), 12 years (n = 505), 18 years (n = 492) and 35-44 years (n = 493......). Clinical oral health data collected according to WHO methodology and criteria. RESULTS: At age 6, 38% of children had caries, with prevalence higher in urban than rural areas. At age 12, the mean DMFT was 0.7 with prevalence significantly higher among urban than rural children. Mean DMFT was 1.9 in 18-year...

  5. Siting guidelines for concentrating solar power plants in the Sahel: Case study of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoumah, Y.; Tapsoba, G.; Thiam, S. [Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie d' Energie (LESEE), Fondation 2iE (International Institute of Water an Environmental Engineering), 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso); Ramde, E.W. [Solar Energy Application Laboratory (SEAL), KNUST, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-08-15

    Selecting a site that meets the technical requirements for a concentrating solar power plant (CSP) is a very critical exercise. This paper points out crucial factors and provides guidelines regarding the selection of suitable sites. It especially focuses on Sahelian countries which have their own climatic peculiarities. These countries, characterized by low access to electricity, are well endowed in solar resources. They are potentially good locations for concentrating solar power plants since their mean daily solar radiation exceeds 5.5 kWh/m{sup 2}. CSP presents therefore, a good opportunity for them to increase in a sustainable manner, their energy supply. The guidelines developed in this paper are applied to Burkina Faso as a case study. (author)

  6. Non-specific effects of vaccination on child survival: prospective cohort study in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugelade, J; Pinchinat, S; Guiella, G; Elguero, E; Simondon, F

    2004-12-04

    To study the effect of vaccination on mortality before 2 years of age in a developing country. Prospective cohort study. Rural communities in Burkina Faso. 9085 children born in the study area between 1985 and 1993. Child death rate. Mortality before 2 years of age was lower in children who had been vaccinated: those vaccinated with BCG only had significantly lower mortality (risk ratio for vaccinated v unvaccinated children 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.48) as did those vaccinated with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis only (0.24, 0.13 to 0.43). The second dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis was not associated with lower mortality (0.80, 0.58 to 1.12). Vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis as well as BCG is associated with better survival of children up to 2 years of age.

  7. Malaria and anemia prevention in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Albrecht

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are a major risk group for malaria in endemic areas. Only little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women with malaria and anaemia preventive drug regimens in the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. In this study, we collected information on malaria and anaemia prevention behaviour in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso. Methods Cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative survey among 225 women of eight villages in rural northwestern Burkina Faso. Four of the villages had a health centre offering antenatal care (ANC services while the other four were more than five kilometers away from a health centre. Results Overall ANC coverage (at least one visit was 71% (95% in health centre villages vs 50% in remote villages. Malaria and anaemia were considered as the biggest problems during pregnancy in this community. ANC using women were quite satisfied with the quality of services, and compliance with malaria and anaemia prevention regimens (chloroquine and iron/folic acid was high in this population. Knowledge on the benefit of bed nets and good nutrition was less prominent. Distance, lack of money and ignorance were the main reasons for women to not attend ANC services. Conclusions There is an urgent need to improve access of rural SSA women to ANC services, either through increasing the number of rural health centres or establishing functioning outreach services. Moreover, alternative malaria and anaemia prevention programmes such as intermittent preventive treatment with effective antimalarials and the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets need to become implemented on a large scale.

  8. Paying the price: the cost and consequences of emergency obstetric care in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Katerini Tagmatarchi; Baggaley, Rebecca F; Ganaba, Rasmané; Ouattara, Fatoumata; Akoum, Mélanie S; Filippi, Véronique

    2008-02-01

    Substantial healthcare expenses can impoverish households or push them further into poverty. In this paper, we examine the cost of obstetric care and the social and economic consequences associated with exposure to economic shocks up to a year following the end of pregnancy in Burkina Faso. Burkina Faso is a low-income country with poor health outcomes and a poorly functioning health system. We present an inter-disciplinary analysis of an ethnographic study of 82 women nested in a prospective cohort study of 1013 women. We compare the experiences of women who survived life-threatening obstetric complications ('near-miss' events) with women who delivered without complications in hospitals. The cost of emergency obstetric care was significantly higher than the cost of care for uncomplicated delivery. Compared with women who had uncomplicated deliveries, women who survived near-miss events experienced substantial difficulties meeting the costs of care, reflecting the high cost of emergency obstetric care and the low socioeconomic status of their households. They reported more frequent sale of assets, borrowing and slower repayment of debt in the year following the expenditure. Healthcare costs consumed a large part of households' resources and women who survived near-miss events continued to spend significantly more on healthcare in the year following the event, while at the same time experiencing continued cost barriers to accessing healthcare. In-depth interviews confirm that the economic burden of emergency obstetric care contributed to severe and long-lasting consequences for women and their households. The necessity of meeting unexpectedly high costs challenged social expectations and patterns of reciprocity between husbands, wives and wider social networks, placed enormous strain on everyday survival and shaped physical, social and economic well-being in the year that followed the event. In conclusion, we consider the implications of our findings for financing

  9. Prevalence and diversity of Salmonella enterica in water, fish and lettuce in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Oumar; Nyholm, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2015-07-31

    This study investigated the prevalence, serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella enterica in environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 476 samples, consisting of 36 samples of tap water, 51 samples of well water, 87 samples of channel water, 44 samples of reservoir water, 238 samples of fish, and 20 samples of lettuce were examined using standard bacteriological procedures for Salmonella. Salmonella were isolated from 98 samples. Salmonella were rare in drinking water, since they were not found at all from the tap water, and only in 2 % of well water. Salmonella were more common in the water of reservoir of Tanghin (15 %), reservoir of Yamtenga (20 %), and in the water channels in the city (from 20 to 31 %). Salmonella were commonly isolated from the fish (24 %) caught from the reservoir of Tanghin and from the lettuce (50 %) irrigated with water from Tanghin. The Salmonella isolates were found to represent 50 different serotypes. The 11 most common serotypes were Salmonella Bredeney and S. Colindale (both 8.2 %), S. Muenster (6.1 %), S. Korlebu (5.1 %), S. Eastbourne and S. Poona (both 4.1 %), and S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Drac, S. Senftenberg, S. Waycross (each 3.1 %), accounting for 51.3 % of all the isolates. In general, the Salmonella strains were sensitive to the antimicrobials tested, but two strains were resistant to streptomycin and many more intermediate to streptomycin or sulphonamide. This study highlights the common prevalence of Salmonella and the high diversity of Salmonella serotypes in aquatic environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Therefore, various human activities linked to water and consumption of water-related products, such as fish and lettuce, can lead to human Salmonella infections.

  10. Linear Growth and Child Development in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Abbeddou, Souheila; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Arimond, Mary; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Lartey, Anna; Maleta, Kenneth; Ocansey, Eugenia; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Phuka, John; Somé, Jérôme W; Vosti, Steve A; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to produce quantitative estimates of the associations between 4 domains of child development and linear growth during 3 periods: before birth, early infancy, and later infancy. We also aimed to determine whether several factors attenuated these associations. In 3700 children in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi, growth was measured several times from birth to age 18 months. At 18 months, language, motor, socioemotional, and executive function development were assessed. In Burkina Faso (n = 1111), personal-social development was assessed rather than the latter 2 domains. Linear growth was significantly associated with language, motor, and personal-social development but not socioemotional development or executive function. For language, the pooled adjusted estimate of the association with length-for-age z score (LAZ) at 6 months was 0.13 ± 0.02 SD, and with ΔLAZ from 6 to 18 months it was 0.11 ± 0.03 SD. For motor, these estimates were 0.16 ± 0.02 SD and 0.22 ± 0.03 SD, respectively. In 1412 children measured at birth, estimates of the association with LAZ at birth were similar (0.07-0.16 SD for language and 0.09-0.18 SD for motor development). These associations were weaker or absent in certain subsets of children with high levels of developmental stimulation or mothers who received nutritional supplementation. Growth faltering during any period from before birth to 18 months is associated with poor development of language and motor skills. Interventions to provide developmental stimulation or maternal supplementation may protect children who are faltering in growth from poor language and motor development. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Climate, cattle rearing systems and African Animal Trypanosomosis risk in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaïla Pagabeleguem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan countries infested by tsetse flies, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT is considered as the main pathological constraint to cattle breeding. Africa has known a strong climatic change and its population was multiplied by four during the last half-century. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of production practices and climate on tsetse occurrence and abundance, and the associated prevalence of AAT in Burkina Faso. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four sites were selected along a South-north transect of increasing aridity. The study combines parasitological and entomological surveys. For the parasitological aspect, blood samples were collected from 1,041 cattle selected through a stratified sampling procedure including location and livestock management system (long transhumance, short transhumance, sedentary. Parasitological and serological prevalence specific to livestock management systems show a gradual increase from the Sahelian to the Sudano-Guinean area (P<0.05. Livestock management system had also a significant impact on parasitological prevalence (P<0.05. Tsetse diversity, apparent densities and their infection rates overall decreased with aridity, from four species, an apparent density of 53.1 flies/trap/day and an infection rate of 13.7% to an absence at the northern edge of the transect, where the density and diversity of other biting flies were on the contrary highest (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The climatic pressure clearly had a negative impact on tsetse abundance and AAT risk. However, the persistency of tsetse habitats along the Mouhoun river loop maintains a high risk of cyclical transmission of T. vivax. Moreover, an "epidemic mechanical livestock trypanosomosis" cycle is likely to occur in the northern site, where trypanosomes are brought in by cattle transhuming from the tsetse infested area and are locally transmitted by mechanical vectors. In Burkina Faso, the impact of

  12. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafissatou Ouédraogo

    Full Text Available Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263 and without (n = 50 diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%, adenovirus (31.2% and genogroup II norovirus (18.2% were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7-17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1-11.7, respectively. Sapovirus (10.3%, astrovirus (4.9%, genogroup I norovirus (2.7% and Aichivirus A (0.8% were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%, and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%. Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5% predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7% was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C. Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children.

  13. Determinants of unmet need for family planning in rural Burkina Faso: a multilevel logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulifan, Joseph K; Jahn, Albrecht; Hien, Hervé; Ilboudo, Patrick Christian; Meda, Nicolas; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Saidou Hamadou, T; Haidara, Ousmane; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-12-19

    Unmet need for family planning has implications for women and their families, such as unsafe abortion, physical abuse, and poor maternal health. Contraceptive knowledge has increased across low-income settings, yet unmet need remains high with little information on the factors explaining it. This study assessed factors associated with unmet need among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso. We collected data on pregnant women through a population-based survey conducted in 24 rural districts between October 2013 and March 2014. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between unmet need for family planning and a selection of relevant demand- and supply-side factors. Of the 1309 pregnant women covered in the survey, 239 (18.26%) reported experiencing unmet need for family planning. Pregnant women with more than three living children [OR = 1.80; 95% CI (1.11-2.91)], those with a child younger than 1 year [OR = 1.75; 95% CI (1.04-2.97)], pregnant women whose partners disapproves contraceptive use [OR = 1.51; 95% CI (1.03-2.21)] and women who desired fewer children compared to their partners preferred number of children [OR = 1.907; 95% CI (1.361-2.672)] were significantly more likely to experience unmet need for family planning, while health staff training in family planning logistics management (OR = 0.46; 95% CI (0.24-0.73)] was associated with a lower probability of experiencing unmet need for family planning. Findings suggest the need to strengthen family planning interventions in Burkina Faso to ensure greater uptake of contraceptive use and thus reduce unmet need for family planning.

  14. Efficiency of primary care in rural Burkina Faso. A two-stage DEA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Paul; Flessa, Steffen

    2011-07-20

    Providing health care services in Africa is hampered by severe scarcity of personnel, medical supplies and financial funds. Consequently, managers of health care institutions are called to measure and improve the efficiency of their facilities in order to provide the best possible services with their resources. However, very little is known about the efficiency of health care facilities in Africa and instruments of performance measurement are hardly applied in this context. This study determines the relative efficiency of primary care facilities in Nouna, a rural health district in Burkina Faso. Furthermore, it analyses the factors influencing the efficiency of these institutions. We apply a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based on data from a comprehensive provider and household information system. In the first stage, the relative efficiency of each institution is calculated by a traditional DEA model. In the second stage, we identify the reasons for being inefficient by regression technique. The DEA projections suggest that inefficiency is mainly a result of poor utilization of health care facilities as they were either too big or the demand was too low. Regression results showed that distance is an important factor influencing the efficiency of a health care institution Compared to the findings of existing one-stage DEA analyses of health facilities in Africa, the share of relatively efficient units is slightly higher. The difference might be explained by a rather homogenous structure of the primary care facilities in the Burkina Faso sample. The study also indicates that improving the accessibility of primary care facilities will have a major impact on the efficiency of these institutions. Thus, health decision-makers are called to overcome the demand-side barriers in accessing health care.

  15. The Influence of Urbanization Modes on the Spatial Circulation of Flaviviruses within Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Fournet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Although this virus has been reported for a long time, its significance within the burden of diseases in West Africa is not obvious, especially in Burkina Faso. Our objective was to evaluate flavivirus presence in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and the link between anti-flavivirus antibody seroprevalence and urbanization modes. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted and 3015 children were enrolled from Ouagadougou districts with different types and degrees of urbanization (with/without equipment and high/low building density. Flavivirus (FLAV IgM MAC-ELISA and FLAV indirect IgG ELISA were performed. Associations between FLAV IgG presence (sign of past infection and various independent variables were assessed using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence of past flavivirus infections among the enrolled children was 22.7% (95% CI: 22.4–26.7 (n = 685. Eleven children (0.4%; 95% CI: 0.61–2.14 were positive for FLAV IgM, indicating active transmission. Factors associated with flavivirus infection were identified among the enrolled children (age, sex, householders (educational level, asset index and in the environment (building density, water access, waste management and house appearance; however, they showed great variability according to the city districts. The water access modality did not significantly influence FLAV IgG positivity. Conversely, apparently good practices of waste management had unexpected consequences (increased risk related to municipal dumpsters. Given the scale of ongoing urbanization and the spread of arboviral diseases, close collaboration between health and city stakeholders is needed.

  16. Rotavirus in diarrheal children in rural Burkina Faso: high prevalence of genotype G6P[6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Johan; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Nitiema, Leon W; Sharma, Sumit; Ouermi, Djeneba; Simpore, Jacques; Barro, Nicolas; Svensson, Lennart

    2012-12-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children globally, and responsible for a significant number of deaths in African countries. While vaccines are available, trials have shown a lesser efficacy in Africa. One of the reasons could be the prevalence and/or emergence of unusual or novel RVA strains, as many strains detected in African countries remain uncharacterized. In this study, we characterized RVA positive specimens from two remote rural areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa. In total 56 RVA positive specimens were subgrouped by their VP6 gene, and G-and P typed by PCR and/or sequencing of the VP7 and VP4 genes, respectively. Notably, we found a high prevalence of the unusual G6P[6]SGI strains (23%). It was the second most common constellation after G9P[8]SGII (32%); and followed by G1P[8]SGII (20%) and G2P[4]SGI (9%). We also detected a G8P[6]SGI strain, for the first time in Burkina Faso. The intra-genetic diversity was high for the VP4 gene with two subclusters within the P[8] genotype and three subclusters within the P[6] genotype which were each associated with a specific G-type, thereby suggesting a genetic linkage. The G6P[6]SGI and other SGI RVA strains infected younger children as compared to SGII strains (protavirus vaccines currently being evaluated in many African countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica and the hygienic indicator Escherichia coli in raw meat at markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Haukka, Kaisa; Siitonen, Anja; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the hygienic status and prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in retail meat sold at open markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 150 samples of beef meat (n = 45), beef intestine (n = 45), mutton (n = 30), and chicken (n = 30) were collected from four local markets for investigation. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica was 9.3%, and six serotypes, all previously unreported in Burkina Faso, were identified: Derby, Tilene, Hato, Bredeney, Agona, and Senftenberg. Most of the Salmonella isolates were sensitive to the 12 antimicrobial drugs tested. The prevalence of E. coli was 100% in all the meat types. An assessment of hygiene practices for the production, transportation, display, and vending of the meat revealed unhygienic conditions. Meat sellers had a low education level and poor knowledge of foodborne pathogens and their transmission routes. The findings showed that foodstuff handlers were in dire need of education about safe food handling practices.

  18. Urbanisation, malnutrition des enfants et genre au Burkina Faso : une approche économétrique spatiale

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Lachaud

    2002-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the analysis of the impact of the regional urbanization in terms of child malnutrition of less than 5 years, based on a spatial econometrics approach according tothe administrative division of the 30 provinces, using the demographic and health surveys of 1992-93 and 1998-99, arrives at three conclusions. Firstly, the urbanization is accompanied, on the one hand, of a reduction of the levels of wasting, underweight and stunting – a doubling of the rate of regional urbanization...

  19. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli virulence genes in the feces of slaughtered cattle, chickens, and pigs in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Martikainen, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of the virulence genes specific for five major pathogroups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in primary cultures from feces of animals slaughtered for human consumption in Burkina Faso. For the study, 704 feces samples were collected from cattle (n = 304), chickens (n = 350), and pigs (n = 50) during carcass processing. The presence of the virulence-associated genes in the mixed bacterial cultures was assessed using 16-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)....

  20. Situating mobile health: a qualitative study of mHealth expectations in the rural health district of Nouna, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    DUCLOS, Vincent; Y?, Maurice; Moubassira, Kagon?; Sanou, Hamidou; Sawadogo, N. H?l?ne; Bibeau, Gilles; Si?, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background The implementation of mobile health (mHealth) projects in low- and middle-income countries raises high and well-documented expectations among development agencies, policymakers and researchers. By contrast, the expectations of direct and indirect mHealth users are not often examined. In preparation for a proposed intervention in the Nouna Health District, in rural Burkina Faso, this study investigates the expected benefits, challenges and limitations associated with mHealth, approa...

  1. Wealth and under-nourishment among married women in two impoverished nations: evidence from Burkina Faso and Congo Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Palamuleni, Martin Enoch; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby

    2015-01-01

    Background Burkina Faso (BF) and Congo Democratic Republic (CDR) are among the top-ten poverty and hunger stricken countries globally. The influence of poverty and hunger on health is enormous. The objectives of the study are to; examine the association between poverty and nutritional status, it also identified socio-demographic and health related mediating factors that contribute to the relationship between poverty and poor nutritional status. The study focused on married or cohabiting women...

  2. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Bargu?s Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to...

  3. Les arbres fruitiers sahéliens dans l'économie rurale; Cas du Burkina Faso et du Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlman, J.W.; Coulibaly, K.; Yago, E.L.; Michels, R.; Berg, van den J.

    2010-01-01

    Ce document est le compte-rendu d’une enquête réalisée dans neuf villages au Mali et au Burkina Faso sur l’importance des fruits et d’autres produits provenant des arbres fruitiers indigènes. Ces arbres font partie du paysage agricole de la savane ouest-africaine. L’étude porte sur le rôle de ces

  4. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli virulence genes in the feces of slaughtered cattle, chickens, and pigs in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Martikainen, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of the virulence genes specific for five major pathogroups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in primary cultures from feces of animals slaughtered for human consumption in Burkina Faso. For the study, 704 feces samples were collected from cattle (n = 304), chickens (n = 350), and pigs (n = 50) during carcass processing. The presence of the virulence-associated genes in the mixed bacterial cultures was assessed using 16-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Virulence genes indicating presence of DEC were detected in 48% of the cattle, 48% of the chicken, and 68% of the pig feces samples. Virulence genes specific for different DECs were detected in the following percentages of the cattle, chicken, and pig feces samples: Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in 37%, 6%, and 30%; enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in 8%, 37%, and 32%; enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in 4%, 5%, and 18%; and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) in 7%, 6%, and 32%. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) virulence genes were detected in 1% of chicken feces samples only. The study was the first of its kind in Burkina Faso and revealed the common occurrence of the diarrheal virulence genes in feces of food animals. This indicates that food animals are reservoirs of DEC that may contaminate meat because of the defective slaughter and storage conditions and pose a health risk to the consumers in Burkina Faso.

  5. Danida`s support to the energy sector. Issues and contradictions with particular reference to Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardell, D.A. [Water and Power Planners A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-03-01

    Danida support to energy sector in Burkina Faso was limited, until 1995, to the electricity sub-sector which has directly benefited less than 5% of the Burkinabe population. Danida made no attempt to develop renewable and local energy resources during the period 1979-1995 although 92% of primary energy supply and 98% of household energy use is met by wood fuels. During 1996 Danida`s energy sector programme did, however, include support to strengthen energy policy and planning in Burkina Faso. This will address both wood fuel production systems and the development of new and alternative sources of energy. Danida is currently investigating potential co-financing of a regional traditional energy sector programme with the World Bank and the Netherlands Development Cooperation. A pilot natural forest management project will be initiated in 1997 in the Central-West and Northern Regions of Burkina Faso. A Danida-funded Projet de Developpement Rural dans le Boulgou, initiated in 1996, also includes support to the development and management of natural forest resources. (au)

  6. Impact des changements climatiques sur les revenus agricoles au Burkina Faso

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    Mathieu Ouedraogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude évalue l’impact des changements climatiques sur les revenus agricoles des agriculteurs au Burkina Faso, en utilisant l’approche ricardienne. Cette méthode permet de modéliser les revenus agricoles en fonction des variables climatiques, édaphiques, hydrologiques et socio-économiques. Plusieurs modèles économétriques ont été testés sur la base des données primaires de la campagne agricole 2002-2003. Ces modèles ont permis d’établir d’une part la relation qui existe entre le revenu agricole et les variables climatiques (température et précipitation et d’autre part, d’analyser la sensibilité des revenus agricoles par rapport à ces variables climatiques. Des simulations ont été faites sur la base des prévisions du groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat (GIEC. Les résultats de l’étude ont montré que la relation entre le revenu et le climat est non linéaire. L’impact marginal de la température sur le revenu agricole est de -19,9 dollars US par hectare tandis que celui de la précipitation est de +2,7 dollars US par hectare. L’analyse des élasticités montre que l’agriculture est très sensible à la précipitation au Burkina. L’augmentation des précipitations de 1% entraine une hausse des revenus agricoles de 14,7%. Cependant, une augmentation des températures de 1% entraine une baisse des revenus agricoles de 3,6%. Les analyses de sensibilité ont montré que les paysans perdront 93% de leurs revenus suite à une augmentation de la température de 5°C. Ils perdront tout leur revenu suite à une diminution des précipitations de 14% (ceteris paribus. Du fait des conditions climatiques déjà difficiles, les scenarii de diminution des précipitations ou/et d’augmentation des températures sont très dommageables à l’agriculture au Burkina. Par ailleurs, l’étude a montré que la pratique de l’irrigation et l’accès à la vulgarisation ont un effet

  7. Mobile laboratory to improve response to meningitis epidemics, Burkina Faso epidemic season 2004

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    R. T. Ouedraogo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Laboratory was developed for use primarily during the epidemic meningitis season in Burkina Faso. This report describes the Mobile Laboratory characteristics, its use to date, problems encountered and their resolution, and future directions. During 2004, the mobile laboratory intervention in three remote Burkina Faso districts experiencing meningitis epidemics led to more specific case management and led directly to vaccination of one district. However, in a second district, the intervention occurred too late to allow vaccination. During 2006, the Mobile Laboratory was used to conduct an emergency carriage study that for the first time occurred during the peak of a meningococcal serogroup A epidemic. This information is critical for the design of meningococcal conjugate vaccine schedules and vaccine approaches. During 2004-6, technicians in 11 district laboratories received training by Mobile Laboratory staff. Numerous problems with the initial prototype laboratory were identified, namely that the solar power cells could not provide enough energy to the refrigerator and incubator to maintain appropriate temperatures and having a single integrated unit required use of a separate vehicle for specimen transport. A second laboratory was developed during 2005-6 that used a generator or local energy source for power and that had a laboratory that could be detached from the vehicle. Currently the main limitation of the Mobile Laboratory is that it has not been integrated into routine Ministry of Health activities, limiting its use both during and between meningitis seasons.Un Laboratoire Mobile a été développé pour être utilisé essentiellement pendant la saison d’épidémie de méningite au Burkina Faso. Ce rapport décrit les caractéristiques du Laboratoire Mobile, son utilisation à ce jour, les problèmes rencontrés et leur résolution ainsi que les orientations futures. Au cours de l’année 2004, l’intervention du

  8. Molecular detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance to guide chronic TB patient management in Burkina Faso

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    Pinsi Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB is considered a real threat to the achievement of TB control. Testing of mycobacterial culture and testing of drug susceptibility (DST capacity are limited in resource-poor countries, therefore inadequate treatment may occur, favouring resistance development. We evaluated the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus (Hain Lifescience, Germany in order to detect DR-TB directly in clinical specimens as a means of providing a more accurate management of chronic TB patients in Burkina Faso, a country with a high TB-HIV co-infection prevalence. Methods Samples were collected in Burkina Faso where culture and DST are not currently available, and where chronic cases are therefore classified and treated based on clinical evaluation and sputum-smear microscopy results. One hundred and eight chronic TB patients (sputum smear-positive, after completing a re-treatment regimen for pulmonary TB under directly observed therapy were enrolled in the study from December 2006 to October 2008. Two early morning sputum samples were collected from each patient, immediately frozen, and shipped to Italy in dry ice. Samples were decontaminated, processed for smear microscopy and DNA extraction. Culture was attempted on MGIT960 (Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, USA and decontaminated specimens were analyzed for the presence of mutations conferring resistance to rifampin and isoniazid by the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus. Results We obtained a valid molecular test result in 60/61 smear-positive and 47/47 smear-negative patients. Among 108 chronic TB cases we identified patients who (i harboured rifampin- and isoniazid-susceptible strains (n 24, (ii were negative for MTB complex DNA (n 24, and (iii had non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections (n 13. The most represented mutation conferring rifampin-resistance was the D516V substitution in the hotspot region of the rpoB gene (43.8% of cases. Other mutations recognized

  9. Parental HIV disclosure in Burkina Faso: experiences and challenges in the era of HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiendrebeogo, Georges; Hejoaka, Fabienne; Belem, Edwige Mireille; Compaoré, Pascal Louis Germain; Wolmarans, Liezel; Soubeiga, André; Ouangraoua, Nathalie

    2013-07-01

    Increasingly parents living with HIV will have to confront the dilemmas of concealing their lifelong treatment or disclosing to their children exposed to their daily treatment practices. However, limited data are available regarding parental HIV disclosure to children in Burkina Faso. Do parents on antiretroviral therapy disclose their HIV status to their children? What drives them? How do they proceed and how do children respond? We conducted in-depth interviews with 63 parents of children aged seven and above where the parents had been in treatment for more than 3 years in two major cities of Burkina Faso. Interviews addressed parental disclosure and the children's role in their parents' treatment. The rate of parental HIV status disclosure is as high as that of non-disclosure. Factors associated with parental disclosure include female sex, parent's older age, parent's marital history and number of children. After adjustment, it appears that the only factor remaining associated with parental disclosure was the female gender of the parent. In most of the cases, children suspected, and among non-disclosers many believed their children already knew without formal disclosure. Age of the children and history of divorce or widowhood were associated with parental disclosure. Most parents believed children do not have the necessary emotional skills to understand or that they cannot keep a secret. However, parents who disclosed to their children did not experience blame nor was their secret revealed. Rather, children became treatment supporters. Challenges to parental HIV disclosure to children are neither essential nor specific since disclosure to adults is already difficult because of perceived risk of public disclosure and subsequent stigma. However, whether aware or not of their parents' HIV-positive status, children contribute positively to the care of parents living with HIV. Perceptions about children's vulnerability and will to protect them against stigma lead

  10. Perinatal mortality in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study

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    Diallo Abdoulaye

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a scarcity of reliable data on perinatal mortality (PNM in Sub-Saharan Africa. The PROMISE-EBF trial, during which we promoted exclusive breastfeeding, gave us the opportunity to describe the epidemiology of PNM in Banfora Health District, South-West in Burkina Faso. Study objectives To measure the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR in the PROMISE-EBF cohort in Banfora Health District and to identify potential risk factors for perinatal death. Methods We used data collected prospectively during the PROMISE-EBF-trial to estimate the stillbirth rate (SBR and early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR. We used binomial regression with generalized estimating equations to identify potential risk factors for perinatal death. Results 895 pregnant women were enrolled for data collection in the EBF trial and followed-up to 7 days after birth. The PNMR, the SBR and the ENMR, were 79 per 1000 (95% CI: 59-99, 54 per 1000 (95% CI: 38-69 and 27 per 1000 (95% CI: 9-44, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, nulliparous women (RR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.6-5.0, primiparae mothers (RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9, twins (RR = 4.0, 95% CI: 2.3-6.9 and giving birth during the dry season (RR = 2.1 95% CI: 1.3-3.3 were factors associated with increased risk of perinatal death. There was no evidence that risk of perinatal death differed between deliveries at home and at a health centre Conclusion Our study observed the highest PNMR ever reported in Burkina. There is an urgent need for sustainable interventions to improve maternal and newborn health in the country.

  11. Changing land management practices and vegetation on the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso (1968-2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reij, C.; Tappan, G.; Belemvire, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the situation on the northern part of the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso was characterized by expanding cultivation on lands marginal to agriculture, declining rainfall, low and declining cereal yields, disappearing and impoverishing vegetation, falling ground-water levels and strong outmigration. This crisis situation provoked two reactions. Farmers, as well as technicians working for non-governmental organizations, started to experiment in improving soil and water conservation (SWC) techniques. When these experiments proved successful, donor agencies rapidly designed SWC projects based on simple, effective techniques acceptable to farmers. A study looked at the impact of SWC investments in nine villages and identified a number of major impacts, including: significant increases in millet and sorghum yields since the mid-1980s, cultivated fields treated with SWC techniques have more trees than 10-15 years ago, but the vegetation on most of the non-cultivated areas continues to degrade, greater availability of forage for livestock, increased investment in livestock by men and women and a beginning change in livestock management from extensive to semi-intensive methods, improved soil fertility management by farmers, locally rising ground-water tables, a decrease in outmigration and a significant reduction in rural poverty. Finally, data are presented on the evolution of land use in three villages between 1968 and 2002. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. How Properties of Kenaf Fibers from Burkina Faso Contribute to the Reinforcement of Earth Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo, Younoussa; Aubert, Jean-Emmanuel; Hamard, Erwan; Morel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf) fibers from Burkina Faso were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical analysis and video microscopy. Kenaf fibers (3 cm long) were used to reinforce earth blocks, and the mechanical properties of reinforced blocks, with fiber contents ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 wt%, were investigated. The fibers were mainly composed of cellulose type I (70.4 wt%), hemicelluloses (18.9 wt%) and lignin (3 wt%) and were characterized by high tensile strength (1 ± 0.25 GPa) and Young’s modulus (136 ± 25 GPa), linked to their high cellulose content. The incorporation of short fibers of kenaf reduced the propagation of cracks in the blocks, through the good adherence of fibers to the clay matrix, and therefore improved their mechanical properties. Fiber incorporation was particularly beneficial for the bending strength of earth blocks because it reinforces these blocks after the failure of soil matrix observed for unreinforced blocks. Blocks reinforced with such fibers had a ductile tensile behavior that made them better building materials for masonry structures than unreinforced blocks.

  13. Conservation′s Ambiguities: Rangers on the Periphery of the W Park, Burkina Faso

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    Julie Poppe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the central role of ambiguity in the (reproduction process of conservation practice. It argues that some current political economy as well as environmentality approaches to research conservation practice fail to capture the complexity of the lived experience of local conservationists. The article focuses on the multiple identities of rangers in interaction with other residents at the periphery of the W Park in Burkina Faso, as rangers are local conservationists who simultaneously submit to and produce conservation practices. Park rangers are village men who are recruited under the banner of community participation in conservation projects and state forestry. On a day-to-day basis, these rangers help the foresters with the management of the natural resources on the one hand, and guide tourists, especially in the hunting concessions, on the other. They occupy ambiguous positions at the crossroads of conservationist, state, political, economic, spiritual, social, and cultural practices, inherent to their conservation occupations at the lowest echelon, where residents have to transform conservation policies into practices. It is precisely this ambiguity that turns out to ensure the conservation implementation.

  14. Major Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Homocysteine Metabolism in Malaria Patients in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Noé Yameogo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the four main polymorphisms of the genes in homocysteine metabolism in malaria patients. Forty-two randomly selected subjects, diagnosed positive for Plasmodium falciparum, were included. The four genotypes were detected by real-time PCR using the MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, and MTRR 66A>G detection kit (Sacace Biotechnologies REF: T01002-96-S. The results revealed frequencies of 90% 677CC, 10% 677CT, and 00% 677TT for MTHFR C677T; 78.6% 1298AA, 19% 1298AC, and 2.4% 1298CC for MTHFR A1298C; 61.9% 2756AA, 33.3% 2756AG, and 4.8% 2756GG for MTR A2756G; and 50% of 66AA, 45% of 66AG, and 5% of 66GG for MTRR A66G. Correlations were found between A2756G MTR genotypes and parasitaemia (P=0.02, MTRR A66G and hemoglobin genotypes (P=0.009, and MTHFR A1298C and sex (P=0.01. This study demonstrated for the first time an association between the A2756G MTR alleles and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso and gave an overview of the genotypic distribution of the major SNPs influencing the metabolism of homocysteine.

  15. The plasticity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytaemia in relation to age in Burkina Faso

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    Drakeley Chris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission depends on the presence of gametocytes in the peripheral blood. In this study, the age-dependency of gametocytaemia was examined by microscopy and molecular tools. Methods A total of 5,383 blood samples from individuals of all ages were collected over six cross sectional surveys in Burkina Faso. One cross-sectional study used quantitative nucleic acid sequence based amplification (QT-NASBA for parasite quantification (n = 412. The proportion of infections with concurrent gametocytaemia and median proportion of gametocytes among all parasites were calculated. Results Asexual parasite prevalence and gametocyte prevalence decreased with age. Gametocytes made up 1.8% of the total parasite population detected by microscopy in the youngest age group. This proportion gradually increased to 18.2% in adults (p Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that although gametocytes are most commonly detected in children, the proportion of asexual parasites that is committed to develop into gametocytes may increase with age. These findings underscore the importance of adults for the human infectious reservoir for malaria.

  16. Defining Solutions, Finding Problems: Deforestation, Gender, and REDD+ in Burkina Faso

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    Lisa Westholm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ is a policy instrument meant to mitigate climate change while also achieving poverty reduction in tropical countries. It has garnered critics for homogenising environmental and development governance and for ignoring how similar efforts have tended to exacerbate gender inequalities. Nonetheless, regarding such schemes as inevitable, some feminists argue for requirements that include women′s empowerment and participation. In this paper we move beyond discussions about safeguards and examine whether the very framing of REDD+ programs can provide openings for a transformation as argued for by its proponents. Following the REDD+ policy process in Burkina Faso, we come to two important insights: REDD+ is a solution in need of a problem. Assumptions about gender are at the heart of creating ′actionable knowledge′ that enabled REDD+ to be presented as a policy solution to the problems of deforestation, poverty and gender inequality. Second, despite its ′safeguards′, REDD+ appears to be perpetuating gendered divisions of labour, as formal environmental decision-making moves upwards; and responsibility and the burden of actual environmental labour shifts further down in particularly gendered ways. We explore how this is enabled by the development of policies whose stated aims are to tackle inequalities.

  17. Understanding 'Education for All' in Contexts of Extreme Poverty: Experiences from Burkina Faso

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    Guillaume Charvon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the meanings attached to Education for All from the often ignored or misunderstood perspectives of people living in extreme poverty. Allowing people to voice their own understandings of the difficulties they face offers new insights into the essence of the tension between the worlds of reproduction and innovation and the possibilities of achieving harmony between them. Community meanings attached to Education for All were explored by way of a major participatory, action-oriented research project conducted in contexts of poverty in Burkina Faso. The study noted that the experience of poverty and famine influence the value that parents and children attached to formal education, and therefore their interest and ability to engage with it. Community-based education, for example, helped to reproduce knowledge associated with day-to-day living and achieving, at least, a basic livelihood. Formal schooling, on the other hand, was associated with developing new understandings and ambitions, yet also distanced children and young people from local knowledge, social networks and sources of support often needed if the outcomes of school-based education did not lead to improved livelihoods.

  18. Burned area detection based on Landsat time series in savannas of southern Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxiu; Heiskanen, Janne; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Pellikka, Petri K. E.

    2018-02-01

    West African savannas are subject to regular fires, which have impacts on vegetation structure, biodiversity and carbon balance. An efficient and accurate mapping of burned area associated with seasonal fires can greatly benefit decision making in land management. Since coarse resolution burned area products cannot meet the accuracy needed for fire management and climate modelling at local scales, the medium resolution Landsat data is a promising alternative for local scale studies. In this study, we developed an algorithm for continuous monitoring of annual burned areas using Landsat time series. The algorithm is based on burned pixel detection using harmonic model fitting with Landsat time series and breakpoint identification in the time series data. This approach was tested in a savanna area in southern Burkina Faso using 281 images acquired between October 2000 and April 2016. An overall accuracy of 79.2% was obtained with balanced omission and commission errors. This represents a significant improvement in comparison with MODIS burned area product (67.6%), which had more omission errors than commission errors, indicating underestimation of the total burned area. By observing the spatial distribution of burned areas, we found that the Landsat based method misclassified cropland and cloud shadows as burned areas due to the similar spectral response, and MODIS burned area product omitted small and fragmented burned areas. The proposed algorithm is flexible and robust against decreased data availability caused by clouds and Landsat 7 missing lines, therefore having a high potential for being applied in other landscapes in future studies.

  19. [Risk and severity factors in cerebrovascular accidents in west african Blacks of Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabsonre, P; Yameogo, A; Millogo, A; Dyemkouma, F X; Durand, G

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a retrospective review of 193 cases of cerebrovascular attacks (CVA) diagnosed on the basis of clinical data over a 3-year period at the Bobo Dioulasso Hospital in Burkina Faso. CVA accounted for 15.1% of admissions for cardiovascular disorders. Mean patient age was 58.4 +/- 14 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. From a socioeconomic standpoint 72% of patients had low incomes and 22% were laborers. Risk factors were poorly controlled hypertension (83.9%), obesity (44.2%), hyperlipidemia (20.6%), thromboembolism (16.6%), smoking (12.4%), hypercholesterolemia (8.1%) and diabetes (7.3%). Further study is needed to confirm risk related to red blood cell abnormalities. The event was transient ischemic attack in 22 cases (11.7%) and stroke in 171 cases (88.3%). Hospital mortality was high (31.6%) with a significantly higher death rate in elderly (p < 0.05) and female (p < 0.001) patients. Recurrent CVA within a mean delay of 9 to 12 months following the initial event was observed in 11.4% of survivors and was fatal in 80%. The authors emphasize the need for improvement in the management of arterial hypertension by district physicians and for prevention of thromboembolic complications in high-risk patients.

  20. Opportunities and obstacles using a clinical decision support system for maternal care in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakane, S Alphonse; Gustafsson, Lars L; Sie, Ali; Tomson, Göran; Loukanova, Svetla; Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal mortality is high in sub-Saharan Africa. To support Healthcare Workers (HCWs), a computerized decision support system (CDSS) was piloted at six rural maternal care units in Burkina Faso. During the two years of the study period, it was apparent from reports that the CDSS was not used regularly in clinical practice. This study aimed to explore the reasons why HCWs failed to use the CDSS. A workshop, organized as group discussions and a plenary session, was performed with 13 participants to understand their experience with the CDSS and suggest improvements if pertinent. Workshop transcripts were analyzed thematically. Socio-demographic and usage patterns of the CDSS were examined by a questionnaire and analyzed descriptively. The participants reported that the contextual basic conditions for using the CDSS were not fulfilled. These included unreliable power supply, none user-friendly partograph, the CDSS was not integrated with workflow and staff lacked motivational incentives. Despite these limitations, the HCWs reported learning benefits from guidance and alerts in the CDSS. Using the CDSS enabled them to discover problems earlier as they learned to focus on symptoms to prevent harmful situations. The CDSS was not tailored to the needs and context of the users. The HCWs, defined their needs and suggested how the CDSS should be re-designed. This suggests that the successful and regular usage of any CDSS in rural settings requires the involvement of users throughout the construction and pilot-testing phases and not only during the early prototype design period.

  1. Renin-Angiotensin System Genes Polymorphisms and Essential Hypertension in Burkina Faso, West Africa

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    Daméhan Tchelougou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the association between three polymorphisms of renin-angiotensin system and the essential hypertension in the population of Burkina Faso. Methodology. This was a case-control study including 202 cases and 204 matched controls subjects. The polymorphisms were identified by a classical and a real-time PCR. Results. The AGT 235M/T and AT1R 1166A/C polymorphisms were not associated with the hypertension while the genotype frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism between patients and controls (DD: 66.83% and 35.78%, ID: 28.22% and 50.98%, II: 4.95% and 13.24%, resp. were significantly different (p < 10−4. The genotype DD of ACE gene (OR = 3.40, p < 0.0001, the increasing age (OR = 3.83, p < 0.0001, obesity (OR = 4.84, p < 0.0001, dyslipidemia (OR = 3.43, p = 0.021, and alcohol intake (OR = 2.76, p < 0.0001 were identified as the independent risk factors for hypertension by multinomial logistic regression. Conclusion. The DD genotype of the ACE gene is involved in susceptibility to hypertension. Further investigations are needed to better monitor and provide individualized care for hypertensive patients.

  2. Gastro-intestinal nematodes and cestodes of cattle in Burkina Faso

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    Belem A.M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the parasites of abomasa, small, and large intestines of 94 bovines conveyed to the main slaughterhouse of Ouagadougou from the central and northern part of Burkina Faso allowed the identification of nine different worm species: Cooperia punctata, Cooperia pectinata, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Moniezia expensa, Avitellina sp., Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichuris sp. By far, Cooperia sp. was the most prevalent (89.4/, followed by H. contortus (66/, and O. radiatum (42.6/. The other worm species were much less prevalent. While only one cattle was free of parasites, it was noticed that polyparasitism was very common. There was a wide range of worm burden (0 to 42290 with however in most animals high worm numbers specially of Cooperia sp. This study confirmed that the rainy season constitutes a period of worm explosion. During the hot and dry season, H. contortus seemed primarily able to undergo arrested development in the L4 stage and secondarily to remain in the adult stage. Statistical analyses of levels of infestation did not show any significant difference according to age, sex, and weight of cattle.

  3. [Vulnerability of male prisoners to HIV /AIDS in Ouagadougou/ Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Ousmane; Garanet, Franck; Sawadogo, Simeon; Mesenge, Christian; Guiard Schmid, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the vulnerability of male prisoners to HIV, risk behaviour and access to prevention. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in july and August 2012 in Ouagadougou Prison in Burkina Faso. Two trained investigators collected data by means of individual interviews in the prison visiting room using a questionnaire administered to male inmates 18 years and older, imprisoned for more than three months. Two focus groups were conducted with prison guards and healthcare personnel. A total of165 male prisoners were interviewed. The mean prison sentence was 19 months, the median age of the inmates was 28years and 45% of them were illiterate. About4% of male prisoners reported having had homosexual relations during their imprisonment. However, data indicate underreporting and denial of homosexual behaviour by prisoners. 49% of prisoners shared razors or razorblades in prison. None of the interviewees reported injected drug use or tattoos in prison. The majority (84%) of prisoners had a good knowledge of HIVjAIDS and 6% were aware of the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Only 5% of prisoners had had a screening test during their stay in prison. Prison conditions, homosexual behaviour and absence of condoms in prison accentuate the vulnerability of prisoners to HIV j AIDS. Implementation of a prevention programme and management HIV-positive prisoners would help to reduce significantly the risk of HIV transmission in prison.

