Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkina Faso's immunization program has benefited regularly from national and international support. However, national immunization coverage has been irregular, decreasing from 34.7% in 1993 to 29.3% in 1998, and then increasing to 43.9% in 2003. Undoubtedly, a variety of factors contributed to this pattern. This study aims to identify both individual and systemic factors associated with complete vaccination in 1998 and 2003 and relate them to variations in national and international policies and strategies on vaccination of rural Burkinabé children aged 12-23 months. Methods Data from the 1998 and 2003 Demographic and Health Surveys and the Ministry of Health's 1997 and 2002 Statistical Yearbooks, as well as individual interviews with central and regional decision-makers and with field workers in Burkina's healthcare system, were used to carry out a multilevel study that included 805 children in 1998 and 1,360 children in 2003, aged 12-23 months, spread over 44 and 48 rural health districts respectively. Results In rural areas, complete vaccination coverage went from 25.9% in 1998 to 41.2% in 2003. District resources had no significant effect on coverage and the impact of education declined over time. The factors that continued to have the greatest impact on coverage rates were poverty, with its various dimensions, and the utilization of other healthcare services. However, these factors do not explain the persistent differences in complete vaccination between districts. In 2003, despite a trend toward district homogenization, differences between health districts still accounted for a 7.4% variance in complete vaccination. Conclusion Complete vaccination coverage of children is improving in a context of worsening poverty. Education no longer represents an advantage in relation to vaccination. Continuity from prenatal care to institutional delivery creates a loyalty to healthcare services and is the most significant and
Lydie S. A. Yiougo
Full Text Available Cities in developing countries are faced waste management challenges in terms of quantity and quality. Most of the time, solid and liquid wastes are dumped on street and open spaces. Uncontrolled waste dumped has led to diverse kind of health problems. The purpose of this article is to characterize urban cities and evaluate their waste generation using the Geographical Info rmation System (GIS. The focus is on two cities in Burkina Faso. Specific variabl es which were considered during the survey include urban fabric, grey water outlets a nd household garbage dumps sites/techniques. The study shows that in the two cities, the most dominant urban fabric is low standard of living (about 64% of housing in Fada and 62% of housing in Pouytenga. The urban fabric is also characterized by the exis tence of empty spaces. Overall, the average density of grey water discharge points is 0.85 points and 5.7 points per ha of street in Fada N’Gourma and Pouytenga respectivel y. The average density of solid waste dumps is 1.45 waste dumps per ha street a nd 7 waste dumps per ha street in Fada N'Gourma and Pouytenga respectively. In case of urgent waste management intervention, the priority areas for speedy intervention are area 10 in Fada N’Gourma, areas 2 and 5 in Pouytenga. GIS applied to w aste management can be a decision making tool for urban planne rs in developing country.
Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. A recent World Bank investigation finds a significant positive relationship between international migration and poverty reduction at the country level (Adams and Page 2003). Burkina Faso, whose conditions for a
This report provides data on the Study Area in Burkina Faso: Administration overview, provinces within the study area, human population profile by Department, structure of monetary income, soil suitability, vegetation, livestock profiles and distribution of tsetse species.
Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J;
A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...