  4. Enhancing Sustainability of Cotton Production Systems in West Africa: A Summary of Empirical Evidence from Burkina Faso

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    Jeffrey Vitale

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Africa has been hesitant to adopt agricultural biotechnology, lagging behind global trends over the past decade. One exception is Burkina Faso, a West African country that commercially released 125,000 ha of Bt cotton in 2009. Bt cotton may serve as a working example of how African countries can enhance sustainability using modern, science-driven technology to increase production levels while reducing input use and energy consumption. This paper reports the potential impact that Bt cotton can have on sustainability in Burkina Faso’s cotton sector based by summarizing empirical evidence from previously published studies. Based on the summary of published data collected from six years of field trials and producer surveys, Bt cotton increased cotton yields by an average of 21.3% and raised income by $106.14 per ha. Using an energy balance model, the introduction of Bt cotton would also result in a 6.6% saving in energy use. The significant increase in productivity and economic returns could be the catalyst for Burkina Faso, and other African countries, to emerge from the decade or so of stagnation and regain their competitive stance in world cotton markets while providing environmental and social benefits.

  5. Ebola vu de loin : les agents de la santé face au risque et à l'incertitude dans les campagnes du Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2015-01-01

    Although no cases of the Ebola virus disease occurred in Burkina Faso during the West African epidemic, it sparked front line health workers' reflections on issues of security, global equity and fairness. Based on an ethnographic study of rural dispensaries in Burkina Faso on the practical...... of the threat of Ebola has intensified existing tensions between health workers and the Government. Seeing Ebola from a distance entailed that the health workers perceived Ebola as a negative potentiality having immediate effects on their individual and collective reflections on risk acceptability. That made...

  6. Lessons learnt from 20 years surveillance of malaria drug resistance prior to the policy change in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Halidou; Valea, Innocent; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert

    2016-01-01

    The history of drug resistance to the previous antimalarial drugs, and the potential for resistance to evolve to Artemisinin-based combination therapies, demonstrates the necessity to set-up a good surveillance system in order to provide early warning of the development of resistance. Here we report a review summarizing the history of the surveillance of drug resistance that led to the policy change in Burkina Faso. The first Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-Resistance strain identified in Burkina Faso was detected by an in vitro test carried out in Koudougou in 1983. Nevertheless, no further cases were reported until 1987, suggesting that resistant strains had been circulating at a low prevalence before the beginning of the systematic surveillance system from 1984. We observed a marked increase of Chloroquine-Resistance in 2002-2003 probably due to the length of follow-up as the follow-up duration was 7 or 14 days before 2002 and 28 days from 2002 onwards. Therefore, pre-2002 studies have probably under-estimated the real prevalence of Chloroquine-Resistance by not detecting the late recrudescence. With a rate of 8.2% treatment failure reported in 2003, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine was still efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso but this rate might rapidly increase as the result of its spreading from neighboring countries and due to its current use for both the Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnant women and Seasonal Malaria Chemoprophylaxis. The current strategy for the surveillance of the Artemisinin-based combination treatments resistance should build on lessons learnt under the previous period of 20 years surveillance of Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine resistance (1994-2004). The most important aspect being to extend the number of sentinel sites so that data would be less patchy and could help understanding the dynamic of the resistance.

  7. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, Patrick Gc; Somda, Serge Ma; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59-30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42-19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08-11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03-0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted.

  8. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, Patrick GC; Somda, Serge MA; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08–11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03–0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. Conclusion This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted. PMID:24920938

  9. Counselling on and women's awareness of pregnancy danger signs in selected rural health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duysburgh, Els; Ye, Maurice; Williams, Afua; Massawe, Siriel; Sié, Ali; Williams, John; Mpembeni, Rose; Loukanova, Svetla; Temmerman, Marleen

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) assess healthcare workers' counselling practices concerning danger signs during antenatal consultations in rural primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania; to (ii) assess pregnant women's awareness of these danger signs; and (iii) to identify factors affecting counselling practices and women's awareness. Cross-sectional study in rural PHC facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. In each country, 12 facilities were randomly selected. WHO guidelines were used as standard for good counselling. We assessed providers' counselling practice on seven danger signs through direct observation study (35 observations/facility). Exit interviews (63 interviews/facility) were used to assess women's awareness of the same seven danger signs. We used negative binomial regression to assess associations with health services' and socio-demographic characteristics and to estimate per study site the average number of danger signs on which counselling was provided and the average number of danger signs mentioned by women. About one in three women was not informed of any danger sign. For most danger signs, fewer than half of the women were counselled. Vaginal bleeding and severe abdominal pain were the signs most counselled on (between 52% and 66%). At study facilities in Burkina Faso, 58% of the pregnant women were not able to mention a danger sign, in Ghana this was 22% and in Tanzania 30%. Fever, vaginal bleeding and severe abdominal pain were the danger signs most frequently mentioned. The type of health worker (depending on the training they received) was significantly associated with counselling practices. Depending on the study site, characteristics significantly associated with awareness of signs were women's age, gestational age, gravidity and educational level. Counselling practice is poor and not very efficient. A new approach of informing pregnant women on danger signs is needed. However, as effects of

  10. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso

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    Dramane Pare

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO, in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.. Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North and Nayala (Northwest to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55 respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61 plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31 families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main

  11. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Dramane; Hilou, Adama; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Guenne, Samson

    2016-04-26

    Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution) can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.). Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North) and Nayala (Northwest) to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. The fifty-five (55) respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61) plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31) families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main families of plants are Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae

  12. Demand for Contraception in Sahelian Countries: Are Men's and Women's Expectations Converging?. Burkina Faso and Mali, Compared to Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Armelle Andro; Véronique Hertrich

    2002-01-01

    The low level of contraceptive practice in the Sahel countries is often attributed to the deficiencies of family planning services. It is assumed, on the basis of surveys among women, that a demand for contraception exists. This article re-examines the issue of demand for contraception, looking not just at the expectations of women, but also of men and of couples. The analyses are based on the Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in Burkina Faso (1993) and Mali (1995-1996), with Ghana (...

  13. Are promotion programs needed to establish off-grid solar energy markets? Evidence from rural Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Bensch, Gunther; Grimm, Michael (University of Passau, Germany); Peters, Jörg (RWI Essen, Germany); Huppertz, Max; Langbein, Jörg; Peters, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Off-grid solar electric power is a promising technology for remote regions in rural Africa where expansion of the electricity grids is prohibitively expensive. Using household data from a target region of an off-grid solar promotion program in Burkina Faso, this paper explores the role of quality-verified branded solar home systems (SHS) versus non-branded ones. We find that the adoption rate of non-branded SHS is considerably higher at 36 percent compared to eight percent for branded SHS. We...

  14. The positive impact of red palm oil in school meals on vitamin A status: study in Burkina Faso

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    Somé Issa T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A (VA deficiency is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and school-age children are a vulnerable group. In Burkina Faso, the production and consumption of red palm oil (RPO is being promoted as a food supplement for VA. The objective of the study was to assess the impact on serum retinol of adding RPO to school lunch in two test zones of Burkina Faso. Methods Over one school year, 15 ml RPO was added to individual meals 3 times a week in selected primary schools in two sites. Serum retinol was measured with HPLC at baseline and exactly 12 months later to take account of seasonality. A simple pre-post test design was used in the Kaya area (north-central Burkina, where 239 pupils from 15 intervention schools were randomly selected for the evaluation. In Bogandé (eastern Burkina, 24 schools were randomised for the controlled intervention trial: 8 negative controls (G1 with only the regular school lunch; 8 positive controls (G2 where the pupils received a single VA capsule (60 mg at the end of the school year; and 8 schools with RPO through the school year (G3. A random sample of 128 pupils in each school group took part in the evaluation. Results In Kaya, serum retinol went from 0.77 ± 0.37 μmol/L at baseline to 1.07 ± 0.40 μmol/L one year later (p Conclusion RPO given regularly in small amounts appears highly effective in the reduction of VA deficiency. RPO deserves more attention as a food supplement for VA and as a potential source of rural income in Sahelian countries.

  15. Targeted Water Quality Assessment in Small Reservoirs in Brazil, Zimbabwe, Morocco and Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelee, Eline; Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Laamrani, Hammou; Cecchi, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Background Physical and chemical parameters of water in reservoirs can be affected by natural and manmade pollutants, causing damage to the aquatic life and water quality. However, the exact water quality considerations depend on what the water will be used for. Brick making, livestock watering, fisheries, irrigation and domestic uses all have their own specific water quality requirements. In turn, these uses impact on water quality. Methodology Water quality was assessed with a variety of methods in small multipurpose reservoirs in the São Francisco Basin in Brazil, Limpopo in Zimbabwe, Souss Massa in Morocco and Nakambé in Burkina Faso. In each case the first step was to select the reservoirs for which the water quality was to be monitored, then identify the main water uses, followed by a determination of key relevant water quality parameters. In addition, a survey was done in some cases to identify quality perceptions of the users. Samples were taken from the reservoir itself and related water bodies such as canals and wells where relevant. Results Accordingly in the four basins different methods gave different locally relevant results. In the Preto River in the Sao Francisco in Brazil small reservoirs are mainly used for irrigated agriculture. Chemical analysis of various small reservoirs showed that water quality was mainly influenced by geological origins. In addition there was nutrient inflow from surrounding areas of intensive agriculture with high fertilizer use. In the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe small reservoirs are used for almost all community water needs. Plankton was selected as indicator and sampling was carried out in reservoirs in communal areas and in a national park. Park reservoirs were significantly more diversified in phytoplankton taxa compared to those in the communal lands, but not for zooplankton, though communal lands had the highest zooplankton abundance. In Souss Massa in Morocco a combination of perceptions and scientific water

  16. Malaria rapid diagnostic test transport and storage conditions in Burkina Faso, Senegal, Ethiopia and the Philippines

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    Albertini Audrey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As more point of care diagnostics become available, the need to transport and store perishable medical commodities to remote locations increases. As with other diagnostics, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs must be highly reliable at point of use, but exposure to adverse environmental conditions during distribution has the potential to degrade tests and accuracy. In remote locations, poor quality diagnostics and drugs may have significant negative health impact that is not readily detectable by routine monitoring. This study assessed temperature and humidity throughout supply chains used to transport and store health commodities, such as RDTs. Methods Monitoring devices capable of recording temperature and humidity were deployed to Burkina Faso (8, Senegal (10, Ethiopia (13 and the Philippines (6 over a 13-month period. The devices travelled through government supply chains, usually alongside RDTs, to health facilities where RDTs are stored, distributed and used. The recording period spanned just over a year, in order to avoid any biases related to seasonal temperature variations. Results In the four countries, storage and transport temperatures regularly exceeded 30.0°C; maximum humidity level recorded was above 94% for the four countries. In three of the four countries, temperatures recorded at central storage facilities exceeded pharmaceutical storage standards for over 20% of the time, in another case for a majority of the time; and sometimes exceeded storage temperatures at peripheral sites. Conclusions Malaria RDTs were regularly exposed to temperatures above recommended limits for many commercially-available RDTs and other medical commodities such as drugs, but rarely exceeded the recommended storage limits for particular products in use in these countries. The results underline the need to select RDTs, and other commodities, according to expected field conditions, actively manage the environmental conditions in

  17. Process evaluation improves delivery of a nutrition-sensitive agriculture programme in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer N; Olney, Deanna K; Ouedraogo, Marcellin; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye; Rouamba, Hippolyte; Yago-Wienne, Fanny

    2017-12-26

    Evidence is emerging from rigorous evaluations about the effectiveness of nutrition-sensitive agriculture programmes in improving nutritional outcomes. Additional evidence can elucidate how different programme components and pathways contribute and can be optimized for impact. The International Food Policy Research Institute, with Helen Keller International, designed a comprehensive framework to evaluate the delivery, utilization, and impact of Helen Keller International's enhanced homestead food production programme in Burkina Faso. After 18 months of implementation, a process evaluation was conducted to examine programme impact pathways, using key informant and semistructured interviews with implementing agents and beneficiaries, and with residents of control communities. Data were analyzed by International Food Policy Research Institute and reviewed with project managers and partners through multiple workshops to identify opportunities to strengthen implementation. Findings illuminated gaps between intended and actual delivery schemes, including input constraints, knowledge gaps among community agents in agriculture and young child nutrition practices, and lower than expected activity by community volunteers. In response, staff developed measures to overcome water constraints and expand vegetable and poultry production, retrained volunteers in certain techniques of food production and counselling for nutrition behaviour change, added small incentives to motivate volunteers, and shaped both immediate and long-term changes to the programme model. Working closely with International Food Policy Research Institute on the evaluation activities also expanded the repertoire of research methods and skills of Helen Keller International staff. Process evaluation can strengthen programme delivery, utilization, and design. Collaboration between researchers and implementers can improve programme effectiveness, project staff capacity, and advance delivery science. © 2017

  18. Spatial patterns of schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso: relevance of human mobility and water resources development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Frohelich, Jean-Marc; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Sou, Mariam; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Hamadou; Sokolow, Susanne; De Leo, Giulio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    We study the spatial geography of schistosomiasis in the african context of Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of disease dynamics and spread. The relevance of our work lies in its ability to describe quantitatively a geographic stratification of the disease burden capable of reproducing important spatial differences, and drivers/controls of disease spread. Among the latters, we consider specifically the development and management of water resources which have been singled out empirically as an important risk factor for schistosomiasis. The model includes remotely acquired and objectively manipulated information on the distributions of population, infrastructure, elevation and climatic drivers. It also includes a general description of human mobility and addresses a first-order characterization of the ecology of the intermediate host of the parasite causing the disease based on maximum entropy learning of relevant environmenal covariates. Spatial patterns of the disease were analyzed about their disease-free equilibrium by proper extraction and mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming all stability properties of the system. Human mobility was found to be a primary control of both pathogen invasion success and of the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development were studied by accounting for the (prior and posterior) average distances of human settlements from water bodies that may serve as suitable habitats to the intermediate host of the parasite. Water developments, in combination with human mobility, were quantitatively related to disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free and to large-scale empirical incidence patterns. We concluded that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the framework proposed provides a powerful tool for large-scale, long-term public health planning and management of schistosomiasis.

  19. [Factors associated with the satisfaction of prescribers of blood products in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawadogo, S; Kafando, E; Nébié, K; Ouédraogo, A-S; Ouattara, S; Dahourou, H; Fretz, C; Deneys, V

    2017-11-01

    The National Blood Transfusion Centre, unique operator of blood transfusion in Burkina Faso is engaged into the quality process according to ISO 9001. Therefore, the assessment of customer satisfaction is a main part of its system. Our study conceives "customer satisfaction" as dependant to the perceived service quality based on SERVQUAL model. To identify factors associated with the satisfaction of blood products prescribers in order to help decision-makers for continuous improvement of services. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among prescribers of blood components in Ouagadougou, between February 27 and April 30, 2015. We used an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, including 13 items associated to the 5 dimensions of SERVQUAL model. The different satisfaction gaps were calculated and linear regression was used to determine statistical associations with a significance level of 5%. The return rate was 94.5% about the 256 questionnaires distributed. A total of 30% of respondents were satisfied to very satisfied. The overall global gap of satisfaction was -5.74. The product delivery time, the efficacy and safety of blood products, the medical and clinical support, the pro-activity of the communication, the management of blood products reservation and the satisfaction of needs in blood products were the factors associated with the prescribers' satisfaction. This first study in blood transfusion services in our context was been useful to assess customer satisfaction and identify the main axes on which targeting priority actions in order to effectively use available resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating rural poverty and marginality in Burkina Faso using remote sensing-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, M.; Stein, A.; Zurita-Milla, R.

    2014-02-01

    Poverty at the national and sub-national level is commonly mapped on the basis of household surveys. Typical poverty metrics like the head count index are not able to identify its underlaying factors, particularly in rural economies based on subsistence agriculture. This paper relates agro-ecological marginality identified from regional and global datasets including remote sensing products like the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall to rural agricultural production and food consumption in Burkina Faso. The objective is to analyze poverty patterns and to generate a fine resolution poverty map at the national scale. We compose a new indicator from a range of welfare indicators quantified from Georeferenced household surveys, indicating a spatially varying set of welfare and poverty states of rural communities. Next, a local spatial regression is used to relate each welfare and poverty state to the agro-ecological marginality. Our results show strong spatial dependency of welfare and poverty states over agro-ecological marginality in heterogeneous regions, indicating that environmental factors affect living conditions in rural communities. The agro-ecological stress and related marginality vary locally between rural communities within each region. About 58% variance in the welfare indicator is explained by the factors of rural agricultural production and 42% is explained by the factor of food consumption. We found that the spatially explicit approach based on multi-temporal remote sensing products effectively summarizes information on poverty and facilitates further interpretation of the newly developed welfare indicator. The proposed method was validated with poverty incidence obtained from national surveys.

  1. Assessment of providers' referral decisions in Rural Burkina Faso: a retrospective analysis of medical records

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    Ilboudo Tegawende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A well-functioning referral system is fundamental to primary health care delivery. Understanding the providers' referral decision-making process becomes critical. This study's aim was to assess the correctness of diagnoses and appropriateness of the providers' referral decisions from health centers (HCs to district hospitals (DHs among patients with severe malaria and pneumonia. Methods A record review of twelve months of consultations was conducted covering eight randomly selected HCs to identify severe malaria (SM cases among children under five and pneumonia cases among adults. The correctness of the diagnosis and appropriateness of providers' referral decisions were determined using the National Clinical Guidebook as a 'gold standard'. Results Among the 457 SM cases affecting children under five, only 66 cases (14.4% were correctly diagnosed and of those 66 correctly diagnosed cases, 40 cases (60.6% received an appropriate referral decision from their providers. Within these 66 correctly diagnosed SM cases, only 60.6% were appropriately referred. Among the adult pneumonia cases, 5.9% (79/1331 of the diagnoses were correctly diagnosed; however, the appropriateness rate of the provider's referral decision was 98.7% (78/79. There was only one case that should not have been referred but was referred. Conclusions The adherence to the National Guidelines among the health center providers when making a diagnosis was low for both severe malaria cases and pneumonia cases. The appropriateness of the referral decisions was particularly poor for children with severe malaria. Health center providers need to be better trained in the diagnostic process and in disease management in order to improve the performance of the referral system in rural Burkina Faso.

  2. Water resources allocation under climatic and population scenarios: case of Loumbila dam in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabore Bontogho, P. E.; Boubacar, I.

    2016-12-01

    In the face of increased pressures on water resources as well as climate change, the need for managing water allocation is important. This study sought to model water allocation under climate change and human pressure. The Loumbila dam located in central Burkina Faso (12°29 N, 01°24 W) plays a great role in the capital's water supply system and is selected as a case study to reconstitute inflows, simulate actual water allocation and predict monthly water allocation under different climate change scenarios using AFR-44-HIRHAM5 bias corrected data. For these purposes, the inflow of the dam was reconstituted through regression method. The water allocation model (WEAP) has been applied to simulate monthly water availability and demand under RCP_8.5 and RCP_4.5 scenarios by 2050. RCMs data bias correction was set up based on delta change method. The assessment of water needs shows an upward trend of water supply meaning that this site will experience great challenges in the near future. The unmet demand for all sites will increase due to the decrease in water availability and increase in water demand. Analysis of the average monthly unmet demands from water supply shows an increase of water need up to 6.5 million of cubic meter in April-May with RCP_8.5 scenarios while scenarios 4.5 simulate a future unmet water supply demand less than 3.5 million of cubic meters in April-May period. Thus both scenarios show increasing unmet water supply demand. The monthly unmet demand from the municipalities needs shows an increase up to 69 000 cubic meters in December under RCP_8.5 scenarios. The analysis shows also an increase of irrigation water need up to 750 000 cubic meters under RCP_8.5 scenarios.

  3. [Semiological features and risk factors associated with osteoarthritis of the hip in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, D D; Ouédraogo, T; Tiéno, H; Zabsonré-Tiendrébéogo, J; Pédro, C; Draho, J

    2015-01-01

    To study the epidemiological and clinical aspects of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip in Ouagadougou, as well as its risk factors. This retrospective study covered cases treated over a 3-year period (February 2006 through January 2009) in the internal medicine department of the Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and the surgery department of the private hospital Notre-Dame-de la Paix of Ouagadougou. All patients included had OA of the hip that met the Kellgren and Lawrence criteria. There were 46 patients who met the study criteria, but only 40 files could be used. The patients' mean age was 46.4 years ± 15.2 years (range 25-80 years; 10 patients were older than 56 years). Men accounted for more than half (n=23, 57.5%). The mean duration of disease was 6.2 years ± 4.5 years (range: 1-19 years). The right hip alone was concerned in 20 patients (50%), the left hip in 16 (40%), and the OA was bilateral in four (10%). Seventeen patients had sickle cell disease (42.5%), 11 SC and 6 SS. The risk factors included necrosis of the femoral head in 19 cases (59.37%), hip dysplasia in 6 (18.74%), hip trauma in 3 (9.37%), inflammatory arthropathy in 3 more (9.37%), and epiphysitis in one (3.13%). The OA of the hip was primary in 8 cases (20%). Three patients were at stage 1, 9 at stage 2, 15 at stage 3, and 13 at stage 4 according to the Arlet-Ficat classification. OA of the hip arises in a young population and is dominated by secondary OA. The dominant risk factor was aseptic necrosis of the femoral head associated with sickle cell disease. In view of the small number of patients with primary OA, no definitive conclusions can be drawn about it.

  4. Health Providers’ Perceptions of Clinical Trials: Lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angwenyi, Vibian; Asante, Kwaku-Poku; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Febir, Lawrence Gyabaa; Tawiah, Charlotte; Kwarteng, Anthony; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenue; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Webster, Jayne; Chandramohan, Daniel; Molyneux, Sassy; Jones, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical trials conducted in Africa often require substantial investments to support trial centres and public health facilities. Trial resources could potentially generate benefits for routine health service delivery but may have unintended consequences. Strengthening ethical practice requires understanding the potential effects of trial inputs on the perceptions and practices of routine health care providers. This study explores the influence of malaria vaccine trials on health service delivery in Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted: audits of trial inputs in 10 trial facilities and among 144 health workers; individual interviews with frontline providers (n=99) and health managers (n=14); and group discussions with fieldworkers (n=9 discussions). Descriptive summaries were generated from audit data. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework approach. Results Facilities involved in trials benefited from infrastructure and equipment upgrades, support with essential drugs, access to trial vehicles, and placement of additional qualified trial staff. Qualified trial staff in facilities were often seen as role models by their colleagues; assisting with supportive supervision and reducing facility workload. Some facility staff in place before the trial also received formal training and salary top-ups from the trials. However, differential access to support caused dissatisfaction, and some interviewees expressed concerns about what would happen at the end of the trial once financial and supervisory support was removed. Conclusion Clinical trials function as short-term complex health service delivery interventions in the facilities in which they are based. They have the potential to both benefit facilities, staff and communities through providing the supportive environment required for improvements in routine care, but they can also generate dissatisfaction, relationship challenges and demoralisation among staff. Minimising trial related

  5. Tsetse diversity and abundance in Southern Burkina Faso in relation with the vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaisse, J-B; Salou, E; Kiema, S; Akoudjin, M; Kaba, D; Kagbadouno, M; Djohan, V; Camara, M; Dayo, G-K; Courtin, F; Solano, P; Bouyer, J

    2015-09-01

    The increase of human population, combined with climatic changes, contributed to the modification of spatial distribution of tsetse flies, main vector of trypanosomiasis. In order to establish and compare tsetse presence and their relationship with vegetation, entomological survey was performed using biconical traps deployed in transects, simultaneously with phyto-sociological study, on the Comoe river at its source in the village of Moussodougou, and in the semi-protected area of Folonzo, both localities in Southern Burkina Faso. In Folonzo, the survey revealed a diversity of tsetse with 4 species occurring with apparent densities as follows: Glossina tachinoides (8.9 tsetse/trap/day); G. morsitans submorsitans (1.8 tsetse/trap/day); G. palpalis gambiensis (0.6/trap/day) and G. medicorum (0.15 tsetse/trap/day). In Moussodougou, a highly anthropized area, mainly G. p. gambiensis was caught (2.06 tsetse/trap/day), and rarely G. tachinoides. The phyto-sociological study allowed discrimination of 6 types of vegetation in both localities, with 3 concordances that are riparian forest, shrubby and woody savannah. In Moussodougou, all tsetse were caught in the riparian forest. That was also the case in Folonzo where a great proportion (95 to 99 % following the season) of G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides were caught in the gallery, while G. m. submorsitans was occurring as well in the gallery as in the savannah, and G. medicorum in the forest gallery. This study showed that although G. tachinoides and G.p. gambiensis are both riparian, they do not have the same preference in terms of biotope.

  6. Could the decision of trial participation precede the informed consent process? Evidence from Burkina Faso.

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    Lea Paré Toe

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the number of clinical trials carried out in low-income countries with poor medical infrastructure and limited access to health care has increased. In these settings, the decision of participating in a clinical study may be influenced by factors related to participants' vulnerability that limit the efficacy of the informed consent.A mixed methods social science study, based on the triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data, was carried out in a socio-economically disadvantaged and semi-urban area of Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. The study aimed at assessing the relevance of the informed consent procedure on the decision-making process of the parents and/or guardians of potential participants in a pediatric malaria trial.For most parents (70.4%, the decision of participating had already been taken before undergoing the informed consent process and was based on the information conveyed through the community. Access to free and good quality health care often inspired this decision. In addition, the parents' willingness to have their child included in the trial made them develop active strategies to achieve this purpose.In a context of socio-economic vulnerability and poor access to free health care, the process of informed consent does not always accomplish its goal of informing people and enabling them to make a free and informed decision. This information role is somehow anticipated by the community and trial participation becomes a strategic action to secure otherwise unavailable health resources leading community members to decide on participation even prior to the informed consent process.

  7. Approvisionnement en porcs vifs et viande porcine de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso

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    Kiendrebeogo Timbilfou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Résumé : L’étude a évalué l’approvisionnement en porcs et viande de porc de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso. Les données ont été collectées par enquête transversale et rétrospective  auprès de 623 éleveurs en 2003, de 34 commerçants/transformateurs en 2005 et 2006 et auprès de l’Abattoir Frigorifique de Bobo-Dioulasso (AFB en 2009. Les résultats ont montré que les porcs provenaient des élevages urbains et périurbains (38% et des villages au-delà de la périphérie de Bobo-Dioulasso (62%. La production de viande de porc à l’AFB s’est accrue entre 2001 et 2006. Les carcasses, les poumons et le foie ont été surtout saisis aux motifs de tuberculose, de congestions et de cysticerques. Sur 982kg de viande traitée quotidiennement par les acteurs (35, 80% l’a été par des rôtisseurs (88,24% des acteurs, 17% par des charcutiers (5,88%, 2% par les bouchers (2,94% et 1% par les restaurateurs (2,94%. Des études complémentaires sur la rémunération de la production et de la commercialisation et sur la qualité des produits (porcs, viande et produits transformés seront nécessaires pour impulser l’accroissement de la part des viandes porcines dans l’approvisionnement de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso Mots clés : Approvisionnement, porcs,  viande de porc, Ville de Bobo-Dioulasso

  8. Importance of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Cover for Energy Balance partition in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Van De Giesen, N.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface characteristics are the main control on hydrologic processes, the driver of most livelihoods, in semi arid West Africa. We use the energy and water balance measured with two eddy-covariance towers, coupled with a dense network of small, wireless meteorological stations in a small (3.5 km2) catchment to understand these relationships. Time series of monthly averages of soil moisture, rainfall, air temperature, cloud cover, components of net radiation, wind speed, and NDVI are presented in relation to the evaporative fraction and energy balance. We found that both latent and sensible heat fluxes are greater over mixed forest and savanna areas compared agricultural land. Sensible heat is found to be most different between the two land-covers at the end of the year, when the grass and vegetation is dry, and latent heat is found to be most different at the beginning of the year, when bare ground dominates. Further examination shows that soil moisture and vegetation indexes provide the main controls on evaporative fraction. These findings have implications for modeling the evaporation over large regions based on remotely sensed land surface temperature. The site is characteristic of the contrasts in vegetation and moisture availability present in the rocky escarpments found in Northern Benin and Southeastern Burkina Faso. Historically these sites are important in location for village choice and land use designation. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of vegetation for climate regulation and may provide support to local farmers for improving the resilience of natural resources and livelihood security.

  9. Carbon dynamics with prolonged arable cropping soils in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounkpatin, Ozias; Welp, Gerhard; Amelung, Wulf

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of natural ecosystems into agricultural land affects the atmospheric CO2 concentration whose increase contributes to global warming. In the low activity clay soils (LAC) of the tropics, farming is largely dependent on the level of soil organic carbon (SOC) for sustainable crop production. In this study, we investigated the changes in SOC in Plinthosols along a cultivation chronosequence in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso). The chronosequence consisted of undisturbed savannah (Y0) and 11 agricultural fields with short and long histories of cultivation ranging from 1-year-old cropland to 29-year-old cropland (Y29). About 14 soil profiles were described and soil composite samples were taken per horizon. Particulate organic matter (POM) was fractionated according to particle size: fraction 2000 - 250 μm (POM1), 250 μm - 53 μm (POM2), 53 μm - 20 μm (POM3), and POM1 > POM3 > POM2 carbon no matter the duration of land use. However, SOC losses occurred not only in the labile C pools but also in the stabile nonPOM fraction with increasing duration of agricultural land use. Compared to the initial carbon content in the Y0 field, about 59% of carbon content loss occurred in the POM1 (> 250 μm), 53% in the POM2 (250 - 53 μm), 52 % in the POM3 (53 - 20 μm) and 47% in the nonPOM fraction (carbon was found as nonPOM, indicating that organo-mineral associations are a key parameter for carbon stabilization, its depletion with increasing cultivation intensity suggests that the destruction of aggregates in these fields increased the vulnerability of this pool to microbial degradation. Keywords: Soil organic carbon, Plinthosols, low activity clay soil, POM

  10. Land cover change and plants diversity in the Sahel: A case study from northern Burkina Faso

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    Abel Kadeba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding land cover degradation patterns and the effects of geomorphological units on phytodiversity is important for guiding management decisions and restoration strategies in the Sahelian vulnerables zones. This paper describes land cover degradation by combining Landsat TM image analysis and field data measurements in the Gourouol catchment of the Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. Erdas Imagine 9.2 and Arc-GIS.10 were applied. The change patterns were obtained by superposing land cover maps for 1992 and 2010. The field data were collected by the mean of inventories according to the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological relevés methods. Plot sizes were 50 m x 20 m for woody species and 10 m x 10 m for herbaceous species. Six land cover types were identified and mapped: cultivated lands, bared lands, lowlands, which all spatially increased; and shrub-steppes, grasslands and water bodies, which all spatially decreased. The dynamic patterns based on the geomorphological units were non-degraded lowlands, stable sand dunes and degraded glacis. High plant diversity was found in lowlands, whereas low diversity occurred in glacis. A significant dissimilarity was observed between communities. The Shannon diversity indices in plant communities were approximately close to ln(species richness. The Pielou indices were close to 1, indicating a species fairly good distribution. Our results showed a variation of land cover over time and the effects of geomorphological units on phytodiversity. Furthermore, this variation helps oppose land degradation in the Sahel.

  11. Contrasting Population Structures of Two Vectors of African Trypanosomoses in Burkina Faso: Consequences for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, Sophie; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Domagni, Kouadjo T.; Causse, Sandrine; Solano, Philippe; de Meeûs, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Background African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank and Glossina tachinoides Westwood are the major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their removal will in most cases only be sustainable if the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides inhabiting four adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso, i.e. the Mouhoun, the Comoé, the Niger and the Sissili River Basins. Isolation by distance was significant for both species across river basins, and dispersal of G. tachinoides was ∼3 times higher than that of G. p. gambiensis. Thus, the data presented indicate that no strong barriers to gene flow exists between riverine tsetse populations in adjacent river basins, especially so for G. tachinoides. Conclusions/Significance Therefore, potential re-invasion of flies from adjacent river basins will have to be prevented by establishing buffer zones between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s), in the framework of the PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign) eradication project that is presently targeting the northern part of the Mouhoun River Basin. We argue that these genetic analyses should always be part of the baseline data collection before any tsetse control project is initiated. PMID:21738812

  12. Research dissemination workshops: observations and implications based on an experience in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Sween-Cadieux, Esther; Dagenais, Christian; Somé, Paul-André; Ridde, Valéry

    2017-06-02

    In Burkina Faso, malaria remains the primary cause of healthcare use, morbidity and child mortality. Therefore, efforts are needed to support the knowledge transfer and application of the results of numerous studies to better formulate and implement programs in the fight against the malaria pandemic. To this end, a 2-day dissemination workshop was held to share the most recent results produced by a multidisciplinary research team. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the workshop and the policy briefs distributed there, the effects these produced on research results use and the processes that facilitated, or not, the application of the knowledge transmitted. A mixed-methods design was used. The data were drawn from a quantitative evaluation questionnaire completed after the workshop (n = 25/31) and qualitative interviews conducted with the researchers and various actors who attended the workshop (n = 11) and with participants in working groups (n = 40) that later analysed the policy briefs distributed at the workshop. The participants recognised the quality of the research results presented, but felt that more needed to be done to adapt the researchers' language and improve the functioning of the workshop. The potential effects of the workshop were rather limited. Effects were mainly at two levels: individual (e.g. acquisition of new knowledge, personal awareness raising) and local (e.g. change of practice in a local non-governmental organisation). Most participants perceived the utility of the research results, but several reported that their narrow decisional power limited their ability to apply this knowledge. This study showed the importance of workshops to inform key actors of research results and the need to undertake several different activities to increase the chances that the knowledge will be applied. Several recommendations are proposed to improve knowledge translation approaches in the West African context, including organising working and

  13. Anesthesia for Ambulatory Pediatric Surgery in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Pilot Study in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabré, Yvette B; Traoré, Idriss S S; Kaboré, Flavien A R; Ki, Bertille; Traoré, Alain I; Ouédraogo, Isso; Bandré, Emile; Wandaogo, Albert; Ouédraogo, Nazinigouba

    2017-02-01

    Long surgical wait times and limited hospital capacity are common obstacles to surgical care in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Introducing ambulatory surgery might contribute to a solution to these problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of introducing ambulatory surgery into a pediatric hospital in SSA. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that took place over 6 months. It includes all patients assigned to undergo ambulatory surgery in the Pediatric University Hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Eligibility criteria for the ambulatory surgery program included >1 year of age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) 1 status, surgery with a low risk of bleeding, lasting ambulatory surgery; 103 patients, with an average age of 59.74 ± 41.57 months, actually underwent surgery. The principal indications for surgery were inguinal (62) and umbilical (47) hernias. All patients had general anesthesia with halothane. Sixty-five percent also received regional or local anesthesia consisting of caudal block in 79.23% or nerve block in 20.77%. The average duration of surgery was 33 ± 17.47 minutes. No intraoperative complications were noted. All the patients received acetaminophen and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the recovery room. Twelve (11.7%) patients had complications in recovery, principally nausea and vomiting. Eight (7.8%) patients were admitted to the hospital. No serious complications were associated with ambulatory surgery. Its introduction could possibly be a solution to improving pediatric surgical access in low-income countries.

  14. Effects of Parental Union Dissolution on Child Mortality and Child Schooling in Burkina Faso

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    Jean-François Kobiané

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family structure and union dissolution has been one of the most thoroughly studied determinants of children's wellbeing worldwide. To date, however, few of these studies have examined sub-Saharan Africa, especially countries in West Africa where marital breakdowns are not uncommon. Objective: We attempt to examine the effects of a mother's divorce and widowhood on children's risk of mortality under age 5 and on their probability of entering primary school. Methods: Survival data analysis methods, specifically Kaplan-Meier and piecewise exponential models, are used for analysis, based on data come from the 2000 Migration and Urban Integration Survey of Burkina Faso. Results: Compared to those of intact families, children of divorced parents experience higher estimated mortality risks under age 5 and a lower probability of entering school, even after controlling for various other factors. This effect is large and significant during the first two years after the divorce. The death of the father is also found to greatly reduce a child's likelihood of entering school, but its effect on mortality is not significant. Conclusions: The results indicate that the family context plays an important role in determining two important aspects of children's welfare: their probabilities of dying before age 5 and of entering school. Comments: Children of divorced parents or a deceased father are living in precarious situations and their specific needs should be taken into account in policies in order to improve the wellbeing of all children. Attention must be directed to the first two years following the union dissolution.

  15. In vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxic properties of some medicinal plants from western Burkina Faso

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    Souleymane Sanon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance of malaria parasites to existing drugs complicates treatment, but an antimalarial vaccine that could protect against this disease is not yet available. It is therefore necessary to find new effective and affordable medicines. Medicinal plants could be a potential source of antimalarial agents. Some medicinal plants from Burkina Faso were evaluated for their antiplasmodial and cytotoxic properties in vitro.Methods: Crude dichloromethane, methanol, water-methanol, aqueous and alkaloids extracts were prepared for 12 parts of 10 plants. Chloroquine-resistant malaria strain K1 was used for the in vitro sensibility assay. The Plasmodium lactacte dehydrogenase technique was used to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration of parasites activity (IC50. The cytotoxic effects were determined with HepG2 cells, using the tetrazolium-based colorimetric technique, and the selectivity index (SI was calculated.Results: Sixty crude extracts were prepared. Seven extracts from Terminalia avicenoides showed IC50 < 5 µg/mL. The IC50 of dichloromethane, methanol, aqueous and alkaloids extracts ranged between 1.6 µg/mL and 4.5 µg/mL. Three crude extracts from Combretum collinum and three from Ficus capraefolia had an IC50 ranging between 0.2 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL. Crude extracts from these three plants had no cytotoxic effect, with SI > 1. The other plants have mostly moderate or no antimalarial effects. Some extracts from Cordia myxa, Ficus capraefolia and Opilia celtidifolia showed cytotoxicity, with an SI ranging between 0.4 and 0.9.Conclusion: Our study showed a good antiplasmodial in vitro activity of Terminalia avicenoides, Combretum collinum and Ficus capraefolia. These three plants may contain antiplasmodial molecules that could be isolated by bio-guided phytochemical studies. 

  16. Definition and characterization of localised meningitis epidemics in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal retrospective study

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    Tall Haoua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt is characterised by seasonality, localised epidemics and epidemic waves. To facilitate research and surveillance, we aimed to develop a definition for localised epidemics to be used in real-time surveillance based on weekly case reports at the health centre level. Methods We used national routine surveillance data on suspected meningitis from January 2004 to December 2008 in six health districts in western and central Burkina Faso. We evaluated eight thresholds composed of weekly incidence rates at health centre level for their performance in predicting annual incidences of 0.4%and 0.8% in health centre areas. The eventually chosen definition was used to describe the spatiotemporal epidemiology and size of localised meningitis epidemics during the included district years. Results Among eight weekly thresholds evaluated, a weekly incidence rate of 75 cases per 100,000 inhabitants during at least two consecutive weeks with at least 5 cases per week had 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity for predicting an annual incidence of at least 0.8% in health centres. Using this definition, localised epidemics were identified in all but one years during 2004-2008, concerned less than 10% of the districts' population and often were geographically dispersed. Where sufficient laboratory data were available, localised epidemics were exclusively due to meningococci. Conclusions This definition of localised epidemics a the health centre level will be useful for risk factor and modelling studies to understand the meningitis belt phenomenon and help documenting vaccine impact against epidemic meningitis where no widespread laboratory surveillance exists for quantifying disease reduction after vaccination.

  17. Local Water Management of Small Reservoirs: Lessons from Two Case Studies in Burkina Faso

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    Hilmy Sally

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso is actively pursuing the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in its development plans. Several policy and institutional mechanisms have been put in place, including the adoption of a national IWRM action plan (PAGIRE and the establishment so far of 30 local water management committees (Comités Locaux de l’Eau, or CLE. The stated purpose of the CLE is to take responsibility for managing water at sub-basin level. The two case studies discussed in this paper illustrate gaps between the policy objective of promoting IWRM on the one hand, and the realities associated with its practical on-the-ground implementation on the other. A significant adjustment that occurred in practice is the fact that the two CLE studied have been set up as entities focused on reservoir management, whereas it is envisioned that a CLE would constitute a platform for sub-basin management. This reflects a concern to minimise conflict and optimally manage the country’s primary water resource and illustrates the type of pragmatic actions that have to be taken to make IWRM a reality. It is also observed that the local water management committees have not been able to satisfactorily address questions regarding access to, and allocation of, water, which are crucial for the satisfactory functioning of the reservoirs. Water resources in the reservoirs appear to be controlled by the dominant user. In order to correct this trend, measures to build mutual trust and confidence among water users 'condemned' to work together to manage their common resource are suggested, foremost of which is the need to collect and share reliable data. Awareness of power relationships among water user groups and building on functioning, already existing formal or informal arrangements for water sharing are key determinants for successful implementation of the water reform process underway.

  18. Evaluating the Process and Extent of Institutionalization: A Case Study of a Rapid Response Unit for Health Policy in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, Andre; Lavis, John N; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kouyate, Bocar; Ouedraogo, Salimata

    2017-04-10

    Good decision-making requires gathering and using sufficient information. Several knowledge translation platforms have been introduced in Burkina Faso to support evidence-informed decision-making. One of these is the rapid response service for health. This platform aims to provide quick access for policy-makers in Burkina Faso to highquality research evidence about health systems. The purpose of this study is to describe the process and extent of the institutionalization of the rapid response service. A qualitative case study design was used, drawing on interviews with policy-makers, together with documentary analysis. Previously used institutionalization frameworks were combined to guide the analysis. Burkina Faso's rapid response service has largely reached the consolidation phase of the institutionalization process but not yet the final phase of maturity. The impetus for the project came from designated project leaders, who convinced policy-makers of the importance of the rapid response service, and obtained resources to run a pilot. During the expansion stage, additional policy-makers at national and sub-national levels began to use the service. Unit staff also tried to improve the way it was delivered, based on lessons learned during the pilot stage. The service has, however, stagnated at the consolidation stage, and not moved into the final phase of maturity. The institutionalization process for the rapid response service in Burkina Faso has been fluid rather than linear, with some areas developing faster than others. The service has reached the consolidation stage, but now requires additional efforts to reach maturity.

  19. Information Technologies as a Tool for Agricultural Extension and Farmer-to-Farmer Exchange: Mobile-Phone Video Use in Mali and Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernando; Nicolay, Gian; Home, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are widespread in the rural areas of Mali and Burkina Faso, but their potential as a tool for knowledge transfer by extension services in the region remains largely unexplored. The aim of this contribution is to evaluate the potential of video on mobile phones as a tool for farmer-to-farmer exchange and agricultural extension in…

  20. Reducing the impact of soil erosion and reservoir siltation on agricultural production and water availability: the case study of the Laaba catchment (Burkina Faso)

    OpenAIRE

    Coviello, Velio; Vezza, Paolo; Angeluccetti, Irene; Grimaldi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Material complementari del cas estudi "Reducing the impact of soil erosion and reservoir siltation on agricultural production and water availability: the case study of the Laaba catchment (Burkina Faso)", part component del llibre "Case studies for developing globally responsible engineers" Peer Reviewed

  1. Application of zai and rock bunds in the northwest region of Burkina Faso : Study of its impact on household level by using a stochastic linear programming model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatman, A; Sawadogo, H; Schweigman, C; Ouedraogo, A

    Agricultural production in the northwest region of Burkina Faso is seriously endangered by soil erosion and an overall decline in Soil fertility. In the past 15 years various anti-erosion methods have been adopted in this region with quite some success. The widespread promotion lion of rock bunds is

  2. Nitrogen flows and balances as affected by water and nutrient management in a sorghum cropping system of semi-arid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Guillobez, S.

    2004-01-01

    Efficient use of external inputs and water conservation are a prerequisite of sustainable agricultural productivity in semiarid West Africa. A field experiment was carried out during 3 years (2000–2002) at Saria in semiarid Burkina Faso (800 mm of annual rainfall, PET of 2000 mm per year) to assess

  3. The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: the interface of local norms and global public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Katerini T; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is 'life-saving care' which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a 'first step' towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion.