Poda, J N; Traoré, A; Sondo, B K
Burkina Faso, through the works of many teams of the OCCGE based in Bobo-Dioulasso, has signi-ficant data on several tropical endemics of which schistosomiasis. With the complementary works, it appears to be possible to establish a distribution of the schistosomiasis which reveals its importance. It will be the first stage of the planned national control program. The parasitologic data-gathering which covers the period of 1951 to 2000, used all the standard techniques. It is about Kato-Kartz and MIF for the intestinal schistosomiasis, centrifugation, filtration, serology reagent strips, macroscopy of urines and echography of the urinary system for the urinary schistosomiasis. All the eleven medical areas of the country have many sites submitted to parasitologic investigation. As regard the distribution of the two parasites involved with man (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), the data of prevalence (1% to 100%) and their distribution confirm their endemicity and the focal transmission. S. mansoni is located in eight medical areas particularly in the South and the West. S. haematobium is present in all the eleven medical areas of the country. In hydraulic planning as Sourou where the prevalences went from 23% to 70% for S. haematobium and from 0% to 69% for S. mansoni between 1987 and 1998. The situation requires a continuous monitoring. The spatial distribution of the six species of intermediate hosts shows that Bulinus truncatus and B. senegalensis Soudano-Sahelian species are present in all the ecological zones. B. globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi meet preferentially in the southern half of the country which reinforces the observation according to which the 14th northern parallel is often considered as the limit of septentrional extension of these two species. The other species Bulinus forskalii and B umbilicatus could have preference areas. All the species show a certain affinity with a type of biotope. The rarity and temporary aquatic systems lead to a
Simpore J; Zeba B; Karou D; Ilboudo D; Pignatelli S; Nacoulma OG; Musumeci S
Burkina Faso (West Africa)is a tropical country with a high incidence of infectious diseases.The uncontrolled use of antibiotics against bacterial pathogens has given rise to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in this country.The aims of this study were.i)to determine the prevalences of the most important pathogenic bacteri-a,isolated in the town of Ouagadougou.ii)to identify the bacterial species which have acquired resistance as a result of antibiotic selection.iii)to compare antibiotic-resistances ofEscherichia coli isolated from stool cul-ture in the present study,with results obtained in 2002 from strains collected in the same structure in Burkina Faso.iv)to determine the trend of antibiotic resistance in Burkina Faso in order to give local advice on the most appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy.Six thousand two hundred and sixty four samples of blood,stools, urine,sputum,pus and vaginal secretion were collected and analyzed in Saint Camille Medical Center (SC-MC)laboratory from May 2001 to May 2006.Out of the 6264 samples tested no pathogen was identified in 1583 (25.31%),whilst 4681 (74.73%)were positive,with the incidence of the microrganisms isolated be-ing as follows:Escherichia coli 1291 (27.6%),Staphylococcus aureus 922 (19.7%),Salmonella spp 561 (12.0%),Streptococcus spp 499 (10.7%),Klebsiella spp 359 (7.7%),Shigella spp (6.3%),Acineto-bacter spp 266 (5.7%)and others 783 (16.7%).Among the isolated pathogens,the highest resistance was found to Amoxycillin:Proteus spp 95.6%,Escherichia coli 78.2%,Salmonella spp 62.2%,Shigella spp 73. 4% and Klebsiella spp 89.9%,followed by resistance to Ampicillin and cotrimoxazole.Comparing the preva-lence of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from stool cultures isolated during 1999-2000 to that of 2001-2006,a significant reduction was found,which could be due to the improved use of antibiotics in recent years. The reduced antibiotic-resistance observed in pathogens isolated in Burkina Faso during this
Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Adoum, Alkhalil; White, Libby
This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in rainfall and air temperatures. These analyses are based on quality controlled station observations. Conclusions: * Summer rains have remained steady over the past 20 years, but remain 15 percent below the 1920-69 average. * Temperatures have increased by 0.6° Celsius since 1975, amplifying the effect of droughts. * The amount of farmland per person is low, and declining. * Burkina Faso has offset rapid population growth with improved yields. * Continued yield growth would maintain current levels of per capita food production.
Ouedraogo Ibrahim; Hilou Adama; Sombie Pierre Alexandre Eric Djifaby; Compaore Moussa; Millogo Jeanne; Nacoulma Odile Germaine
The use of the amaranths as vegetables is developed in Burkina Faso. Most known are Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex. Thell, Amaranthus graecizans L., Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L. A. hybridus is most used and abundantly cultivated, however the others are more or less wild. Theaim of the present study was to investigate the nutraceutical potentialities of four Amaranthus species from Burkina Faso. The aqueous decoction extract of the four species contains the highest ofpolyphenol...