  4. Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services from Small-Scale Agricultural Management Interventions in Burkina Faso: A Discrete Choice Experiment Approach

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    Prosper Houessionon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to estimate farmers’ preferences and their willingness to pay (WTP for ecosystem services derived from four agricultural water management (AWM and resource recovery and reuse (RRR intervention options in Burkina Faso, using a choice experiment (CE. These include; small water infrastructure, drip irrigation, recovery of organic matter from waste, and treated wastewater. The design decisions relating to attribute selection, the level of attributes, alternatives and choice tasks were guided by literature, field visits, focus group discussions, expert input and an iterative process of the STATA software to generate an orthogonal main-effects CE design. The data used was generated from a random sample of 300 farm households in the Dano and Ouagadougou municipalities in Burkina Faso. Results from conditional logit, latent class logit and mixt logit models show that farmers have positive and significant preferences for drip irrigation, treated wastewater, and organic matter. However, they are WTP on average more for drip irrigation and organic matter for agricultural sustainability. In line with economic theory, the cost of an intervention reduces demand for a given intervention. These findings can provide policy makers with evidence for agricultural policy design to build farmers’ resilience in the Sahel.

  5. Composts de déchets urbains et dynamiques du carbone du sol à Donsin, Burkina Faso

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    Dasmané Bambara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In Burkina Faso, information about composts’ role in greenhouse gas reducing is scarce. This study assessed six urban composts application effects on soil carbon storage in sorghum three-year experiment. Composts were applied at 3 t DM ha-1 year1 rate, single or combined with 50 t ha-1 year-1 urea rate. Soil properties were analyzed with soil sampled in the early 20 cm of soil. The treatments were compared to a control without any fertilization and a 50 t ha-1 year-1 urea treatment. Comparisons were also done between single composts treatments and composts combined with 50 t ha-1 urea ones. In comparison to the control, single or combined with urea composts application improved soil bulk density, fine soil rate and organic carbon contents. Single composts treatments carbon storage ranging from 8.76 to 11.58 t ha-1 were not significantly different from the control. However, when composts were combined with urea, carbon storage ranged from 8.42 to 13.07 t ha-1 and was significantly increased by comparison to the control. Best composts seemed to be those produced with various and balanced composting materials. Eco-friendly urban waste composts adoption could improve soil fertility and mitigate greenhouse gas emission. Keywords: urban wastes composts, soil fertility, greenhouse effect, Burkina Faso

  6. The Saturation+ Approach to Behavior Change: Case Study of a Child Survival Radio Campaign in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy

    2015-01-01

    A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice. PMID:26681703

  7. Independent Evaluation of the Rapid Scale-Up Program to Reduce Under-Five Mortality in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munos, Melinda; Guiella, Georges; Roberton, Timothy; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Tiendrebeogo, Adama; Tam, Yvonne; Bryce, Jennifer; Baya, Banza

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective evaluation of the “Rapid Scale-Up” (RSU) program in Burkina Faso, focusing on the integrated community case management (iCCM) component of the program. We used a quasi-experimental design in which nine RSU districts were compared with seven districts without the program. The evaluation included documentation of program implementation, assessments of implementation and quality of care, baseline and endline coverage surveys, and estimation of mortality changes using the Lives Saved Tool. Although the program trained large numbers of community health workers, there were implementation shortcomings related to training, supervision, and drug stockouts. The quality of care provided to sick children was poor, and utilization of community health workers was low. Changes in intervention coverage were comparable in RSU and comparison areas. Estimated under-five mortality declined by 6.2% (from 110 to 103 deaths per 1,000 live births) in the RSU area and 4.2% (from 114 to 109 per 1,000 live births) in the comparison area. The RSU did not result in coverage increases or mortality reductions in Burkina Faso, but we cannot draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the iCCM strategy, given implementation shortcomings. The evaluation results highlight the need for greater attention to implementation of iCCM programs. PMID:26787147

  8. Pratique et perception paysannes dans la création de parc agroforestier dans le terroir de Vipalogo (Burkina Faso

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    Traoré D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmer’s practices and perception in agroforestry park creating in Vipalogo area (Burkina Faso. In order to understand farmers’ practices and perceptions in new agroforestry park creating after fallows, a study has been conducted in Vipalogo area in Burkina Faso. During this study, 14 homesteads including fallows which need to be cleared have been identified. On those fallows, ligneous species have been listed before and after clearing. Sylvicultural practices have been noticed as well as reasons that justify the willingness to preserve or to destroy a species, while clearing. This monitoring has shown that from total ligneous potential in the fallow, 11.7% was preserved, giving a density of 60 plants ha-1. As for diversity, 60 species have been registered in the fallows and 41 kept in the park. Slashing and burning are the main sylvicultural practices applied. The preserved species are essentially for food and local medicines. As for the new Park structure, there is a great dominance of individuals with small diameter, which show the willingness to rejuvenate the Park. Some individuals from the old Park were also preserved to satisfy immediate needs in fruits, seed and shade.

  9. Assessment of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Producers’ Exposure Level to Pesticides, in Kouka and Toussiana (Burkina Faso

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    Diakalia Son

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess producers’ exposure level to pesticides in vegetable production in Burkina Faso, a study was carried out in 2016 and 2017 among 30 tomato producers in the municipalities of Kouka and Toussiana. Eighteen (18 commercial formulations were identified, with more than 50% of pesticides destined for cotton production. Eleven active substances have been identified and the most frequently used are λ-cyhalothrin (35%, acetamiprid (22% and profenofos (13%. The most commonly used chemical families are pyrethroids (28% and organophosphates (18%. The study revealed a low level of training for producers, a high use of pesticides according to the Frequency Treatment Indicator, and a very low level of protection used by producers. The Health Risk Index shows that active substances such as methomyl, λ-cyhalothrin and profenofos present very high risk to operators’ health. Based on the UK-POEM model, the predictive exposure levels obtained varied from 0.0105 mg/kg body weight/day to 1.7855 mg/kg body weight/day, which is several times higher than the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level. However, the study also shows that exposure can be greatly reduced if the required Personal Protective Equipment is worn. Producers’ awareness and training on integrated pest management are necessary to reduce the risks linked to the pesticides use in Burkina Faso.

  10. Performances zootechniques et rentabilité financière des ovins en embouche au Burkina Faso

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    Somda J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep fattening in Burkina Faso: biological performances and profitability. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting the economical and biological performances of lamb fattening operations in rural area. This study was conducted in Oubritenga province in Burkina Faso. Eighty-three rams supplied by 24 producers were involved in the test. Two rations were dispensed during fifty days. Body weight changes and financial operations were monitored. A weight gain model was built to explore growth determinants. Then, cost-benefit ratios were analysed to identify financial efficiency factors. Results show that growth performance depends on the combination of diet and sheep breeds rather than on feed only. Output markets and input marketing policy influence negatively financial cost-effectiveness. This implies firstly, that feed mixes proposed to producers must take species characteristics into account. Secondly, marketing policies enforced on livestock inputs which focus on reducing taxes are indispensable to improve the cost-effetiveness of fattening operations.

  11. Marketing complementary foods and supplements in Burkina Faso, Madagascar, and Vietnam: lessons learned from the Nutridev program.

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    Bruyeron, Olivier; Denizeau, Mirrdyn; Berger, Jacques; Trèche, Serge

    2010-06-01

    Sustainable approaches to improving infant and young child feeding are needed. The Nutridev program worked in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso to test different strategies to improve complementary feeding using fortified products sold to families. To review the experiences of programs producing and marketing fortified complementary foods and to report on the feasibility of local production and marketing of fortified complementary foods to increase usage of high-quality foods among children of low-income families in a self-sustaining manner. Project documents, surveys of mothers, and production and sales reports were reviewed. Nutridev experience in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso demonstrates that it is possible to produce affordable, high-quality complementary foods and supplements locally in developing countries. Strategies to make products readily available to the targeted population and to convince this population to consume them yielded mixed results, varying greatly based on the strategy utilized and the context in which it was implemented. In several contexts, the optimal approach appears to be strengthening the existing food distribution network to sell complementary foods and supplements, with the implementation of a temporary promotion and nutrition education network in partnership with local authorities (e.g., health services) to increase awareness among families about the fortified complementary food product and optimal feeding practices. In urban areas, where the density of the population is high, design and implementation of specific networks very close to consumers seems to be a good way to combine economic sustainability and good consumption levels.

  12. L'approche communicative des campagnes de sensibilisation en santé publique au Burkina Faso : les cas de la planification familiale, du sida et de l'excision

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    Bougaïré-Zangréyanogho, Marie Danielle

    2004-01-01

    Danielle Bougaïré onderzocht de redenen waarom in Burkina Faso de voorlichtingscampagnes over gezinsplanning, vrouwenbesnijdenis en aidsbestrijding geen merkbare attitudeverandering teweegbrengen. Ze concludeert dat de dramatische levensomstandigheden van de bevolking (armoede, analfabetisme,

  13. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country’s iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur’s mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to

  14. Equity and health policy in Africa: Using concept mapping in Moore (Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry

    2008-01-01

    Background This methodological article is based on a health policy research project conducted in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Concept mapping (CM) was used as a research method to understand the local views of equity among stakeholders, who were concerned by the health policy under consideration. While this technique has been used in North America and elsewhere, to our knowledge it has not yet been applied in Africa in any vernacular language. Its application raises many issues and certain methodological limitations. Our objective in this article is to present its use in this particular context, and to share a number of methodological observations on the subject. Methods Two CMs were done among two different groups of local stakeholders following four steps: generating ideas, structuring the ideas, computing maps using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis methods, and interpreting maps. Fifteen nurses were invited to take part in the study, all of whom had undergone training on health policies. Of these, nine nurses (60%) ultimately attended the two-day meeting, conducted in French. Of 45 members of village health committees who attended training on health policies, only eight were literate in the local language (Moore). Seven of these (88%) came to the meeting. Results The local perception of equity seems close to the egalitarian model. The actors are not ready to compromise social stability and peace for the benefit of the worst-off. The discussion on the methodological limitations of CM raises the limitations of asking a single question in Moore and the challenge of translating a concept as complex as equity. While the translation of equity into Moore undoubtedly oriented the discussions toward social relations, we believe that, in the context of this study, the open-ended question concerning social justice has a threefold relevance. At the same time, those limitations were transformed into strengths. We understand that it was essential to resort to the

  15. Prevalence of neurocysticercosis among people with epilepsy in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo, Athanase; Nitiéma, Pascal; Carabin, Hélène; Boncoeur-Martel, Marie Paule; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Cowan, Linda; Ganaba, Rasmané; Hounton, Sennen; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Cissé, Rabiou

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the lifetime prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy and the proportion of NCC among people with epilepsy in three Burkina Faso villages. Methods Three villages were selected to represent three types of pig-rearing methods: 1) Batondo where pigs are left to roam; 2) Pabré where pigs are mostly tethered or penned, and 3) Nyonyogo where the majority of residents are Muslim and few pigs are raised. In Batondo and Nyonyogo, all concessions (a group of several households) were included. Half of the concessions in Pabré were randomly chosen. All households of selected concessions were included, and one person per household was randomly selected for epilepsy screening and serological testing for cysticercosis. Self-reported cases of epilepsy were also examined and confirmed cases included in analyses other than the estimate of NCC-associated epilepsy prevalence. Epilepsy was defined as ever having had more than one episode of unprovoked seizures. Medically confirmed cases of epilepsy had a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain before and after contrast medium injection. The diagnosis of NCC was made using a modification of the criteria of Del Brutto et al. (2001). Key Findings Thirty-nine (4.4%) of 888 randomly selected villagers and 33 of 35 (94.3%) self-reported seizures cases were confirmed to have epilepsy by medical examination. Among the 68 participants with epilepsy who had a CT scan, 20 patients were diagnosed with definitive or probable NCC for a proportion of 46.9% (95% CI=30.2; 64.1) in Batondo and 45.5% (95%CI=19.0; 74.1) in Pabré. No cases of NCC were identified in Nyonyogo. Significance All the definitive and probable cases of NCC were from the two villages where pig breeding is common. Prevention policies intended to reduce the burden of epilepsy in this country should include measures designed to interrupt the life cycle of Taenia solium. PMID:23148555

  16. Technological solutions for an effective health surveillance system for road traffic crashes in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Emmanuel; Nikiéma, Aude; Traoré, Zoumana; Sidbega, Salifou; Ridde, Valéry

    2017-01-01

    In the early 2000s, electronic surveillance systems began to be developed to collect and transmit data on infectious diseases in low-income countries (LICs) in real-time using mobile technologies. Such surveillance systems, however, are still very rare in Africa. Among the non-infectious epidemics to be surveilled are road traffic injuries, which constitute major health events and are the fifth leading cause of mortality in Africa. This situation also prevails in Burkina Faso, whose capital city, Ouagadougou, is much afflicted by this burden. There is no surveillance system, but there have been occasional surveys, and media reports of fatal crashes are numerous and increasing in frequency. The objective of this article is to present the methodology and implementation of, and quality of results produced by, a prototype of a road traffic crash and trauma surveillance system in the city of Ouagadougou. A surveillance system was deployed in partnership with the National Police over a six-month period, from February to July 2015, across the entire city of Ouagadougou. Data were collected by all seven units of the city's National Police road crash intervention service. They were equipped with geotracers that geolocalized the crash sites and sent their positions by SMS (short message service) to a surveillance platform developed using the open-source tool Ushahidi. Descriptive statistical analyses and spatial analyses (kernel density) were subsequently performed on the data collected. The process of data collection by police officers functioned well. Researchers were able to validate the data collection on road crashes by comparing the number of entries in the platform against the number of reports completed by the crash intervention teams. In total, 873 crash scenes were recorded over 3 months. The system was accessible on the Internet for open consultation of the map of crash sites. Crash-concentration analyses were produced that identified 'hot spots' in the city

  17. Social and environmental malaria risk factors in urban areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragatti, Meili; Fournet, Florence; Henry, Marie-Claire; Assi, Serge; Ouedraogo, Herman; Rogier, Christophe; Salem, Gérard

    2009-01-13

    Despite low endemicity, malaria remains a major health problem in urban areas where a high proportion of fevers are presumptively treated using anti-malarial drugs. Low acquired malaria immunity, behaviour of city-dwellers, access to health care and preventive interventions, and heterogenic suitability of urban ecosystems for malaria transmission contribute to the complexity of the malaria epidemiology in urban areas. The study was designed to identify the determinants of malaria transmission estimated by the prevalence of anti-circumsporozoite (CSP) antibodies, the prevalence and density of Plasmodium falciparum infection, and the prevalence of malarial disease in areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina-Faso. Thick blood smears, dried blood spots and clinical status have been collected from 3,354 randomly chosen children aged 6 months to 12 years using two cross-sectional surveys (during the dry and rainy seasons) in eight areas from four ecological strata defined according to building density and land tenure (regular versus irregular). Demographic characteristics, socio-economic information, and sanitary and environmental data concerning the children or their households were simultaneously collected. Dependent variables were analysed using mixed multivariable models with random effects, taking into account the clustering of participants within compounds and areas. Overall prevalences of CSP-antibodies and P. falciparum infections were 7.7% and 16.6% during the dry season, and 12.4% and 26.1% during the rainy season, respectively, with significant differences according to ecological strata. Malaria risk was significantly higher among children who i) lived in households with lower economic or education levels, iii) near the hydrographic network, iv) in sparsely built-up areas, v) in irregularly built areas, vi) who did not use a bed net, vii) were sampled during the rainy season or ii) had traveled outside of Ouagadougou. Malaria control should be focused in areas which are

  18. Malaria morbidity in high and seasonal malaria transmission area of Burkina Faso.

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    Alphonse Ouédraogo

    Full Text Available Malariometric parameters are often primary endpoints of efficacy trials of malaria vaccine candidates. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of malaria prior to the conduct of a series of drug and vaccine trials in a rural area of Burkina Faso.Malaria incidence was prospectively evaluated over one year follow-up among two cohorts of children aged 0-5 years living in the Saponé health district. The parents of 1089 children comprising a passive case detection cohort were encouraged to seek care from the local health clinic at any time their child felt sick. Among this cohort, 555 children were randomly selected for inclusion in an active surveillance sub-cohort evaluated for clinical malaria during twice weekly home visits. Malaria prevalence was evaluated by cross-sectional survey during the low and high transmission seasons.Number of episodes per child ranged from 0 to 6 per year. Cumulative incidence was 67.4% in the passive and 86.2% in the active cohort and was highest among children 0-1 years. Clinical malaria prevalence was 9.8% in the low and 13.0% in the high season (p>0.05. Median days to first malaria episode ranged from 187 (95% CI 180-193 among children 0-1 years to 228 (95% CI 212, 242 among children 4-5 years. The alternative parasite thresholds for the malaria case definition that achieved optimal sensitivity and specificity (70-80% were 3150 parasites/µl in the high and 1350 parasites/µl in the low season.Clinical malaria burden was highest among the youngest age group children, who may represent the most appropriate target population for malaria vaccine candidate development. The pyrogenic threshold of parasitaemia varied markedly by season, suggesting a value for alternative parasitaemia levels in the malaria case defintion. Regional epidemiology of malaria described, Sapone area field centers are positioned for future conduct of malaria vaccine trials.

  19. Social and environmental malaria risk factors in urban areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Ouedraogo Herman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite low endemicity, malaria remains a major health problem in urban areas where a high proportion of fevers are presumptively treated using anti-malarial drugs. Low acquired malaria immunity, behaviour of city-dwellers, access to health care and preventive interventions, and heterogenic suitability of urban ecosystems for malaria transmission contribute to the complexity of the malaria epidemiology in urban areas. Methods The study was designed to identify the determinants of malaria transmission estimated by the prevalence of anti-circumsporozoite (CSP antibodies, the prevalence and density of Plasmodium falciparum infection, and the prevalence of malarial disease in areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina-Faso. Thick blood smears, dried blood spots and clinical status have been collected from 3,354 randomly chosen children aged 6 months to 12 years using two cross-sectional surveys (during the dry and rainy seasons in eight areas from four ecological strata defined according to building density and land tenure (regular versus irregular. Demographic characteristics, socio-economic information, and sanitary and environmental data concerning the children or their households were simultaneously collected. Dependent variables were analysed using mixed multivariable models with random effects, taking into account the clustering of participants within compounds and areas. Results Overall prevalences of CSP-antibodies and P. falciparum infections were 7.7% and 16.6% during the dry season, and 12.4% and 26.1% during the rainy season, respectively, with significant differences according to ecological strata. Malaria risk was significantly higher among children who i lived in households with lower economic or education levels, iii near the hydrographic network, iv in sparsely built-up areas, v in irregularly built areas, vi who did not use a bed net, vii were sampled during the rainy season or ii had traveled outside of Ouagadougou

  20. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  1. Evaluation d'un ecosysteme pastoral sahelien: Apport de la geomatique (Oursi, Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabore, Seraphine Sawadogo

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est la mise au point d'une architecture d'integration de donnees socio-bio-geographiques et de donnees satellitales dans un Systeme d'Information Geographique (SIG) en vue d'une aide a la prise de decisions dans un environnement semi-aride au nord du Burkina Faso. Elle repond a la question fondamentale de l'interpretation des effets des facteurs climatiques et socioeconomiques sur le milieu pastoral. La recherche s'est appuyee sur plusieurs hypotheses de travail: possibilite d'utilisation de modele de simulation, d'approche multicritere et de donnees de teledetection dans un cadre de systeme d'information geographique. L'evolution spatiotemporelle des parametres de productivite du milieu a ete evaluee par approche dynamique selon le modele de Wu et al. (1996) qui modelise les interactions entre le climat, le milieu physique, le vegetal et l'animal pour mieux quantifier la biomasse primaire. A ce modele, quatre parametres ont ete integres par approche floue et multicritere afin de prendre en compte la dimension socioeconomique de la productivite pastorale (apport majeur de la recherche): la sante, l'education, l'agriculture et l'eau. La teledetection (imagerie SPOT) a permis de definir la production primaire a partir de laquelle les simulations ont ete realisees sur 10 annees. Les resultats obtenus montrent une bonne correlation entre biomasse primaire in situ et celle calculee pour les deux modeles, avec toutefois une meilleure efficacite du modele modifie (4 fois plus) dans les zones de forte productivite ou l'on note un taux de surexploitation agricole eleve. A cause de la variabilite spatiale de la production primaire in situ, les erreurs des resultats de simulation (8 a 11%) sont acceptables et montrent la pertinence de l'approche grace a l'utilisation des SIG pour la spatialisation et l'integration des differents parametres des modeles. Les types de production secondaire preconises (production de lait pendant 7 mois ou

  2. Process and effects of a community intervention on malaria in rural Burkina Faso: randomized controlled trial

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    Gustafsson Lars

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of young children affected by malaria have no access to formal health services. Home treatment through mothers of febrile children supported by mother groups and local health workers has the potential to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial was implemented from 2002–2004 in a malaria endemic area of rural Burkina Faso. Six and seven villages were randomly assigned to the intervention and control arms respectively. Febrile children from intervention villages were treated with chloroquine (CQ by their mothers, supported by local women group leaders. CQ was regularly supplied through a revolving fund from local health centres. The trial was evaluated through two cross-sectional surveys at baseline and after two years of intervention. The primary endpoint of the study was the proportion of moderate to severe anaemia in children aged 6–59 months. For assessment of the development of drug efficacy over time, an in vivo CQ efficacy study was nested into the trial. The study is registered under http://www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN 34104704. Results The intervention was shown to be feasible under program conditions and a total of 1.076 children and 999 children were evaluated at baseline and follow-up time points respectively. Self-reported CQ treatment of fever episodes at home as well as referrals to health centres increased over the study period. At follow-up, CQ was detected in the blood of high proportions of intervention and control children. Compared to baseline findings, the prevalence of anaemia (29% vs 16%, p P. falciparum parasitaemia, fever and palpable spleens was lower at follow-up but there were no differences between the intervention and control group. CQ efficacy decreased over the study period but this was not associated with the intervention. Discussion The decreasing prevalence of malaria

  3. Equity and health policy in Africa: Using concept mapping in Moore (Burkina Faso

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    Ridde Valéry

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This methodological article is based on a health policy research project conducted in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Concept mapping (CM was used as a research method to understand the local views of equity among stakeholders, who were concerned by the health policy under consideration. While this technique has been used in North America and elsewhere, to our knowledge it has not yet been applied in Africa in any vernacular language. Its application raises many issues and certain methodological limitations. Our objective in this article is to present its use in this particular context, and to share a number of methodological observations on the subject. Methods Two CMs were done among two different groups of local stakeholders following four steps: generating ideas, structuring the ideas, computing maps using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis methods, and interpreting maps. Fifteen nurses were invited to take part in the study, all of whom had undergone training on health policies. Of these, nine nurses (60% ultimately attended the two-day meeting, conducted in French. Of 45 members of village health committees who attended training on health policies, only eight were literate in the local language (Moore. Seven of these (88% came to the meeting. Results The local perception of equity seems close to the egalitarian model. The actors are not ready to compromise social stability and peace for the benefit of the worst-off. The discussion on the methodological limitations of CM raises the limitations of asking a single question in Moore and the challenge of translating a concept as complex as equity. While the translation of equity into Moore undoubtedly oriented the discussions toward social relations, we believe that, in the context of this study, the open-ended question concerning social justice has a threefold relevance. At the same time, those limitations were transformed into strengths. We understand that it was

  4. Malaria relevance and diagnosis in febrile Burkina Faso travellers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrot-Sanyan, Stéphanie; Gaidot-Pagnier, Sylvie; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-08-02

    There is a lack of information regarding the epidemiology of malaria among travellers from non-malaria endemic countries to Sahelian areas. The literature provides general statistics about imported malaria in industrialized countries or extensive recommendations about fever management, but none of these recommendations are applicable to developing countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the aetiologies of fever, malaria prevalence, and best diagnostic methods in a population of 306 non-malaria endemic travellers who, over a one-year period, consulted the French embassy's Centre Médico-Social in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) for fever. All patients underwent a clinical examination, a questionnaire, and three different malaria tests: thick blood film, QBC-test and HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test. Fever was caused by malaria in 69 cases (23%), while 37 (12%) were due to Pneumonia and 35 cases (8%) to ENT infections. Fever remained unexplained in 87 patients (51.3%). Malaria prevalence varied throughout the year: about 90% of malaria cases were diagnosed during and after the rainy season, between July and December, with up to 50% malaria prevalence for fever cases in October. Malaria diagnosis based solely on clinical signs, combined or not, leads to about 80% of unnecessary treatments.Although anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis was used in only 69% of short-stay patients (who travelled for less than three months), this was effective. Under local conditions, and using blood film examination as the reference method, the QBC test appeared to be more reliable than the HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test, with respective sensitivities of 98.6% versus 84.1%, and specificities of 99.6% versus 98.3%. Reliable biological diagnosis of malaria among travellers from non-malaria endemic countries in Sahelian areas is necessary because of low malaria prevalence and the poor performance of clinical diagnosis. A fever during the first half of the year requires investigating another

  5. Equity and health policy in Africa: using concept mapping in Moore (Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry

    2008-04-22

    This methodological article is based on a health policy research project conducted in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Concept mapping (CM) was used as a research method to understand the local views of equity among stakeholders, who were concerned by the health policy under consideration. While this technique has been used in North America and elsewhere, to our knowledge it has not yet been applied in Africa in any vernacular language. Its application raises many issues and certain methodological limitations. Our objective in this article is to present its use in this particular context, and to share a number of methodological observations on the subject. Two CMs were done among two different groups of local stakeholders following four steps: generating ideas, structuring the ideas, computing maps using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis methods, and interpreting maps. Fifteen nurses were invited to take part in the study, all of whom had undergone training on health policies. Of these, nine nurses (60%) ultimately attended the two-day meeting, conducted in French. Of 45 members of village health committees who attended training on health policies, only eight were literate in the local language (Moore). Seven of these (88%) came to the meeting. The local perception of equity seems close to the egalitarian model. The actors are not ready to compromise social stability and peace for the benefit of the worst-off. The discussion on the methodological limitations of CM raises the limitations of asking a single question in Moore and the challenge of translating a concept as complex as equity. While the translation of equity into Moore undoubtedly oriented the discussions toward social relations, we believe that, in the context of this study, the open-ended question concerning social justice has a threefold relevance. At the same time, those limitations were transformed into strengths. We understand that it was essential to resort to the focus group approach to

  6. Measuring self-reported health in low-income countries: piloting three instruments in semi-rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Blomstedt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: National surveys in low-income countries increasingly rely on self-reported measures of health. The ease, speed, and economy of collecting self-reports of health make such collection attractive for rapid appraisals. However, the interpretation of these measures is complicated since different cultures understand and respond to the same question in different ways. Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to develop a culturally sensitive tool to study the self-reported health (SRH of the local adult population in Burkina Faso. Design: The study was carried out in the 2009 rainy season. The sample included 27 men and 25 women aged 18 or older who live in semi-urban Nouna, Burkina Faso. Three culturally adapted instruments were tested: a SRH question, a wooden visual analogue scale (VAS, and a drawn VAS. Respondents were asked to explain their answers to each instrument. The narratives were analyzed with the content analysis technique, and the prevalence of poor SRH was estimated from the quantitative data by stratification for respondent background variables (sex, age, literacy, education, marital status, ethnicity, chronic diseases. The correlation between the instruments was tested with Spearman's correlation test. Results: The SRH question showed a 38.5% prevalence of poor SRH and 44.2% prevalence with both VAS. The correlation between the VAS was 0.89, whereas the correlation between the VAS and the SRH question was 0.60–0.64. Nevertheless, the question used as the basis of each instrument was culturally sensitive and clear to all respondents. Analysis of the narratives shows that respondents clearly differentiated between the various health statuses. Conclusion: In this pilot, we developed and tested a new version of the SRH question that may be more culturally sensitive than its non-adapted equivalents. Additional insight into this population's understanding and reporting of health was also obtained. A larger sample is needed

  7. Measuring self-reported health in low-income countries: piloting three instruments in semi-rural Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Souares, Aurélia; Niamba, Louis; Sie, Ali; Weinehall, Lars; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Background National surveys in low-income countries increasingly rely on self-reported measures of health. The ease, speed, and economy of collecting self-reports of health make such collection attractive for rapid appraisals. However, the interpretation of these measures is complicated since different cultures understand and respond to the same question in different ways. Objective The aim of this pilot study was to develop a culturally sensitive tool to study the self-reported health (SRH) of the local adult population in Burkina Faso. Design The study was carried out in the 2009 rainy season. The sample included 27 men and 25 women aged 18 or older who live in semi-urban Nouna, Burkina Faso. Three culturally adapted instruments were tested: a SRH question, a wooden visual analogue scale (VAS), and a drawn VAS. Respondents were asked to explain their answers to each instrument. The narratives were analyzed with the content analysis technique, and the prevalence of poor SRH was estimated from the quantitative data by stratification for respondent background variables (sex, age, literacy, education, marital status, ethnicity, chronic diseases). The correlation between the instruments was tested with Spearman’s correlation test. Results The SRH question showed a 38.5% prevalence of poor SRH and 44.2% prevalence with both VAS. The correlation between the VAS was 0.89, whereas the correlation between the VAS and the SRH question was 0.60–0.64. Nevertheless, the question used as the basis of each instrument was culturally sensitive and clear to all respondents. Analysis of the narratives shows that respondents clearly differentiated between the various health statuses. Conclusion In this pilot, we developed and tested a new version of the SRH question that may be more culturally sensitive than its non-adapted equivalents. Additional insight into this population’s understanding and reporting of health was also obtained. A larger sample is needed to further study

  8. Origins, production, and utilization of cassava in Burkina Faso, a contribution of a neglected crop to household food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guira, Flibert; Some, Koussao; Kabore, Donatien; Sawadogo-Lingani, Hagrétou; Traore, Yves; Savadogo, Aly

    2017-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a food plant introduced in Africa from America by the Portuguese in 1558. The objective of this study is to establish cassava origins, production, and utilization in Burkina Faso. The investigation was carried out in the regions of Center West, Cascades, Boucle du Mouhoun, Hauts Bassins, South West, and Center East of Burkina Faso. Eighteen cassava processing units and 226 farmers in 57 communities from the selected regions have been involved in the survey. The investigation showed that cassava was introduced to Burkina Faso, former Upper Volta from the costal countries, Gold Coast (now Ghana), by both local traders and the Roman Catholic White missionaries. This happened between the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The main variety introduced was Banfti. Some improved varieties like V5 (94/0270), Banké (V2), 68.61, 30572, KTMA developed by research are now available and used by farmers along with the traditional varieties like manchien, santidougou, tchinda yaar, léo. The cases of intoxication evoked by some farmers are evidence that some of those varieties may have a high level of cyanohydric acid content. Cassava is available all the year throughout the country. But the top of cassava production is reached in July. Most of the small-scale farmers (98%) grow cassava both for household use and as income generator. About 83.92% of cassava farmers have less than 10 tons as annual production and only 1.72% of them can produce more than 100 tons. The main food products based on cassava found in communities are raw roots, boiled roots, roasted roots, tô, attiéké, tapioca, ragout, beignets, boiled leaves, soup (with leaves), cassava juice, etc. And the main cassava-processed products in the processing units are attiéké, gari, tapioca, and flour. Cassava contributes greatly to household food security during food shortage period. It sustains families for weeks as food and is also exchanged

  9. Genetic complexity of Plasmodium falciparum in two ethnic groups of Burkina Faso with marked differences in susceptibility to malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganotti, Giacomo M; Babiker, Hamza A; Modiano, David; Sirima, Bienvenu S; Verra, Federica; Konaté, Amadou; Ouedraogo, Andre L; Diarra, Amidou; Mackinnon, Margaret J; Coluzzi, Mario; Walliker, David

    2004-08-01

    We have characterized Plasmodium falciparum genotypes among the Mossi and Fulani sympatric ethnic groups in villages in Burkina Faso during the rainy season. Differences in clinical malaria presentation and in immune responses to malaria occur between the two groups. Asexual parasite rate, density, and gametocyte rate were higher among the Mossi than the Fulani. There was no difference in frequencies of alleles of the P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (msp-1), msp-2, and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) genes among the parasites in each group. However, there were significant differences in the mean number of P. falciparum clones in the two populations, with there being more in the Mossi than in the Fulani. This effect was especially marked in older children. These differences can most probably be attributed to genetic differences in immune responsiveness to malaria between the two ethnic groups.

  10. Determinants of household direct and indirect costs: an insight for health-seeking behaviour in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Flessa, Steffen

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study is to identify the determinants of household direct and indirect costs in the Nouna District, Burkina Faso. The data used were from a household survey conducted during 2000-2001. The multinominal logit models were applied to investigate the determinants of direct and indirect costs. The respondents who were sick in the rainy season and severity of illness significantly increased the probability of having high direct and indirect household costs. Acute illness occured in an adult was positively associated with magnitude of household indirect costs. Household economic status and utilization of western medical care played an important role in magnitude of direct cost. The information on determinants of household direct and indirect costs is necessary in order to get a complete picture of household costs for seeking health care and identification of vulnerable social groups and households.

  11. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in Eastern Centre province, Burkina Faso

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    H.H. Tamboura

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages (< 5 months, 5-12 months and > 12 months were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91 % were infected by one or more para sites. Ascaris suum (40 %; 100-1 400 EPG was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21 %; 100-4 200 EPG, Oesophagostomum spp. (18 %; 100-1 000 EPG, Hyostrongylus rubidus (11 %; 100-1 800 EPG, Globocephalus spp. 10 %; 100-400 EPG and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG. The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239 than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05 more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  12. Factors associated with the prevalence of circulating antigens to porcine cysticercosis in three villages of burkina faso.

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    Rasmané Ganaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available little is known about porcine cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. We conducted a pilot study to estimate the prevalence of antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis and to identify associated factors in pigs of three villages in Burkina Faso, selected to represent different pig management practices: one village where pigs are allowed to roam freely (Batondo, one village where pigs are penned part of the time (Pabré and one village with limited pig farming (Nyonyogo.a clustered random sampling design was used. Data on socio-demographic characteristics (source of drinking water, presence of latrines in the household, type and number of breeding animals and pig management practices were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from one pig per household to determine the presence of antigens of the larval stages of T. solium by the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. The associations between seropositivity and socio-demographic and pig management practices were estimated using logistic regression. Proportions of 32.5% (95% CI 25.4-40.3, 39.6% (31.9-47.8, and 0% of pigs, were found positive for the presence of circulating antigens of T. solium in Batondo, Pabré, and Nyonyogo, respectively. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggested that people acquire knowledge on porcine cysticercosis following the contamination of their animals. The presence of antigens in the pigs' sera was not associated with the absence of latrines in the household, the source of drinking water or the status of infection in humans but was associated with pig rearing practices during the rainy season.the results suggest that education of pig farmers is urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of this infection.

  13. Sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviors among young female hawkers in Burkina Faso: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Saide Yacine Y A; Sisawo, Ebrima J; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-01-04

    Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-demographic status and work characteristics of young female hawkers, describe their sexual behavior and their experience with regards to sex-related violence at the workplace. The study used a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative methods. It was carried out in two traffic stations in Burkina Faso namely Bittou customs station and Boromo bus station. Female hawkers aged 13 - 24 years were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey and local key informants were recruited to partake in an in-depth interview. The recruitment was based on their duties related to the hawkers. The study included 264 participants in the survey and 16 interviewees. The survey showed that three quarter of participants had primary education or lower. About half of them had been sexually harassed, with clients, public members and co-hawkers as the most common source of assault. Most (68.6%) hawkers were sexually active; among them 43.7% had received money or gifts for sex. Positive factors associated with commercial sex include working in Boromo and age above 17, while negative factors include being Muslim and having female genital mutilation. The interviews confirmed the relationship between hawking and the socio-economic situation of participant's family, and pointed out societal factors that expose hawkers to risky sexual behaviors. This study provides a better understanding of young female hawking activity in Boromo and Bittou. Implementing an empowerment program for female street vendors and their families, and an efficient surveillance system might help reduce these hazards.

  14. Statut de la matière organique des sols dans la zone sud-soudanienne au Burkina Faso

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    Sedogo M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter status in some soils of Burkina Faso south sudanian zone. The study deals with organic matter (OM of two soils units under natural formations located in the western part of the south sudanian zone of Burkina Faso. The objectives were firstly to increase the knowledges on this main component of soil fertility, secondly to point out the relationships between biological, chemical, physical soils properties and OM. To achieve it, total carbon (C and nitrogen (N of twenty-six soil samples issued from the topsoil were determined. Each soil sample was separated in three particles size fractions: (0–50 µm, (50–200 µm, (200–2,000.The amounts of C and N associated with each one were measured. In addition, soil samples were incubated during 31 days for C mineralization measurement, while the microbial biomass C was obtained by the chloroform fumigation – incubation technique. The results showed that total C and N of the whole soil were low and comparable to those of soils from the Burkinabé sahelian region. The distribution of C and N in particles size fractions indicated that (0–50 µm fraction holded the highest quantities of C and N. The amount of C associated with each fraction was positively correlated with soil nutrients retention capacity. Such a correlation was established between C/N ratios of sandy fractions [(50–200 µm, (200–2,000 µm] and the cumulative C mineralization. Thus, the study confirmed that pools of organic matter with different function and dynamics depending on their size and degree of decomposition were present in the concerned soils. The influence of texture on biological and organic status of soils was also pointed out. In order to increase soil fertility and to reduce soil degradation hazard, organic inputs were recommended.

  15. Diversification et intégration inter-specifique dans les élevages ruraux au Burkina Faso

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    Nianogo A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversification and inter-species integration in rural livestock system in Burkina Faso. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of existing relation between several animal species bred in extensive livestock systems. Data were collected about breeding importance of cattle, sheep, goat and fowl in four villages of the central region of Burkina Faso (Namanegma, Villy-Moukouan, Luili-Nobere and Yambasse. These villages are located in the Soudano-Sahelian agroclimatic zone. Partial correlation and bivariate ordinary least square methods are computed. The results show that livestock practices are related to diversification and species integration strategies of rural households. That is, many households (16.64/ breed four species together, while 6.14/ of households possess one species. Three and two species breeders account for 14.95 and 14.36/ of households respectively. Poultry represents a driving activity in extensive livestock system. From a social welfare standpoint, fowl activity accounts for 49.42/ of households employment. Cattle breeding is the highest stage in this system and represents a kind ofsocioeconomic prestige for the breeder. The four types of livestock are correlated at different levels. Thus, high correlation degrees are noted between poultry and goat (p > 0.50. On the other hand, there is a weak relation between the remote livestock levels (e.g. poultry and cattle, p < 0.50. These results suggest that incentive policies for livestock must take into account breeders strategies. To promote poultry production can create track down effect on the entire livestock system.

  16. NGO-provided free HIV treatment and services in Burkina Faso: scarcity, therapeutic rationality and unfair process

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    Ridde Valéry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Until 2010, Burkina Faso was an exception to the international trend of abolishing user fees for antiretroviral treatment (ART. Patients were still expected to pay 1,500F CFA (2 Euros per month for ART. Nevertheless, many non-governmental organizations (NGOs exempted patients from payment. The objective of this study was to investigate how NGOs selected the beneficiaries of payment exemptions for government-provided ART and rationed out complementary medical and psychosocial services. For this qualitative study, we conducted 13 individual interviews and three focus group discussions (n = 13 persons with program staff in nine NGOs (4,000 patients, two NGO coordinating structures and one national program. These encounters were recorded and transcribed, and their content was thematically analyzed. The results were presented to the NGOs for feedback. Results indicate that there are no concrete guidelines for identifying patients warranting payment exemptions. Formerly, ART was scarce in Burkina Faso and the primary criterion for treatment selection was clinical. Our results suggest that this scarcity, mediated by an approach we call sociotherapeutic rationality (i.e. maximization of clinical success, may have led to inequities in the provision of free ART. This approach may be detrimental to assuring equity since the most impoverished lack resources to pay for services that maximize clinical success (e.g. viral load that would increase their chances of being selected for treatment. However, once selected into treatment, attempts were made to ration-out complementary services more equitably. This study demonstrates the risks entailed by medication scarcity, which presents NGOs and health professionals with impossible choices that run counter to the philosophy of equity in access to treatment. Amid growing concerns of an international funding retreat for ART, it is important to learn from the past in order to better manage the potentially

  17. Rewards and challenges of providing HIV testing and counselling services: health worker perspectives from Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2015-10-01

    The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients' rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers' fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some

  18. Cost analysis of an integrated disease surveillance and response system: case of Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali

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    Touré Kandioura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR. This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and approaches to better detect and respond to the region's priority communicable disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incremental costs of establishing and subsequently operating activities for detection and response to the priority diseases under the IDSR. Methods We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Results Over the period studied (2002–2005, the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines, service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR.

  19. Cost analysis of an integrated disease surveillance and response system: case of Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somda, Zana C; Meltzer, Martin I; Perry, Helen N; Messonnier, Nancy E; Abdulmumini, Usman; Mebrahtu, Goitom; Sacko, Massambou; Touré, Kandioura; Ki, Salimata Ouédraogo; Okorosobo, Tuoyo; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Sow, Idrissa

    2009-01-01

    Background Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR). This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and approaches to better detect and respond to the region's priority communicable disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incremental costs of establishing and subsequently operating activities for detection and response to the priority diseases under the IDSR. Methods We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Results Over the period studied (2002–2005), the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines), service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR. PMID:19133149

  20. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine-Burkina Faso, 2011-2013.

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    Kambiré, Dinanibè; Soeters, Heidi M; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Sangare, Lassana; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Hema-Ouangraoua, Soumeya; McGee, Lesley; Srinivasan, Velusamy; Aké, Flavien; Congo-Ouédraogo, Malika; Sanou, Soufian; Ba, Absatou Ky; Novak, Ryan T; Van Beneden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR). During 2011-2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (<1 year), 5.4 (1-4 years), 7.2 (5-14 years), and 3.0 (≥15 years). Overall CFR was 23% and highest among children aged <1 year (32%) and adults ≥30 years (30%). Of 1,528 cases, 1,036 (68%) were serotyped: 71% were PCV13-associated serotypes, 14% were non-PCV13-associated serotypes, and 15% were non-typeable by PCR. Serotypes 1 (45%) and 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (8%) were most common. Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 5 (15%), 6A/6B (13%) and 1 (12%) predominated. In Burkina Faso, the highest morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden.

  1. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine-Burkina Faso, 2011-2013.

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    Dinanibè Kambiré

    Full Text Available Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013.Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR, or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR.During 2011-2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (<1 year, 5.4 (1-4 years, 7.2 (5-14 years, and 3.0 (≥15 years. Overall CFR was 23% and highest among children aged <1 year (32% and adults ≥30 years (30%. Of 1,528 cases, 1,036 (68% were serotyped: 71% were PCV13-associated serotypes, 14% were non-PCV13-associated serotypes, and 15% were non-typeable by PCR. Serotypes 1 (45% and 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (8% were most common. Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 5 (15%, 6A/6B (13% and 1 (12% predominated.In Burkina Faso, the highest morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden.

  2. Factors associated with the prevalence of circulating antigens to porcine cysticercosis in three villages of burkina faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaba, Rasmané; Praet, Nicolas; Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Dorny, Pierre; Hounton, Sennen; Sow, Adama; Nitiéma, Pascal; Cowan, Linda D

    2011-01-04

    little is known about porcine cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. We conducted a pilot study to estimate the prevalence of antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis and to identify associated factors in pigs of three villages in Burkina Faso, selected to represent different pig management practices: one village where pigs are allowed to roam freely (Batondo), one village where pigs are penned part of the time (Pabré) and one village with limited pig farming (Nyonyogo). a clustered random sampling design was used. Data on socio-demographic characteristics (source of drinking water, presence of latrines in the household, type and number of breeding animals) and pig management practices were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from one pig per household to determine the presence of antigens of the larval stages of T. solium by the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. The associations between seropositivity and socio-demographic and pig management practices were estimated using logistic regression. Proportions of 32.5% (95% CI 25.4-40.3), 39.6% (31.9-47.8), and 0% of pigs, were found positive for the presence of circulating antigens of T. solium in Batondo, Pabré, and Nyonyogo, respectively. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggested that people acquire knowledge on porcine cysticercosis following the contamination of their animals. The presence of antigens in the pigs' sera was not associated with the absence of latrines in the household, the source of drinking water or the status of infection in humans but was associated with pig rearing practices during the rainy season. the results suggest that education of pig farmers is urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of this infection.

  3. TRADE, REVENUE AND WELFARE EFFECTS UNDER AN ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT BETWEEN BURKINA FASO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

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    G.O. Onogwu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the impact on Burkina Faso of eliminating tariffs on imports from the EU under EPAs, considering trade, revenue and welfare effects. At complete elimination of tariffs on all products imports from trade classification sections (TDC 01-13 from the EU. Burkina Faso is likely to experience both welfare gains and losses depending on the values of imports of each trade classification section in question. The overall welfare effect relative to GDP tends to be very small and positive, but potential tariff revenue losses are enormous even when the country has up to fifteen - twenty-five years in which to implement the tariff reductions, unless with scope for tax substitution. EPAs effects are concentrated on those product sections where trade creation outweighs trade diversion such as Animal products, Vegetable products, Animal/Veg. products, Mineral products, and Textiles products. Besides, product sections with the greatest market opportunities for EU suppliers to displace any of the other suppliers, ECOWAS and/or ROW include sections where trade diversion outweighs trade creation effects, such as prepared foodstuffs, product of chemicals, plastics, raw hides & skin, etc. The sensitive products (SPs to be excluded from tariff removal should include sections in which ECOWAS member nations are suppliers to regional importers so that excluding them as SPs would improve the welfare gain compared to estimates where tariff are removed from those products in which ECOWAS have zero potential. The results at this level of aggregation will provide useful information to the on-going negotiations between ECOWAS and the EU in determining Burkinabe's products to be exempted from tariff removal during EPAs based on the severity of the effects on varied trade classification (TDC sections, among other considerations.

  4. Women's sexual health and contraceptive needs after a severe obstetric complication ("near-miss": a cohort study in Burkina Faso

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    Ganaba Rasmané

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the reproductive health of women who survive obstetric complications in poor countries. Our aim was to determine how severe obstetric complications in Burkina Faso affect reproductive events in the first year postpartum. Methods Data were collected from a prospective cohort of women who either experienced life threatening (near-miss pregnancy-related complications or an uncomplicated childbirth, followed from the end of pregnancy to one year postpartum or post-abortum. Documented outcomes include menses resumption, sexual activity resumption, dyspareunia, uptake of contraceptives, unmet needs for contraception and women's reproductive intentions. Participants were recruited in seven hospitals between December 2004 and March 2005 in six towns in Burkina Faso. Results Reproductive events were associated with pregnancy outcome. The frequency of contraceptive use was low in all groups and the method used varied according to the presence or not of a live baby. The proportion with unmet need for contraception was high and varied according to the time since end of pregnancy. Desire for another pregnancy was highest among near-miss women with perinatal death or natural abortion. Women in the near-miss group with induced abortion, perinatal death and natural abortion had significantly higher odds of subsequent pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies were observed mainly in women in the near-miss group with live birth and the uncomplicated delivery group. Conclusions Considering the potential deleterious impact (on health and socio-economic life of new pregnancies in near-miss women, it is important to ensure family planning coverage includes those who survive a severe complication.

  5. [National External Quality Assessment for medical biology laboratories in Burkina Faso: an overview of three years of activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakande, Jean; Nikièma, Abdoulaye; Kabré, Elie; Nacoulma, Eric; Sawadogo, Charles; Lingani, Virginie; Traoré, Lady Kady; Kouanda, Abdoulaye; Kientéga, Youssouf; Somda, Joseph; Kagambéga, Faustin; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Sangaré, Lassana; Traoré-Ouédraogo, Rasmata

    2010-01-01

    We report results of the National External Quality Assessment for (NEQA) laboratories in Burkina Faso, a country with limited resources located in West Africa whose epidemiology is dominated by infectious diseases. The national laboratory network consists of 160 laboratories including 40 private. The Government of Burkina Faso has adopted a national laboratory policy. One of the objectives of this policy is to improve the quality of laboratory results. One of the strategies to achieve this objective is the establishment of a NEQA. The NEQA is a panel testing also called proficiency testing. It is mandatory for all laboratories to participate to the NEQA. The NEQA is organized twice a year and covers all areas of laboratories (bacteriology-virology, biochemistry, hematology, parasitology and immunology). The review of three years of activity (2006-2008) shows the following results: (1) for microscopic examination of bacteria after Gram staining, the error rate decreased from 24.7% in 2006 to 13.1% in 2007 and 13% in 2008; (2) errors rate in reading slides for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria were 23.4%, 14.6% and 10.2% respectively in 2006, 2007 and 2008; (3) for biochemistry, the percentages of unsatisfactory results were respectively 12.5%, 14.8% and 13.8% in 2006, 2007 and 2008 for the overall parameters assessed. The analysis of the results generated by the laboratories during these three years shows a quality improvement. However, the NEQA should be strengthened through ongoing training and quality control of reagents and equipment.

  6. The ambivalence of stigma and the double-edged sword of HIV/AIDS intervention in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausset, Quentin; Mogensen, Hanne Overgaard; Yameogo, Wambi Maurice Evariste; Berthé, Abdramane; Konaté, Blahima

    2012-04-01

    This article analyses the causes of HIV stigmatisation in Burkina Faso as perceived by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) and people working in AIDS-related Community Based Organisations (CBOs). Stigmatisation continues to be a pressing issue when dealing with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. The article is based on direct observation of HIV-related practices within 20 CBOs in Burkina Faso, as well as semi-structured interviews or focus group discussions with 72 PLHIV and 90 professionals and volunteers working in CBOs. PLHIV were chosen by convenience sampling among the persons who accessed CBO services and were interviewed about their life quality and experience relating to HIV. Professionals and volunteers were interviewed about their strategies, their achievements, and the problems they encountered. The research was conducted in the course of three months fieldwork between September and November 2009. Our principal findings show, firstly, that moral or social stigmatisation does not in any simple way derive from fear, ignorance or inaccurate beliefs but that it is also established and continually reinforced by official campaigns addressing HIV/AIDS. Secondly, we show that stigmatisation is a socially complex and ambiguous process. Based on these empirical findings we conclude that HIV/AIDS need no longer be approached in AIDS intervention as a sexually acquired and fatal disease. When reliable access to antiretroviral drugs is in place, AIDS becomes a chronic condition with which one can live for many years, and this makes it easier to address HIV and moral or social stigmatisation by downplaying the current focus upon sexuality and morality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoulaye, D.; Koalaga, Z.; Zougmore, F.

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  8. Geology of the world-class Kiaka polyphase gold deposit, West African Craton, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Arnaud; Eglinger, Aurélien; Ada, Koumangdiwè; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Reisberg, Laurie; Siebenaller, Luc; Le Mignot, Elodie; Ganne, Jérôme; Poujol, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The Kiaka gold deposit is a major resource in West Africa, with measured and indicated resources of 124 Mt at 1.09 g/t Au (3.9 Moz) and inferred resources of 27 Mt at 0.83 g/t Au (0.8 Moz). Located within the Manga-Fada N'Gourma greenstone and plutonic belt in south of the Burkina Faso, the deposit is hosted by a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary sequence of lithic-, quartz-biotite metagreywackes, aluminosilicate-bearing metapelites and garnet-orthopyroxene-bearing schists and volcanic units. Structural observations indicate four local deformation events: DK1, DK2 and DK3 and DK4. Respectively, these events are linked to regional D1 E-W compression, D2 NW-SE compression and lastly, D3- and D4-related reactivations along D2 shear zones. The S2 foliation and D2 shear zones are developed during lower amphibolite facies metamorphism whereas retrogression occurs during D3-4 reactivations along these shear zones at upper greenschist facies conditions. The emplacement of a dioritic intrusion, dated at 2140 ± 7 Ma (Concordia U-Pb age on magmatic zircon), is interpreted to be contemporaneous with sinistral displacement along mineralized, NE-trending D2 shear zones. The intersection of these shears zones and the Markoye shear zone (dextral-reverse D1 and sinistral-reverse D2 reactivations) controlled the final geometry of the host rocks and the ore zones. Four subparallel elongated ore bodies are mainly hosted within D2-related shear zones and some are developed in an apparent axial plane of a F2 isoclinal fold. Detailed petrographic studies have identified two main types of hydrothermal alteration associated with two stages of gold mineralization. The stage (1) corresponds to replacement zones with biotite and clinozoisite during the D2 event associated with pyrrhotite ± pyrite, chalcopyrite (disseminated gold stage). The stage (2) occurs during reactivations of the D2-related auriferous shear zones (vein stage) and is characterized by diopside ± actinolite D3 veins and

  9. La cardiothyréose au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaméogo, Aimé Arsène; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Compaoré, Yves Daniel; Ouédraogo, Tinoago Laurent; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La cardiothyréose est une affection fréquente et grave à l’ouest du Burkina Faso. Notre objectif était d’étudier les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des cardiothyréoses au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Etude prospective de 12 mois pourtant sur des cas de cardiothyréose colligés dans les services de cardiologie et de médecine interne. Résultats Quatorze (14) cas de cardiothyréose ont été colligés soit 33,3% des patients hospitalisés pour hyperthyroïdies. L’âge moyen des patients était de 53,57 ans ± 9,97. Les femmes au foyer (71,40%) aux conditions socio-économiques défavorables étaient les plus touchées. Parmi nos cas 21,42% des patients avaient déjà un antécédent d’hyperthyroïdie et l’HTA était le facteur de risque cardiovasculaire majeur (64,28%). Tous les patients présentaient une insuffisance cardiaque associée à un trouble du rythme (57,14%), essentiellement à type de fibrillation auriculaire (42,9%), une insuffisance coronarienne (7,14%) et un trouble de la conduction (7,14%). Le goitre multi-nodulaire a été l’entité étiopathogénique la plus fréquente (57,10%). Les antithyroïdiens de synthèse, les mesures hygiéno-diététiques et un traitement spécifique de l’insuffisance cardiaque ont été constamment utilisés pendant une durée d’hospitalisation moyenne de 23,57 jours ± 7,54. Si l’évolution immédiate peut être satisfaisante avec une euthyroïdie à 28,5% à moyen terme, les ruptures thérapeutiques peuvent être mortelles (un patient soit 7,14%) chez des patients généralement âgés majoritairement de sexe féminin avec un niveau socio-économique bas. Conclusion Le traitement de la cardiothyréose est efficace d’où l’intérêt d’une politique sanitaire pour une prise en charge adéquate. PMID:22593774

  10. Gender and Media: An Autopsy of Women’s Journalism in Burkina Faso

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    Lassané Yameogo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, using a qualitative research, analyzes the gender stereotypes present in Burkina Faso media. It will show that gender is a social construct around which journalistic activities are organized and realized. It adapts on an informal level within the microcosm of media and strengthening the subtle inferiorization of female journalists. Both the vertical level of organized labour and the horizontal scale of repetitive duties hinder opportunities for female journalists and give them a bad name. They are restricted to subaltern functions referred to as being “cute” or “easy”. This gender segregation integrates a dynamic that occurs within the universe of journalism. It is also the result of a social dynamic outside of journalism characterized by prejudgments and a priori that portray female journalists as a symbol of emancipation, insubordination, and infidelity. Este artigo analisa, a partir de uma pesquisa qualitativa, os estereótipos de gênero presentes nas mídias burquinenses.  Demonstra que o gênero é um construto social ao redor do qual se organiza e se realiza a atividade jornalística. No interior do microcosmo midiático, desdobram-se acomodações informais, atuando para reforçar uma sutil inferiorização da mulher jornalista. Tanto no nível da organização vertical do trabalho quanto na escala da repetição horizontal das tarefas, a jornalista não goza de uma boa visibilidade e de uma boa imagem. Ela permanece restrita a funções subalternas e a temáticas "doces" ou "leves". Esta segregação determinada pelo gênero integra uma dinâmica que ocorre no interior do universo jornalístico, é também o resultado de uma dinâmica social para-jornalística, caracterizada por pré-julgamentos e a priori apresentando a mulher jornalista como símbolo de emancipação, de indocilidade, para não dizer, também, infidelidade. Este artículo analiza, a partir de una investigación cualitativa, los estereotipos de g

  11. [Parasitological profile of two forms of schistosomiasis (urinary and intestinal forms) at ten sites in Burkina Faso (Sub-Saharan Africa country)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, Dramane; Kabre, B Gustave; Dayeri, Dianou; Savadogo, Boubacar; Poda, Jean-Noël

    2013-01-01

    In spite of great progress in schistosomiasis control during the last decade in Burkina Faso, this disease remains a public health concern in the country. Indeed, our study consisted of the analysis of parasitological data related to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni and in malacological investigations. The prevalence rate of Schistosoma haematobium varies from 3.3% to 50.4% and from 3.3% to 39.1% for Schistosoma mansoni, but only in the western part of Burkina Faso. Schoolboys are more infested than girls, but the phenomenon is reversed in adults. Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus senegalensis and Bulinus globosus were collected during this study. Thus, the behavioral factors as well as the dynamics and the distribution of the intermediate mollusks play a major role in the persistence of the disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Facteurs affectant l'adoption des cultures fourragères dans les élevages laitiers péri-urbains de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

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    Abdoulaye, AT.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors Affecting the Adoption of Fodder Crops in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso Peri-urban Dairy Farms. The study aims to identify the factors affecting the adoption of annual (Dolichos lablab and perennial (Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Panicum maximum fodder crops on peri-urban dairy farms of Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso. The results of a logistic regression model (LIMDEP © revealed a number of significant factors (P< 0.05 associated with five main constraints preventing wider use of fodder crops in cultural practices. These include increased labor demand at peak cropping season, land tenure rights, field protection, availability of fodder seeds, and low productivity gain associated with the introduction of fodder crops. Fodder crops adoption rates would be higher with the adaptation of the technology to local conditions and increased emphasis on farmers' training and sensitization campaigns.

  13. Molecular and biological characterization of pepper yellow vein Mali virus (PepYVMV) isolates associated with pepper yellow vein disease in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Traoré, Valentin S Edgar; Barro, Nicolas; Péréfarres, Frédéric; Reynaud, Bernard; Traoré, Alfred S; Konaté, Gnissa; Lett, Jean-Michel; Traoré, Oumar

    2011-03-01

    Yellow vein disease (YVD) is a major problem in pepper in West Africa. Despite the recent implication of a begomovirus in YVD in Mali and in Burkina Faso, the aetiology of the disease remains unclear. Using symptomatic samples from the main vegetable cultivation regions in Burkina Faso, 10 full-length DNA-A-like begomovirus sequences were obtained, each showing 98% nucleotide identity to pepper yellow vein Mali virus (PepYVMV). The host range was determined after construction of a viral clone for agroinfection. Severe symptoms developed in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. By contrast, no symptoms developed in either commercial or local pepper cultivars, demonstrating that the aetiology of YVD is not only associated with the presence of PepYVMV.

  14. The value of trust in biotech crop development: a case study of Bt cotton in Burkina Faso

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    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural biotechnology public-private partnerships (PPPs have been recognized as having great potential in improving agricultural productivity and increasing food production in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is much public skepticism about the use of GM (genetically modified crops and suspicion about private sector involvement in agbiotech projects. This case study sought to understand the role of trust in the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton in Burkina Faso project by exploring practices and challenges associated with trust-building, and determining what makes these practices effective from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ understanding of trust in general as well as in the context of agbiotech PPPs. Relevant documents and articles were analyzed to generate descriptions of how trust was operationalized in this evolving agbiotech PPP. Data was analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We derived four key lessons from our findings. First, strong collaboration between research, industry and farmers greatly contributes to both the success of, and fostering of trust in, the partnership. Second, this case study also revealed the important, though often unrecognized, role of researchers as players in the communication strategy of the project. Third, effective and comprehensive communication takes into account issues such as illiteracy and diversity. Fourth, follow-up at the field level and the need for a multifaceted communications strategy is important for helping push the project forward. Conclusions Burkina Faso’s well-established and effective cotton selling system laid the foundation for the implementation of the Bt cotton project – particularly, the strong dialogue and the receptivity to collaboration

  15. Maltreatment and Mental Health Outcomes among Ultra-Poor Children in Burkina Faso: A Latent Class Analysis.

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    Leyla Ismayilova

    Full Text Available Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso.This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity. We used a Latent Class Analysis to identify underlying patterns of maltreatment. Further, the relationships between latent classes and mental health outcomes were tested using mixed effected regression models adjusted for clustering within villages.About 15% of the children in the study scored above the clinical cut-off for depression, 17.8% for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and 6.4% for low self-esteem. The study identified five distinct sub-groups (or classes of children based on their exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Children with the highest exposure to violence at home, at work and in the community (Abused and Exploited class and children not attending school and working for other households, often away from their families (External Laborer class, demonstrated highest symptoms of depression and trauma. Despite living in adverse conditions and working to assist families, the study also identified a class of children who were not exposed to any violence at home or at work (Healthy and Non-abused class. Children in this class demonstrated significantly higher self-esteem (b = 0.92, SE = 0.45, p<0.05 and lower symptoms of trauma (b = -3.90, SE = 1.52, p<0.05.This study offers insight into the psychological well-being of children in the context of ultra-poverty in Burkina Faso and associated context-specific adverse childhood experiences. Identifying specific sub-groups of children with increased

  16. Maltreatment and Mental Health Outcomes among Ultra-Poor Children in Burkina Faso: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Gaveras, Eleni; Blum, Austin; Tô-Camier, Alexice; Nanema, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity. We used a Latent Class Analysis to identify underlying patterns of maltreatment. Further, the relationships between latent classes and mental health outcomes were tested using mixed effected regression models adjusted for clustering within villages. About 15% of the children in the study scored above the clinical cut-off for depression, 17.8% for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 6.4% for low self-esteem. The study identified five distinct sub-groups (or classes) of children based on their exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Children with the highest exposure to violence at home, at work and in the community (Abused and Exploited class) and children not attending school and working for other households, often away from their families (External Laborer class), demonstrated highest symptoms of depression and trauma. Despite living in adverse conditions and working to assist families, the study also identified a class of children who were not exposed to any violence at home or at work (Healthy and Non-abused class). Children in this class demonstrated significantly higher self-esteem (b = 0.92, SE = 0.45, p<0.05) and lower symptoms of trauma (b = -3.90, SE = 1.52, p<0.05). This study offers insight into the psychological well-being of children in the context of ultra-poverty in Burkina Faso and associated context-specific adverse childhood experiences. Identifying specific sub-groups of children with increased exposure to

  17. Impact of promotion of mango and liver as sources of vitamin A for young children: a pilot study in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Nana, C.P.; Brouwer, I.D.; Zagre, N.; Kok, F J; Traore, A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a behaviour change approach, with or without financial support, in improving vitamin A (VA) intake and serum retinol concentration through mango and liver consumption by children. Design A parallel design (no control area) was used to assess changes in VA intake and serum retinol over a 15-week period. Setting and subjects A pilot study was implemented in the Department of Kokologho, a rural area in central west Burkina Faso. One hundred and fifty chil...

  18. Effect of a policy to reduce user fees on the rate of skilled birth attendance across socioeconomic strata in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Étienne V; Karp, Igor; Serme, Jean De Dieu; Bicaba, Abel

    2016-05-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates are associated with underutilization of skilled birth attendance (SBA). In 2007, Burkina Faso introduced a subsidy scheme for SBA fees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Burkina Faso's subsidy policy on SBA rate across socioeconomic status (SES) strata. We used a quasi-experimental design. The data sources were two representative surveys (n = 1408 and n = 1403) of women from Houndé and Ziniaré health districts of Burkina Faso, and a survey of health centres assessing structural quality of care. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used with robust variance estimators. We estimated adjusted rate ratios (RR) and rate differences (RD) as a function of time and SES. For lowest-SES women, immediately upon the introduction of the subsidy policy, the rate of SBA was 45% higher (RR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-1.77) than expected in the absence of subsidy introduction. The results indicated a sustained effect after introduction of the subsidy policy, based on RR estimate (95% CI) of 1.48 (1.21-1.81) at 2 years. For middle-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.28 (1.09-1.49) immediately after introduction of the subsidy policy and 1.30 (1.11-1.51) at 2 years, respectively. For highest-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.19 (1.02-1.38) immediately after subsidy introduction and 1.21 (1.06-1.38) at 2 years, respectively. The RD (95% CI) was 14% (3-24%) for lowest-SES women immediately after introduction of the policy, and the effect was sustained at 14% (4-25%) at 2 years. Our study suggests that the introduction of a user-fee subsidy in Burkina Faso resulted in increased rates of SBA across all SES strata. The increase was sustained over time and strongest among the poorest women. These findings have important implications for evidence-informed policy making in Burkina Faso and other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author 2015. Published by

  19. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and child’s cognitive performance at 6–8 years of age in rural Burkina Faso: an observational study

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    Anselme Simeon Sanou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background In Burkina Faso, it is not uncommon for mothers to drink alcohol, even during pregnancy. We aimed to study the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the child’s cognitive performance using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (KABC-II and the Children’s Category Test Level 1 (CCT-1 in rural Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted a follow-up study of a community cluster-randomised Exclusive breastfeeding trial, and re-enrolled the children in rural Burkina Faso. A total of 518 children (268 boys and 250 girls aged 6–8 years were assessed using the KABC-II and the CCT-1. We examined the effect size difference using Cohen’s d and conducted a linear regression analysis to examine the association. Results Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy was 18.5% (96/518. Children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorly for memory and spatial abilities tests from small effect size difference for ‘Atlantis’ (0.27 and ‘Triangle’ (0.29 to moderate effect size difference for ‘Number recall’ (0.72 compared to children whose mothers did not consume alcohol during pregnancy; the exposed children scored significantly higher errors with a small effect size (0.37 at problem solving (CCT-1 test compared to unexposed children. At unstandardized and standardized multivariable analysis, children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorer for memory-‘Atlantis’ (p = 0.03 and ‘Number recall’ (p = 0.0001, and spatial ability tests-‘Triangle’ (p = 0.03; they scored significantly higher errors at problem solving CCT-1 test (p = 0.002; all the results were adjusted for age, sex, schooling, stunting, father’s education, mother’s employment and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding. No statistical association was found for visual abilities-‘Conceptual Thinking’,

  20. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children’s nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal: a study protocol

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    Séverine Erismann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled “Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification” (VgtS, a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i describe schoolchildren’s health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii provide an evidence-base for programme decisions on the relevance of complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. Methods/Design The studies will be conducted in the Centre Ouest and the Plateau Central regions of Burkina Faso and the Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Data will be collected and combined at the level of schools, children and their households. A range of indicators will be used to examine nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and WASH conditions in 24 schools among 1144 children aged 8–14 years at baseline and a 1-year follow-up. The studies are designed as cluster randomised trials and the schools will be assigned to two core study arms: (i the ‘complementary school garden, nutrition and WASH intervention’ arm; and the (ii ‘control’ arm with no interventions. Children will be subjected to parasitological examinations using stool and urine samples and to quality-controlled anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements. Drinking water will be assessed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. A questionnaire survey on nutritional and health knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP will be administered to children and their caregivers, also assessing socioeconomic, food-security and WASH conditions at household level. Focus group and key-informant interviews on children’s nutrition and hygiene perceptions and behaviours will be

  1. Monitoring Agricultural Expansion in Burkina Faso over 14 Years with 30 m Resolution Time Series: The Role of Population Growth and Implications for the Environment

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    Kim Knauer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso ranges amongst the fastest growing countries in the world with an annual population growth rate of more than three percent. This trend has consequences for food security since agricultural productivity is still on a comparatively low level in Burkina Faso. In order to compensate for the low productivity, the agricultural areas are expanding quickly. The mapping and monitoring of this expansion is difficult, even on the basis of remote sensing imagery, since the extensive farming practices and frequent cloud coverage in the area make the delineation of cultivated land from other land cover and land use types a challenging task. However, as the rapidly increasing population could have considerable effects on the natural resources and on the regional development of the country, methods for improved mapping of LULCC (land use and land cover change are needed. For this study, we applied the newly developed ESTARFM (Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model framework to generate high temporal (8-day and high spatial (30 m resolution NDVI time series for all of Burkina Faso for the years 2001, 2007, and 2014. For this purpose, more than 500 Landsat scenes and 3000 MODIS scenes were processed with this automated framework. The generated ESTARFM NDVI time series enabled extraction of per-pixel phenological features that all together served as input for the delineation of agricultural areas via random forest classification at 30 m spatial resolution for entire Burkina Faso and the three years. For training and validation, a randomly sampled reference dataset was generated from Google Earth images and based on expert knowledge. The overall accuracies of 92% (2001, 91% (2007, and 91% (2014 indicate the well-functioning of the applied methodology. The results show an expansion of agricultural area of 91% between 2001 and 2014 to a total of 116,900 km². While rainfed agricultural areas account for the major part of this

  2. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children's nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismann, Séverine; Shrestha, Akina; Diagbouga, Serge; Knoblauch, Astrid; Gerold, Jana; Herz, Ramona; Sharma, Subodh; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Drescher, Axel; Yang, Ray-Yu; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-03-09

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled "Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification" (VgtS), a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i) describe schoolchildren's health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii) provide an evidence-base for programme decisions on the relevance of complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The studies will be conducted in the Centre Ouest and the Plateau Central regions of Burkina Faso and the Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Data will be collected and combined at the level of schools, children and their households. A range of indicators will be used to examine nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and WASH conditions in 24 schools among 1144 children aged 8-14 years at baseline and a 1-year follow-up. The studies are designed as cluster randomised trials and the schools will be assigned to two core study arms: (i) the 'complementary school garden, nutrition and WASH intervention' arm; and the (ii) 'control' arm with no interventions. Children will be subjected to parasitological examinations using stool and urine samples and to quality-controlled anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements. Drinking water will be assessed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. A questionnaire survey on nutritional and health knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) will be administered to children and their caregivers, also assessing socioeconomic, food-security and WASH conditions at household level. Focus group and key-informant interviews on children's nutrition and hygiene perceptions and behaviours will be conducted with their caregivers and school personnel. The studies will

  3. Stratégies paysannes en matière de sécurité alimentaire et de commercialisation céréalière : le rôle des banques de Céréales dans le nord du plateau central du Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yonli, Paramanga Ernest

    1997-01-01

    ln dit proefschrift wordt de rol van graanbanken op het Centrale Plateau in Burkina Faso bestudeerd. Dit Plateau, dat ongeveer twee keer zo groot is als Nederland, is de dichtst bevolkte streek van Burkina Faso. Het grootste deel van de bevolking bestaat uit boeren en hun gezinnen, die vooral voor

  4. Personality and personality disorders in urban and rural Africa: results from a field trial in burkina faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossier, Jérôme; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Dahourou, Donatien; Verardi, Sabrina; de Stadelhofen, Franz Meyer

    2013-01-01

    When conducting research in different cultural settings, assessing measurement equivalence is of prime importance to determine if constructs and scores can be compared across groups. Structural equivalence implies that constructs have the same meaning across groups, metric equivalence implies that the metric of the scales remains stable across groups, and full scale or scalar equivalence implies that the origin of the scales is the same across groups. Several studies have observed that the structure underlying both normal personality and personality disorders (PDs) is stable across cultures. Most of this cross-cultural research was conducted in Western and Asian cultures. In Africa, the few studies were conducted with well-educated participants using French or English instruments. No research was conducted in Africa with less privileged or preliterate samples. The aim of this research was to study the structure and expression of normal and abnormal personality in an urban and a rural sample in Burkina Faso. The sample included 1,750 participants, with a sub-sample from the urban area of Ouagadougou (n = 1,249) and another sub-sample from a rural village, Soumiaga (n = 501). Most participants answered an interview consisting of a Mooré language adaptation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and of the International Personality Disorders Examination. Mooré is the language of the Mossi ethnic group, and the most frequently spoken local language in Burkina Faso. A sub-sample completed the same self-report instruments in French. Demographic variables only had a small impact on normal and abnormal personality traits mean levels. The structure underlying normal personality was unstable across regions and languages, illustrating that translating a complex psychological inventory into a native African language is a very difficult task. The structure underlying abnormal personality and the metric of PDs scales were stable across regions. As scalar equivalence

  5. Identification of driving factors of land degradation and deforestation in the Wildlife Reserve of Bontioli (Burkina Faso, West Africa

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    Kangbéni Dimobe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, protected areas can play an important role in mitigating the effects of climate change through carbon sequestration but they are threatened due to increasing land degradation and deforestation (LDD. The Total Wildlife Reserve of Bontioli (TWRB in Burkina Faso is one of the country’s refuges with high biodiversity. This reserve is seriously threatened by human activities, and little information is available about the on-site causes of degradation extent. This study was carried out to investigate drivers and extent of LDD in the TWRB. Household surveys, focus group discussions and field observations were used to identify socio-economic factors that influence land use and land cover (LULC changes. The socio-economic data were analyzed using rankings and binary logistic regression techniques. Logistic regression model was used to establish the relationship between socio-economic drivers and land cover change. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to analyze land use and LULC changes over 29 years, employing Landsat images of 1984, 2001 and 2013. We performed a supervised classification based on the maximum likelihood algorithm to derive vegetation maps. The results revealed significant (p <0.05 LULC change from one class of LULC to another. From 1984 to 2001, tree savannas, bare soils and agricultural lands increased by 17.55%, 18.79% and 21778.79%, respectively, while woodland, gallery forest, shrub savannas and water bodies decreased by 22.02%, 5.03%, 40.08% and 31.2%, respectively. From 2001 to 2013, gallery forests decreased by 14.33%, tree savannas by 22.30% and shrub savannas by 5.14%, while agricultural lands increased by 167.87% and woodlands by 3.21%. LDD occurred at a higher rate in areas bordering the reserve compared to the core-protected area and the inaccessible areas. Agricultural expansion and wood cutting activities were the main direct causes of LDD. Extensive land utilization for agriculture is a major threat to

  6. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

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    Aduragbemi O Banke-Thomas

    Full Text Available Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000 and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006. The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%. Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%. Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%. All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine

  7. Introducing onsite antenatal syphilis screening in Burkina Faso: implementation and evaluation of a feasibility intervention tailored to a local context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Bationo, Fabrice; Savadogo, Justin R; Nacro, Sarata; Kouanda, Séni; Zarowsky, Christina

    2017-05-30

    Although the advantages of introducing point of care testing for syphilis in antenatal care (ANC) are well documented, there is little evidence on how to address structural issues within health systems. A better understanding of how these interventions work in a range of settings and contexts is needed in order to overcome bottlenecks at health system level. To better understand the relationships between implementation and context we developed and implemented an intervention focused on integrating a rapid screening test for syphilis in ANC services in rural primary health care facilities in Burkina Faso. This manuscript describes the intervention and reports on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention, the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of this intervention and the likelihood that point of care test for syphilis will become routinely incorporated in practice. In Kaya Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kaya HDSS), all 7 primary healthcare facilities were selected for intervention in 2013. A participatory approach was used to design and implement an antenatal syphilis screening intervention. The Normalization Process Model (NPM) proposed by May et al. was adapted in order to identify barriers and facilitators and to explore the likelihood to become routinely incorporated in practice. Registers, Observations (n = 14 ANC 1) of interactions between patients and health workers during ANC and interviews with health workers (n = 14) were our data sources. An intervention that included onsite training, provision of supplies and medicines, quality control and supervision was implemented in 7 health facilities in 2013. Rapid syphilis test and treatment were delivered during ANC within the examination room with no specific additional mechanism regarding staff organization. The perceived barriers were lack of training of all staff, workload, stock-outs of consumables and lack of motivation of staff. Key facilitators included political

  8. Irradiated male tsetse from a 40-year-old colony are still competitive in a Riparian forest in Burkina Faso.

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    Adama Sow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of African trypanosomosis that constitute a major constraint to development in Africa. Their control is an important component of the integrated management of these diseases, and among the techniques available, the sterile insect technique (SIT is the sole that is efficient at low densities. The government of Burkina Faso has embarked on a tsetse eradication programme in the framework of the PATTEC, where SIT is an important component. The project plans to use flies from a Glossina palpalis gambiensis colony that has been maintained for about 40 years at the Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES. It was thus necessary to test the competitiveness of the sterile males originating from this colony. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During the period January-February 2010, 16,000 sterile male G. p. gambiensis were released along a tributary of the Mouhoun river. The study revealed that with a mean sterile to wild male ratio of 1.16 (s.d. 0.38, the abortion rate of the wild female flies was significantly higher than before (p = 0.026 and after (p = 0.019 the release period. The estimated competitiveness of the sterile males (Fried index was 0.07 (s.d. 0.02, indicating that a sterile to wild male ratio of 14.4 would be necessary to obtain nearly complete induced sterility in the female population. The aggregation patterns of sterile and wild male flies were similar. The survival rate of the released sterile male flies was similar to that observed in 1983-1985 for the same colony. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that gamma sterilised male G. p. gambiensis derived from the CIRDES colony have a competitiveness that is comparable to their competitiveness obtained 35 years ago and can still be used for an area-wide integrated pest management campaign with a sterile insect component in Burkina Faso.

  9. Spatially explicit multi-threat assessment of food tree species in Burkina Faso: A fine-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Roeland; Loo, Judy; Schmidt, Marco; Bognounou, Fidèle; Da, Sié Sylvestre; Diallo, Ousmane Boukary; Ganaba, Souleymane; Gnoumou, Assan; Lompo, Djingdia; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mbayngone, Elisée; Nacoulma, Blandine Marie Ivette; Ouedraogo, Moussa; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Parkouda, Charles; Porembski, Stefan; Savadogo, Patrice; Thiombiano, Adjima; Zerbo, Guibien; Vinceti, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana) and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change). We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs), climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as ‘highly threatened’ due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted regeneration in

  10. [Case management and diagnosis of severe malaria in adults and the application of national guidelines in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaméogo, T M; Kyelem, C G; Ouédraogo, S M; Diallo, O J; Moyenga, L; Poda, G E A; Guiguemdé, T R

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the application of national guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of severe malaria in adults in Burkina Faso. We conducted a retrospective study of medical records of the patients admitted for severe malaria in the emergency service of the regional hospital of Fada N'Gourma in the east of Burkina Faso in the year 2008; 165 records were chosen by simple random sampling. We reported all the severe clinical and biological signs of malaria and its treatment. We compared them with the criteria of severe malaria diagnosis and its treatment according to the national guidelines. The mean age of patients was 38 ± 16.2 and male to female ratio was 0.96. The most frequent period of admissions was between July and October. Fever or recent past of fever was reported in 142 cases (86.1%). According to the two criteria for severe malaria (means existing of at least one of the severe signs associated and positive parasitemia with Falciparum plasmodium), we noted that only 74 cases had at least one of the severe signs (44.8%) which were: anemia (51.3%), cardiovascular collapse (7.9%), jaundice (7.3%), dyspnea (6.7%), impairment of consciousness (5.5%), prostration (5.5%), renal failure (4.8%), hypoglycemia (2.4%), hemorrhage (1.8%) and seizures (1.2%). The biological signs were not systematically searched. Parasitological exam was conducted in 91 cases (55.1%). Only 18 were positive (19.8%). In total, only 18 cases (10.9%) met the guidelines' criteria of severe malaria. The other cases were over-diagnosed; note that the investigation was not complete for 74 of these cases (50.3%). Among the 165 cases, the treatment was appropriate in 146 (88.5%) and 19 cases (11.5%) didn't receive treatment for malaria. So much we observed an over diagnosis of severe malaria in adults that we can suggest an under diagnosis of the disease due to the lack of biological investigations.

  11. Histoire et intégration des communautés: le cas du Burkina-Faso

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    Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available On est aujourd’hui en passe, grâce aux efforts de générations d’historiens, au Burkina comme ailleurs en Afrique, de dresser un tableau déjà à fort complet, même s’il y a encore beaucoup à faire, de l’histoire ancienne des groupes, des communautés. On a bien avancé les connaissances sur l’histoire ancienne, sur l’histoire des traumatismes et des métissages de toute nature de l’époque coloniale, et aujourd’hui sur l’histoire des temps de l’indépendance: histoire rurale, histoire des villes, histoire des échanges fondamentaux et des ? ux et re? ux entre ville et campagne, histoire des migrations, histoire économique et politique, histoire des femmes aussi, etc. (cf. bibliographie indicative, même si beaucoup de ces travaux n’ont pas été publiés. Le Burkina-Faso, en dé? nitive, est un des pays de l’Afrique francophone où la connaissance et la ré? exion historiques ont le plus progressé. Nous en sommes aujourd’hui à la troisième génération d’historiens, puisque le Burki-nabe Joseph Ki-Zerbo fut le premier historien africain francophone à avoir proposé, à l’époque, et en dépit du faible nombre de travaux pré-existants, une magistrale histoire générale de l’Afrique qui fait encore autorité.

  12. Additional selection for insecticide resistance in urban malaria vectors: DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Toé, Hyacinthe K; Sanou, Antoine; Namountougou, Moussa; Hughes, Angela; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Dabiré, Roch; Simard, Frederic; Ranson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba) have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose=65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively). An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency=0.4), which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa.

  13. Implementation of a national external quality assessment program for medical laboratories in Burkina Faso: challenges, lessons learned, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakandé, Jean; Nikièma, Abdoulaye; Kabré, Elie; Sawadogo, Charles; Nacoulma, Eric W; Sanou, Mamadou; Sangaré, Lassana; Traoré-Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Sawadogo, Mamadou; Gershy-Damet, Guy Michel

    2014-02-01

    The National External Quality Assessment (NEQA) program of Burkina Faso is a proficiency testing program mandatory for all laboratories in the country since 2006. The program runs two cycles per year and covers all areas of laboratories. All panels were validated by the expert committee before dispatch under optimal storage and transport conditions to participating laboratories along with report forms. Performance in the last 5 years varied by panel, with average annual performance of bacteriology panels for all laboratories rising from 75% in 2006 to 81% in 2010 and with a best average performance of 87% in 2007 and 2008. During the same period, malaria microscopy performance varied from 85% to 94%, with a best average performance of 94% in 2010; chemistry performance increased from 87% to 94%, with a best average annual performance of 97% in 2009. Hematology showed more variation in performance, ranging from 61% to 86%, with a best annual average performance of 90% in 2008. Average annual performance for immunology varied less between 2006 and 2010, recording 97%, 90%, and 95%. Except for malaria microscopy, annual performances for enrolled panels varied substantially from year to year, indicating some difficulty in maintaining consistency in quality. The main challenges of the NEQA program observed between 2006 to 2010 were funding, sourcing, and safe transportation of quality panels to all laboratories countrywide.

  14. Characterization of a novel Entamoeba histolytica strain from Burkina Faso, Africa, possessing a unique hexokinase-2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, J; Kobayashi, S; Imada, M; Tolba, M E; Takeuchi, T

    2011-11-01

    An Entamoeba histolytica strain (BF-841 cl1) that originated from Burkina Faso, Africa presented with novel, polymorphic genotypes of the serine-rich E. histolytica protein and the anodic hexokinase‑2 (HXK-2) isoenzyme band, which showed less electrophoretic mobility than that of an E. histolytica reference strain [HM-1:IMSS cl6 (zymodeme (Z)-II)] by starch gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing (IEF). The HXK-2 gene of BF-841 cl1 had amino acid variations at four positions compared to the sequence of HM-1:IMSS cl6. These variations were absent from the sequences of four other E. histolytica strains with different zymodemes [KU27 (Z-II), SAW1627 (Z-IIa-), SAW755CR clB (Z-XIV), and KU2 (Z-XIX)]. The results of IEF showed no difference in the substrate specificity of HXK (HXK-1 and HXK-2) between BF-841 cl1 and the three reference E. histolytica strains (HM-1:IMSS cl6, SAW755 clB, and KU27). It was also confirmed that BF-841 cl1 was able to form liver abscesses in Syrian hamsters.

  15. Effects of a Cereal and Soy Dietary Formula on Rehabilitation of Undernourished Children at Ouagadougou, in Burkina Faso

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    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The New Misola consists of millet soybean, peanut, vitamins, minerals, and industrial amylase. Our objective is to demonstrate that porridge made from local grains and legumes restores the nutritional balance of malnourished children. The study was carried on 304 malnourished children aged 6–48 months including 172 girls and 132 boys from Saint Camille Medical Centre. At the beginning, these malnourished children had a WHZ z-score of −3.10 and a WAZ z-score of −3.85, which reflected, according to WHO, a severe malnutrition. After eight weeks of nutritional rehabilitation, a normal WHZ of −1.41 was obtained. These children recovered more than those in a similar study performed in 2006 with the old formula of Misola. This study shows that malnutrition remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso. It should be necessary that public health services and the epidemiologists work in synergy with nutritionists and “nutrigenetics” in order to combat malnutrition efficiently.

  16. Natural Resource Management Schemes as Entry Points for Integrated Landscape Approaches: Evidence from Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Samson; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A F; Reed, James; Sunderland, Terry

    2017-04-20

    In recognition of the failures of sectoral approaches to overcome global challenges of biodiversity loss, climate change, food insecurity and poverty, scientific discourse on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development is shifting towards integrated landscape governance arrangements. Current landscape initiatives however very much depend on external actors and funding, raising the question of whether, and how, and under what conditions, locally embedded resource management schemes can serve as entry points for the implementation of integrated landscape approaches. This paper assesses the entry point potential for three established natural resource management schemes in West Africa that target landscape degradation with involvement of local communities: the Chantier d'Aménagement Forestier scheme encompassing forest management sites across Burkina Faso and the Modified Taungya System and community wildlife resource management initiatives in Ghana. Based on a review of the current literature, we analyze the extent to which design principles that define a landscape approach apply to these schemes. We found that the CREMA meets most of the desired criteria, but that its scale may be too limited to guarantee effective landscape governance, hence requiring upscaling. Conversely, the other two initiatives are strongly lacking in their design principles on fundamental components regarding integrated approaches, continual learning, and capacity building. Monitoring and evaluation bodies and participatory learning and negotiation platforms could enhance the schemes' alignment with integrated landscape approaches.

  17. Vegetation Structure and Carbon Stocks of Two Protected Areas within the South-Sudanian Savannas of Burkina Faso

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    Mohammad Qasim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Savannas and adjacent vegetation types like gallery forests are highly valuable ecosystems contributing to several ecosystem services including carbon budgeting. Financial mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation can provide an opportunity for developing countries to alleviate poverty through conservation of its forestry resources. However, for availing such opportunities carbon stock assessments are essential. Therefore, a research study for this purpose was conducted at two protected areas (Nazinga Game Ranch and Bontioli Nature Reserve in Burkina Faso. Similarly, analysis of various vegetation parameters was also conducted to understand the overall vegetation structure of these two protected areas. For estimating above ground biomass, existing allometric equations for dry tropical woody vegetation types were used. Compositional structure was described by applying tree species and family importance indices. The results show that both sites collectively contain a mean carbon stock of 3.41 ± 4.98 Mg·C·ha−1. Among different savanna vegetation types, gallery forests recorded the highest mean carbon stock of 9.38 ± 6.90 Mg·C·ha−1. This study was an attempt at addressing the knowledge gap particularly on carbon stocks of protected savannas—it can serve as a baseline for carbon stocks for future initiatives such as REDD+ within these areas.