Nathan, Nicolas; Rose, Angela M.C.; Legros, Dominique; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre R.M.; Bachy, Catherine; Bjørløw, Egil; Firmenich, Peter; Caugant, Dominique A.
In 2002, the largest epidemic of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 occurred in Burkina Faso. The highest attack rate was in children <5 years of age. We describe cases from 1 district and evaluate the performance of the Pastorex test, which had good sensitivity (84%) and specificity (89%) compared with culture or PCR. PMID:17553237
Kobiane, Jean-Francois; Calves, Anne-Emmanuele; Marcoux, Richard
In this article, the authors review the literature on orphanhood, schooling, and the role of the extended family system in supporting the education of orphans in Burkina Faso. They also summarize the historical, social, and economic context of this study. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of orphanhood on children's access to…
Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Kouanda, Seni; Zarowsky, Christina
Introduction Despite advances in treatment and management, syphilis remains a major public health problem in Burkina Faso. Syphilis in pregnancy poses major health risks for the mother and the fetus and also increases the risk for HIV transmission. Despite its potential benefits, antenatal syphilis screening is often poorly implemented in many sub-Saharan African countries. The purpose of the study is to identify and understand barriers affecting health system performance for syphilis screeni...
Stanton, Michelle C.; Molyneux, David H; Dominique Kyelem; Bougma, Roland W; Koudou, Benjamin G; Louise A Kelly-Hope
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease that is endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa, infecting approximately 40 million people. In Burkina Faso, mass drug administration (MDA) for LF with ivermectin and albendazole has been ongoing since 2001, and by 2006 all endemic health districts were receiving MDA with a therapeutic coverage of at least 65%. As MDA activities scale down, the focus is now on targeting areas where LF transmission persists with alternative elimination strategies....
Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security, solve wat
Smedley, P. L.; Knudsen, J.; Maiga, D.
This study describes the hydrogeochemistry and distributions of As in groundwater from a newly investigated area of Burkina Faso. Groundwaters have been sampled from hand-pumped boreholes and dug wells close to the town of Ouahigouya in northern Burkina Faso. Although most analysed groundwaters have As concentrations of less than 10 μg L−1, they have a large range from
Agier, Isabelle; Ly, Antarou; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry
In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence. We used a sequential exploratory design. In a qualitative step (9 interviews, 12 focus groups), we adapted an instrument proposed by Goudge et al. (2012) to the local context and addressed desirability bias. Then, in a quantitative step (1255 respondents from the general population), we measured endorsement. Thematic analysis (qualitative) and logistic regressions (quantitative) were used. High levels of endorsement were found for each principle. Actual practices showed that anticipation and risk sharing were not only intentions. Preferences were given to solidarity between socio-economic status (SES) levels and progressivity. Although respondents seemed to prefer the national level for implementation, their current solidarity practices were mainly focused on close family. Thus, contribution levels should be set so that the entire family benefits from healthcare. Some critical conditions must be met to make UHC financial principles a reality through health insurance in Burkina Faso: trust, fair and mandatory contributions, and education. PMID:26803656
Karou, D.; Dicko, M.H.; Simpore, J.; Traore, A.S.
Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and anti
Nafissatou Ouédraogo; Jérôme Kaplon; Isidore Juste O Bonkoungou; Alfred Sababénédjo Traoré; Pierre Pothier; Nicolas Barro; Katia Ambert-Balay
Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 201...
Chikhungu, Lana Clara; Janet Madise, Nyovani
Background The practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is common in several African countries and some parts of Asia. This practice is not only a violation of human rights, but also puts women at risk of adverse health outcomes. This paper analysed the trends in the prevalence of FGM in Burkina Faso and investigated factors that are associated with this practice following the enactment of an FGM law in 1996. Methods The study used the Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data ...