  18. Prenatal food supplementation fortified with multiple micronutrients increases birth length: a randomized controlled trial in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Menten, Joris; Meda, Nicolas; Van Camp, John; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MMN) or balanced energy and protein supplementation has a limited effect on birth size of the offspring. The objective was to determine whether a prenatal MMN-fortified food supplement (FFS) improves anthropometric measures at birth compared with supplementation with an MMN pill alone. We conducted a nonblinded, individually randomized controlled trial in 1296 pregnant women in 2 villages in rural Burkina Faso. Supplements were provided on a daily basis, and compliance was closely verified by using a community-based network of home visitors. Anthropometric measures at birth were available for analysis for 87% of the 1175 live singleton deliveries enrolled. After adjustment for gestational age at birth, the FFS group had a significantly higher birth length (+4.6 mm; P = 0.001). FFS supplementation resulted in a modestly higher birth weight (+31 g; P = 0.197). Subgroup analyses showed clinically important treatment effects on birth length (+12.0 mm; P = 0.005) and on birth weight (+111 g; P = 0.133) for underweight [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) birth to longer newborns (+7.3 mm; P = 0.002) than did those who received MMN supplementation. The provision of FFS to pregnant women resulted in higher birth length than did MMN supplementation. For women with a suboptimal prepregnancy nutritional status, MMN supplementation should be complemented with a balanced energy and protein supplement to produce a clinical effect on birth size. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00909974.

  19. Measuring health workers' motivation composition: validation of a scale based on Self-Determination Theory in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Julia; Souares, Aurélia; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Houlfort, Nathalie; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Somda, Serge M A; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-05-22

    Although motivation of health workers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has become a topic of increasing interest by policy makers and researchers in recent years, many aspects are not well understood to date. This is partly due to a lack of appropriate measurement instruments. This article presents evidence on the construct validity of a psychometric scale developed to measure motivation composition, i.e., the extent to which motivation of different origin within and outside of a person contributes to their overall work motivation. It is theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1142 nurses in 522 government health facilities in 24 districts of Burkina Faso. We assessed the scale's validity in a confirmatory factor analysis framework, investigating whether the scale measures what it was intended to measure (content, structural, and convergent/discriminant validity) and whether it does so equally well across health worker subgroups (measurement invariance). Our results show that the scale measures a slightly modified version of the SDT continuum of motivation well. Measurements were overall comparable between subgroups, but results indicate that caution is warranted if a comparison of motivation scores between groups is the focus of analysis. The scale is a valuable addition to the repository of measurement tools for health worker motivation in LMICs. We expect it to prove useful in the quest for a more comprehensive understanding of motivation as well as of the effects and potential side effects of interventions intended to enhance motivation.

  20. Competitiveness Level of Photovoltaic Solar Systems in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso: Study Based on the Domestic Electric Meters Calibration

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    Konan Lambert Amani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean cost price of electricity in Burkina Faso at the end of the last quarter of 2012 was 158 FCFA/kWh for a country where more than 46% of the population lives below the national poverty threshold. To look for solution to that problem, the resort to photovoltaic solar energy is justified for that country. The purpose of this study is to promote the integration of both technical and economical surveys in solar energy preliminary projects in Ouagadougou. To reach that, investigations were carried out in some households and attention was paid from the calibration of the domestic electric meters. Energy demands collected within each household allow us to design a corresponding solar kit through optimization rules. An estimate was edited and financial viability study for each household was also carried out thereafter. In this study, only households using the national electricity network calibration meter on their disadvantage favorably answered to all financial indicators and appear as the only one that could profit from such project. This work is helpful to note that photovoltaic solar energy still stays at a primitive level of competitiveness compared to conventional energy resources for small systems in Ouagadougou.

  1. Dietary diversity scores and nutritional status of women change during the seasonal food shortage in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savy, Mathilde; Martin-Prével, Yves; Traissac, Pierre; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Delpeuch, Francis

    2006-10-01

    In developing countries, dietary diversity is usually assessed during a single yearly period and the effects of seasonal variations remain unknown. We studied these variations in women living in a Sahelian rural area (Burkina Faso). A representative sample of 550 women was surveyed at the beginning and at the end of the seasonal cereal shortage in April and September 2003, respectively. For each season, a dietary diversity score (DDS) representing the number of food groups consumed over a 24-h period, was computed and nutritional status was assessed by the BMI. The DDS increased from 3.4 +/- 1.1 to 3.8 +/- 1.5 food groups between the beginning and the end of the shortage season (P foods available during the cereal shortage season and despite the decrease in the consumption of some purchased foods. The increase in DDS was lower in women for whom DDS was already high in April and vice versa. Over the same period, the percentage of underweight women (BMI shortage season, when many women exhibit low DDS.

  2. Rapid Assessment of Key Structural Elements of Different Vegetation Types of West African Savannas in Burkina Faso

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    Qasim Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of Leaf Area Index (LAI have recently gained attention due to the sensitivity to the effects of climate change and its impact on forest ecosystems. Hence, a study was conducted on the LAI estimation of four vegetation types: (i gallery forests, (ii woodland savannas, (iii tree savannas, and (iv shrub savannas, at two protected areas of Nazinga Game Ranch and Bontioli Nature Reserve, Burkina Faso. A relationship between LAI and Crown Diameter was also investigated at these two sites. Digital hemispherical photography was used for the LAI estimation. Crown diameters (CD were determined perpendicular to each other and averaged for each tree and shrub. Overall results revealed that LAI ranged from 0-1.33 and the CD was recorded in the range of 0.46-11.01 m. The gallery forests recorded the highest mean LAI 1.33 ± 0.32 as well as the highest mean CD 7.69 ± 1.90 m. The LAI for the vegetation types were at their lower ends as the study was conducted in summer season, higher values are therefore expected in the wet season, as a significant correlation between LAI and precipitation has been emphasized by various studies. Continuous LAI monitoring and studies on various growth parameters of different vegetation types at the study sites are recommended towards enhanced monitoring and an ecologically feasible forest- and savanna-use and management to maintain essential ecosystem functions and services.

  3. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum varieties from burkina faso.

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    Dicko, Mamoudou H; Hilhorst, Riet; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; Laane, Colja; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-06-19

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was higher than the monophenolase and o-diphenolase specific activities of PPO. For POX, there was a diversity of isoforms among varieties. No clear correlation could be made between the quantitative composition of the grain in phenolics, PPO, and POX, and resistance of plant to pathogens. In general, varieties good for a thick porridge preparation ("tô") had low phenolic compounds content and a medium POX activity. From the red varieties, those used for local beer ("dolo") had a high content in phenolic compounds and PPO, and a low POX activity. The variety considered good for couscous had a low POX content. The characteristics might be useful as selection markers for breeding for specific applications.

  4. Knowledge and attitude of young people regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Come Yélian Adohinzin, Clétus; Meda, Nicolas; Anicet Ouédraogo, Georges; Gaston Belem, Adrien Marie; Sombié, Issiaka; Berthé, Abdramane; Bakwin Kandala, Ngianga; Damienne Avimadjenon, Georgette; Fond-Harmant, Laurence

    2016-10-19

    Introduction: Despite health education efforts, young people are still faced with major health problems. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy among young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods: Based on two-level sampling, representing 94,947 households in the Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from September 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young people. Results: The interviewees had a poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and contraception Very few young people (9%) had complete knowledge about the modes of transmission and 5% had no knowledge. Persistent misperceptions about the effectiveness of condoms (25%) and contraception (32%) did not prevent some young people from using them (79% used condoms and 46% used contraceptives). Knowledge and attitudes of young people regarding HIV and contraception varied according to age, sex, education level and type of parental supervision. Conclusion: A significant proportion of young people still has incomplete knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraception. Actions designed to reinforce the knowledge of young people are of paramount importance. The capacities of parents and healthcare providers also need to be reinforced to improve the quality of relationship with young people.

  5. [Atypical etiology of malaria: local perceptions and practices for treatment and prevention in the department of Gaoua, Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, D T; Zerbo, R

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is still a public health problem in many sub-Saharan countries. This study was undertaken to understand and analyze the relationship between local perceptions of malaria and practices for prevention and management in the department of Gaoua in Burkina Faso. The goal was to improve the effectiveness of prevention and management of malaria in the target population, i.e., children under the age of five. Individual interviews and focus groups using a semi-structured guide were carried out with mothers, traditional healthcare providers and elderly persons in four villages of the department of Gaoua. Findings showed that practices used for treatment and prevention were directly related to perceptions about malaria. Due to poverty, inadequate health service delivery and ignorance, people do not always seek medical attention and express doubts about the efficacy of modern care. Endogenous practices for malaria prevention are directly related to causes described by the population. Modern preventive techniques are not used by the population. For instance nets are misused to protect corpses from flies or for shelter during funerals.

  6. Epidemic of fatal encephalopathy in preschool children in Burkina Faso and consumption of unripe ackee (Blighia sapida) fruit.

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    Meda, H A; Diallo, B; Buchet, J P; Lison, D; Barennes, H; Ouangré, A; Sanou, M; Cousens, S; Tall, F; Van de Perre, P

    1999-02-13

    On March 21, 1998, the Regional Health Authority of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, asked the Centre Muraz to investigate an unexplained outbreak of epidemic fatal encephalopathy (EFE). We aimed to identify the cause of this epidemic. We identified cases retrospectively through review of health-service records and interviews of family members, village chiefs, and local healers. Active surveillance was started in administrative divisions within the study area in April, 1998, to identify further EFE cases. We did a case-control study of households to investigate the risk from various environmental and health factors. Blood and urine samples were collected if possible and urine dicarboxylic acid concentrations measured by gas chromatography. 29 cases of EFE were identified from January to May, 1998. Estimated age-specific attack rates (2-6 years) ranged from 31 to 847 per 100,000 population (packee trees (Blighia sapida) within 100 m of households (odds ratio 5.1 [95% CI 1.8-14.7] p=0.001). Poisoning with unripe ackee fruits was suggested by urine concentrations of dicarboxylic acids four to 200 times higher in cases (n=2) than in controls (n=3). Consumption of unripe ackee fruit probably caused this epidemic and may lead to a substantial number of unexplained deaths in preschool children in west Africa every year. Educational campaigns have the potential to prevent these deaths.

  7. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine—Burkina Faso, 2011–2013

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    Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Sangare, Lassana; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Hema-Ouangraoua, Soumeya; McGee, Lesley; Srinivasan, Velusamy; Aké, Flavien; Congo-Ouédraogo, Malika; Sanou, Soufian; Ba, Absatou Ky; Novak, Ryan T.; Van Beneden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. Methods Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR). Results During 2011–2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden. PMID:27832151

  8. Twelve months of implementation of health care performance-based financing in Burkina Faso: A qualitative multiple case study.

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    Ridde, Valéry; Yaogo, Maurice; Zongo, Sylvie; Somé, Paul-André; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie

    2017-07-03

    To improve health services' quantity and quality, African countries are increasingly engaging in performance-based financing (PBF) interventions. Studies to understand their implementation in francophone West Africa are rare. This study analysed PBF implementation in Burkina Faso 12 months post-launch in late 2014. The design was a multiple and contrasted case study involving 18 cases (health centres). Empirical data were collected from observations, informal (n = 224) and formal (n = 459) interviews, and documents. Outside the circle of persons trained in PBF, few in the community had knowledge of it. In some health centres, the fact that staff were receiving bonuses was intentionally not announced to populations and community leaders. Most local actors thought PBF was just another project, but the majority appreciated it. There were significant delays in setting up agencies for performance monitoring, auditing, and contracting, as well as in the payment. The first audits led rapidly to coping strategies among health workers and occasionally to some staging beforehand. No community-based audits had yet been done. Distribution of bonuses varied from one centre to another. This study shows the importance of understanding the implementation of public health interventions in Africa and of uncovering coping strategies. © 2017 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Additional selection for insecticide resistance in urban malaria vectors: DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

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    Christopher M Jones

    Full Text Available In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose=65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively. An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency=0.4, which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa.

  10. Correlation of Global Solar Radiation of Eight Synoptic Stations in Burkina Faso Based on Linear and Multiple Linear Regression Methods

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    Ousmane Coulibaly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We utilize the multiple linear regression method to analyse meteorological data for eight cities in Burkina Faso. A correlation between the monthly mean daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface and five meteorological and geographical parameters, which are the mean daily extraterrestrial solar radiation intensity, the average daily ratio of sunshine duration, the mean daily relative humidity, the mean daily maximum air temperature, and the sine of the solar declination angle, was examined. A second correlation is established for the entire country, using, this time, the monthly mean global solar radiation on a horizontal surface and the following climatic variables: the average daily ratio of sunshine duration, the latitude, and the longitude. The results show that the coefficients of correlation vary between 0.96 and 0.99 depending on the station while the relative errors spread between −3.16% (Pô and 3.65% (Dédougou. The maximum value of the RMSD which is 312.36 kJ/m2 is obtained at Dori, which receives the strongest radiation. For the entire cities, the values of the MBD are found to be in the acceptable margin.

  11. HIV treatment and reproductive health in the health system in Burkina Faso: resource allocation and the need for integration.

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    Windisch, Ricarda; de Savigny, Don; Onadja, Geneviève; Somda, Antoine; Wyss, Kaspar; Sié, Ali; Kouyaté, Bocar

    2011-11-01

    Organizational changes, increased funding and the demands of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) treatment create particular challenges for governance in the health sector. We assess resource allocation, policy making and integration of the national responses to ARV provision and reproductive health in Burkina Faso, using national and district budgets related to disease burden, policy documents, organizational structures, and coordination and implementation processes. ARV provision represents the concept of a "crisis scenario", in which reforms are pushed due to a perception of urgent need, whereas the national reproductive health programme, which is older and more integrated, represents a "politics-as-usual scenario". Findings show that the early years of the national response to HIV and AIDS were characterized by new institutions with overlapping functions, and failure to integrate with and strengthen existing structures. National and district budget allocations for HIV compared to other interventions were disproportionately high when assessed against burden of disease. Strategic documents for ARV provision were relatively less developed and referred to, compared to those of the Ministry of Health Directorates for HIV and for Family Health and district health planning teams for reproductive health services. Imbalances and new structures potentially trigger important adverse effects which are difficult to remedy and likely to increase due to the dynamics they create. It therefore becomes crucial, from the outset, to integrate HIV/AIDS funding and responses into health systems. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

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    Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

  13. Malaria related care-seeking-behaviour and expenditures in urban settings: A household survey in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beogo, Idrissa; Huang, Nicole; Drabo, Maxime K; Yé, Yazoumé

    2016-08-01

    In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria inflicts a high healthcare expenditure to individuals. However, little is known about healthcare expenditure to individual affected by malaria and determinants of healthcare seeking behaviour in urban settings where private sector is thriving. This study investigated the level and correlates of expenditure among individuals with self-reported malaria episode in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional household survey conducted in August-November 2011 in Ouagadougou covered 8,243 individuals (1,600 households). Using Generalized Estimating Equations, the analysis included 1082 individuals from 715 households, who reported an episode of malaria. Of individuals surveyed, 38.3% sought care from public, 27.4% from private providers, and, 34.2% self-medicated. The median cost for malaria treatment was USD10.1 (4,850.0XOF) with significant different between public, private and self-medication (pfinancial cost of malaria treatment regardless of the providers poses threat to the goal of universal access to malaria interventions, the unique way to achieve elimination goals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. WÉGOUBRI, the sahelian bocage: an integrate approach for environment preservation and social development in sahelian agriculture (Burkina Faso

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    H. Girard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The NGO Terre Verte pursues the realisation of bocage perimeters (wégoubri in the mooré language in Burkina Faso. They are an innovative concept of rural development that has been established in the 1990s in the experimental farm of Guiè and is now adopted in other experimental farms in Burkina Faso. The deterioration of the rural landscape in the Sahel region has worsened in the last decades, endangering local populations. The creation of bocage perimeters in this rural landscape is a way to remediate problems linked to overly extensive agriculture. Through a holistic approach to the problem, the experimental farm of Guiè has been able to integrate environmental preservation into the Sahel agriculture thanks to three axes of intervention: applied research, education and direct help to the peasants. An experimental farm relies on five technical teams, each supervised by a coordinator.The concept is based on the creation of bocage perimeters in a mixed propriety regime, comprising individually owned plots and common grounds, managed by an association of beneficiaries. The result is a restored environment, in which agriculture is no longer tantamount to erosion and livestock farming to overgrazing, where trees and bushes are harmoniously integrated into the environment.The increase in agricultural yields observed after a few years of soil restoration leads to the conclusion that those projects will be economically viable. A system of credits for farmers could allow the implementation of such a system, which represents the only solution for the millions of hectares of degraded soil in the Sahel region.L’ONG Terre Verte réalise au Burkina Faso des périmètres bocagers (wégoubri en langue mooré. Il s’agit d’un concept novateur de développement rural mis au point dans la ferme pilote de Guiè dans les années 1990, adopté depuis par d’autres fermes pilotes du pays. La dégradation du paysage rural du Sahel s’est aggravée au

  15. Mise en évidence au Burkina Faso d'un nouveau taxon de Colletotrichum dans l'étiologie de la maladie des taches brunes du niébé

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    Sérémé, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of New Taxum of Colletotrichum as a Causal Pathogen for Brown Blotch Disease of Cowpea in the Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso. Brown blotch disease of cowpea was, until recentiy, described as a disease of savannah and forested zones of Africa. However, in its latest progression, the disease also appeared in the sahelian zone of Burkina. In the present study on the etiology of brown blotch disease in Burkina Faso, analysis of isolates Colletotrichum spp. iead to the identification of a new Colletotrichum taxum causing the disease in the sahelian area of Burkina Faso. Based on its growth and microscopic characteristics, the new taxum differs from Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum truncatum already reported as the 2 pathogens involved in the occurrence of the disease. Observed differences between studied isolates IMI 379432, IMI 379433, IMI 379434, and IMI 379435 of the new taxum, specifie to Pobe area in Burkina Faso, and those of C. capsici andC. truncatum was confirmed by CABI-BIOSCIENCE (England. Additional work, using molecular techniques, is projected in near future for a better characterization of the new taxum of Colletotrichum reported in the present study.

  16. Constitutive activation and accelerated maturation of peripheral blood t cells in healthy adults in burkina faso compared to Germany: The case of malaria?

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    Tiba F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective It is not exactly known how frequent exposure to Plasmodium falciparum shapes the peripheral blood T-cell population in healthy West Africans. Methods The frequency of peripheral blood CD4+ lymphocytes responding to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP-1 by production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α was determined using a commercially available flow cytometric activation assay (Fastlmmune in 17 healthy adults in Nouna, Burkina Faso. T-cell activation and maturation in peripheral blood of healthy adults in Burkina Faso (n = 40 and Germany (n = 20 were compared using immunophenotyping and three-colour flow cytometry. Results Significant numbers of PfMSV-1 -specific CD4+ lymphocytes producing IFN-γ, IL-2 and/or TNF-α were detected in 14 healthy adults in Nouna. Cytokine profiles showed predominant production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Compared to Germans, Burkinabé showed markedly lower proportions of CCR7+ CD45RA+ naïve CD4+ cells and slightly higher frequencies of CD95+ CD4+ T-cells and of CD38+ CD8+ T-cells. The median antibody-binding capacity of CD95dim CD4+ T-cells in Burkinabé was more than twice the value observed in Germans (263 vs. 108 binding sites per cell, p Conclusions We hypothesize that an IFN-γ-induced increase in the expression level of CD95 on CD4+ lymphocytes may lower the activation threshold of resting naïve CD4+ T-cells in healthy adults living in Burkina Faso. Bystander activation of these cells deserves further study as a molecular mechanism linking strong IFN-γ responses against Plasmodium falciparum to decreased susceptibility to parasitemia observed in specific ethnic groups in West Africa.

  17. The meaning of African and “White man’s” food at Muslim and civil wedding celebrations in urban Burkina Faso

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    Liza Debevec

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chez les Musulmans du Burkina Faso, les mariages sont célébrés selon deux modes différents: d’une part, on trouve le mariage « traditionnel » qui s’accompagne d’une cérémonie religieuse et d’autre part, il y a le mariage “civil”, qui est marqué par une cérémonie officielle ayant lieu à la mairie. Les contrastes existants entre ces deux fêtes se révèlent notamment à travers les repas servis à cette occasion. La fête traditionnelle offre des plats et des boissons considérés comme « africains », tandis que le repas servi lors de la fête civile se compose essentiellement de tubabu dumuni ou « nourriture des Blancs ». La manière de manger amplifie également la distinction observée entre les deux fêtes: lors du repas traditionnel, les gens mangent dans les mêmes plats et avec la main, alors qu’à l’occasion de la cérémonie civile, ils utilisent assiettes, fourchettes et couteaux. A travers l’analyse de ces deux formes de cérémonies comme de leurs différences, cet article s'intéresse au discours très présent sur l’opposition entre « traditionnel » et « moderne » au Burkina Faso urbain.Muslims of Burkina Faso celebrate weddings in two distinct ways; a “traditional” celebration accompanies the religious ceremony, while a “civil” wedding party marks the official marriage which takes place at the town hall. The foods served are important markers of the contrasts between these two occasions. While so-called “African” food and drink is served at the traditional ceremony, the civil ceremony is marked by the serving of tubabu dumuni or “white man’s food”. Another distinction is the manner of eating. At the traditional meal guests eat from shared bowls, using their hands, while at the “civil” celebration the food is served on plates and is meant to be eaten with cutlery. Drawing on these two ceremonial forms and the marked distinctions between them, this paper

  18. Integrated monitoring and evaluation and environmental risk factors for urogenital schistosomiasis and active trachoma in Burkina Faso before preventative chemotherapy using sentinel sites

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    Bosqué-Oliva Elisa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 1 billion of the world's poorest inhabitants are afflicted by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Integrated control programmes aimed at tackling these debilitating NTDs have been recently initiated, mainly using preventative chemotherapy. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E of these integrated programs presents particular challenges over and above those required for single disease vertical programmes. We used baseline data from the National NTD Control Programme in Burkina Faso in order to assess the feasibility of an integrated survey design, as well as to elucidate the contribution of environmental variables to the risk of either Schistosoma haematobium, trachoma, or both among school-aged children. Methods S. haematobium infection was diagnosed by detecting eggs in urine. A trachoma case was defined by the presence of Trachomatous inflammation-Follicular (TF and/or Trachomatous inflammation-Intense (TI in either eye. Baseline data collected from 3,324 children aged 7-11 years in 21 sentinel sites across 11 regions of Burkina Faso were analyzed using simple and multivariable hierarchical binomial logistic regression models fitted by Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation methods. Probabilities of the risk of belonging to each infection/disease category were estimated as a function of age, gender (individual level, and environmental variables (at sentinel site level, interpolated from national meteorological stations. Results Overall prevalence at the sentinel sites was 11.79% (95% CI: 10.70-12.89 for S. haematobium; 13.30% (12.14-14.45 for trachoma and 0.84% (0.53-1.15 for co-infections. The only significant predictor of S. haematobium infection was altitude. There were significant negative associations between the prevalence of active trachoma signs and minimum temperature, and air pressure. Conditional upon these predictors, these data are consistent with the two pathogens being independent. Conclusions Urogenital

  19. Motivation and incentives of rural maternal and neonatal health care providers: a comparison of qualitative findings from Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytherch, Helen; Kagoné, Moubassira; Aninanya, Gifty A; Williams, John E; Kakoko, Deodatus C V; Leshabari, Melkidezek T; Yé, Maurice; Marx, Michael; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2013-04-25

    In Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania strong efforts are being made to improve the quality of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. However, progress is impeded by challenges, especially in the area of human resources. All three countries are striving not only to scale up the number of available health staff, but also to improve performance by raising skill levels and enhancing provider motivation. In-depth interviews were used to explore MNH provider views about motivation and incentives at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. Interviews were held with 25 MNH providers, 8 facility and district managers, and 2 policy-makers in each country. Across the three countries some differences were found in the reasons why people became health workers. Commitment to remaining a health worker was generally high. The readiness to remain at a rural facility was far less, although in all settings there were some providers that were willing to stay. In Burkina Faso it appeared to be particularly difficult to recruit female MNH providers to rural areas. There were indications that MNH providers in all the settings sometimes failed to treat their patients well. This was shown to be interlinked with differences in how the term 'motivation' was understood, and in the views held about remuneration and the status of rural health work. Job satisfaction was shown to be quite high, and was particularly linked to community appreciation. With some important exceptions, there was a strong level of agreement regarding the financial and non-financial incentives that were suggested by these providers, but there were clear country preferences as to whether incentives should be for individuals or teams. Understandings of the terms and concepts pertaining to motivation differed between the three countries. The findings from Burkina Faso underline the importance of gender-sensitive health workforce planning. The training that all levels of MNH providers receive in

  20. Monitoring compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in west Africa: multisite cross sectional survey in Togo and Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Victor M; Ross, Jay S; Kanon, Souleyman; Ouedraogo, Andre N

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To monitor compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in health systems, sales outlets, distribution points, and the news media in Togo and Burkina Faso, west Africa. Design Multisite cross sectional survey. Participants Staff at 43 health facilities and 66 sales outlets and distribution points, 186 health providers, and 105 mothers of infants aged ⩽5 months in 16 cities. Results Six (14%) health facilities had received donations of breast milk substitutes. All donations were being given to mothers free of charge. Health providers in five (12%) health facilities had received free samples of breast milk substitutes for purposes other than professional research or evaluation. Health professionals in five (12%) health facilities had received promotional gifts from manufacturers. Promotional materials of commercial breast milk substitutes were found in seven (16%) health facilities. Special displays to market commercial breast milk substitutes were found in 29 (44%) sales and distribution points. Forty commercial breast milk substitutes violated the labelling standards of the code: 21 were manufactured by Danone, 11 by Nestlé, and eight by other national and international manufacturers. Most (148, 90%) health providers had never heard of the code, and 66 mothers (63%) had never received any counselling on breast feeding by their health providers. Conclusion In west Africa manufacturers are violating the code of marketing of breast milk substitutes. Comparable levels of code violations are observed with (Burkina Faso) or without (Togo) regulating legislation. Legislation must be accompanied by effective information, training, and monitoring systems to ensure that healthcare providers and manufacturers comply with evidence based practice and the code. What is already known on this topicAll member states of the World Health Assembly have reaffirmed their support for the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk

  1. Challenges and opportunities associated with the introduction of next-generation long-lasting insecticidal nets for malaria control: a case study from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfazghi, Kemi; Traore, Adama; Ranson, Hilary; N'Fale, Sagnon; Hill, Jenny; Worrall, Eve

    2016-07-22

    Reductions in malaria incidence in Africa can largely be attributed to increases in malaria vector control activities; predominately the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). With insecticide resistance affecting an increasing number of malaria-endemic countries and threatening the effectiveness of conventional LLINs, there is an increasing urgency to implement alternative tools that control these resistant populations. The aim of this study was to identify potential challenges and opportunities for accelerating access to next-generation LLINs in Burkina Faso, a country with areas of high levels of insecticide resistance. An analytical framework was used to guide the selection of interviewees, data collection and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with key informants in April 2014 in Burkina Faso. Interviews were conducted in French and English, audio recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo 10 for data management and analysis. Data were coded according to the framework themes and then analysed to provide a description of the key points and explain patterns in the data. Interviewees reported that the policy architecture in Burkina Faso is characterised by a strong framework of actors that contribute to policymaking and strong national research capacity which indirectly contributes to national policy change via collaboration with internationally led research. Financing significantly impacts the potential adoption, availability and affordability of next-generation LLINs. This confers significant power on international donors that fund vector control. National decisions around which LLINs to procure were restricted to quantity and delivery dates; the potential to tackle insecticide resistance was not part of the decision-making process. Furthermore, at the time of the study, there was no World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on where and when next-generation LLINs might positively impact on malaria transmission, severely limiting

  2. User fee exemptions and excessive household spending for normal delivery in Burkina Faso: the need for careful implementation

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    Ameur Amal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Parliament of Burkina Faso passed a policy to reduce the direct costs of obstetric services and neonatal care in the country’s health centres, aiming to lower the country’s high national maternal mortality and morbidity rates. Implementation was via a “partial exemption” covering 80% of the costs. In 2008 the German NGO HELP launched a pilot project in two health districts to eliminate the remaining 20% of user fees. Regardless of any exemptions, women giving birth in Burkina Faso’s health centres face additional expenses that often represent an additional barrier to accessing health services. We compared the total cost of giving birth in health centres offering partial exemption versus those with full exemption to assess the impact on additional out-of-pocket fees. Methods A case–control study was performed to compare medical expenses. Case subjects were women who gave birth in 12 health centres located in the Dori and Sebba districts, where HELP provided full fee exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Controls were from six health centres in the neighbouring Djibo district where a partial fee exemption was in place. A random sample of approximately 50 women per health centre was selected for a total of 870 women. Results There was an implementation gap regarding the full exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Only 1.1% of the sample from Sebba but 17.5% of the group from Dori had excessive spending on birth related costs, indicating that women who delivered in Sebba were much less exposed to excessive medical expenses than women from Dori. Additional out-of-pocket fees in the full exemption health districts took into account household ability to pay, with poorer women generally paying less. Conclusions We found that the elimination of fees for facility-based births benefits especially the poorest households. The existence of excessive spending related to direct costs of

  3. Le métier d’entrepreneur culturel au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Andrieu, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Cet article présente le cas d’un entrepreneur culturel, celui d’un metteur en scène, faisant la promotion d’un patrimoine culturel burkinabè. A travers l’analyse de sa trajectoire professionnelle, il s’agit de mettre en évidence les étapes de sa réussite et ses discours pour légitimer une action de « revalorisation culturelle ». Au-delà, ses activités au sein de la troupe des Bourgeons du Burkina révèlent que ses actions de sensibilisation et d’éducation auprès des jeunes donnent à son métier...

  4. Norovirus and rotavirus survival in urine collected from a public ecological sanitation system in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaya, Joseph M; Kaplon, Jérôme; Fremy, Céline; Barro, Nicolas; Aho, Serge; Pothier, Pierre; Belliot, Gaël; Traoré, Alfred S

    2015-03-01

    Urine from urine-diversion toilets (UDTs) is routinely used as fertilizer for urban agriculture in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Because urine from UDTs can be accidentally spoiled by feces, we determined whether virulent enteric viruses could persist in urine that is used for agricultural purposes and pose a threat to human health. Urine samples (N = 60) were first collected from 42 UDTs during the months of January and February 2012 in Ouagadougou and screened negative for the presence of norovirus (NoV) and group A rotavirus (RV). Composite urine from five collection sites was used to determine whether spiked murine norovirus (MNV) and group A bovine rotavirus (boRVA) could remain infectious at 15, 25, and 42 °C over an incubation period of 42 days in phosphate buffered saline (control) and urine. For both viruses, infectivity was determined by plaque assay and the presence of viral genome was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. A decrease in the infectious titer was observed in composite urines that were experimentally seeded with MNV and boRVA. The decrease in the infectious titer was greater for MNV than for boRVA. Given that MNV was more labile to urine than boRVA was, MNV and boRVA genomes were still detectable after the 42 and 49 days incubation period for MNV and boRVA, respectively. Our data using substitutes of human NoV and RV suggested that there is a virucidal activity of urine against RVs and NoVs, given that the effect was lesser for RV. In spite of disappointing results for boRVA, the use of urine as fertilizer is still promising provided that future safety studies are extended to other enteric viruses.

  5. Personality and Personality Disorders in Urban and Rural Africa: Results from a Field Trial in Burkina Faso

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    Jérôme eRossier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have observed that the structure underlying both normal personality and personality disorders is stable across cultures. Most of this cross-cultural research was conducted in Western and Asian cultures. In Africa, the few studies were conducted with well-educated participants using French or English instruments. No research was conducted in Africa with less privileged or preliterate samples. The aim of this research was to study the structure and expression of normal and abnormal personality in an urban and a rural sample in Burkina Faso. The sample included 1750 participants, with a sub-sample from the urban area of Ouagadougou (n = 1249 and another sub-sample from a rural village, Soumiaga (n = 501. Most participants answered an interview consisting of a Mooré language adaptation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and of the International Personality Disorders Examination. A sub-sample completed the same instruments in French. Demographic variables only have a small impact on normal and abnormal personality traits. The structure underlying normal personality was unstable across regions and languages, illustrating that translating a complex psychological inventory into a native African language is a very difficult task. The structure underlying abnormal personality was stable across regions, scales reaching even metric equivalence. As scalar equivalence was not reached, mean differences cannot be interpreted. Nevertheless, these differences could be due to an exaggerated expression of abnormal traits valued in the two cultural settings. Our results suggest that studies using a different methodology should be conducted to understand what is considered, in different cultures, as deviating from the expectations of the individual’s culture, and as a significant impairment in self and interpersonal functioning, as defined by the DSM-5.

  6. Effects of information, education, and communication campaign on a community-based health insurance scheme in Burkina Faso

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    Patience Cofie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The study analysed the effect of Information, Education, and Communication (IEC campaign activities on the adoption of a community-based health insurance (CHI scheme in Nouna, Burkina Faso. It also identified the factors that enhanced or limited the campaign's effectiveness. Design : Complementary data collection approaches were used. A survey was conducted with 250 randomly selected household heads, followed by in-depth interviews with 22 purposively selected community leaders, group discussions with the project management team, and field observations. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between household exposure to campaign and acquisition of knowledge as well as household exposure to campaign and enrolment. Results : The IEC campaign had a positive effect on households’ knowledge about the CHI and to a lesser extent on household enrolment in the scheme. The effectiveness of the IEC strategy was mainly influenced by: 1 frequent and consistent IEC messages from multiple media channels (mass and interpersonal channels, including the radio, a mobile information van, and CHI team, and 2 community heads’ participation in the CHI scheme promotion. Education was the only significantly influential socio-demographic determinant of knowledge and enrolment among household heads. The relatively low effects of the IEC campaign on CHI enrolment are indicative of other important IEC mediating factors, which should be taken into account in future CHI campaign evaluation. Conclusion : The study concludes that an IEC campaign is crucial to improving the understanding of the CHI scheme concept, which is an enabler to enrolment, and should be integrated into scheme designs and evaluations.

  7. Malaria in rural Burkina Faso: local illness concepts, patterns of traditional treatment and influence on health-seeking behaviour

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    Kouyaté Bocar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on health care seeking behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa for children suffering from malaria is quite extensive. This literature, however, is predominately quantitative and, inevitably, fails to explore how the local concepts of illness may affect people's choices. Understanding local concepts of illness and their influence on health care-seeking behaviour can complement existing knowledge and lead to the development of more effective malaria control interventions. Methods In a rural area of Burkina Faso, four local concepts of illness resembling the biomedical picture of malaria were described according to symptoms, aetiology, and treatment. Data were collected through eight focus group discussions, 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants, and through the analysis of 100 verbal autopsy questionnaires of children under-five diagnosed with malaria. Results Sumaya, dusukun yelema, kono, and djoliban were identified as the four main local illness concepts resembling respectively uncomplicated malaria, respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, and severe anaemia. The local disease categorization was found to affect both treatment and provider choice. While sumaya is usually treated by a mix of traditional and modern methods, dusukun yelema and kono are preferably treated by traditional healers, and djoliban is preferably treated in modern health facilities. Besides the conceptualization of illness, poverty was found to be another important influencing factor of health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusion The findings complement previous evidence on health care-seeking behaviour, by showing how local concepts of illness strongly influence treatment and choice of provider. Local concepts of illness need to be considered when developing specific malaria control programmes.

  8. Low Prevalence Rate of Indeterminate Serological Human Immunodeficiency Virus Results among Pregnant Women from Burkina Faso, West Africa▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dramane; Fao, Paulin; Valéa, Diane; Gouem, Clarisse; Kagoné, Thérèse; Hien, Hervé; Somda, Paulin; Ouédraogo, Patrice; Drabo, Aly; Gampini, Sandrine; Méda, Nicolas; Diagbouga, Serge; Van de Perre, Philippe; Rouet, François

    2010-01-01

    Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests have been adopted into national guidelines for HIV testing in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. One goal of HIV rapid testing is to minimize the occurrence of indeterminate results. From January 2005 to December 2007, plasma (or serum) samples from pregnant women in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso, West Africa) were screened for HIV by using two rapid tests (the Determine HIV1/2 test [Abbott] and Genie II HIV-1/HIV-2 [Bio-Rad]) through a sequential algorithm prior to enrollment of HIV-1-infected women in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) trial (WHO/ANRS 1289 Kesho Bora trial). Samples exhibiting indeterminate results (Determine positive and Genie II negative) were further tested with a fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Murex HIV Ag/Ab combination in 2005 and 2006 and Vironostika HIV Uni-Form II Ag/Ab in 2007). If positive, they were finally assessed for HIV-1 RNA (Generic HIV-1 RNA viral load assay; Biocentric). From a total of 44,653 samples tested, 597 (1.3%) showed indeterminate results. Of these, 367 could be analyzed by EIA. Only 15 (15/367, 4.1%) samples were found EIA reactive. Of these, 11 could be tested for HIV-1 RNA. All were HIV-1 RNA negative. In our clinical practice, pregnant women with such indeterminate results are now reassured during posttest counseling that they are very unlikely to be infected with HIV-1. As a consequence, such women with indeterminate results can reliably be considered negative when urgent clinical decisions (such as providing PMTCT prophylaxis) need to be taken. PMID:20129958

  9. Low prevalence rate of indeterminate serological human immunodeficiency virus results among pregnant women from Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dramane; Fao, Paulin; Valéa, Diane; Gouem, Clarisse; Kagoné, Thérèse; Hien, Hervé; Somda, Paulin; Ouédraogo, Patrice; Drabo, Aly; Gampini, Sandrine; Méda, Nicolas; Diagbouga, Serge; Van de Perre, Philippe; Rouet, François

    2010-04-01

    Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests have been adopted into national guidelines for HIV testing in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. One goal of HIV rapid testing is to minimize the occurrence of indeterminate results. From January 2005 to December 2007, plasma (or serum) samples from pregnant women in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso, West Africa) were screened for HIV by using two rapid tests (the Determine HIV1/2 test [Abbott] and Genie II HIV-1/HIV-2 [Bio-Rad]) through a sequential algorithm prior to enrollment of HIV-1-infected women in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) trial (WHO/ANRS 1289 Kesho Bora trial). Samples exhibiting indeterminate results (Determine positive and Genie II negative) were further tested with a fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Murex HIV Ag/Ab combination in 2005 and 2006 and Vironostika HIV Uni-Form II Ag/Ab in 2007). If positive, they were finally assessed for HIV-1 RNA (Generic HIV-1 RNA viral load assay; Biocentric). From a total of 44,653 samples tested, 597 (1.3%) showed indeterminate results. Of these, 367 could be analyzed by EIA. Only 15 (15/367, 4.1%) samples were found EIA reactive. Of these, 11 could be tested for HIV-1 RNA. All were HIV-1 RNA negative. In our clinical practice, pregnant women with such indeterminate results are now reassured during posttest counseling that they are very unlikely to be infected with HIV-1. As a consequence, such women with indeterminate results can reliably be considered negative when urgent clinical decisions (such as providing PMTCT prophylaxis) need to be taken.

  10. Characterization of the rainy season in Burkina Faso and it's representation by regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, B.; Karambiri, H. [Institut International d' Ingenierie de l' Eau et de l' Environnement (2iE), Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso); Polcher, J. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique du CNRS, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Rockel, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Institute of Coastal Research/Group Regional Atmospheric Modeling, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    West African monsoon is one of the most challenging climate components to model. Five regional climate models (RCMs) were run over the West African region with two lateral boundary conditions, ERA-Interim re-analysis and simulations from two general circulation models (GCMs). Two sets of daily rainfall data were generated from these boundary conditions. These simulated rainfall data are analyzed here in comparison to daily rainfall data collected over a network of ten synoptic stations in Burkina Faso from 1990 to 2004. The analyses are based on a description of the rainy season throughout a number of it's characteristics. It was found that the two sets of rainfall data produced with the two driving data present significant biases. The RCMs generally produce too frequent low rainfall values (between 0.1 and 5 mm/day) and too high extreme rainfalls (more than twice the observed values). The high frequency of low rainfall events in the RCMs induces shorter dry spells at the rainfall thresholds of 0.1-1 mm/day. Altogether, there are large disagreements between the models on the simulate season duration and the annual rainfall amounts but most striking are their differences in representing the distribution of rainfall intensity. It is remarkable that these conclusions are valid whether the RCMs are driven by re-analysis or GCMs. In none of the analyzed rainy season characteristics, a significant improvement of their representation can be found when the RCM is forced by the re-analysis, indicating that these deficiencies are intrinsic to the models. (orig.)

  11. Situating mobile health: a qualitative study of mHealth expectations in the rural health district of Nouna, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Vincent; Yé, Maurice; Moubassira, Kagoné; Sanou, Hamidou; Sawadogo, N Hélène; Bibeau, Gilles; Sié, Ali

    2017-07-12

    The implementation of mobile health (mHealth) projects in low- and middle-income countries raises high and well-documented expectations among development agencies, policymakers and researchers. By contrast, the expectations of direct and indirect mHealth users are not often examined. In preparation for a proposed intervention in the Nouna Health District, in rural Burkina Faso, this study investigates the expected benefits, challenges and limitations associated with mHealth, approaching these expectations as a form of situated knowledge, inseparable from local conditions, practices and experiences. The study was conducted within the Nouna Health District. We used a qualitative approach, and conducted individual semi-structured interviews and group interviews (n = 10). Participants included healthcare workers (n = 19), godmothers (n = 24), pregnant women (n = 19), women with children aged 12-24 months (n = 33), and women of childbearing age (n = 92). Thematic and content qualitative analyses were conducted. Participants expect mHealth to help retrieve patients lost to follow-up, improve maternal care monitoring, and build stronger relationships between pregnant women and primary health centres. Expected benefits are not reducible to a technological realisation (sending messages), but rather point towards a wider network of support. mHealth implementation is expected to present considerable challenges, including technological barriers, organisational challenges, gender issues, confidentiality concerns and unplanned aftereffects. mHealth is also expected to come with intrinsic limitations, to be found as obstacles to maternal care access with which pregnant women are confronted and on which mHealth is not expected to have any significant impact. mHealth expectations appear as situated knowledges, inseparable from local health-related experiences, practices and constraints. This problematises universalistic approaches to mHealth knowledge, while nevertheless hinting at

  12. The long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso.

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    Patrick G C Ilboudo

    Full Text Available This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a "near miss" event. To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women's quality of life; b for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children's education and c for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions.

  13. Costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient’s perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents’ guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11–16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households’ poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. PMID:24829315

  14. Caregiver perceptions and utilization of oral rehydration solution and other treatments for diarrhea among young children in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digre, Peder; Simpson, Evan; Cali, Shannon; Lartey, Belinda; Moodley, Melissa; Diop, Ndack

    2016-12-01

    More than 500 000 young children die from dehydration caused by severe diarrhea each year, globally. Although routine use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) could prevent almost all of these deaths, ORS utilization remains low in many low-income countries. Previous research has suggested that misperceptions among caregivers may be an obstacle to wider use of ORS. To better understand the extent of ORS utilization and the reasons for use or non-use in low-resource settings, the project team conducted a semi-structured, quantitative survey of 400 caregivers in Burkina Faso in 2014. All caregivers had a child below the age of five who had diarrhea lasting 2 days or more in the previous 2 months. Although more than 80% of caregivers were aware of ORS, less than half reported using it to treat their child's diarrhea. Replacing fluids lost due to diarrhea was considered a low priority by most caregivers, and many said they considered antibiotics more effective for treating diarrhea. Users and non-users of ORS held substantially different perceptions of the product, though all caregivers tended to follow recommendations of health care workers. A significant proportion of users reported difficulty in getting a child to drink ORS. Costs and access to ORS were not found to be significant barriers to use. Misperceptions among caregivers and health workers contribute to low utilization of ORS. Better caregiver understanding of diarrheal disease and the importance of rehydration, as well as increased recommendation by health workers, will help to increase ORS utilization. Improving product presentation and taste will also help to increase use.