Le Burkina Faso connaît une urbanisation relativement modérée. En effet, selon le recensement de décembre 1985, le taux d'urbanisation s'élevait à 13,6% et cela en tenant compte des seize centres secondaires de plus de 10.000 habitants. En se basant sur les 119 localités de plus de 5.000 habitants, ce taux dépasse à peine 27%. Or des pays tels que la Côte d'Ivoire, le Ghana et le Sénégal présentaient au même moment des taux de 45 à 50%. Cependant la taille et le nombre des centres urbains ne ...
Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.
This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that
Full Text Available AbstractThis paper examines entry into consensual unions versus marriages in BurkinaFaso, a topic that has received little attention to date in sub-Saharan Africa.Changes in marriage behaviors may entail or reflect profound changes in familyorganization, gender relations and fertility and, to the extent that consensualunions are relatively transitory and lead to more sexual partners, they may beassociated with greater sexual risks including HIV. The determinants of newunions being consensual are estimated from national family-life type survey datathat provide information on the timing of different types of marriages and thestart of cohabitation. While consensual unions are not new to the country, theyappear to be changing in nature and have been growing more common overtime especially in urban areas. They are also more popular among men andwomen with greater schooling or who began cohabiting while living outside thecountry, and for women who have previously lived in union.RésuméCet article compare les entrées en unions libres avec et les mariages au BurkinaFaso, un sujet ayant reçu peu d'attention en Afrique sub-saharienne jusqu'àprésent. Les changements de comportements reliés au mariage peuventimpliquer ou refléter de profondes modifications dans l'organisation desfamilles, dans les relations entre les sexes et dans la fécondité. Si les unionslibres sont en général plus transitoires que le mariage et entraînent un plusgrand nombre de partenaires sexuels, elles peuvent être associées à une haussede pratiques sexuelles à risque pouvant mener aux infections du VIH. Lesdéterminants de type d'union (libre ou mariage ont été estimés en utilisant lesdonnées d'une enquête nationale de type biographique à l'aide d'information surla chronologie des différents types de mariage et les débuts de cohabitation.Bien que les unions libres ne soient pas un nouveau phénomène au BurkinaFaso, il semble que leur nature s'évolue sur le
Colombini, Anaïs; Trotter, Caroline; Madrid, Yvette; Karachaliou, Andromachi; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre
Background. Five years since the successful introduction of MenAfriVac in a mass vaccination campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds in Burkina Faso, consideration must be given to the optimal strategies for sustaining population protection. This study aims to estimate the economic impact of a range of vaccination strategies in Burkina Faso. Methods. We performed a cost-of-illness study, comparing different vaccination scenarios in terms of costs to both households and health systems over a 2...
Napon, Christian; Dabilgou, Anselme; Kyelem, Julie; Kaboré, Jean
Post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) is defined as "recurrent seizures following stroke with confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy". Our objective was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic PSE aspects at the Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital, the main reference centre for neurological conditions in Burkina Faso. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2006 to December 2014. The data on thirty-two (32) cases of PSE was collected from a total of 1616 patients hospitalized for stroke, representing a rate of 1.98%. The patients' ages ranged from 25 to 77years old with a mean age of 58±10.39. There were 21 men and 11 women, with a gender ratio of 1.9. The time of occurrence of PSE ranged between 10 and 3600days (10years). The brain CT scan helped distinguish the different subtypes of stroke. Sixty-four percent (64%) of the cases experienced ischemic stroke and 36% of the cases cerebral hemorrhage. With regard to medical treatment, 23 patients received monotherapy, and 4 patients dual therapy. Exactly 96.87% of seizures were stabilized during the hospitalization period. PSE is a symptomatic type of epilepsy occurring during stroke sequelae. It is important not to lose sight of this before the occurrence of any focal or generalized seizure after a stroke. PMID:27538600
Koulidiati, J; Sawadogo, S; Sagna, Y; Somda, K S; Tieno, H; Kafando, E; Drabo, Y J
Pernicious anemia (also known as Biermer disease or anemia, Addison or Addisonian anemia, and Addison-Biermer anemia) is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis responsible for vitamin B12 malabsorption due to a deficiency of intrinsic factor. We report eight cases of pernicious anemia in Burkina Faso, collected over a 44-month period. The three criteria for diagnosis of pernicious anemia were: vitamin B12 deficiency, gastric disease (gastric histology) with presence of anti-intrinsic factor, and/or anti-gastric parietal cell antibodies in serum. All patients had anemia, with a mean hemoglobin level of 8.75 g/100 mL. The average mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was 122.1 fL the average mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 39.3 pg, the mean reticulocyte count 12.069 10(9)/L reticulocytes, and the mean rate of megaloblast marrow cells 17.2%. The serum vitamin B12 level ranged from 35 to 71 pmol/L. Antibodies against intrinsic factor were found in all eight patients. All ABO blood groups were present with a predominance (4 cases) of group O. Endoscopy found a normal fundic mucosa in three patients. Histology showed gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia for six patients (85.7%). Under B12 vitamin therapy, the course was favorable in all patients; seven patients also had 10 days of iron therapy. We recommend a gastric biopsy even in the absence of macroscopic gastric lesions on the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. PMID:25787024
Hessel, R.; Berg, van den J.; Kabore, O.; Kekem, van A.J.; Verzandvoort, S.J.E.
Sustainable land use planning is crucial for realizing the aim of food security and for combating land degradation in the Sahel. A participatory land use planning workshop was organised in a village in the eastern region of Burkina Faso to investigate land use problems, their causes, effects and pos
The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...
The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...
Spaan, W.P.; Bodnar, F.; Idoe, O.; Graaff, de J.
Amongst the soil and water conservation (SWC) measures adopted in Burkina Faso and Mali, contour vegetation barriers (CVB) constitute a cheap option in terms of labour and material requirements. In order to understand the actual adoption and maintenance of CVB, labour requirements of five commonly a
Glin, L.C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.
This research examines the structure and development of the organic sesame network from Burkina Faso to explain the declining trend in organic sesame export. The paper addresses particularly the question whether the organic sesame network is structurally (re)shaped as a conventional mainstream marke
The present book focuses on platforms for (natural) resource management. It analyses various case studies in Benin and Burkina Faso. Conditions for collective resource management in conflict and interdependent situations are the most critical issues. The present study raises the importance of socio-
Andrieu, N.; Pédelahore, P.; Howland, F.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.
The climate-smart agriculture concept aims to encourage reflection on
the transition to sustainable agricultural systems adapted to climate change. This chapter is based on participatory research studies carried out in Colombia and Burkina Faso to investigate, with farmers, the relevance of new
The objective of this thesis is to screen for biochemical determinants in sorghum varieties cultivated in Burkina Faso to identify the best sorghum varieties to be used as source of bioactive components or for specific local foods, e.g. "tô", thin porridges for infants, granulated foods "couscous",
Ridde, V.; Haddad, S.; Heinmüller, R.
Background This study evaluated the effects on healthcare access inequities of an intervention exempting children under 5 years from user fees in Burkina Faso. Methods The design consisted of two complementary studies. The first was an interrupted time series (56 months before and 12 months after) study of daily curative consultations according to distance (
Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Kouali, G.N.; Sally, H.; Kabre, P.