  15. The challenge of religious and language diversity in Burkina Faso formal education: students’ mobility and social networks

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    Pingrewaoga Bema Abdoul Hadi Savadogo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the education of young Muslims in Burkina Faso through relevant literature analysis and the authors’ observations, highlighting the pathways of study in Arabic-speaking countries and the social dynamics around them. The central theme is associated with the more general debate about education and diversity, because it discusses, on the one hand, the educational hegemony of secular orientation carried out in French adopted by part of the society and made official by the nation-state; on the other hand, it stresses the movement of another part of society that continues to enroll their children in Muslim schools where teaching is conducted in Arabic or bilingual (French and Arabic. The study describes the sociopolitical contexts that constitute the institutions of Islamic education, emphasizing the importance of Franco-Arabic schools and new Muslim private universities from the non-public higher education network. Following this discussion, there is a debate about the contribution of these young graduated men and women (inside and outside the country to hold and maintain the educational system. This paper also highlights the political action of these groups that claims for citizenship through religious practices. We conclude by stressing the existence of the fundamental contribution of Islam, which remains a powerful space for the construction of social and interpersonal meanings even in post-colonial dynamics. This is the scenario in which the reconstruction of networks may be converted into an overall challenge for social occupational therapy to mediate conflicts emerging from the confrontation of values and social practices.

  16. Beyond body counts: a qualitative study of lives and loss in Burkina Faso after 'near-miss' obstetric complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Katerini Tagmatarchi; Murray, Susan F; Akoum, Mélanie S; Ouattara, Fatoumata; Filippi, Véronique

    2010-11-01

    Averting women's pregnancy-related death is today recognised as an international health and development priority. Maternal survival is, in this sense, a success story. There is, however, little research into what happens to the women who survive the severe obstetric complications that are the main causes of maternal mortality. This paper examines findings from repeated in-depth interviews with 64 women who survived a clinically defined 'near-miss.' These interviews were conducted as part of a prospective longitudinal study of women who 'nearly died' of pregnancy-related complications in Burkina Faso, a poor country in West Africa. Drawing on sociological and anthropological perspectives that consider the defining characteristics of 'loss' to be social as much as biomedical, the paper seeks to understand loss as disruption of familiar forms and patterns of life. Women's accounts of their lives in the year following the near-miss event show that such events are not only about blood loss, seizures or infections, but also about a household crisis for which all available resources were mobilised, with a train of physical, economic and social consequences. The paper argues that near-miss events are characterised by the near-loss of a woman's life, but also frequently by the loss of the baby and by further significant disruptions in three overlapping dimensions of women's lives. These include disruption of bodily integrity through injury, ongoing illness and loss of strength and stamina; disruption of the household economy through high expenditure, debts and loss of productive capacity; and disruption of social identity and social stability. Maternal health policy needs to be concerned not only with averting the loss of life, but also with preventing or ameliorating others losses set in motion by an obstetric crisis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury and selenium in african sub-tropical fluvial reservoirs food webs (Burkina Faso.

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    Ousséni Ouédraogo

    Full Text Available The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg and selenium (Se were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg, methylmercury (MeHg, and total Se (TSe. Ratios of δ13C and δ15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs were calculated using mean δ15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted δ15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area.

  18. Impact of contaminated household environment on stunting in children aged 12-59 months in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregonese, Federica; Siekmans, Kendra; Kouanda, Seni; Druetz, Thomas; Ly, Antarou; Diabaté, Souleymane; Haddad, Slim

    2017-04-01

    Stunting affects 165 million children worldwide, with repercussions on their survival and development. A contaminated environment is likely to contribute to stunting: frequent faecal-oral transmission possibly causes environmental enteropathy, a chronic inflammatory disorder that may contribute to faltering growth in children. This study's objective was to assess the effect of contaminated environment on stunting in Burkina Faso, where stunting prevalence is persistently high. Panel study of children aged 1-5 years in Kaya. Household socioeconomic characteristics, food needs and sanitary conditions were measured once, and child growth every year (2011-2014). Using multiple correspondence analysis and 12 questions and observations on water, sanitation, hygiene behaviours, yard cleanliness and animal proximity, we constructed a 'contaminated environment' index as a proxy of faecal-oral transmission exposure. Analysis was performed using a generalised structural equation model (SEM), adjusting for repeat observations and hierarchical data. Stunting (children (median (IQR) age 36 (25-48) months). Environment contamination was widespread, particularly in rural and peri-urban areas, and was associated with stunting (prevalence ratio 1.30; p=0.008), controlling for sex, age, survey year, setting, mother's education, father's occupation, household food security and wealth. This association was significant for children of all ages (1-5 years) and settings. Lower contamination and higher food security had effects of comparable magnitude. Environment contamination can be at least as influential as nutritional components in the pathway to stunting. There is a rationale for including interventions to reduce environment contamination in stunting prevention programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, Pawindé Elisabeth; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke; Sankara, Philippe; Somda, Irénée; Néya, Adama

    2008-02-01

    Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi recorded on each crop by the blotter test. Six essential oils of plants were investigated for their inhibitory activity against eight pathogenic fungi. Thirty four and 27 fungal species were found in seed samples of sorghum and pearl millet, respectively. Phoma sp. and Fusarium moniliforme infected 95 to 100% of the seed samples of both sorghum and pearl millet. Sphacelotheca sorghi and Tolyposporium ehrenbergii were encountered in respectively, 75 and 33% of seed samples of sorghum. T. penicillariae, Sclerospora graminicola and Claviceps fusiformis were present in 88, 41 and 32% of seed samples of pearl millet, respectively. Seeds inoculated with Acremonium strictum, Curvularia oryzae, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans and sown in sterilized soil, showed considerable mortality of the seedlings. Three essential oils inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of all the fungi used by 85 to 100% and reduced significantly sorghum and pearl millet seed infection rates of Phoma sp., Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum graminicola and Exserohilum sp. Presence of many pathogenic fungi in considerable number of seed samples indicates the need of field surveys for these and other pathogens. Development of plant extracts for the control of seed-borne pathogens and public awareness on seed-borne diseases management measures for maintaining quality seed should be increased.

  20. Wealth and under-nourishment among married women in two impoverished nations: evidence from Burkina Faso and Congo Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Palamuleni, Martin Enoch; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby

    2015-02-08

    Burkina Faso (BF) and Congo Democratic Republic (CDR) are among the top-ten poverty and hunger stricken countries globally. The influence of poverty and hunger on health is enormous. The objectives of the study are to; examine the association between poverty and nutritional status, it also identified socio-demographic and health related mediating factors that contribute to the relationship between poverty and poor nutritional status. The study focused on married or cohabiting women aged 15-49 years and utilized 2010 and 2007 DHS dataset from BF and CDR respectively. Mean age of the women in BF and CDR were 34.4 ± 9.3 and 34.7 ± 9.0 years respectively. About 19.4% and 18.4% of the poor were malnourished as against 7.7% and 9.7% of the rich women in BF and CDR respectively. Obesity and overweight were more prominent among the rich than the poor. Higher prevalence of under-nourish women was found among the older than the younger women in BF. In the countries, the prevalence of malnutrition was significantly higher among women; in the rural areas, with no formal education, anaemic and those who are not working. Multivariate analysis revealed that in the countries, the risk of under-nourishment was significantly higher among poor and middle class than the rich women despite controlling for confounding variables. Undernourished women were more common among the poor and those with no formal education. Programs that target nutrition of women of reproductive age should be strengthened in BF and CDR.

  1. Smallholders’ Tree Planting Activity in the Ziro Province, Southern Burkina Faso: Impacts on Livelihood and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Etongo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability and change significantly affect smallholder farmers’ food security and livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa. Tree planting is one of the measures promoted by development programs to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Tree planting is also believed to positively contribute to livelihoods. This paper examines factors influencing smallholders’ tree planting activities in four villages in the Ziro province, Southern Burkina Faso. Furthermore, it analyses the challenges encountered and willingness to continue tree planting under current tenure arrangements. The data was obtained through key informants, household interviews, focus group discussions, and field observations. Results indicate that the majority of farmers interviewed planted Mangifera indica (50%, Anacardium occidentale (32% and Moringa oleifera (30%. In a number of trees planted, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Mangifera indica and Anacardium occidentale dominated. Tree planters were mainly farmers who held large and old farm areas, were literate and relatively wealthy, had favorable attitudes toward tree planting, and with considerable years of participation in a farmers’ group. The main reasons for planting trees included income generation from the sale of tree products, access to markets and local support for tree planting. Preference for agriculture, tenure insecurity and lack of sufficient land were the main reasons cited for not planting trees. Farm households that were relatively poor, had smaller workforces and smaller farm sizes were not willing to continue tree planting. To effectively engage farmers in tree planting and to make it more attractive, policies are needed that address tenure insecurity for migrants, enable better access to markets, and support fair pricing structures for wood and other tree resources.

  2. Weather and mortality: a 10 year retrospective analysis of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diboulo, Eric; Sié, Ali; Rocklöv, Joacim; Niamba, Louis; Yé, Maurice; Bagagnan, Cheik; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence points to the emission of greenhouse gases from human activity as a key factor in climate change. This in turn affects human health and wellbeing through consequential changes in weather extremes. At present, little is known about the effects of weather on the health of sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the related anticipated effects of climate change partly due to scarcity of good quality data. We aimed to study the association between weather patterns and daily mortality in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area during 1999–2009. Methods Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station in the Nouna HDSS area and linked to mortality data on a daily basis. Time series Poisson regression models were established to estimate the association between the lags of weather and daily population-level mortality, adjusting for time trends. The analyses were stratified by age and sex to study differential population susceptibility. Results We found profound associations between higher temperature and daily mortality in the Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso. The short-term direct heat effect was particularly strong on the under-five child mortality rate. We also found independent coherent effects and strong associations between rainfall events and daily mortality, particularly in elderly populations. Conclusion Mortality patterns in the Nouna HDSS appear to be closely related to weather conditions. Further investigation on cause-specific mortality, as well as on vulnerability and susceptibility is required. Studies on local adaptation and mitigation measures to avoid health impacts from weather and climate change is also needed to reduce negative effects from weather and climate change on population health in rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23195510

  3. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow.

  4. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso.

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    Hélène Carabin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso.Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis.This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control cysticercosis infection.

  6. Collaborative development and implementation of a knowledge brokering program to promote research use in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dagenais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts expended over recent decades, there is a persistent gap between the production of scientific evidence and its use. This is mainly due to the difficulty of bringing such knowledge to health workers and decision-makers so that it can inform practices and decisions on a timely basis. One strategy for transferring knowledge to potential users, that is, gaining increasing legitimacy, is knowledge brokering (KB, effectiveness of which in certain conditions has been demonstrated through empirical research. However, little is known about how to implement such a strategy, especially in the African context. The KB program presented here is aimed specifically at narrowing the gap by making scientific knowledge available to users with the potential to improve health-related practices and decision making in Burkina Faso. The program involves Canadian and African researchers, a knowledge broker, health practitioners, and policy-makers. This article presents the collaborative development of the KB strategy and the evaluation of its implementation at year 1. The KB strategy was developed in stages, beginning with a scoping study to ensure the most recent studies were considered. Two one-day workshops were then conducted to explore the problem of low research use and to adapt the strategy to the Burkinabè context. Based on these workshops, the KB program was developed and brokers were recruited and trained. Evaluation of the program's implementation after the first year showed that: 1 the preparatory activities were greatly appreciated by participants, and most considered the content useful for their work; 2 the broker had carried out his role in accordance with the logic model; and 3 this role was seen as important by the participants targeted by the activities and outputs. Participants made suggestions for program improvements in subsequent years, stressing particularly the need to involve decision-makers at the central level.

  7. Weather and mortality: a 10 year retrospective analysis of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Sauerborn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing body of evidence points to the emission of greenhouse gases from human activity as a key factor in climate change. This in turn affects human health and wellbeing through consequential changes in weather extremes. At present, little is known about the effects of weather on the health of sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the related anticipated effects of climate change partly due to scarcity of good quality data. We aimed to study the association between weather patterns and daily mortality in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS area during 1999–2009. Methods: Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station in the Nouna HDSS area and linked to mortality data on a daily basis. Time series Poisson regression models were established to estimate the association between the lags of weather and daily population-level mortality, adjusting for time trends. The analyses were stratified by age and sex to study differential population susceptibility. Results: We found profound associations between higher temperature and daily mortality in the Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso. The short-term direct heat effect was particularly strong on the under-five child mortality rate. We also found independent coherent effects and strong associations between rainfall events and daily mortality, particularly in elderly populations. Conclusion: Mortality patterns in the Nouna HDSS appear to be closely related to weather conditions. Further investigation on cause-specific mortality, as well as on vulnerability and susceptibility is required. Studies on local adaptation and mitigation measures to avoid health impacts from weather and climate change is also needed to reduce negative effects from weather and climate change on population health in rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Dynamics of tsetse natural infection rates in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso, in relation with environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Koné, Naférima; Bengaly, Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomoses (AAT) are riverine tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (G.p.g.) and Glossina tachinoides Westwood (G.t.) (Diptera: Glossinidae). Experimental work demonstrated that environmental stress can increase the sensitivity of tsetse to trypanosome infection. Seasonal variations of the tsetse infection rates were monitored monthly over 17 months (May 2006-September 2007) in two sites (Douroula and Kadomba). In total, 1423 flies were dissected and the infection of the proboscis, middle intestine and salivary glands was noted. All the positive organs were analyzed using monospecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. To investigate the role of different environmental factors, fly infection rates were analyzed using generalized linear mixed binomial models using the species, sex, and monthly averages of the maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures, rainfalls, Land Surface Temperature day (LSTd) and night (LSTn) as fixed effects and the trap position as a random effect. The overall infection rate was 10% from which the predominant species was T. congolense (7.6% of the flies), followed by T. vivax (2.2% of the flies). The best model (lowest AICc) for the global infection rates was the one with the maximum daily temperature only as fixed effect (p temperature and rainfalls as fixed effect, where the maximum daily temperature was the main effect (p rate of T. congolense was very high (94%), and G. t. harbored a higher maturation rate (p = 0.03). The results are discussed in view of former laboratory studies showing that temperature stress can increase the susceptibility of tsetse to trypanosomes, as well as the possibility to improve AAT risk mapping using satellite images.

  9. Dynamics of tsetse natural infection rates in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso, in relation with environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy eBouyer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Burkina Faso, the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomoses (AAT are riverine tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (G.p.g. and Glossina tachinoides Westwood (G. t. (Diptera: Glossinidae. Experimental work demonstrated that environmental stress can increase the sensitivity of tsetse to trypanosome infection.Seasonal variations of the tsetse infection rates were monitored monthly over 17 months (May 2006-Sept 2007 in two sites (Douroula and Kadomba. In total, 1,423 flies were dissected and the infection of the proboscis, middle intestine and salivary glands was noted. All the positive organs were analyzed using monospecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers. To investigate the role of different environmental factors, fly infection rates were analyzed using generalized linear mixed binomial models using the species, sex, and monthly averages of the maximal, minimal and mean daily temperatures, rainfalls, Land Surface Temperature day (LSTd and night (LSTn as fixed effects and the trap position as a random effect.The overall infection rate was 10% from which the predominant species was T. congolense (7.6% of the flies, followed by T. vivax (2.2% of the flies. The best model (lowest AICc for the global infection rates was the one with the maximal daily temperature only as fixed effect (p<0.001. For T. congolense, the best model was the one with the tsetse species, sex, maximal daily temperature and rainfalls as fixed effect, where the maximal daily temperature was the main effect (p<0.001. The number of T. vivax infections was too low to allow the models to converge. The maturation rate of T. congolense was very high (94%, and G. t. harbored a higher maturation rate (p=0.03.The results are discussed in view of former laboratory studies showing that temperature stress can increase the susceptibility of tsetse to trypanosomes, as well as the possibility to improve AAT risk mapping using satellite images.

  10. Exploring the effects of task shifting for HIV through a systems thinking lens: the case of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya Bocoum, Fadima; Kouanda, Seni; Kouyaté, Bocar; Hounton, Sennen; Adam, Taghreed

    2013-10-22

    While the impact of task shifting on quality of care and clinical outcomes has been demonstrated in several studies, evidence on its impact on the health system as a whole is limited. This study has two main objectives. The first is to conceptualize the wider range of effects of task shifting through a systems thinking lens. The second is to explore these effects using task shifting for HIV in Burkina Faso as a case study. We used a case study approach, using qualitative research methods. Data sources included document reviews, reviews of available data and records, as well as interviews with key informants and health workers. In addition to the traditional measures of impact of task shifting on health outcomes, our study identified 20 possible effects of the strategy on the system as a whole. Moreover, our analysis highlighted the importance of differentiating between two types of health systems effects. The first are effects inherent to the task shifting strategy itself, such as job satisfaction or better access to health services. The second are effects due to health system barriers, for example the unavailability of medicines and supplies, generating a series of effects on the various components of the health system, e.g., staff frustration.Among the health systems effects that we found are positive, mostly unintended, effects and synergies such as increased health workers' sense of responsibility and worthiness, increased satisfaction due to using the newly acquired skills in other non-HIV tasks, as well as improved patient-provider relationships. Among the negative unintended effects are staff frustration due to lack of medicines and supplies or lack of the necessary infrastructure to be able to perform the new tasks. Our analysis highlights the importance of adopting a systems thinking approach in designing, implementing and evaluating health policies to mitigate some of the design issues or system bottle-necks that may impede their successful implementation

  11. Genotype diversity of group A rotavirus strains in children with acute diarrhea in urban Burkina Faso, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Damanka, Susan; Sanou, Idrissa; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Coulibaly, Sheick O; Bon, Fabienne; Haukka, Kaisa; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Armah, George E

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the diversity of G and P genotypes of rotavirus strains in Burkinabe children were examined. Between November 2008 and February 2010, 447 stool samples were collected from children rotavirus was previously detected in 151/447 (33.8%) of the samples tested by an immunochromatographic test and these samples were now tested further for rotavirus G and P genotypes by RT-PCR. Of these, the rotavirus type genes were amplified by RT-PCR for 140/151 (92.7%) samples and G and P genotypes were successfully determined for 81 (57.9%) and 130 (92.9%) samples, respectively. The most prevalent G genotypes were G1, 34/140 (24.3%), and G9, 21/140 (15%), while the predominant P genotypes were P[6], 56/140 (40%), and P[8], 54/140 (38.6%). Among the single infections, 63/140 (45%), the predominant G/P combinations were: G1P[8] (33%), G9P[8] (29%), and G2P[6] (14%). The unusual strains G1P[9] (3%), G12P[6] (3%), G10P[6] (2%), and G2P[8] (2%) were also detected. In a high number of strains 61/140 (43.6%), the G genotype could not be determined and mixed infections were determined in 17/140 (12.1%) of strains identified. This study highlights the high diversity and presence of unusual rotavirus strains in children in Burkina Faso. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. [Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in the pediatric teaching hospital Charles de Gaulle of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo Yugbaré, S O; Ouédraogo, R; Nenebi, A; Traoré, B; Congo, L; Yonli, F; Kima, D; Bonané, P; Yé, D; Plantier, J-C; Vabret, A; Marguet, C; Gueudin, M

    2016-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are little known in Burkina Faso. The objective of our work is to study the epidemiological and clinical aspects of RSV infections in infants in the Pediatric Teaching Hospital Charles de Gaulle of Ouagadougou. Between July 1(st) 2010 and June 30(th) 2011, we analyzed by direct immunofluorescence and PCR nasopharyngeal swabs from children from 0 to 36 months old. All in all, 210 patients among whom 74 from the external consultation (35.2%) and 136 hospitalized (64.7%) benefited from a nasopharyngeal aspiration. The motives for consultation were cough (91.7%), rhinitis (79.2%), fever (79.2%) and respiratory distress syndrome (66.7%). The evoked diagnoses were predominantly the acute bronchiolitis in 14 cases (58.3%) followed by the acute pulmonary disease in 7 patients (26.2%) then flue in 1 patient (16.7%). We detected by direct immunofluorescence the antigens of the respiratory viruses in 21 nasopharyngeal aspirations with 10 cases of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections (47.6%). The PCR realized on 208 samples allowed to identify 153 positive samples (73.2%) with 24 RSV, i.e. a global prevalence of 16.1% with a peak of 18 cases (75%). In October, all the patients benefited from an often multiple antibiotic treatment of at least 10 days which was not still necessary. The evolution was favorable for all patients. This study confirms the important place of the viruses which are detected in 70% of the cases. The PCR multiplex, certainly expensive but effective and successful, deserves to be used in our developing countries to avoid the irrational prescription of antibiotic.

  13. Etudes des styles de management au Burkina Faso et au Sénégal : A la Recherche des Spécificités d'un Système de management africain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illa, Honorine

    2012-01-01

    Managementstijlen in Burkina Faso en Senegal Er wordt vaak beweerd dat ontwikkelingslanden hun economische groei kunnen versnellen als zij kennis overnemen uit de moderne westerse maatschappij en zich daaraan aanpassen. Lijnrecht daartegenover staan juist degenen die menen dat westerse kennis niet

  14. Antibody levels against GLURP R2, MSP1 block 2 hybrid and AS202.11 and the risk of malaria in children living in hyperendemic (Burkina Faso) and hypo-endemic (Ghana) areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adu, Bright; Cherif, Mariama K; Bosomprah, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    assessed in children living in malaria hyperendemic (Burkina Faso, n = 354) and hypo-endemic (Ghana, n = 209) areas. Using the same reagent lots and standardized protocols for both study sites, immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG and IgG sub-class levels to each antigen were measured by ELISA in plasma from...

  15. Community assessment of availability, consumption, and cultural acceptability of food sources of (pro)vitamin A: Toward the development of a dietary intervention among preschool children in rural Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nana, C.P.; Brouwer, I.D.; Zagré, N.M.; Kok, F.J.; Traoré, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso and elsewhere in the developing world. Dietary diversification is a promising strategy that needs to be explored to strengthen the country's ongoing supplementation program. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify

  16. La regeneration de l'espace sylvo-pastoral au Sahel : une etude de l'effet de mesures de conservation des eaux et des sols au Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hien, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    Sahelian rangelands are subject to degradation caused by physical and human factors. This report presents the results of recent research in Burkina Faso on methods for regenerating such rangelands. It begins with an overview of existing regeneration methods. Quantitative ecological field work

  17. Evaluation in vitro de l'activité antagoniste d'isolats de Trichoderma harzianum Pers. contre trois espèces fongiques pathogènes de l'oignon au Burkina Faso

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    Dabire, TG.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro Evaluation of Antagonistic Activity of Trichoderma harzianum Pers. Isolates against Three Fungal Species Pathogens of Onion in Burkina Faso. The antagonistic effect of five Trichoderma harzianum Pers. isolates of which four from Burkina Faso and one from South Africa was evaluated in vitro against Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae Schlecht. Emend. Snyd & Hans and Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc. regarded as the main onion fungal pathogens in Burkina Faso. The fungal pathogens species and T. harzianum isolates were directly confronted in Petri dishes for seven days. The pathogen radial growth in presence or absence of antagonist was measured. The two isolates with the highest antagonism rates were grown with each pathogen in confrontation at distance. The culture took place in two Petri dishes sealed with parafilm for seven days. The radial growth of each pathogen was measured. All isolates of T. harzianum inhibited the fungal pathogens growth with antagonism ratio ranging from 0.61 to 0.93 and 0.01 to 0.24 respectively by direct and remote confrontation. The isolates ThTab from Burkina Faso and ThAfs from South Africa showed the best antagonism effect and a myco-parasitic action on all tested pathogens. The antagonistic action modes of these isolates and their possible biological control use are discussed.

  18. Knowledge and perceptions of health and environmental risks related to artisanal gold mining by the artisanal miners in Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Adama; De Brouwer, Christophe; Hien, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Artisanal gold mining is an activity ensuring the survival of about 700,000 families in Burkina Faso with a considerable contribution to the national economy. Techniques and chemicals used in the operation, have adverse impacts on health and the environment. Our study aims to evaluate the perceptions and knowledge of these different impacts among artisanal gold miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in artisanal gold mines Bouda and Nagsene in the region of the North of Burkina Faso. Two hundred miners over 18 years of age were interviewed. Results All the participants have recognized that gold mining has health impacts and 88.5% felt these impacts as important with a significantly higher proportion among those with more than 3 years' seniority (p = 0.001). The environmental impacts were perceived as important by 64.5% of miners, with a significant difference according to the position (p = 0.004). Sixty percent (60%) of respondents could identify at least 3 of the 5 health impacts of gold mining listed and 49.5% acknowledged at least 3 impacts on the environment. The diggers had significantly more knowledge about the symptoms (p mining. Findings might be used to develop more effective awareness campaigns in the future. Communication with diggers must focus on the risk perception because it appears that raising risk perceptions from low to high would have a major effect on behavior. PMID:29187949

  19. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli detected by 16-plex PCR in raw meat and beef intestines sold at local markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Martikainen, Outi; Lienemann, Taru; Siitonen, Anja; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-02-01

    The study investigated the prevalence of five major Escherichia coli pathogroups in raw meats and beef intestines sold at the local markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. One hundred and twenty samples (36 beef, 36 beef intestine, 24 mutton and 24 chicken samples) were purchased from four markets between October 2008 and February 2009. Fifteen virulence genes specific for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) were examined using 16-plex PCR for mixed bacterial cultures derived from the samples. One or more diarrheagenic E. coli pathogroup was detected in 51 (43%) of all the 120 samples: in 16 (44%) beef, 19 (53%) beef intestine, 9 (38%) mutton and in 7 (29%) chicken samples. Thirty three (28%) samples were positive for stx(1) and/or stx(2) indicating presence of STEC. EPEC virulence markers (eae, escV and/or ent and/or bfp and/or EHEC-hlyA) were detected in 14 (12%) stx-negative samples. ETEC virulence markers (elt and/or estIb and/or estIa) were detected in 10 (8%) samples and EAEC virulence markers (pic or aggR) in 5 (4%) samples. No EIEC was detected. The results show that in Burkina Faso the microbiological quality of retail meat is alarmingly poor due to the common occurrence of diarrheagenic E. coli bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analyse comparative de la rentabilité des systèmes de production de coton biologique, conventionnel et transgénique au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vognan, G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative Analysis of the Profitability of Organic, Conventional, and Transgenic Cotton Farming Systems in Burkina Faso. This research aimed to compare the profitability of cotton cropping systems (cotton and rotation crops according to three production modes: organic, conventional, and transgenic. The study was conducted in Burkina Faso on a sample of 180 households of which 60 households from organic cotton system, 60 households from conventional cotton system, and 60 households from transgenic cotton system. It came out that the production costs of the various crops in the transgenic and conventional systems are higher than those of the organic system. The differences in the production costs for the three modes of production are highly significant especially for cotton, corn, sorghum and groundnut. In terms of profitability, there's no significant difference in the margins generated by the different modes of cotton production. On the other hand, the sensitivity analysis revealed that organic cotton is financially more resilient to cotton price fluctuation and chemical inputs cost. Actually, organic cotton production seems to be a viable option to alleviate poverty in the present context of climate change.

  1. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of soft, semi-solid or solid food among infants in Boucle du Mouhoun, Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Ganaba, Rasmané; Sarrassat, Sophie; Cousens, Simon; Somé, Henri; Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Filippi, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is among the most effective interventions for preventing child mortality. The objectives of this paper are to describe infant feeding knowledge and practices in Boucle du Mouhoun, Burkina Faso; to identify predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among infants breastfeeding. A cross-sectional survey (n = 2288) of a representative sample of women aged 15-49 years with at least one live birth in past year took place during June and July 2015. Crude and multivariable random-effects logistic regressions were used to identify factors predictive of exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of soft, semi-solid or solid food. 30% of infants breastfeeding, nonetheless 60% of mothers who correctly identified that an infant should be exclusively breastfed for 6 months did not breastfeed their infant exclusively. Only 42% of mothers reported receiving advice on breastfeeding from a health worker, despite all mothers having contact with a health worker at least once during pregnancy or postpartum. Given poor practices and low levels of knowledge, targeted interventions are needed to improve infant nutrition in Boucle du Mouhoun during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. Most women now deliver in a facility in Burkina Faso; increased attention should be paid to ensuring that existing guidelines relating to support and counselling for infant feeding are adhered to. Factors such as social norms are also important and these should be investigated in more detail using qualitative methods.

  2. Monitoring compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in west Africa: multisite cross sectional survey in Togo and Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Victor M; Ross, Jay S; Kanon, Souleyman; Ouedraogo, Andre N

    2003-01-18

    To monitor compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in health systems, sales outlets, distribution points, and the news media in Togo and Burkina Faso, west Africa. Multisite cross sectional survey. Staff at 43 health facilities and 66 sales outlets and distribution points, 186 health providers, and 105 mothers of infants aged market commercial breast milk substitutes were found in 29 (44%) sales and distribution points. Forty commercial breast milk substitutes violated the labelling standards of the code: 21 were manufactured by Danone, 11 by Nestlé, and eight by other national and international manufacturers. Most (148, 90%) health providers had never heard of the code, and 66 mothers (63%) had never received any counselling on breast feeding by their health providers. In west Africa manufacturers are violating the code of marketing of breast milk substitutes. Comparable levels of code violations are observed with (Burkina Faso) or without (Togo) regulating legislation. Legislation must be accompanied by effective information, training, and monitoring systems to ensure that healthcare providers and manufacturers comply with evidence based practice and the code.

  3. Prévalence de Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, agent des rayures bactériennes du riz dans les semences de base produites au Burkina Faso

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    Dakouo, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Bacterial Stripe Organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, in Breeder Rice Seed Samples from Burkina Faso. Nine rice seed samples of improved and local varieties were tested at DGISP (Denmark for the incidence of seed-borne bacterial stripe organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, using the cassette holder method. Twenty-six suspected bacterial colonies were identified by different methods including colony morphology, pigmentation, biochemical and pathogenicity tests. Using Biolog GN computer identification system, isolates were also identified as A. avenae subsp. avenae (sim 0.51 to 0.9. All the 26 isolates reacted positively in ELISA tests performed with antiserum against A. avenae subsp. avenae. The bacterium was detected in all the samples, except in that of the local variety, indicating that seeds of improved varieties are highly infected by this pathogen. Seedlings raised from infected seed samples showed typical bacterial stripe symptoms with infection rates ranging from 4.7 to 20.1%. Since such seeds are used for production of certified rice seed, it is important to develop an effective control strategy against this disease to reduce the propagation of the bacterial agent in other healthy regions of rice culture in Burkina Faso.

  4. Clinical Variation of Plasmodium falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 Genotypes in Young Children Living in a Seasonally High Malaria Transmission Setting in Burkina Faso

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    Issiaka Soulama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between P. falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 polymorphism in the pathogenicity of malaria disease was investigated. We therefore compared the prevalence of different alleles between symptomatic and asymptomatic malarial children under five years of age living in Burkina Faso. Blood filter papers were collected during the 2008 malaria transmission season from 228 symptomatic and 199 asymptomatic children under five years of age. All patients were living in the rural area of Saponé at about 50 km from Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. P. falciparum parasite DNA was extracted using QIAGEN kits and the alleles diversity was assessed by a nested PCR. PCR products were then digested by restriction enzymes based on already described polymorphic regions of the eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 genes. The individual alleles eba-175_FCR3 and msp-3_K1 frequencies were statistically higher (p0.05. The comparative analysis of P. falciparum genotypes indicated that the polymorphism in eba-175 and msp-3 genotypes varied between asymptomatic and symptomatic clinical groups and may contribute to the pathogenesis of malaria.

  5. Parasites gastro-intestinaux d'antilopes et de buffles (Syncerus caffer brachyceros du ranch de gibier de Nazinga au Burkina Faso

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    Belem AMG.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-intestinal parasites of antelopes and buffalos (Syncerus caffer brachyceros from the Nazinga game ranch in Burkina Faso. Parasitological survey done on the digestive tracts of antelopes [roans (Hippotragus equinus koba, hartebeests (Alcelaphus buselaphus major, defassa waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa, oribis (Ourebia ourebi quadriscopa] and buffalos (Syncerus caffer brachyceros from the Nazinga game ranch in Burkina Faso allowed the identification of gastrointestinal parasites and the estimation of their prevalence and load. Nine different nematode species and three cestode species were found. Females and larvae of Cooperia were not identified up to the species level and were recognized as Cooperia spp. The nematode species found were: Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia curticei, Cooperia spatulata, Skrjabinema sp., Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichuris ovis, Bunostomum phlebotomum, and Oesophagostomum sp. Cestodes’ species were: Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata, and Stilesia globipunctata. It was also noted without a thorough investigation the presence of Setaria labiato-papillosa in the abdominal cavity and paramphistomes in the rumen. In spite of the presence of parasites on the antelopes and buffalos, their killing out percentages (47.5 to 54.7% indicated a good physical status.

  6. Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1) molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB) (88 to 98% nucleotide identity). One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) (89% nucleotide identity), whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity), provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009) and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765). Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD. PMID:20178575

  7. Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso

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    Reynaud Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF, we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1 molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB (88 to 98% nucleotide identity. One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA (89% nucleotide identity, whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity, provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA. Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009 and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765. Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD.

  8. Knowledge and perceptions of health and environmental risks related to artisanal gold mining by the artisanal miners in Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Adama; De Brouwer, Christophe; Hien, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining is an activity ensuring the survival of about 700,000 families in Burkina Faso with a considerable contribution to the national economy. Techniques and chemicals used in the operation, have adverse impacts on health and the environment. Our study aims to evaluate the perceptions and knowledge of these different impacts among artisanal gold miners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in artisanal gold mines Bouda and Nagsene in the region of the North of Burkina Faso. Two hundred miners over 18 years of age were interviewed. All the participants have recognized that gold mining has health impacts and 88.5% felt these impacts as important with a significantly higher proportion among those with more than 3 years' seniority (p = 0.001). The environmental impacts were perceived as important by 64.5% of miners, with a significant difference according to the position (p = 0.004). Sixty percent (60%) of respondents could identify at least 3 of the 5 health impacts of gold mining listed and 49.5% acknowledged at least 3 impacts on the environment. The diggers had significantly more knowledge about the symptoms (p environmental impacts of artisanal gold mining. Findings might be used to develop more effective awareness campaigns in the future. Communication with diggers must focus on the risk perception because it appears that raising risk perceptions from low to high would have a major effect on behavior.

  9. Histoire d’un itinéraire épidémiologique entre le Burkina Faso et la Côte d’Ivoire : le cas des foyers de maladie du sommeil de Koudougou

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    Kiendrébéogo D.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans la première moitié du XXème siècle, alors que la Haute-Volta (actuel Burkina Faso subissait une terrible épidémie de maladie du sommeil, l’administration coloniale française a orchestré des déplacements massifs de populations de la Haute-Volta vers la Côte d’Ivoire, pour exploiter le territoire. Cela a conduit à la mise en place de villages de colonisation Mossi en zone forestière ivoirienne, comme ceux de Koudougou, issus de l’une des régions les plus peuplées de Haute-Volta, mais aussi l’une des plus touchées par la maladie du sommeil. Depuis 2000, au Burkina Faso, c’est dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou que sont dépistés passivement le plus grand nombre de trypanosomés en provenance de Côte d’Ivoire. Qui sont-ils ? Où habitent-ils au Burkina Faso ? D’où viennent-ils de Côte d’Ivoire ? Après avoir retracé l’histoire épidémiologique des villages de Koudougou au Burkina Faso et en Côte d’Ivoire, nous avons recherché les trypanosomés dépistés passivement depuis 2000 dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou au Burkina Faso. Au total, dix trypanosomés ont été enquêtés. Le processus de propagation de la maladie du sommeil dans l’espace ivoiro-burkinabé a été mis en évidence et des zones à risque de la maladie identifiées dans ce même espace.

  10. Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Associated Genotypes among HBsAg-negative Subjects in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Birama; Yonli, Albert Théophane; Sorgho, Pegdwendé Abel; Compaore, Tegwindé Rebeca; Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Zongo, Wendpagnangdé Arsène; Tao, Issoufou; Traore, Lassina; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Djigma, Florencia Wendkuuni; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Nagalo, Bolni-Marius; Pietra, Virginio; Sanogo, Rokia; Simpore, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background The presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum) of individuals tested HBsAg negative by currently available assays is defined occult B Infection (OBI). It remains a potential transmission threat and risk to HBV chronic infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the OBI prevalence among HBsAg negative subjects and to characterize associated genotypes. Methods Blood samples of 219 HBsAg-negative subjects tested by ELISA were collected. HBV DNA was investigated in all samples. Viral loads were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. All samples were screened for HBV markers (anti-HBc, anti-HBe, HBsAg). The Pre-S/S region of the HBV genome was sequenced. The database was analyzed using the SPSS and Epi info software. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the BioEdit and MEGA software. Results Of the 219 samples, 20.1% were anti-HBc positive, 1.8% HBeAg and 22.8% were anti-HBe positive. Fifty-six (56) (25.6%) of the samples had a detectable HBV DNA and viral loads ranging from 4 IU/mL to 13.6 106 IU/mL. Sixteen of them (16/56) had a viral load 200 IU/mL, resulting in a “false OBI” prevalence of 18.3% (40/219). HBV genotype E was predominant followed by the quasi-sub-genotype A3. A single “false OBI” strain had the characteristic mutation G145R. Other mutations were observed and all located in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the S gene. Conclusion The study reported a prevalence of 7.3% of occult hepatitis B infection. It confirms the predominance of genotype E and the existence of a subgroup of quasi-sub-genotype A3 of HBV in Burkina Faso. It further provides information on the presence of “false OBI.” This study has found mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the pre-S/S gene of HBV. PMID:29326804

  11. [Role of quality control for improvement of blood components in the Regional Blood Centre of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebie, K; Sawadogo, S; Kafando, E; Bationo, E M; Dahourou, H; Ouattara, S; Kienou, K; Nana, S; Kaba, L; Fretz, C; Murphy, E L

    2017-11-01

    In Burkina Faso, blood components must comply with national standards. Then, all Transfusion services must implement a quality control process to ensure compliance. Our study aims to establish the main characteristics of blood components of the regional transfusion center of Ouagadougou, and evaluate the capability of this center to improve its manufacturing process. We conducted from marsh to December 2014 a pre-post study, assessing blood components' characteristics before and after the implementation of a six months' improvement plan. The assessed parameters were: volume, hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels in RBCs; volume and the number of platelets in PPCs; and volume and concentration of clotting factor VIII in fresh frozen plasma (FFP), respectively. Three hundred and twelve RBCs and 280 PCs were randomly selected for the first series of controls, and 215 RBCs, 54 PCs and 60 FFP were selected for the second series of controls. We compared the mean values of the components parameters and the overall non-compliance rates for each series. The average Hb level of RBCs was respectively 47.8±8.9g and 54.7±7.2g in the first and second series compare to a standard of≥40g. Non-compliance rates of Hb level decreased significantly from 17.6% to 1.4%. For PCs units, the mean number of platelets was 0.14±0.10×1011 and 0.30±0.15×1011 in the first and second period compare to a standard of 0.5×1011. Non-compliance rates for platelets number were high 97.1% and 72.2%. The study demonstrates that only RBCs complied with national standards. The study also demonstrates the capability of CRTSO to improve blood components' processing even if for PCs and FFP, NC rates remain high. QC must be maintained and expanded to the others regional blood centers of the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagora Bayala

    highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes.

  13. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    showed the highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes.

  14. Assessment of seasonal features based on Landsat time series for tree crown cover mapping in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxiu; Heiskanen, Janne; Aynekuly, Ermias; Pellikka, Petri

    2016-04-01

    Tree crown cover (CC) is an important vegetation attribute for land cover characterization, and for mapping and monitoring forest cover. Free data from Landsat and Sentinel-2 allow construction of fine resolution satellite image time series and extraction of seasonal features for predicting vegetation attributes. In the savannas, surface reflectance vary distinctively according to the rainy and dry seasons, and seasonal features are useful information for CC mapping. However, it is unclear if it is better to use spectral bands or vegetation indices (VI) for computation of seasonal features, and how feasible different VI are for CC prediction in the savanna woodlands and agroforestry parklands of West Africa. In this study, the objective was to compare seasonal features based on spectral bands and VI for CC mapping in southern Burkina Faso. A total of 35 Landsat images from November 2013 to October 2014 were processed. Seasonal features were computed using a harmonic model with three parameters (mean, amplitude and phase), and spectral bands, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), tasseled cap (TC) indices (brightness, greenness, wetness) as input data. The seasonal features were employed to predict field estimated CC (n = 160) using Random Forest algorithm. The most accurate results were achieved when using seasonal features based on TC indices (R2: 0.65; RMSE: 10.7%) and spectral bands (R2: 0.64; RMSE: 10.8%). GNDVI performed better than NDVI or NDWI, and NDWI resulted in the poorest results (R2: 0.56; RMSE: 11.9%). The results indicate that spectral features should be carefully selected for CC prediction as shown by relatively poor performance of commonly used NDVI. The seasonal features based on three TC indices and all the spectral bands provided superior accuracy in comparison to single VI. The method presented in this study provides a feasible method to map

  15. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    showed the highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes. PMID:24662935

  16. System-level determinants of immunization coverage disparities among health districts in Burkina Faso: a multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras Gisèle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite rapid and tangible progress in vaccine coverage and in premature mortality rates registered in sub-Saharan Africa, inequities to access remain firmly entrenched, large pockets of low vaccination coverage persist, and coverage often varies considerably across regions, districts, and health facilities' areas of responsibility. This paper focuses on system-related factors that can explain disparities in immunization coverage among districts in Burkina Faso. Methods A multiple-case study was conducted of six districts representative of different immunization trends and overall performance. A participative process that involved local experts and key actors led to a focus on key factors that could possibly determine the efficiency and efficacy of district vaccination services: occurrence of disease outbreaks and immunization days, overall district management performance, resources available for vaccination services, and institutional elements. The methodology, geared toward reconstructing the evolution of vaccine services performance from 2000 to 2006, is based on data from documents and from individual and group interviews in each of the six health districts. The process of interpreting results brought together the field personnel and the research team. Results The districts that perform best are those that assemble a set of favourable conditions. However, the leadership of the district medical officer (DMO appears to be the main conduit and the rallying point for these conditions. Typically, strong leadership that is recognized by the field teams ensures smooth operation of the vaccination services, promotes the emergence of new initiatives and offers some protection against risks related to outbreaks of epidemics or supplementary activities that can hinder routine functioning. The same is true for the ability of nurse managers and their teams to cope with new situations (epidemics, shortages of certain stocks. Conclusion

  17. Targeting vulnerable households in urban Burkina Faso: effectiveness of geographical criteria but not of proxy-means testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Sonia; Kameli, Yves; Ouattara, Ali; Castan, Florence; Perenze, Maria L; Kankouan, Justine; Traore, Alladari; Kouanda, Seni; Conte, Annalisa; Martin-Prével, Yves

    2016-06-01

    The 2007/2008 food prices hike has increased the interest in social safety nets programmes to fight food insecurity. Targeting the most in need is central to achieve effectiveness of such interventions. In 2009 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, a food voucher (FV) programme targeted the 25 000 most vulnerable households (8.3% of the population). Targeting used a two-stage process: first geographical selection of poorest districts (∼90 000 households); then, in those districts, identification of the most vulnerable households according to a proxy-means test (PMT). Targeted households were entitled to receive FV for 1 year. A first survey was conducted at the beginning of the FV distribution on a representative sample of 2273 households drawn from the poorest districts. One year later a second survey, conducted on a subsample of same households (n = 901), identified those who actually received FV (beneficiary). The performance of the whole process was assessed against household food expenditure, used as the reference measure for vulnerability with a cut-off point of 1513 FCFA (corresponding to the 8.3th percentile of the distribution of expenditure). The 'normalized share of transfers going to vulnerable households' (NSTVH), i.e. proportion of FVs allocated to households below the cut-point, was the main criteria of judgement. Almost twice as many FV were allocated to vulnerable households as compared with a theoretical random distribution all over Ouagadougou (NSTVH = 1.85). When considering the sole targeted districts the NSTVH was only 0.84 (i.e. no more effective than a random distribution), meaning that the geographical stage was effective to select vulnerable districts while the PMT did not perform well to identify the most vulnerable households in those districts. Results could have been improved if only targeted households had received FV (NSTVH = 2.61 and 1.18 for the whole Ouagadougou and targeted districts, respectively). Improved targeting

  18. [An epidemic risk of yellow fever in Burkina Faso despite a rapid immunisation riposte: role of a multidisciplinary investigation team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, H; Baldet, T; Cassel, A-M; Kabiré, C; Kambou, C

    2002-01-01

    On October 8, 1999, one yellow fever (YF) case is confirmed in the South West of Burkina Faso by the Centre Muraz' virology unit. Epidemic extension is suspected as large movements of population are occurring due to troubles in Côte d'Ivoire nearby and as the Aedes vector is endemic in the region. On October 23, the Gaoua's Health Regional Head immunizes 1,000 people around the detected YF case, i.e. 70% of the estimated population and requests an epidemiological investigation. A multidisciplinary team (epidemiologist, entomologist, virologist) from the Centre Muraz, a medical research centre based in Bobo Dioulasso investigate in order to answer the following questions: are there any other or asymptomatic cases of YF? How far is the epidemic risk? Is a paper filter a valuable method for collecting blood samples? What benefit can be gained from a multidisciplinary team? An epidemiological analysis of the patient, a research of asymptomatic or ignored patient is performed (Health Centre registers, interview of the population). This includes the research of people missing the immunisation campaign. Blood samples are collected through 5 ml EDTA glass tubes or through filter paper in order to measure immunoglobuline M. A classical entomological prospecting completes the investigation. Two possible cases are suspected in the patient's home. History of the patient's is in agreement with a local contamination. In the village 110 people missed the immunisation campaign and samples were collected in 58 people including 26 children. Among them, four (15.3%) were positive with immunoglobuline M, while there were none in the adults. Aedes Luteocephalus, a potential vector is collected through night-captures but is absent of home-water collection. Paper filter assays shows a 100% concordance with classical method. The team could determine the persistency of a yellow fever epidemic risk in the region despite a rapid and adequate immunisation riposte. Due to iterative sporadic

  19. Modeling Land Use Change Impacts on Water Resources in a Tropical West African Catchment (dano, Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yira, Y.; Diekkrüger, B.; Steup, G.; Bossa, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the impacts of land use change on water resources in the Dano catchment, Burkina Faso, using a physically based hydrological simulation model and land use scenarios. Land use dynamic in the catchment was assessed through the analysis of four land use maps corresponding to the land use status in 1990, 2000, 2007 and 2013. A reclassification procedure of the maps permitted to assess the major land use changes in the catchment from 1990 to 2013. The land use maps were used to build five land use scenarios corresponding to different levels of land use change in the catchment. Water balance was simulated by applying the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) using observed discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level for model calibration and validation. Model statistical quality measures (R2, NSE and KGE) achieved during the calibration and the validation ranged between 0.9 and 0.6 for total discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level, indicating satisfying to good agreements between observed and simulated variables. After a successful multi-criteria validation the model was run with the land use scenarios. The land use assessment exhibited a decrease of savannah at an annual rate of 2% since 1990. Conversely, cropland and urban areas have increased. Since urban areas occupy only 3% of the catchment in 2013 it can be assumed that savannah was mainly converted to cropland. The increase in cropland area results from the population growth and the farming system in the catchment. A clear increase in total discharge (+17%) and decrease in evapotranspiration (-5%) was observed following land use change in the catchment. A strong relationship was established between savannah degradation, cropland expansion, discharge increase and reduction of evapotranspiration. The increase in total discharge is related to high discharge and peak flow, suggesting (i) an increase in water resources that is not available for plant growth and the

  20. System-level determinants of immunization coverage disparities among health districts in Burkina Faso: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Slim; Bicaba, Abel; Feletto, Marta; Taminy, Elie; Kabore, Moussa; Ouédraogo, Boubacar; Contreras, Gisèle; Larocque, Renée; Fournier, Pierre

    2009-10-14

    Despite rapid and tangible progress in vaccine coverage and in premature mortality rates registered in sub-Saharan Africa, inequities to access remain firmly entrenched, large pockets of low vaccination coverage persist, and coverage often varies considerably across regions, districts, and health facilities' areas of responsibility. This paper focuses on system-related factors that can explain disparities in immunization coverage among districts in Burkina Faso. A multiple-case study was conducted of six districts representative of different immunization trends and overall performance. A participative process that involved local experts and key actors led to a focus on key factors that could possibly determine the efficiency and efficacy of district vaccination services: occurrence of disease outbreaks and immunization days, overall district management performance, resources available for vaccination services, and institutional elements. The methodology, geared toward reconstructing the evolution of vaccine services performance from 2000 to 2006, is based on data from documents and from individual and group interviews in each of the six health districts. The process of interpreting results brought together the field personnel and the research team. The districts that perform best are those that assemble a set of favourable conditions. However, the leadership of the district medical officer (DMO) appears to be the main conduit and the rallying point for these conditions. Typically, strong leadership that is recognized by the field teams ensures smooth operation of the vaccination services, promotes the emergence of new initiatives and offers some protection against risks related to outbreaks of epidemics or supplementary activities that can hinder routine functioning. The same is true for the ability of nurse managers and their teams to cope with new situations (epidemics, shortages of certain stocks). The discourse on factors that determine the performance or

  1. Decreased motivation in the use of insecticide-treated nets in a malaria endemic area in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toé, Léa Paré; Skovmand, Olé; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Diallo, Yveline; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert; Doannio, Julien Marie Christian; Akogbeto, Martin; Baldet, Thierry; Gruénais, Marc-Eric

    2009-07-29

    The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) is an important tool in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) strategy. For ITNs to be effective they need to be used correctly. Previous studies have shown that many factors, such as wealth, access to health care, education, ethnicity and gender, determine the ownership and use of ITNs. Some studies showed that free distribution and public awareness campaigns increased the rate of use. However, there have been no evaluations of the short- and long-term impact of such motivation campaigns. A study carried out in a malaria endemic area in south-western Burkina Faso indicated that this increased use declined after several months. The reasons were a combination of the community representation of malaria, the perception of the effectiveness and usefulness of ITNs and also the manner in which households are organized by day and by night. PermaNet 2.0 and Olyset were distributed in 455 compounds at the beginning of the rainy season. The community was educated on the effectiveness of nets in reducing malaria and on how to use them. To assess motivation, qualitative tools were used: one hundred people were interviewed, two hundred houses were observed directly and two houses were monitored monthly throughout one year. The motivation for the use of bednets decreased after less than a year. Inhabitants' conception of malaria and the inconvenience of using bednets in small houses were the major reasons. Acceptance that ITNs were useful in reducing malaria was moderated by the fact that mosquitoes were considered to be only one of several factors which caused malaria. The appropriate and routine use of ITNs was adversely affected by the functional organization of the houses, which changed as between day and night. Bednets were not used when the perceived benefits of reduction in mosquito nuisance and of malaria were considered not to be worth the inconvenience of daily use. In order to bridge the gap between possession and use of bednets

  2. Decreased motivation in the use of insecticide-treated nets in a malaria endemic area in Burkina Faso

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    Doannio Julien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN is an important tool in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM strategy. For ITNs to be effective they need to be used correctly. Previous studies have shown that many factors, such as wealth, access to health care, education, ethnicity and gender, determine the ownership and use of ITNs. Some studies showed that free distribution and public awareness campaigns increased the rate of use. However, there have been no evaluations of the short- and long-term impact of such motivation campaigns. A study carried out in a malaria endemic area in south-western Burkina Faso indicated that this increased use declined after several months. The reasons were a combination of the community representation of malaria, the perception of the effectiveness and usefulness of ITNs and also the manner in which households are organized by day and by night. Methods PermaNet 2.0® and Olyset® were distributed in 455 compounds at the beginning of the rainy season. The community was educated on the effectiveness of nets in reducing malaria and on how to use them. To assess motivation, qualitative tools were used: one hundred people were interviewed, two hundred houses were observed directly and two houses were monitored monthly throughout one year. Results The motivation for the use of bednets decreased after less than a year. Inhabitants' conception of malaria and the inconvenience of using bednets in small houses were the major reasons. Acceptance that ITNs were useful in reducing malaria was moderated by the fact that mosquitoes were considered to be only one of several factors which caused malaria. The appropriate and routine use of ITNs was adversely affected by the functional organization of the houses, which changed as between day and night. Bednets were not used when the perceived benefits of reduction in mosquito nuisance and of malaria were considered not to be worth the inconvenience of daily use. Conclusion In

  3. Diet, Environments, and Gut Microbiota. A Preliminary Investigation in Children Living in Rural and Urban Burkina Faso and Italy

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    Carlotta De Filippo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the main factors that affects the composition of gut microbiota. When people move from a rural environment to urban areas, and experience improved socio-economic conditions, they are often exposed to a “globalized” Western type diet. Here, we present preliminary observations on the metagenomic scale of microbial changes in small groups of African children belonging to the same ethnicity and living in different environments, compared to children living on the urban area of Florence (Italy. We analyzed dietary habits and, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, gut microbiota profiles from fecal samples of children living in a rural village of Burkina Faso (n = 11, of two groups of children living in different urban settings (Nanoro town, n = 8; Ouagadougou, the capital city, n = 5 and of a group of Italian children (n = 13. We observed that when foods of animal origin, those rich in fat and simple sugars are introduced into a traditional African diet, composed of cereals, legumes and vegetables, the gut microbiota profiles changes. Microbiota of rural children retain a geographically unique bacterial reservoir (Prevotella, Treponema, and Succinivibrio, assigned to ferment fiber and polysaccharides from vegetables. Independently of geography and ethnicity, in children living in urban areas these bacterial genera were progressively outcompeted by bacteria more suited to the metabolism of animal protein, fat and sugar rich foods, similarly to Italian children, as resulted by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, a predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene. Consequently, we observed a progressive reduction of SCFAs measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, in urban populations, especially in Italian children, respect to rural ones. Our results even if in a limited number of individuals point out that dietary habit modifications

  4. Characterisation of the rural indigent population in Burkina Faso: a screening tool for setting priority healthcare services in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Samiratou; Ridde, Valéry; Atchessi, Nicole; Souares, Aurélia; Koulidiati, Jean-Louis; Stoeffler, Quentin; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2017-10-08

    In Africa, health research on indigent people has focused on how to target them for services, but little research has been conducted to identify the social groups that compose indigence. Our aim was to identify what makes someone indigent beyond being recognised by the community as needing a card for free healthcare. We used data from a survey conducted to evaluate a state-led intervention for performance-based financing of health services in two districts of Burkina Faso. In 2015, we analysed data of 1783 non-indigents and 829 people defined as indigents by their community in 21 villages following community-based targeting processes. Using a classification tree, we built a model to select socioeconomic and health characteristics that were likely to distinguish between non-indigents and indigents. We described the screening performance of the tree using data from specific nodes. Widow(er)s under 45 years of age, unmarried people aged 45 years and over, and married women aged 60 years and over were more likely to be identified as indigents by their community. Simple rules based on age, marital status and gender detected indigents with sensitivity of 75.6% and specificity of 55% among those 45 years and over; among those under 45, sensitivity was 85.5% and specificity 92.2%. For both tests combined, sensitivity was 78% and specificity 81%. In moving towards universal health coverage, Burkina Faso should extend free access to priority healthcare services to widow(er)s under 45, unmarried people aged 45 years and over, and married women aged 60 years and over, and services should be adapted to their health needs. The collection, storage and release of data for research purposes were authorised by a government ethics committee in Burkina Faso (Decision No. 2013-7-066). Respondent consent was obtained verbally. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  5. Heavy burden of non-communicable diseases at early age and gender disparities in an adult population of Burkina Faso: world health survey

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    Miszkurka Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO estimates suggest that age-specific death rates from non-communicable diseases are higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in high-income countries. The objectives of this study were to examine, in Burkina Faso, the prevalence of non-communicable disease symptoms by age, gender, socioeconomic group and setting (rural/urban, and to assess gender and socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of these symptoms. Methods We obtained data from the Burkina Faso World Health Survey, which was conducted in an adult population (18 years and over with a high response rate (4822/4880 selected individuals. The survey used a multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling strategy to identify participants. The survey collected information on socio-demographic and economic characteristics, as well as data on symptoms of a variety of health conditions. Our study focused on joint disease, back pain, angina pectoris, and asthma. We estimated prevalence correcting for the sampling design. We used multiple Poisson regression to estimate associations between non-communicable disease symptoms, gender, socioeconomic status and setting. Results The overall crude prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI were: 16.2% [13.5; 19.2] for joint disease, 24% [21.5; 26.6] for back pain, 17.9% [15.8; 20.2] for angina pectoris, and 11.6% [9.5; 14.2] for asthma. Consistent relationships between age and the prevalence of non-communicable disease symptoms were observed in both men and women from rural and urban settings. There was markedly high prevalence in all conditions studied, starting with young adults. Women presented higher prevalence rates of symptoms than men for all conditions: prevalence ratios and 95% CIs were 1.20 [1.01; 1.43] for joint disease, 1.42 [1.21; 1.66] for back pain, 1.68 [1.39; 2.04] for angina pectoris, and 1.28 [0.99; 1.65] for asthma. Housewives and unemployed women had the highest prevalence rates of non-communicable disease

  6. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets in rural Burkina Faso: assessment of coverage and equity in the wake of a universal distribution campaign.

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    Zöllner, Caroline; De Allegri, Manuela; Louis, Valérie R; Yé, Maurice; Sié, Ali; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Jahn, Albrecht; Müller, Olaf

    2015-03-01

    Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) are an essential tool of the Roll Back Malaria strategy. An increasing number of African countries have embarked on mass distribution campaigns of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) with the ultimate goal of universal coverage. Such a national campaign with the goal of one ITN for every two people has been conducted in Burkina Faso in 2010. Our aim was to assess the coverage and equity effect of the universal distribution campaign of LLINs in Burkina Faso and to identify determinants of ITN ownership across households after the campaign. We evaluated its effects through comparison of data from two household surveys conducted in early 2010 (before the campaign) and early 2011 (after the campaign) on a representative rural district in north-western Burkina Faso. Data were collected on household characteristics (including socio-economic status) and ITN ownership. We used concentration curves and indices to compare ITN coverage indicators before and after the campaign and multilevel multivariate logistic regression to estimate factors associated with achievement of the universal coverage target in 2011. The survey included 1106 households in 2010 and 1094 in 2011. We found that the proportion of households with at least one ITN increased from 59% before the campaign to 99% afterwards, whereas the concentration index dropped from 0.087 (standard error (SE): 0.014) to 0.002 (SE: 0.002). Fifty-two per cent of households reached the target of one ITN for every two people per household, with the relevant concentration index at -0.031 (SE: 0.016). Eighty-six per cent of households owned at least one ITN for every three people. The main characteristics significantly associated with the targeted intra-household coverage were family size and distance to the health centre but not socio-economic status. In conclusion, despite not having fully met its target, the national LLIN campaign achieved a high level of coverage and

  7. Effets des mesures prophylactiques sur la productivité de la pintade locale (Numida meleagris en zone subhumide du Burkina Faso

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    Diarra, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Preventive Medical Treatments on the Productivity of Local Guinea-Fowl (Numida meleagris in the Sub-Humid Region of Burkina Faso. A study to measure the efficiency of preventive medical treatments on subsequent reproductive performances of local guinea fowl kept under natural photoperiod in the sub-humid region of Burkina Faso has been conducted. Two groups of 200 day-old guinea chicks each (T1 and T2 have been maintained under controlled conditions of feed, water allowance and more generally habitat (ex: temperature. T1 received no preventive medical treatment while Group T2 was vaccinated against Newcastle disease, and supplemented with a coccidiostatic and a trichomonacid. Percent mortality in T2 was significantly lower than in T1: 21% vs 43% (P < 0.05. In both groups, the livability of chicks with hatching body weights < 25 g at birth was very low (26% and 28% survival in T1 and T2, respectively. No significant differences were observed for body weights between the two groups at 60 weeks of age irrespective of the sex (P < 0.05 in both cases. A comparison of laying rates observed during the entire laying period (May to October indicated a significant difference between T2 and T1 (19 vs 13%, respectively; P < 0.05. The onset of lay was observed at 219 days in T2 but only at 255 days in T1. A general tendency for heavier egg weights in T2 than in T1 was also observed (ex: 40.1 + 3.0 g in T2 vs 38.0 + 1.7 g in T1 at 52 weeks of age, respectively. Our results confirm observations by farmers that the overall reproductive performances of guinea fowl in Burkina Faso is generally very low. The prevention of diseases by a preventive programme improves laying rates and egg weights while significantly decreasing mortality in breeder flocks. The improvement of the average body weight and the laying rate over the season by improved feed, preventive treatments and, possibly, genetic selection of breeder flocks would be of major interest in this

  8. Heavy burden of non-communicable diseases at early age and gender disparities in an adult population of Burkina Faso: World Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkurka, Malgorzata; Haddad, Slim; Langlois, Étienne V; Freeman, Ellen E; Kouanda, Seni; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2012-01-10

    WHO estimates suggest that age-specific death rates from non-communicable diseases are higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in high-income countries. The objectives of this study were to examine, in Burkina Faso, the prevalence of non-communicable disease symptoms by age, gender, socioeconomic group and setting (rural/urban), and to assess gender and socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of these symptoms. We obtained data from the Burkina Faso World Health Survey, which was conducted in an adult population (18 years and over) with a high response rate (4822/4880 selected individuals). The survey used a multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling strategy to identify participants. The survey collected information on socio-demographic and economic characteristics, as well as data on symptoms of a variety of health conditions. Our study focused on joint disease, back pain, angina pectoris, and asthma. We estimated prevalence correcting for the sampling design. We used multiple Poisson regression to estimate associations between non-communicable disease symptoms, gender, socioeconomic status and setting. The overall crude prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were: 16.2% [13.5; 19.2] for joint disease, 24% [21.5; 26.6] for back pain, 17.9% [15.8; 20.2] for angina pectoris, and 11.6% [9.5; 14.2] for asthma. Consistent relationships between age and the prevalence of non-communicable disease symptoms were observed in both men and women from rural and urban settings. There was markedly high prevalence in all conditions studied, starting with young adults. Women presented higher prevalence rates of symptoms than men for all conditions: prevalence ratios and 95% CIs were 1.20 [1.01; 1.43] for joint disease, 1.42 [1.21; 1.66] for back pain, 1.68 [1.39; 2.04] for angina pectoris, and 1.28 [0.99; 1.65] for asthma. Housewives and unemployed women had the highest prevalence rates of non-communicable disease symptoms. Our work suggests that social inequality extends

  9. Successful Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in School Age Children in Burkina Faso and an Example of Community-Based Assessment via Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Survey.

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    François Drabo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF mass drug administration (MDA for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future.A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.8% in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6% and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0-4.2 epg. Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9-6.1% and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3-26.6 epg. A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS. In this assessment, 351 children aged 6-7 years and 345 children aged 10-14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2-2.1% and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0-4.1% of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to <10% in STH prevalence according to the pre-defined cut-off values.Through large-scale preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso has effectively controlled STH in school age children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also demonstrated that LF TAS provides one feasible and efficient platform to assess the

  10. Study of floristic diversity and the structural dynamics of some species providers of non woody forest products in the vegetable formations of the Centre East of Burkina Faso.

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    Ky, J M K; Gnoula, C; Zerbo, P; Simpore, J; Nikiema, J B; Canini, A; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J

    2009-07-15

    The goal of this study is to contribute to a better knowledge of certain species providing Non Woody Forest Products (NWFP) in the Centre East of Burkina Faso. This study aims to determine the state of the resources in Vitellaria paradoxa, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica and Lannea microcarpa. For this purpose, an inventory of the vegetation was carried out in circular pieces of land of 1250 m2, as a sample of the zone of work, based on the chart of occupation of the grounds. We are identified 158 species comprising 90 genera and 47 families. Those species represent more than 90% of the trees from which various parts are used in food, traditional pharmacopeia and the craft industry. We also showed that because of the strong anthropisation of the zone, the bad pedoclimatic conditions and the permanent bush fires, the regeneration and growth of Vitellaria paradoxa, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica and Lannea microcarpa are disturbed.

  11. Maternal healthcare in context: A qualitative study of women's tactics to improve their experience of public healthcare in rural Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2015-01-01

    consultations, minimizing the waiting time at the maternity unit and using traditional medicines. In this way, women strive to achieve biomedical security for themselves and their child and to preserve their social reputation. The study reveals difficulty in the collaboration and communication between health......Improving the use of public maternal health facilities to prevent maternal death is a priority in developing countries. Accumulating evidence suggests that a key factor in choosing a facility-based delivery is the collaboration and the communication between healthcare providers and women....... This article attempts to provide a fine-grained understanding of health system deficiencies, healthcare provider practices and women's experiences with maternal public healthcare. This article presents findings from ethnographic research conducted in the Central-East Region of Burkina Faso over a period...

  12. The meaning of African and “White man’s” food at Muslim and civil wedding celebrations in urban Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Liza Debevec

    2008-01-01

    Chez les Musulmans du Burkina Faso, les mariages sont célébrés selon deux modes différents: d’une part, on trouve le mariage « traditionnel » qui s’accompagne d’une cérémonie religieuse et d’autre part, il y a le mariage “civil”, qui est marqué par une cérémonie officielle ayant lieu à la mairie. Les contrastes existants entre ces deux fêtes se révèlent notamment à travers les repas servis à cette occasion. La fête traditionnelle offre des plats et des boissons considérés comme « africains »,...

  13. Development of microbiological field methodology for water and food-chain hygiene analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia spp. in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakalehto, Elias; Nyholm, Outi; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kagambega, Assèta; Rissanen, Kari; Heitto, Anneli; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2014-09-01

    Field-adaptable research methods for identifying Campylobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and other pathogenic and indicator bacteria were designed in Finland and tested in Burkina Faso. Several bacterial groups were also validated from artificially contaminated samples. Campylobacter strains were cultivated using an innovative gas generation system: The 'Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit' (PMEU) which provides microaerobic gas flow into the enrichment broth. This enhanced cultivation system produced rapid growth of several isolates of campylobacteria from water and chicken samples. The latter were obtained from local marketplace samples. No yersinias were found in the field studies, whereas they were readily recovered from the spiked samples, as well as Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli strains. The PMEU method turned out to be reliable for monitoring of water and food hygiene in remote locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of the dhfr and dhps Mutations among Pregnant Women in Rural Burkina Faso Five Years after the Introduction of Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahita, Marc C; Tinto, Halidou; Erhart, Annette; Kazienga, Adama; Fitzhenry, Robert; VanOvermeir, Chantal; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemde, Robert T; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and spread of drug resistance represents one of the biggest challenges for malaria control in endemic regions. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is currently deployed as intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) to prevent the adverse effects of malaria on the mother and her offspring. Nevertheless, its efficacy is threatened by SP resistance which can be estimated by the prevalence of dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) mutations. This was measured among pregnant women in the health district of Nanoro, Burkina Faso. From June to December 2010, two hundred and fifty six pregnant women in the second and third trimester, attending antenatal care with microscopically confirmed malaria infection were invited to participate, regardless of malaria symptoms. A blood sample was collected on filter paper and analyzed by PCR-RFLP for the alleles 51, 59, 108, 164 in the pfdhfr gene and 437, 540 in the pfdhps gene. The genes were successfully genotyped in all but one sample (99.6%; 255/256) for dhfr and in 90.2% (231/256) for dhps. The dhfr C59R and S108N mutations were the most common, with a prevalence of 61.2% (156/255) and 55.7% (142/255), respectively; 12.2% (31/255) samples had also the dhfr N51I mutation while the I164L mutation was absent. The dhps A437G mutation was found in 34.2% (79/231) isolates, but none of them carried the codon K540E. The prevalence of the dhfr double mutations NRNI and the triple mutations IRNI was 35.7% (91/255) and 11.4% (29/255), respectively. Though the mutations in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes were relatively common, the prevalence of the triple pfdhfr mutation was very low, indicating that SP as IPTp is still efficacious in Burkina Faso.

  15. Improving diets and nutrition through an integrated poultry value chain and nutrition intervention (SELEVER) in Burkina Faso: study protocol for a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Becquey, Elodie; Ganaba, Rasmane; Headey, Derek; Hidrobo, Melissa; Huybregts, Lieven; Verhoef, Hans; Kenfack, Romain; Zongouri, Sita; Guedenet, Hannah

    2017-09-06

    The SELEVER study is designed to evaluate the impact of an integrated agriculture-nutrition package of interventions (including poultry value chain development, women's empowerment activities, and a behavior change communications strategy to promote improved diets and feeding, care, and hygiene practices) on the diets, health, and nutritional status of women and children in Burkina Faso. This paper presents the rationale and study design. The impact evaluation involves a cluster randomized controlled trial design that will be implemented in 120 rural communities/villages within 60 communes supported by SELEVER in the Boucle de Mouhoun, Centre-Ouest, and Haut-Bassins regions of Burkina Faso. Communities will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms, including: (1) SELEVER intervention group; (2) SELEVER with an intensive WASH component; and (3) control group without intervention. Primary outcomes include the mean probability of adequacy of diets for women and children (aged 2-4 years at baseline), infant and young child feeding practices of caregivers of children aged 0-2 years, and household poultry production and sales. Intermediate outcomes along the agriculture and nutrition pathways will also be measured, including child nutrition status and development. The evaluation will follow a mixed-methods approach, including a panel of child-, household-, community-, and market-level surveys, and data collection points during post-harvest and lean seasons, as well as one year after implementation completion to examine sustainability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to rigorously examine from a food systems perspective, the simultaneous impact of scaling-up nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions through a livestock value-chain and community-intervention platform, across nutrition, health, and agriculture domains. The findings of this evaluation will provide evidence to support the design of market-based nutrition

  16. Econometric analysis to evaluate the effect of community-based health insurance on reducing informal self-care in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Hill, Allan; Liu, Yuanli; Souares, Aurélia; Savadogo, Germain; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    This study examines the role of community-based health insurance (CBHI) in influencing health-seeking behaviour in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Community-based health insurance was introduced in Nouna district, Burkina Faso, in 2004 with the goal to improve access to contracted providers based at primary- and secondary-level facilities. The paper specifically examines the effect of CBHI enrolment on reducing the prevalence of seeking modern and traditional methods of self-treatment as the first choice in care among the insured population. Three stages of analysis were adopted to measure this effect. First, propensity score matching was used to minimize the observed baseline differences between the insured and uninsured populations. Second, through matching the average treatment effect on the treated, the effect of insurance enrolment on health-seeking behaviour was estimated. Finally, multinomial logistic regression was applied to model demand for available health care options, including no treatment, traditional self-treatment, modern self-treatment, traditional healers and facility-based care. For the first choice in care sought, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of self-treatment among the insured and uninsured populations, reaching over 55% for each group. When comparing the alternative option of no treatment, CBHI played no significant role in reducing the demand for self-care (either traditional or modern) or utilization of traditional healers, while it did significantly increase consumption of facility-based care. The average treatment effect on the treated was insignificant for traditional self-care, modern self-care and traditional healer, but was significant with a positive effect for use of facility care. While CBHI does have a positive impact on facility care utilization, its effect on reducing the prevalence of self-care is limited. The policy recommendations for improving the CBHI scheme's responsiveness to population health care

  17. Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders’ perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. Methods We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. Results The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. Conclusions This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive

  18. Safety and efficacy of methylene blue combined with artesunate or amodiaquine for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a randomized controlled trial from Burkina Faso.

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    Augustin Zoungrana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides existing artemisinin-based combination therapies, alternative safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against falciparum malaria are needed. Methylene blue (MB was the first synthetic antimalarial drug ever used, and recent studies have been promising with regard to its revival in malaria therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of two MB-based malaria combination therapies, MB-artesunate (AS and MB-amodiaquine (AQ, compared to the local standard of care, AS-AQ, in Burkina Faso.Open-label randomised controlled phase II study in 180 children aged 6-10 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Nouna, north-western Burkina Faso. Follow-up was for 28 days and analysis by intention-to-treat. The treatment groups were similar in baseline characteristics and there was only one loss to follow-up. No drug-related serious adverse events and no deaths occurred. MB-containing regimens were associated with mild vomiting and dysuria. No early treatment failures were observed. Parasite clearance time differed significantly among groups and was the shortest with MB-AS. By day 14, the rates of adequate clinical and parasitological response after PCR-based correction for recrudescence were 87% for MB-AS, 100% for MB-AQ (p = 0.004, and 100% for AS-AQ (p = 0.003. By day 28, the respective figure was lowest for MB-AS (62%, intermediate for the standard treatment AS-AQ (82%; p = 0.015, and highest for MB-AQ (95%; p<0.001; p = 0.03.MB-AQ is a promising alternative drug combination against malaria in Africa. Moreover, MB has the potential to further accelerate the rapid parasite clearance of artemisinin-based combination therapies. More than a century after the antimalarial properties of MB had been described, its role in malaria control deserves closer attention.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00354380.

  19. Barriers to Uptake of Climate-Smart Agriculture Practices at the Farm Level: A Case Study of Dano and Ouahigouya Farmers, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Y. B.

    2016-12-01

    Smallholder farmers in Burkina Faso, which are already bearing the brunt of climate vagaries, are among the most exposed to the risks associated to climate change. Supporting these farmers in adoption of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices would help to increase farm productivity and incomes, improve their resilience to climate risks, and mitigate climate change by reducing GHG emissions. CSA is neither a new agricultural system nor a set of practice, but is a new approach, a way to guide the needed changes of agricultural systems, given the necessity to jointly address food security and climate change. Integrating statistics and visualization analysis, this paper identifies and analyzes the key barriers to farmers' effective adoption of CSA practices in Dano and Ouahigouya areas, Burkina Faso. The data used in this study were collected, in May 2016, from 147 households in the two different agro-ecological zones; these data were supplemented by information from focus group discussion (FGD), interview with institutions, and direct observation. It come out from this study that a better adoption of CSA practices requires a strong understanding of barriers and mechanisms (appropriate policies, strategies and actions) that may facilitate these practices by all actors involved in the diffusion, transfer and implementation process. The study revealed that farmers' adoption was influenced by several factors. The inaccessibility of inputs, credit constraints, water shortage, uncertainty in market condition, and climate risk appeared to be among factors that hindered farmers' ability and willingness to adopt CSA practices. Therefore mechanisms (such as index based crop insurance and property and procedural rights frameworks) that protect farmers from these hazards and shocks could encourage them (especially, risk-averse farmers) to take on more risky and more technologies that have high potential to maximize their profit.

  20. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae, medicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konaté Kiessoun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28 days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2 g/kg and 3.4 g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia .

  1. High nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes in community and hospital settings in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul-Salam OUEDRAOGO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n=219 were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219, 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%. The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones and CC1-MSSA (nine clones. Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52,2% (36/69, containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains.

  2. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso: Epicoccum sorghinum is dominant in seedlings and appears as a common root pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Michaela S; Wulff, Ednar G; Zida, Elisabeth P; Thio, Ibié G; Néya, James B; Soalla, Romain W; Głazowska, Sylwia E; Andresen, Marianne; Topbjerg, Henrik B; Boelt, Birte; Lund, Ole S

    2016-10-01

    Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven-day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA. Eighteen Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified from seedlings, compared to 29 OTUs from seeds. The top-eight most abundant ascomycete OTUs from seedlings were annotated as: Epicoccum sorghinum, Fusarium thapsinum, four different Curvularia spp., Exserohilum rostratum and Alternaria longissima. These OTUs were also present in amplicons from seed samples collected in Central Burkina Faso confirming a common occurrence. E. sorghinum was highly predominant in seedlings both measured by DNA analysis and by isolation. The dominance of E. sorghinum was particularly strong in roots from poorly growing seedlings. Pathogenicity of E. sorghinum isolates was compared to F. thapsinum by inoculation to seeds in vitro. Both fungal species caused significant inhibition of seedling growth (P<0.001) and Koch's postulates were fulfilled. Extensive, dark necrosis in roots was a typical symptom of E. sorghinum, whereas wilting of leaves was caused primarily by F. thapsinum. This study provides the first molecular approach to characterize the seedling mycoflora of sorghum in Western Africa and suggests E. sorghinum as a common root pathogen. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  3. A community-based approach to indigent selection is difficult to organize in a formal neighbourhood in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: a mixed methods exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Rossier, Clémentine; Soura, Abdramane B; Bazié, Fiacre; Kadio, Kadidiatou

    2014-04-16

    In most African countries, indigents treated at public health centres are supposed to be exempted from user fees. In Africa, most of the available knowledge has to do with targeting processes in rural areas, and little is known about how to select the worst-off in an urban area. In rural communities of Burkina Faso, trials of participatory community-based selection of indigents have been effective. However, the process for selecting indigents in urban areas is not yet clear. This study evaluates a community-funded participatory indigent selection process in both a formal (loti) and an informal (non-loti) neighbourhood in the urban setting of Burkina Faso's capital. This was an exploratory study to evaluate the processes and effectiveness of participatory targeting. We conducted individual interviews (n = 26) and analyzed secondary qualitative data (eight focus groups, 16 individual interviews). We also used the results of a socioeconomic survey (carried out by the Ouaga HDSS in 2011) of all the households established in the areas, including those of selected indigents. The coverage of indigent targeting was very low: 0.33% (loti) and 0.22% (non loti). In the non loti neighbourhood, the level of poverty among people selected was higher than the mean level of the poor who were not selected. Some indigents selected in the loti neighbourhood were not among the worst-off. The process was difficult to organize in the loti neighbourhood; people knew each other less well and were not very available, and there were cases of collusion. The process worked well in the non loti neighbourhood. This intervention research provides new evidence about the feasibility of a community-based selection process in an urban setting in Africa by comparing two different urban settings. The participatory community-based selection process appeared to be suitable for the non loti neighbourhood, but other targeting strategies need to be found for loti areas. Specific budgets need to be allocated

  4. School Children's Intestinal Parasite and Nutritional Status One Year after Complementary School Garden, Nutrition, Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismann, Séverine; Diagbouga, Serge; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Gerold, Jana; Leuenberger, Andrea; Shrestha, Akina; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-09-01

    The potential health benefits of combined agricultural, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether complementary school garden, nutrition, and WASH interventions reduce intestinal parasites and improve school children's nutritional status in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Plateau Central and Center-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. A total of 360 randomly selected children, aged 8-15 years, had complete baseline and end-line survey data. Mixed regression models were used to assess the impact of the interventions, controlling for baseline characteristics. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections decreased both in intervention and control schools, but the decrease was significantly higher in the intervention schools related to the control schools (odds ratio [OR] of the intervention effect = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.5). Indices of undernutrition did not decrease at end-line in intervention schools. Safe handwashing practices before eating and the use of latrines at schools were significantly higher in the intervention schools than in the control schools at end-line (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.4-34.4, and OR = 14.9, 95% CI = 1.4-153.9, respectively). Parameters of water quality remained unchanged. A combination of agricultural, nutritional, and WASH-related interventions embedded in the social-ecological systems and delivered through the school platform improved several child health outcomes, including intestinal parasitic infections and some WASH-related behaviors. Sustained interventions with stronger household and community-based components are, however, needed to improve school children's health in the long-term.

  5. Guidelines for maternal and neonatal "point of care": needs of and attitudes towards a computerized clinical decision support system in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakane, S Alphonse; Gustafsson, Lars L; Tomson, Göran; Loukanova, Svetla; Sié, Ali; Nasiell, Josefine; Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, 245,000 women died due to pregnancy-related causes in sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia. Our study is nested into the QUALMAT project and seeks to improve the quality of maternal care services through the introduction of a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS) to help healthcare workers in rural areas. Healthcare information technology applications in low-income countries may improve healthcare provision but recent studies demonstrate unintended consequences with underuse or resistance to CDSS and that the fit between the system and the clinical needs does present challenges. To explore and describe perceived needs and attitudes among healthcare workers to access WHO guidelines using CDSS in maternal and neonatal care in rural Burkina Faso. Data were collected with semi-structured interviews in two rural districts in Burkina Faso with 45 informants. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of the quantitative part of the interview corresponding to informants' background. Qualitative data were analyzed using manifest content analysis. Four main findings emerged: (a) an appreciable willingness among healthcare workers for and a great interest to adapt and use modern technologies like computers to learn more in the workplace, (b) a positive attitude to easy access of guidelines and implementation of decision-support using computers in the workplace, (c) a fear that the CDSS would require more working time and lead to double-work, and (d) that the CDSS is complicated and requires substantial computer training and extensive instructions to fully implement. The findings can be divided into aspects of motivators and barriers in relation to how the CDSS is perceived and to be used. These aspects are closely connected to each other as the motivating aspects can easily be turned into barriers if not taken care of properly in the final design, during implementation and maintenance of the CDSS at point of care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  6. Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders' perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R; Gogognon, Patrick; Ridde, Valéry

    2014-02-20

    Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive ethical terrain of a participatory public

  7. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of soft, semi-solid or solid food among infants in Boucle du Mouhoun, Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny A Cresswell

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is among the most effective interventions for preventing child mortality. The objectives of this paper are to describe infant feeding knowledge and practices in Boucle du Mouhoun, Burkina Faso; to identify predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among infants <6 months, and consumption of soft, semi-solid or solid food among infants 6-11 months; to describe mothers' sources of information regarding breastfeeding.A cross-sectional survey (n = 2288 of a representative sample of women aged 15-49 years with at least one live birth in past year took place during June and July 2015. Crude and multivariable random-effects logistic regressions were used to identify factors predictive of exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of soft, semi-solid or solid food.30% of infants <6 months were exclusively breastfed; 67% of infants age 6-11 months consumed soft, semi-solid or solid food the day and night before the interview. 2% of infants age 6-11 months had a minimum acceptable diet. There was strong evidence of a positive association between knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding, nonetheless 60% of mothers who correctly identified that an infant should be exclusively breastfed for 6 months did not breastfeed their infant exclusively. Only 42% of mothers reported receiving advice on breastfeeding from a health worker, despite all mothers having contact with a health worker at least once during pregnancy or postpartum.Given poor practices and low levels of knowledge, targeted interventions are needed to improve infant nutrition in Boucle du Mouhoun during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. Most women now deliver in a facility in Burkina Faso; increased attention should be paid to ensuring that existing guidelines relating to support and counselling for infant feeding are adhered to. Factors such as social norms are also important and these should be investigated in more detail using qualitative methods.

  8. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), medicinal plants of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaté, Kiessoun; Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor; Hilou, Adama; Aworet-Samseny, Raïssa R R; Souza, Alain; Barro, Nicolas; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Datté, Jacques Y; M'Batchi, Bertrand

    2012-08-11

    Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28 days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2 g/kg and 3.4 g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia .

  9. Poor procedures and quality control among non-affiliated blood centers in Burkina Faso: an argument for expanding the reach of the national blood transfusion center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nébié, Koumpingnin; Ouattara, Siaka; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Kientega, Youssouphe; Dahourou, Honorine; Ky, Lassina; Kienou, Kisito; Diallo, Samba; Bigirimana, Françoise; Fretz, Catherine; Murphy, Edward L.; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the creation of national blood transfusion services. Burkina Faso has a CNTS (Centre national de transfusion sanguine - National Blood Transfusion Center) but it currently covers only 53% of the national blood supply versus 47% produced by independent hospital blood banks. Study design To evaluate blood collection, testing, preparation and prescription practices in the regions of Burkina Faso that are not covered by the CNTS, we conducted a cross-sectional survey. Methodology Data were collected by trained professionals from May to June 2009, at 42 autonomous blood centers not covered by the CNTS. Results Blood collection was supervised in all sites by laboratory technicians without specific training. There was no marketing of community blood donation nor mobile collection. Donation was restricted to replacement (family) donors in 21.4% of sites. Pre-donation screening of donors was performed in 63.4% of sites, but some did not use written questionnaires. Testing for HIV, hepatitis B virus and syphilis was universal, although some sites did not screen for hepatitis C virus. In 83.3% of the sites blood typing was performed without reverse ABO typing. In 97.6% of the sites, nurses acted alone or in conjunction with a physician to order blood transfusions. Conclusion Shortcomings in non-CNTS blood centers argue for the development of a truly national CNTS. Such a national center should coordinate and supervise all blood transfusion activities, and is the essential first step for improving and institutionalizing blood transfusion safety and efficacy in a developing country. PMID:21736582

  10. Les campagnes communautaires de promotion du depistage VIH en Afrique de l’Ouest : perceptions des usagers au Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, Alice; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Somé, Jean-François; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Résumé La politique actuelle de lutte contre le sida qui repose sur l’extension de l’accès aux traitements et à la prévention exige qu’une proportion élevée de la population connaisse son statut en matière de VIH. Pour cela, l’OMS a proposé le développement de stratégies communautaires délivrant le dépistage et le conseil au-delà des services de soins, comme le test à domicile ou les campagnes de sensibilisation et dépistage de grande envergure, appliqués en Afrique australe et de l’Est. Pour définir les stratégies pertinentes dans des régions de basse prévalence comme l’Afrique de l’Ouest, les expériences communautaires de promotion du dépistage doivent y être évaluées. Cet article présente une évaluation des campagnes au Burkina Faso du point de vue des usagers. Dans le cadre d’un projet sur les pratiques et l’éthique du dépistage dans quatre pays africains (MATCH), une enquête qualitative spécifique a été menée pendant la campagne de 2008, auprès de personnes ayant fait le test pendant la campagne, ayant fait le test hors campagne ou n’ayant pas fait le test. Les appréciations sont globalement très favorables aux campagnes, notamment à cause de l’information dispensée, l’accessibilité des sites, la gratuité du test, la qualité des services et l’effet d’entrainement. Les limites ou critiques sont essentiellement liées à l’affluence ou à la crainte de ne pas être soutenu en cas de résultat positif. La démarche de recours au test ne fait plus l’objet de suspicion, au moins pendant la campagne. Cette « normalisation » du recours au test et la mobilisation collective facilitent des pratiques en groupe, ce qui peut rendre difficile de garder son statut VIH secret. L’évaluation des campagnes par les usagers les présente comme une opportunité pour accéder facilement au test et pour communiquer à ce sujet dans divers espaces sociaux à partir des informations délivrées sur le VIH

  11. Los intereses políticos detrás de la mediación de Burkina Faso en el conflicto de Costa de Marfil en el año 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Balaguera Sarmiento, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Este estudio de caso tiene como finalidad evidenciar los intereses políticos detrás de la mediación de Burkina Faso en el Conflicto de Costa de Marfil en el año 2007. En ese orden de ideas, este trabajo de grado analiza cómo la situación interna y externa de Burkina Faso, incidió en su decisión de mediar en el conflicto marfileño. Para lograr esto, en esta investigación se recurre a los conceptos de Interés Nacional y Poder Político propios de la Teoría del Realismo Político de Relaciones Int...