Small reservoirs in Burkina Faso are constructed for many purposes such as domestic water uses, livestock watering and irrigated rice production downstream of the dam. Increasingly farmers use individually owned motorized pumps to draw water directly from the reservoir and irrigate vegetables upstre
In the following paper, I am going to discuss education and religion and consider the legacy of Christianity in education in West Africa with particular reference to the Evangelical churches in Burkina Faso. The paper will start with a general introduction to West Africa and the place of missionaries' activities in the region. I will then attempt…
Full Text Available Background: Micro health insurance schemes have been implemented across developing countries as a means of facilitating access to modern medical care, with the ultimate aim of improving health. This effect, however, has not been explored sufficiently. Objective: We investigated the effect of enrolment into community-based health insurance on mortality in children under 5 years of age in a health and demographic surveillance system in Nouna, Burkina Faso. Design: We analysed the effect of health insurance enrolment on child mortality with a Cox regression model. We adjusted for variables that we found to be related to the enrolment in health insurance in a preceding analysis. Results: Based on the analysis of 33,500 children, the risk of mortality was 46% lower in children enrolled in health insurance as compared to the non-enrolled children (HR=0.54, 95% CI 0.43–0.68 after adjustment for possible confounders. We identified socioeconomic status, father's education, distance to the health facility, year of birth, and insurance status of the mother at time of birth as the major determinants of health insurance enrolment. Conclusions: The strong effect of health insurance enrolment on child mortality may be explained by increased utilisation of health services by enrolled children; however, other non-observed factors cannot be excluded. Because malaria is a main cause of death in the study area, early consultation of health services in case of infection could prevent many deaths. Concerning the magnitude of the effect, implementation of health insurance could be a major driving factor of reduction in child mortality in the developing world.
Palanga, Essowè; Filloux, Denis; Martin, Darren P.; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Gargani, Daniel; Ferdinand, Romain; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe
Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as “poor man’s meat”, cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus—a strain of Bean common mosaic virus—[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae]) five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus), two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae), a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae) and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae). Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples) and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses. PMID:27764211
Andrea Melberg; Abdoulaye Hama Diallo; Ana Lorena Ruano; Thorkild Tylleskär; Karen Marie Moland
The policy of institutional delivery has been the cornerstone of actions aimed at monitoring and achieving MDG 5. Efforts to increase institutional births have been implemented worldwide within different cultural and health systems settings. This paper explores how communities in rural Burkina Faso perceive the promotion and delivery of facility pregnancy and birth care, and how this promotion influences health-seeking behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted in South-Western Burkina Faso...
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is concern about an increasing infiltration of markets by substandard and fake medications against life-threatening diseases in developing countries. This is particularly worrying with regard to the increasing resistance development of Plasmodium falciparum against affordable anti-malarial medications, which has led to a change to more expensive drugs in most endemic countries. Methods A representative sample of modern anti-malarial medications from licensed (public and private pharmacies, community health workers and illicit (market and street vendors, shops sources has been collected in the Nouna Health District in north-western Burkina Faso in 2006. All drugs were tested for their quality with the standard procedures of the German Pharma Health Fund-Minilab. Detected low standard drugs were re-tested with European Pharmacopoeia 2.9.1 standards for disintegration and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at the laboratory of the Heidelberg University for confirmation. Results Overall, 86 anti-malarial drug samples were collected, of which 77 samples have been included in the final analysis. The sample consisted of 39/77 (50% chloroquine, 10/77 (13% pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine, 9/77 (12% quinine, 6/77 (8% amodiaquine, 9/77 (12% artesunate, and 4/77 (5% artemether-lumefantrine. 32/77 (42% drug samples were found to be of poor quality, of which 28 samples failed the visual inspection, nine samples had substandard concentrations of the active ingredient, four samples showed poor disintegration, and one sample contained non of the stated active ingredient. The licensed and the illicit market contributed 5/47 (10.6% and 27/30 (90.0% samples of substandard drugs respectively. Conclusion These findings provide further evidence for the wide-spread existence of substandard anti-malarial medications in Africa and call for strengthening of the regulatory and quality control capacity of affected countries, particularly in view of the
Chala, S; Sawadogo, A; Sakout, M; Abdallaoui, F
Dental amalgam is a metallic restorative material that is used for direct filling of carious lesions since many years. The use of this material generates solid and particulate wastes that present potential challenges to the environment. This study was carried out to assess amalgam use and waste management protocols practiced by Moroccan and Burkinabe dentists. A cross-sectional study was made of 79 in Rabat, Sale and Temara in Morocco and 56 in Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina-Faso. The results showed that 69.5% of dental amalgam waste in Morocco vs 49.9% in Burkina-Faso was disposed with household waste which is a problem for both the environment and a risk to human being. Proper methods of dental amalgam waste disposal should be carried out to prevent indirect mercury poisoning for human.