  12. The relative and absolute chronology of strato-tectonic events in the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane and Oudalan-Gorouol belt, northeast Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.; McCuaig, T. Campbell

    2015-12-01

    The integration of field mapping and analytical studies of magmatic units of the northeast of Burkina Faso has provided new information on the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane. Structural, geochemical and geochronological analyses have helped to clarify the geological evolution of the region during the Tangaean Event (D1) and Eburnean Orogeny (D2) through to the Wabo Tampelse Event (D3). Further to this, zircon U-Pb geochronology data have demonstrated that the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane represents some of the oldest outcropping geology in the Palaeoproterozoic Baoulé-Mossi domain recognised to date, with the oldest age at 2253 ± 9 Ma. The geochronology and geology suggests that the basement or a pre-Birimian crust to the Birimian Supergroup may be found in the northeast of Burkina Faso. The Eburnean Orogeny in the northeastern Burkina is preceded by the two phases of deformation (D1-x and D1), and two phases of magmatism. D1-x is associated with the emplacement of the Dori Batholith at the onset of D1 (2164-2141 Ma). D1 ductile-brittle deformation formed F1 folds and discrete high-strained mylonite zones that deformed the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane during a southwest-directed palaeo-principal transport direction. The pre-Birimian to Birimian supracrustal rocks and intrusions were regionally metamorphosed during D1 to greenschist to amphibolite facies. The Eburnean Orogeny (2130-1980 Ma) is characterised by northwest-southeast shortening; it was followed by north-northwest to south-southeast shortening with development of sinistral strike-slip faults and shears. D2 brittle-(ductile) deformation is manifested by refolding of F1 by northeast-trending F2, and development of a pervasive northeast-trending S2 to S2-C foliation. Metamorphic grade attained greenschist facies during D2 with development of the mineral assemblage of quartz

  13. « L'avortement, ses pratiques et ses soins ». une anthropologie des jeunes au prisme des normes sociales et des politiques publiques de santé au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Ramatou

    2015-01-01

    Induced abortion without medical or legal request in countries where it is prohibitedsuch as Burkina Faso poses both a public health and social problems. It is this doubleproblematic that this thesis explored in order to understand the causes of the difficultiesfacing the country to fight against unsafe abortions, and the factors that increased thispractice among young people. Immersion in abortion universe (health facilities andlives of women and men who have experienced abortion) and interv...

  14. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  15. AU BURKINA FASO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les moyennes sur la même ligne et possédant le même indice ne diffèrent pas significativement au seuil de 5 %. ME : mélange fourrager. 10-20-30 % : pourcentage de concentré. GMQ : Gain Moyen Quotidien. L'analyse des résultats des rations. 1 et 2 montre que l'accès au pâturage permet des performances supérieures.

  16. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT I

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Overview of the Evaluation The impact evaluation sought to answer three key questions: (1) What was the impact of the program on school enrollment? (2) What was the...

  17. IDRC in Burkina Faso

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    regional hospitals. Food and incomes. IDRC contributed to improving food security for rural residents through research on wild fruit. Better harvesting, processing, and ... carry out research that provides evidence for their defence of small farmers' interests. □ Creating information technology businesses. Funding: $278,600.

  18. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate (PsA-TT) vaccine coverage and measles vaccine coverage in Burkina Faso--implications for introduction of PsA-TT into the Expanded Programme on Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah A; Kambou, Jean Ludovic; Cohn, Amanda; Goodson, James L; Flannery, Brendan; Medah, Isaïe; Messonnier, Nancy; Novak, Ryan; Diomande, Fabien; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Clark, Thomas A; Yameogo, Issaka; Fall, Amadou; Wannemuehler, Kathleen

    2015-03-17

    A new serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac™) has been developed to combat devastating serogroup A Neisseria meningitis (MenA) epidemics in Africa. A mass immunization campaign targeting 1-29 year olds was conducted in Burkina Faso in December 2010. Protection of subsequent infant cohorts will be necessary through either introduction of PsA-TT into the routine Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) or periodic repeat mass vaccination campaigns. To inform future immunization policy for PsA-TT vaccination of infants through a comparison of PsA-TT campaign vaccination coverage and routine measles-containing vaccine (MCV) coverage in Burkina Faso. A national survey was conducted in Burkina Faso during December 17-27, 2011 using stratified cluster sampling to assess PsA-TT vaccine coverage achieved by the 2010 nationwide immunization campaign among 2-30 year olds and routine MCV coverage among 12-23 month olds. Coverage estimates and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated, reasons for non-vaccination and methods of campaign communication were described, and a multivariable analysis for factors associated with vaccination was conducted. National overall PsA-TT campaign coverage was 95.9% (95% CI: 95.0-96.7) with coverage greater than 90% all 13 regions of Burkina Faso. National overall routine MCV coverage was 92.5% (95% CI: 90.5-94.1), but ranged from 75.3% to 95.3% by region. The primary predictor for PsA-TT vaccination among all age groups was a head of household informed of the campaign. PsA-TT vaccination was more likely in residents of rural settings, whereas MCV vaccination was more likely in residents of urban settings. Overall national vaccination rates in Burkina Faso were similar for PsA-TT and MCV vaccine. The regions with MCV coverage below targets may be at risk for sub-optimal vaccination coverage if PsA-TT is introduced in EPI. These results highlight the need for assessments of routine vaccination coverage to guide Ps

  19. An exploratory study assessing psychological distress of indigents in Burkina Faso: a step forward in understanding mental health needs in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon-Gagné, Émilie; Hassan, Ghayga; Yaogo, Maurice; Ridde, Valéry

    2017-08-14

    Poverty is known as an important determinant of health, but empirical data are still missing on the relationships between poverty, other adverse living conditions, and psychological distress, particularly in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess mental health needs and psychological distress among the poorest in rural settings in Burkina Faso where food security and access to water, electricity, schooling, and healthcare are limited. We randomly selected 2000 individuals previously identified as indigents by a community-targeting process. Interviewers visited participants (n = 1652) in their homes and completed a questionnaire on mental health variables that included presence and intensity of anxious, depressive, psychotic, and aggressive symptoms, as well as level of psychological distress. Descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, and logistic regressions were performed. In all, 40.2% of the sample reported 10 or more anxious/depressive symptoms in the past 30 days, and 25.5% reported having experienced at least one psychotic symptom over their lifetime, 65.6% of whom had had those symptoms for many years. The number of anxious and depressive symptoms was significantly associated with the level of psychological distress (r = 0.423, p < .001). Predictors of distress level included: poor health condition (F(1) = 23.743, p <. 001), being a woman (F(1) = 43.926, p < .001), not having any income (F(1) = 16.185, p < .001), having begged for food in the past 30 days (F(1) = 12.387, p < .001), being illiterate, and being older (F(1) = 21.487, p < .001). Approximately one third of respondents reporting anxious/depressive or psychotic symptoms (28.2 and 30.0%, respectively) had not talked about their symptoms to anyone in their social network. These results suggest alarmingly high levels of psychological distress and reported symptoms among the poorest in rural settings in Burkina Faso, which can be explained by their difficult

  20. Patterns and trends of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria: evidence from cross-sectional studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounton, Sennen; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Amouzou, Agbessi; Shiferaw, Solomon; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Akinyemi, Akanni; Friedman, Howard; Koroma, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    Background The benefits of universal access to voluntary contraception have been widely documented in terms of maternal and newborn survival, women's empowerment, and human capital. Given population dynamics, the choices and opportunities adolescents have in terms of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services could significantly affect the burden of diseases and nations’ human capital. Objectives The objectives of this paper are to assess the patterns and trends of modern contraception use among sexually active adolescents by socio-economic characteristics and by birth spacing and parity; to explore predictors of use of modern contraception in relation to the health system; and to discuss implications of the findings for family planning policy and programmes. Design Data are from the last three Demographic and Health Surveys of Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, and Nigeria. The descriptive analysis focused on sexually active adolescents (15- to 19-year age group), used modern contraception as the dependent variable, and a series of contact points with the health system (antenatal care, institutional delivery, postnatal care, immunisation) as covariates. The multivariate analysis used the same covariates, adjusting for socio-economic variables. Results There are two different groups of sexually active adolescents: those married or in a union with very low use of modern contraception and lower socio-economic status, and those unmarried, among whom nearly 50% are using modern contraception. Younger adolescents have lower modern contraceptive prevalence. There are significant inequality issues in modern contraception use by education, residence, and wealth quintile. However, while there was no significant progress in Burkina Faso and Nigeria, the data in Ethiopia point to a significant and systematic reduction of inequalities. The narrowing of the equity gap was most notable for childbearing adolescents with no education or living in rural areas. In the

  1. L'industrialisation de l'exploitation de l'or à Kalsaka, Burkina Faso : une chance pour une population rurale pauvre ?

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    Matthieu Thune

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On assiste au Burkina Faso au passage d'une exploitation essentiellement artisanale de l'or à une exploitation industrielle. Sur des sites miniers exploités jusqu'alors de façon artisanale, l'arrivée d'une entreprise industrielle perturbe les rapports des habitants aux espaces qu’ils exploitent et aux bénéfices qu’ils prétendent en tirer. A travers l'étude du site de Kalsaka, au nord du pays, il s'agit d'analyser les changements engendrés par l'arrivée de la mine sur les activités rurales. L'implantation de l'entreprise minière bouleverse l’économie locale dans le sens d'une paupérisation et ne constitue pas une nouvelle opportunité économique pour les habitants du lieu. Toutefois, les acteurs locaux sont inégalement touchés et de nombreux habitants perturbés dans leurs activités ont été en mesure de s'adapter au changement.Burkina Faso is faced with the transition from a mainly traditional gold mining activity to an industrial one. On sites that had hitherto been mined with traditional techniques, the setting-up of an industrial company interferes with the way the population interact with the area, as well as the profit they wish to draw from it. The point of this study on the Kalsaka site, situated in the north of the country, is to analyze the impact the mine has caused on rural activities. The emergence of the mining company has impoverished the local economy and has failed to provide the local population with any new economic opportunity. However, the locals turned out to be unevenly affected and many people -whose activity had initially been disrupted- have adjusted to the change.

  2. Comparison of effectiveness of two different artemisinin-based combination therapies in an area with high seasonal transmission of malaria in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondo, Paul; Derra, Karim; Nakanabo, Seydou Diallo; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Kazienga, Adama; Valea, Innocent; Sorgho, Herman; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert; Tinto, Halidou

    In Sahelian countries such as Burkina Faso, malaria transmission is seasonal with a high incidence of transmission during the rainy season. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the two recommended treatments (Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine) for uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso regarding this seasonal variation of malaria transmission. This is part of a randomized open label trial comparing the effectiveness and safety of Artemether-Lumefantrine versus Artesunate-Amodiaquine according to routine practice in Nanoro. Patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were recruited all year round and followed-up for 28 days. To distinguish recrudescences from new infections, dried blood spots from day 0 and day of recurrent parasitaemia were used for nested-PCR genotyping of the polymorphic loci of the merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2. Seasonal influence was investigated by assessing the treatment outcomes according to the recruitment period of the patients. Two main groups (dry season versus rainy season) were defined following the seasonal characteristics of the study area. In Artemether-Lumefantrine group, the uncorrected cure rate was 76.5% in dry season versus 37.9% in rainy season. In Artesunate-Amodiaquine group, this was 93.3% and 57.1% during dry and rainy seasons, respectively. After PCR adjustment, the cure rate decreased from 85.9% in dry season to 75.0% in rainy season in Artemether-Lumefantrine group. InA rtesunate-Amodiaquine group, it was 93.3% in dry season and 80.7% during the rainy season. During the rainy season around 50% of patients had a new malaria episode by Day 28. The cure rate of both Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine treatments was higher in dry season compared to rainy season due to high incidence of reinfections during the rainy season. For this reason, in addition to the curative effect, the post-treatment prophylactic effect should be taken into account in the choice of antimalarial

  3. Malnutrition is associated with HIV infection in children less than 5 years in Bobo-Dioulasso City, Burkina Faso: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, Ghislain Gnimbar; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Chao, Jane C-J

    2017-05-01

    Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and malnutrition are still 2 major health issues in sub-Saharan Africa including Burkina Faso where few studies have been conducted on child malnutrition and HIV infection. This study assessed the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV infection and also compared the prevalence of malnutrition in terms of an inadequate diet, underweight, stunting, and wasting among HIV-infected and uninfected children less than 5 years in Bobo-Dioulasso city, Burkina Faso.This was a case-control study matching for age and sex in 164 HIV-infected and 164 HIV-uninfected children. The sociodemographic characteristics of mothers and children, household food security, drinking water source, child feeding and care practices, and child anthropometric data such as body weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference were collected.The prevalence of food insecurity and inadequate diet was 58% and 92% of children less than 5 years of age, respectively. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 77% versus 35%, 65% versus 61%, and 63% versus 26% in HIV-infected and uninfected children less than 5 years of age, respectively. Out of 164 HIV-infected children, 59% were on ART initiation during data collection and the median of CD4 cell counts was 1078 cells/μL. HIV-infected children on ART had greater CD4 cell counts (P = .04) and higher weight-for-age Z (P = .01) and weight-for-height Z scores (P = .03) than those without ART. HIV infection was a risk factor for those who had inadequate dietary intake [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.62, P = .04]. In addition, HIV-infected children were more likely of being underweight (AOR = 10.24, 95% CI 4.34-24.17, P prevalence of malnutrition was observed in HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children. Except for ART, nutritional assessment and support should be included in pediatric HIV management.

  4. Impacts du coton-Bt sur les bilans financiers des sociétés cotonnières et des paysans au Burkina Faso

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    Fok Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis 2008, le Burkina Faso a adopté le coton-Bt en milieu paysan, à partir de variétés africaines transformées. L’étude menée est la première étude ex post, couvrant la période de 2008–2013, relative aux impacts financiers respectifs des sociétés cotonnières et des paysans, chaque catégorie étant prise globalement. L’étude est originale en tenant compte de la transformation génétique imparfaite des variétés utilisées. L’étude évalue les impacts financiers d’une situation réelle d’utilisation du coton-Bt par rapport à une situation de référence sans recours au coton-Bt. L’évaluation est faite aussi par rapport au scénario anticipé lors de la décision d’adoption et dont l’hypothèse d’un gain de rendement au champ de 30 % n’a pas été confirmée. L’évaluation est réalisée par la méthode de budget partiel avec des calculs de sensibilité à trois critères, industriel, commercial et du prix mondial. Pour les paysans, l’impact financier est positif, mais le ratio de rentabilité du surcoût des semences est à peine acceptable. Pour les sociétés cotonnières, l’impact financier est modeste et est devenu négatif à mesure que le prix mondial du coton est descendu de son record historique, en raison du manque à gagner en quantité de fibre produite, de la réduction en longueur du coton fibre et de l’application d’un malus à la vente à l’exportation. L’image d’un pays fournissant habituellement un coton de qualité est négativement affectée. L’adoption du coton-Bt au Burkina Faso constitue un cas rare d’évolution technologique induisant une divergence d’impacts entre les deux catégories d’acteurs avec une incidence négative potentielle sur le financement de la recherche pour poursuivre le progrès technique.

  5. Understanding home delivery in a context of user fee reduction: a cross-sectional mixed methods study in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Allegri, Manuela; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Müller, Olaf; Yé, Maurice; Jahn, Albrecht; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-12-11

    Several African countries have recently reduced/removed user fees for maternal care, producing considerable increases in the utilization of delivery services. Still, across settings, a conspicuous number of women continue to deliver at home. This study explores reasons for home delivery in rural Burkina Faso, where a successful user fee reduction policy is in place since 2007. The study took place in the Nouna Health District and adopted a triangulation mixed methods design, combining quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods. The quantitative component relied on use of data from the 2011 round of a panel household survey conducted on 1130 households. We collected data on utilization of delivery services from all women who had experienced a delivery in the previous twelve months and investigated factors associated with home delivery using multivariate logistic regression. The qualitative component relied on a series of open-ended interviews with 55 purposely selected households and 13 village leaders. We analyzed data using a mixture of inductive and deductive coding. Of the 420 women who reported a delivery, 47 (11 %) had delivered at home. Random effect multivariate logistic regression revealed a clear, albeit not significant trend for women from a lower socio-economic status and living outside an area to deliver at home. Distance to the health facility was found to be positively significantly associated with home delivery. Qualitative findings indicated that women and their households valued facility-based delivery above home delivery, suggesting that cultural factors do not shape the decision where to deliver. Qualitative findings confirmed that geographical access, defined in relation to the condition of the roads and the high transaction costs associated with travel, and the cost-sharing fees still applied at point of use represent two major barriers to access facility-based delivery. Findings suggest that the current policy in

  6. Patterns and trends of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria: evidence from cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennen Hounton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of universal access to voluntary contraception have been widely documented in terms of maternal and newborn survival, women's empowerment, and human capital. Given population dynamics, the choices and opportunities adolescents have in terms of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services could significantly affect the burden of diseases and nations’ human capital. Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to assess the patterns and trends of modern contraception use among sexually active adolescents by socio-economic characteristics and by birth spacing and parity; to explore predictors of use of modern contraception in relation to the health system; and to discuss implications of the findings for family planning policy and programmes. Design: Data are from the last three Demographic and Health Surveys of Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, and Nigeria. The descriptive analysis focused on sexually active adolescents (15- to 19-year age group, used modern contraception as the dependent variable, and a series of contact points with the health system (antenatal care, institutional delivery, postnatal care, immunisation as covariates. The multivariate analysis used the same covariates, adjusting for socio-economic variables. Results: There are two different groups of sexually active adolescents: those married or in a union with very low use of modern contraception and lower socio-economic status, and those unmarried, among whom nearly 50% are using modern contraception. Younger adolescents have lower modern contraceptive prevalence. There are significant inequality issues in modern contraception use by education, residence, and wealth quintile. However, while there was no significant progress in Burkina Faso and Nigeria, the data in Ethiopia point to a significant and systematic reduction of inequalities. The narrowing of the equity gap was most notable for childbearing adolescents with no education or living

  7. L’implication de l’anthropologue dans le champ scientifique : l’exemple de la Commission Nationale de la Décentralisation du Burkina Faso Anthropological Implication in the Scientific Field: the National Decentralisation Commission of Burkina Faso

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    Pierre-Joseph Laurent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution propose une réflexion sur la manière dont l’anthropologie peut s’articuler avec la politique. L’analyse porte sur des données relatives à la réforme administrative de l’État dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre de la décen­tralisation au Burkina Faso. À cette occasion, les travaux relatifs à la création des communes rurales ont été confiés à une équipe de chercheurs en sciences humaines. Sur la base d’une collaboration de 7 ans entre chercheurs et acteurs politiques, nous discutons ici des conditions de validité et d’efficacité de ce ty­pe de coopération, mais nous analysons surtout, en vue d’en titrer des con­clu­sions, les impasses auxquelles elle peut conduire. À partir de données em­piriques solides, le texte débat des notions de recherche fondamentale, de re­cherche-action, d’implication et d’application.An analysis of state administration reforms in respect of decentralisation in Burkina Faso gives rise to thought about politics and anthropology. The creation of rural communes was entrusted to a team of social scientists. In the light of a seven year collaboration between them and politicians the validity and efficacy of interaction and its eventual impasse are examined. Solid data allows for debate about both fundamental as opposed to action research and implication versus application.

  8. Compostage et qualité du compost de déchets urbains solides de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

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    Compaoré, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting and Compost Quality of Urban Solid Wastes in Bobo-Dioulasso Town, Burkina Faso. A study of urban solid wastes composting was conducted to evaluate wastes compost quality. Wastes of municipal dumps of Bobo-Dioulasso have been collected, separated and composted with cow manure, grass and Kodjari phosphate rock. During composting the pH increased up to 8.6, the moisture up to 68% and the temperature up to 65 °C before decreasing and then stabilizing at 7.1; 30% and 31 °C respectively. Particle size distribution of composts showed that the fraction ≤ 2 mm is dominant, about 65%. The organic matter, C, N, P and K contents of the composts are acceptable but the C/N ratio was relatively low in comparison with international standard. The heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn contents in composted urban wastes were relatively high with higher content of Zn and Pb. The compost obtained was of good quality and the addition of Kodjari phosphate rock enhanced this quality.

  9. From Management to Negotiation: Technical and Institutional Innovations for Integrated Water Resource Management in the Upper Comoé River Basin, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J.; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users’ needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management.

  10. Evaluation of a PfHRP-2 based rapid diagnostic test versus microscopy method among HIV-positive and unknown serology patients in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Arianna; Giorgetti, Pier Francesco; Pietra, Virginio; Melzani, Alessia; Seni, Wetien; Castelli, Francesco; Simpore, Jaques

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT; Malaria Quick Test(®); Cypress Diagnostic) compared with the standard thick-smear microscopy method using blood samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and individuals of unknown HIV status collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Our results show that 42.1% of 114 HIV-infected patients were concordantly RDT- and thick smear-positive, and 55.3% were concordantly negative. Sensitivity and specificity of the RDT test were 100.0% and 95.4%, respectively, with 5.9% false-positive results and a total agreement of 97.4%; 127 patients with unknown HIV serology were analyzed; of them, 40.9% were RDT- and thick smear-positive, and 46.4% concordantly negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 78.6%, respectively, with 23.5% false-positive results and a total agreement of 87.4%. Malaria Quick Test(®) is rapid and effective for the diagnosis of malaria and has a high sensitivity, confirming its use in general and HIV patients in particular. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, P.; Sop, T. K.; Lykke, A. M.; Thiombiano, A.

    2015-05-01

    Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-sylvo-pastoral productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental design with three replicates per restoration technique. A total of 174 seedlings were planted in each study site. The results showed that the soil water content varied according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p curcas is unsuited to denuded land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that J. curcas may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.

  12. Distribution and frequency of kdr mutations within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations and first report of the ace.1 G119S mutation in Anopheles arabiensis from Burkina Faso (West Africa.

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    Roch K Dabiré

    Full Text Available An entomological survey was carried out at 15 sites dispersed throughout the three eco-climatic regions of Burkina Faso (West Africa in order to assess the current distribution and frequency of mutations that confer resistance to insecticides in An. gambiae s.l. populations in the country. Both knockdown (kdr resistance mutation variants (L1014F and L1014S, that confer resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, were identified concomitant with the ace-1 G119S mutation confirming the presence of multiple resistance mechanisms in the An. gambiae complex in Burkina Faso. Compared to the last survey, the frequency of the L1014F kdr mutation appears to have remained largely stable and relatively high in all species. In contrast, the distribution and frequency of the L1014S mutation has increased significantly in An. gambiae s.l. across much of the country. Furthermore we report, for the first time, the identification of the ace.1 G119S mutation in An. arabiensis populations collected at 8 sites [corrected]. This mutation, which confers resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, has been reported previously only in the An. gambiae S and M molecular forms. This finding is significant as organophosphates and carbamates are used in indoor residual sprays (IRS to control malaria vectors as complementary strategies to the use of pyrethroid impregnated bednets. The occurrence of the three target-site resistance mutations in both An. gambiae molecular forms and now An. arabiensis has significant implications for the control of malaria vector populations in Burkina Faso and for resistance management strategies based on the rotation of insecticides with different modes of action.

  13. Signification des ferruginisations des formations néoprotérozoïques du Nord-Burkina Faso (Afrique de l'Ouest)Meaning of ironstones in the sedimentary Neoproterozoic formations of the northern Burkina Faso (western Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, Alain

    2002-09-01

    There are many small ferruginous outcrops of different facies, often breccia-like, in the Neoproterozoic sedimentary formations in northern Burkina. These outcrops are made up of goethite and quartz, and are often along with high grades of various elements. It could be a question of gossans. Their large distribution in this part of the Taoudéni Basin offers it prospects as a province geochemically rich in Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, Co... This basin would be a geochemical bin for ancient formations, which would have been evacuated before the Neoproterozoic. The ironstones would be the mark of further concentrations. To cite this article: A. Blot, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 909-915.

  14. Changements techniques et dynamique d’innovation agricole en Afrique Sahelienne: le cas du Zaï mécanisé au Burkina Faso et de l’introduction d’une cactée en Ethiopie

    OpenAIRE

    Clavel, Daniele; Barro, Albert; Belay, Tesfay; Lahmar, Rabah; Maraux, Florent

    2008-01-01

    En Afrique, 45% du territoire est situé dans des régions où l’agriculture pluviale est fragilisée par les sécheresses récurrentes. Au Burkina Faso, la dégradation des sols peut être limitée grâce à la technique du Zaï, technique manuelle traditionnelle très exigeante en main d’œuvre (300h/ha). La mécanisation de l'opération permet de passer à 40h/ha. L’amélioration de la technique touche aujourd’hui plusieurs centaines de fermes et d’artisans dans une vingtaine de villages du nord du Burkina ...

  15. Représentations de la transmission sexuelle des maladies chez les Mossi au Burkina Faso ; rencontre des catégories nosologiques populaire et biomédicale dans le champ de la santé publique

    OpenAIRE

    Egrot, Marc; Taverne, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Le fichier déposé EgrotTaverne2003.pdf est un fichier pdf produit par le premier auteur Marc Egrot le 08/02/2008 à partir du fichier .doc rédigé et produit en 2002 par Marc Egrot et Bernard Taverne . La pagination indiquée est conforme à celle de l'ouvrage.; Chez les Moose du Burkina Faso, l'étude des savoirs populaires relatifs aux maladies montre qu'il existe une catégorie nosographique nommé "maladies de femmes". Elle regroupe une dizaine de maladies qui ont en commun de pouvoir être trans...

  16. A community-based approach to indigent selection is difficult to organize in a formal neighbourhood in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: a mixed methods exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In most African countries, indigents treated at public health centres are supposed to be exempted from user fees. In Africa, most of the available knowledge has to do with targeting processes in rural areas, and little is known about how to select the worst-off in an urban area. In rural communities of Burkina Faso, trials of participatory community-based selection of indigents have been effective. However, the process for selecting indigents in urban areas is not yet clear. Methods This study evaluates a community-funded participatory indigent selection process in both a formal (loti) and an informal (non-loti) neighbourhood in the urban setting of Burkina Faso’s capital. This was an exploratory study to evaluate the processes and effectiveness of participatory targeting. We conducted individual interviews (n = 26) and analyzed secondary qualitative data (eight focus groups, 16 individual interviews). We also used the results of a socioeconomic survey (carried out by the Ouaga HDSS in 2011) of all the households established in the areas, including those of selected indigents. Results The coverage of indigent targeting was very low: 0.33% (loti) and 0.22% (non loti). In the non loti neighbourhood, the level of poverty among people selected was higher than the mean level of the poor who were not selected. Some indigents selected in the loti neighbourhood were not among the worst-off. The process was difficult to organize in the loti neighbourhood; people knew each other less well and were not very available, and there were cases of collusion. The process worked well in the non loti neighbourhood. Conclusions This intervention research provides new evidence about the feasibility of a community-based selection process in an urban setting in Africa by comparing two different urban settings. The participatory community-based selection process appeared to be suitable for the non loti neighbourhood, but other targeting strategies need to be found for loti

  17. Potential of remote sensing data for improving water resources management in semi-arid regions: a case study in Burkina Faso

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    Papa, M. N.; Ciervo, F.; Koussoube, y.; Di Martino, G.; Iodice, A.; Natale, A.; Riccio, D.; Ruello, G.; Zinno, I.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we present the rationale and the first results of a Cosmo-SkyMed AO project devoted to use high resolution synthetic aperture radar data for water resource management in semi-arid regions. A case study was developed in Burkina Faso, one of the poorest countries of the world, where almost 80% of the population lives in rural areas depending from agriculture and livestock. It is characterized by the alternation of a rainy (3 months) and a dry (9 months) season, with extreme climate conditions (drought and floods). The project was approved by the Italian Space Agency, that provided Cosmo SkyMed Stripmap (3m resolution) and Spotligth (1m resolution) SAR images. The study area is in the northern part of Burkina Faso around the village of Bidi. A first study is related on the identification of eroded areas, which are indicative of desertification processes. Eroded soils are no more able to absorb and drain water, so that their humidity and, as a consequence, their dielectric constant and conductivity are almost independent by the precipitation. By comparing SAR images acquired during the rainy and the dry seasons, the eroded soils do not change their reflectivity and they can be identified by change detection techniques. In this work we employ innovative fractal change detection techniques, based on the image spectrum evaluation and the comparison of the fractal dimension. As the precipitations occur only during three months, it is crucial to collect water in the rainy season, by the means of artificial basins, in order to irrigate the fields in the dry season. The construction of little artificial basins is usually carried out under the initiative of small associations of farmers. The location, design and management of the basins sometimes is not rational, for the lack of all the information needed for the design. The best location for the construction of a new artificial basin depends on the total volume of surface water that may be collected in one year

  18. Study through surveys and fermentation kinetics of the traditional processing of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) into ben-saalga, a fermented gruel from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, E H; Guyot, J P; Mouquet-Rivier, C; Rochette, I; Counil, E; Traoré, A S; Trèche, S

    2006-01-15

    Traditional cereal-based fermented foods are frequently used as complementary foods for infants and young children in Africa. This is the case for ben-saalga, a popular fermented gruel produced from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) in Burkina Faso. Detailed knowledge of traditional processing is a prerequisite for investigating ways to improve both the nutritional and sanitary qualities of the corresponding foodstuff. In this work, the traditional processing of pearl millet into ben-saalga was investigated in 24 production units, and fermentation kinetics were studied in pilot scale experiments. Processing steps include: washing (optional), soaking of the grains (first fermentation step), grinding and sieving of the wet flour, settling (second fermentation step), and cooking. The soaking step was mainly characterized by alcoholic fermentation whereas lactic acid fermentation occurred during the settling step. Fermentation kinetics during settling indicates a temporal variation of metabolic activity. Initially, both homofermentative and heterofermentative pathways were simultaneously active, and later only a homofermentative pathway was active. The paste produced at the end of settling had a low pH (4.0+/-0.4) and its microflora was dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with an amylolytic LAB/LAB ratio of 12%. Sucrose disappeared in the grains during soaking but was not detected in the soaking water, whereas glucose, fructose and maltose appeared transiently. Glucose and fructose were the main substrates observed for lactic acid fermentation during the settling step; however unbalanced fermentation led to the hypothesis that starch hydrolysis products may also serve as substrates for lactic acid formation. At the end of the processing, a 75% and 83% decrease was observed in phytate (IP6) and raffinose, respectively. The sour gruel ben-saalga resulting from cooking the sour paste had inadequate nutritional characteristics with respect to infants' and young

  19. Characterization of Salmonella enterica and detection of the virulence genes specific to diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from poultry carcasses in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

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    Kagambèga, Assèta; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Alfred S; Siitonen, Anja; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-07-01

    One hundred chicken carcasses purchased from three markets selling poultry in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between June 2010 and October 2010 were examined for their microbiological quality. The presence of Salmonella was investigated using standard bacteriological procedures, and the isolates obtained were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The presence of virulence-associated genes of the five main pathogroups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli-Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli-was investigated using 16-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the mixed bacterial cultures from the poultry samples. Of the 100 chicken carcasses studied, 57 were contaminated by Salmonella; 16 different serotypes were identified, the most frequent being Salmonella Derby, found in 28 samples. Four Salmonella strains were resistant to tetracycline, and two were resistant to streptomycin. Based on the PCR detection of the virulence genes, in total, 45 carcasses were contaminated by three pathogroups of E. coli: STEC, EPEC, or EAEC. The STEC and EPEC virulence genes were detected on six and 39 carcasses, respectively. EAEC virulence genes were only detected in combination with those of EPEC (on 11 carcasses) or STEC (on two carcasses). The STEC-positive carcasses contained the genes stx(1), stx(2), eaeA, escV, and ent in different combinations. None of the EPEC-positive carcasses contained the bfp gene, indicating that only atypical EPEC was present. EAEC virulence genes detected were aggR and/or pic. The high proportion of chicken carcasses contaminated by Salmonella and diarrheagenic E. coli indicates a potential food safety risk for consumers and highlights the necessity of public awareness of these pathogens.

  20. Health-care-seeking patterns in the emerging private sector in Burkina Faso: a population-based study of urban adult residents in Ouagadougou.

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    Idrissa Beogo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. However, people's health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants. METHOD: We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study. RESULTS: Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.28, and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07-1.39. Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers

  1. Revisiting plant conservation on wooded shrines by a transversal approach: "Core" vs. "satellite" species and anthropological knowledge in Bwaba land, Burkina Faso

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    Anne Fournier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on plant conservation in sacred groves provide mixed results, with some showing their effectiveness while others do not. We argue that beyond the variety of field cases, studies usually suffer from overrating rare species and insufficient consideration of societal data. The sacred sites of Bondoukuy department in Bwaba cultural area (Burkina Faso were geo-referenced and measured; the most abundant ligneous species were listed and their abundance recorded. Their conservation status and dynamics were assessed based on the core vs. satellite species model of Hanski. Data interpretations relied on the phytogeographical affinities of abundant species and on anthropological knowledge of the Bwaba society. The vast majority of shrines were less than 1 ha, located in or near villages in specific landscape features, and covered with trees. The most abundant species of shrines belonged mostly to local phytochories, but were subject to rather high anthropisation. The results support the concept that wooded shrines preserve local biodiversity, but indicate threats from an invasive alien species. The location and condition of shrines appeared to be constitutive features: the Bwaba system of thought involves a series of sacred sites (with and without trees located in remarkable features of the landscape, and their way of life has resulted in the proximity of these sites to the villages. The beliefs that promote plant cover conservation do so only to a certain extent and regardless of the species content, which raises the concern that alien species may upset the established communities. These beliefs have led the Bwaba to choose the most humid environments in which to set up their wooded shrines, which is interesting from a conservation perspective. The study advocates for a better consideration of social data to identify the key elements of the dynamics of the vegetation of sacred groves.

  2. Caregiver recognition of childhood diarrhea, care seeking behaviors and home treatment practices in rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Shelby E Wilson

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To design effective national diarrhea control programs, including oral rehydration solution (ORS and therapeutic zinc supplementation, information is needed on local perceptions of illness, external care seeking behaviors, and home treatment practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based household survey was conducted in the Orodara Health District, Burkina Faso. Caregivers of 10,490 children <27 months were interviewed to assess child diarrhea prevalence and related care practices. Characteristics of households, caregivers, children, and reported illnesses were compared for those caregivers who did or did not recognize the presence of diarrhea, as defined according to clinical criteria (≥ 3 liquid or semi-liquid stools/day. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with illness recognition and treatment. RESULTS: Clinically defined diarrhea was present in 7.6% (95% CI: 7.1-8.1% of children during the 24 hours preceding the survey but recognized by only 55% of caregivers. Over half (55% of the caregivers of 1,067 children with a clinically defined diarrhea episode in the past 14 days sought care outside the home; 78% of those seeking care attended a public sector clinic. Care was sought and treatment provided more frequently for children with fever, vomiting, anorexia, longer illness duration, and those living closer to the health center; and care was sought more frequently for male children. 80% of children with recent diarrhea received some form of treatment; only 24% received ORS, whereas 14% received antibiotics. Zinc was not yet available in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers frequently fail to recognize children's diarrhea, especially among younger infants and when illness signs are less severe. Treatment practices do not correspond with international recommendations in most cases, even when caregivers consult with formal health services. Child caregivers need additional

  3. Malaria resistance genes are associated with the levels of IgG subclasses directed against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigens in Burkina Faso

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    Afridi Sarwat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms have been associated with malaria resistance in humans, whereas cytophilic immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies are thought to play a critical role in immune protection against asexual blood stages of the parasite. Furthermore, HBB, IL4, TNF, and FCGR2A have been associated with both malaria resistance and IgG levels. This suggests that some malaria resistance genes influence the levels of IgG subclass antibodies. Methods In this study, the effect of HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms on the levels of IgG responses against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage extract was investigated in 220 individuals living in Burkina Faso. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient among IgG subclasses was determined. A family-based approach was used to assess the association of polymorphisms with anti-P. falciparum IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels. Results After applying a multiple test correction, several polymorphisms were associated with IgG subclass or IgG levels. There was an association of i haemoglobin C with IgG levels; ii the FcγRIIa H/R131 with IgG2 and IgG3 levels; iii TNF-863 with IgG3 levels; iv TNF-857 with IgG levels; and, v TNF1304 with IgG3, IgG4, and IgG levels. Conclusion Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that some polymorphisms affect malaria resistance through their effect on the acquired immune response, and pave the way towards further comprehension of genetic control of an individual’s humoral response against malaria.

  4. Genetic variations in genes involved in heparan sulphate biosynthesis are associated with Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: a familial study in Burkina Faso

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    Atkinson Alexandre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is accumulating evidence that host heparan sulphate proteoglycans play an important role in the life cycle of Plasmodium through their heparan sulphate chains, suggesting that genetic variations in genes involved in heparan sulphate biosynthesis may influence parasitaemia. Interestingly, Hs3st3a1 and Hs3st3b1 encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of heparan sulphate are located within a chromosomal region linked to Plasmodium chabaudi parasitaemia in mice. This suggests that HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 may influence P. falciparum parasitaemia in humans. Methods Polymorphisms within HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 were identified in 270 individuals belonging to 44 pedigrees and living in Burkina Faso. Linkage and association between parasitaemia and the polymorphisms were assessed with MERLIN and FBAT. A genetic interaction analysis was also conducted based on the PGMDR approach. Results Linkage between P. falciparum parasitaemia and the chromosomal region containing HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 was detected on the basis of the 20 SNPs identified. In addition, rs28470223 located within the promoter of HS3ST3A1 was associated with P. falciparum parasitaemia, whereas the PGMDR analysis revealed a genetic interaction between HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1. Seventy-three significant multi-locus models were identified after correcting for multiple tests; 37 significant multi-locus models included rs28470223, whereas 38 multi-locus models contained at least one mis-sense mutation within HS3ST3B1. Conclusion Genetic variants of HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 are associated with P. falciparum parasitaemia. This suggests that those variants alter both the function of heparan sulphate proteoglycans and P. falciparum parasitaemia.

  5. An analysis of timing and frequency of malaria infection during pregnancy in relation to the risk of low birth weight, anaemia and perinatal mortality in Burkina Faso

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    Valea Innocent

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective study aiming at assessing the effect of adding a third dose sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to the standard two-dose intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women was carried out in Hounde, Burkina Faso, between March 2006 and July 2008. Pregnant women were identified as earlier as possible during pregnancy through a network of home visitors, referred to the health facilities for inclusion and followed up until delivery. Methods Study participants were enrolled at antenatal care (ANC visits and randomized to receive either two or three doses of SP at the appropriate time. Women were visited daily and a blood slide was collected when there was fever (body temperature > 37.5°C or history of fever. Women were encouraged to attend ANC and deliver in the health centre, where the new-born was examined and weighed. The timing and frequency of malaria infection was analysed in relation to the risk of low birth weight, maternal anaemia and perinatal mortality. Results Data on birth weight and haemoglobin were available for 1,034 women. The incidence of malaria infections was significantly lower in women having received three instead of two doses of SP. Occurrence of first malaria infection during the first or second trimester was associated with a higher risk of low birth weight: incidence rate ratios of 3.56 (p p = 0.034, respectively. After adjusting for possible confounding factors, the risk remained significantly higher for the infection in the first trimester of pregnancy (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 2.07, p = 0.002. The risk of maternal anaemia and perinatal mortality was not associated with the timing of first malaria infection. Conclusion Malaria infection during first trimester of pregnancy is associated to a higher risk of low birth weight. Women should be encouraged to use long-lasting insecticidal nets before and throughout their pregnancy.

  6. Are dietary diversity scores related to the socio-economic and anthropometric status of women living in an urban area in Burkina Faso?

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    Savy, M; Martin-Prével, Y; Danel, P; Traissac, P; Dabiré, Hb; Delpeuch, F

    2008-02-01

    To study dietary diversity and its relationship with socio-economic and nutritional characteristics of women in an urban Sahelian context. A qualitative dietary recall was performed over a 24-h period. Dietary diversity scores (DDS = number of food groups consumed) were calculated from a list of nine food groups (DDS-9) or from a list of 22 food groups (DDS-22) which detailed both micronutrient- and energy-dense foods more extensively. Body mass index (BMI), mid upper-arm circumference and body fat percentage were used to assess the nutritional status of the women. Five hundred and fifty-seven women randomly selected in two districts of Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. The mean DDS-9 and DDS-22 were 4.9 +/- 1.0 and 6.5 +/- 1.8 food groups, respectively. In the high tertile of DDS-22, more women consumed fatty and sweetened foods, fresh fish, non-fatty meat and vitamin-A-rich fruits and vegetables. The DDS-9 was not associated with the women's socio-economic characteristics whereas the DDS-22 was higher when the women were younger, richer and had received at least a minimum education. Mean BMI of the women was 24.2 +/- 4.9 kg m-2 and 37% of them were overweight or obese (BMI > or = 25 kg m-2). Neither the DDS-9 nor the DDS-22 was associated with the women's anthropometric status, even though there was a trend towards fewer overweight women in the lowest tertile of DDS-22. In this urban area, the qualitative measurement of dietary diversity is not sufficient to identify women at risk of under- or overweight.

  7. Paleoproterozoic plume-related basaltic rocks in the Mana gold district in western Burkina Faso, West Africa: Implications for exploration and the source of gold in orogenic deposits

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    Augustin, Jérôme; Gaboury, Damien

    2017-05-01

    Birimian volcanic rocks of the Mana District are located in the an important gold-mineralized segment of the Paleoproterozoic Houndé greenstone belt, western Burkina Faso, which contains cumulative resources of ∼11 Moz. Five orogenic gold deposits (∼8 Moz) are hosted in or close to basaltic rocks. Theses rocks were studied to investigate their possible role as a gold source in younger orogenic gold deposits. They are Fe-rich tholeiitic basalts with flat REE patterns, with (La/Yb)N = 0.96-1.3 and without negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.92-1.26). The basalts also have low initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.693612-0.702190) and positive εNd values (+2.25 to +3.14). Using a Ce/Nb vs. Th/Nb diagram and various plume-related basalts worldwide for comparison, the Mana basalts are shown to be plume-related. In addition, using Zr/Nb vs. Nb/Th and Nb/Y vs. Zr/Y binary diagrams and reference fields, the Mana basaltic rocks appear to have formed directly above the plume head. Because plume-related basalts tend to be enriched in gold relative to MORB, we propose that the gold endowment of the Mana district is mostly related to the occurrence of plume-related basaltic rocks, which may have served as an important metal stock during subsequent remobilization for forming the orogenic gold deposits. We also propose that for gold exploration, two simple geochemical diagrams involving Zr, Y, Nb and Th could be used at an early stage to test the origin of the basaltic rocks and hence indirectly establish the fertility of a specific belt for hosting orogenic gold deposits.

  8. A Theoretical Analysis of the Geography of Schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso Highlights the Roles of Human Mobility and Water Resources Development in Disease Transmission.

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    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mari, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Casagrandi, Renato; Sokolow, Susanne H; De Leo, Giulio A; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Froehlich, Jean-Marc; Sou, Mariam; Karambiri, Harouna; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Amadou; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We study the geography of schistosomiasis across Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of water-based disease dynamics. The model quantitatively addresses the geographic stratification of disease burden in a novel framework by explicitly accounting for drivers and controls of the disease, including spatial information on the distributions of population and infrastructure, jointly with a general description of human mobility and climatic/ecological drivers. Spatial patterns of disease are analysed by the extraction and the mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The relevance of the work lies in the novel mapping of disease burden, a byproduct of the parametrization induced by regional upscaling, by model-guided field validations and in the predictive scenarios allowed by exploiting the range of possible parameters and processes. Human mobility is found to be a primary control at regional scales both for pathogen invasion success and the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development highlighted by systematic reviews are accounted for by the average distances of human settlements from water bodies that are habitats for the parasite's intermediate host. Our results confirm the empirical findings about the role of water resources development on disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free also by inspection of empirical prevalence patterns. We conclude that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the proposed framework provides a powerful tool for large-scale public health planning and schistosomiasis management.

  9. Abolishing Fees at Health Centers in the Context of Community Case Management of Malaria: What Effects on Treatment-Seeking Practices for Febrile Children in Rural Burkina Faso?

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    Thomas Druetz

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso started nationwide community case management of malaria (CCMm in 2010. In 2011, health center user fees for children under five were abolished in some districts.To assess the effects of concurrent implementation of CCMm and user fees abolition on treatment-seeking practices for febrile children.This is a natural experiment conducted in the districts of Kaya (CCMm plus user fees abolition and Zorgho (CCMm only. Registry data from 2005 to 2014 on visits for malaria were collected from all eight rural health centers in the study area. Annual household surveys were administered