The objective of this thesis is to screen for biochemical determinants in sorghum varieties cultivated in Burkina Faso to identify the best sorghum varieties to be used as source of bioactive components or for specific local foods, e.g. "tô", thin porridges for infants, granulated foods "couscous", and local beers "dolo". The results revealed that sorghum varieties have different contents of starch, amylose, amylopectin and that germination decreased more the content of amylose than amylopect...
Harounan Kazianga; Francis Makamu
We estimate the effects of changes in cotton adoption on children's schooling and child labor in rural Burkina Faso. Cotton adoption increases household's income, leading to increased demand for schooling and reduced child labor. On the other hand, because children are productive on cotton farms, cotton adoption increases the opportunity cost of child time and the demand for child labor. Using time and spatial variation, we find evidence of a strong effect on school enrollment and child labor...
Visser, S. M.
In the semi-arid environment of northern Burkina Faso the processes of wind and water erosion occur almost simultaneously and may cause severe soil degradation. Especially in the early rainy season when soils are bare and unprotected, violent winds preceding intense rainfall events result in intense sediment transport by both wind and water. This Ph.D. project aimed at quantifying and modelling wind and water erosion processes, their interaction and related nutrient flows in a Sahelian enviro...
Dicko, IO.; Troaoré, S.; Traoré, D.; Dao, B.
Studies were conducted in five districts of Burkina Faso, West Africa from November to December, 1996. The objectives aimed at establishing spatial distribution and quantifying the level of damages on peanut pods by soil arthropods, termites and millepedes. Twenty seven samples of 100 pods each were taken from farmers' stocks in each district, which made a total of 135 pod samples examined. Damage was determined in each district by counting scarified pods by termites and perforated pods by mi...
Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations.Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5 or humans (1 or from both (1. Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1 clonal complex (81.8% and the putative African 5 (Af5 clonal complex (18.2%, in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing.This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.
Kaminski, Jonathan; Serra, Renata
This paper explores the case for believing endogenous reforms to be more developmental than externally-imposed reforms, by drawing on the recent unorthodox experience of cotton sector reform in Burkina Faso. We address questions about reform emergence, feasibility, developmental impact, and sustainability. Our analysis, which carefully incorporates local social and political realities, suggests that the urban elites dominating the Burkinabè state favoured a particular cotton reform process, b...
Gemignani, Regina; Wodon, Quentin
This paper provides results from qualitative fieldwork conducted in 2010 in Burkina Faso to understand the factors that lead households to rely on traditional as opposed to modern health providers, and within modern providers, on faith-inspired as opposed to public facilities. While there is an overall preference for modern care, households still rely on traditional healers for specific health issues that they encounter. As to the choice between modern providers, faith-inspired clinics and ho...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paying for health care may exclude poor people. Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy implementing "free care" for Tuberculosis (TB diagnosis and treatment. This should increase universal health coverage and help to overcome social and economic barriers to health access. METHODS: Straddling 2007 and 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted over a year among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in six rural districts of Burkina Faso. Out-of-pocket expenses (direct costs associated with TB were collected according to the different stages of their healthcare pathway. RESULTS: Median direct cost associated with TB was US$101 (n = 229 (i.e. 2.8 months of household income. Respectively 72% of patients incurred direct costs during the pre-diagnosis stage (i.e. self-medication, travel, traditional healers' services, 95% during the diagnosis process (i.e. user fees, travel costs to various providers, extra sputum smears microscopy and chest radiology, 68% during the intensive treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs and 50% during the continuation treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs. For the diagnosis stage, median direct costs already amounted to 35% of overall direct costs. CONCLUSIONS: The patient care pathway analysis in rural Burkina Faso showed substantial direct costs and healthcare system delay within a "free care" policy for TB diagnosis and treatment. Whether in terms of redefining the free TB package or rationalizing the care pathway, serious efforts must be undertaken to make "free" health care more affordable for the patients. Locally relevant for TB, this case-study in Burkina Faso has a real potential to document how health programs' weaknesses can be identified and solved.
Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal
Many efforts are undertaken for sustaining urban agriculture in African cities. This study therefore investigated nutrient management practices in urban vegetable gardens of Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso (West Africa). Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and carbon (C) fluxes were quantified and nutrient balances calculated for three gardens representing the typical commercial gardening + field crops and livestock system (cGCL) and three gardens representing the commercial gardening +...
Baratoux, Lenka; Metelka, V.; Naba, S.; Ouiya, P.; Siebenaller, Luc; Jessell, Mark; Nare, A.; Salvi, S.; Beziat, D.; De Franceschi, G.
The interpretation of high-resolution airborne geophysical data integrated with field structural and lithological observations were employed in the creation of a litho-structural framework for the Gaoua region, Burkina Faso. The granite-greenstone domain of Paleoproterozoic age was affected by multiple deformation and mineralization events. The early tectonic phase is characterized by the emplacement of voluminous tholeiitic and calc-alkaline lavas, probably in a volcanic arc setting. The cop...
Sheree R Schwartz; Erin Papworth; Odette Ky-Zerbo; Simplice Anato; Ashley Grosso; Henri Gautier Ouedraogo; Sosthenes Ketende; Vincent Palokinam Pitche; Stefan Baral
Background. Reproductive health programming for female sex workers (FSW) may include contraceptive services but rarely addresses safer pregnancy planning. Methods. Adult FSW were enrolled into a cross-sectional study across four sites in Burkina Faso and Togo using respondent-driven sampling. Sociobehavioral questionnaires and HIV counseling and testing were administered. Sample statistics and engagement in HIV treatment were described and compared using Chi-squared statistics. Results. 1,349...
Bamba Sanata; Ouédraogo Abdoul Salam; Sangaré Ibrahim; Zida Adama; Cissé Mamoudou; Simplice, Karou D.; Simpore Jacques; Guiguemdé T. Robert; Hennequin Christophe
Objective: To identify Candida species in asymptomatic subjects in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) by the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2013 in Bobo-Dioulasso to collect fecal and urine specimens from voluntary donors. Fungal strains were isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. R...
Sylvain Ilboudo; Adama Makoum Toé; Richard Ouédraogo; Moustapha Ouédraogo; Innocent Pierre Guissou
Locust control requires sometimes an important use of pesticides in infested area with concomitant environment contaminations. Using the Gas Chromatography (GC) technical, pesticide residues were determined in water samples collected from locust outbreak areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. The risk quotient method coupled with probabilistic risk assessment model was used for ecological risk assessment of pesticide detected in water. For ten pesticides belonging to Organophosphates, Pyrethroid...
Vignolles, Cécile; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dambach, Peter; Viel, Christian; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Sié, Ali; Rogier, Christophe; Tourre, Yves M.
The Paluclim project applied the tele-epidemiology approach, linking climate, environment and public health (CNES, 2008), to rural malaria in Nouna (Burkina Faso). It was to analyze the climate impact on vectorial risks, and its consequences on entomological risks forecast. The objectives were to: 1) produce entomological risks maps in the Nouna region, 2) produce dynamic maps on larvae sites and their productivity, 3) study the climate impact on malaria risks, and 4) evaluate the feasibility of strategic larviciding approach.
Andersen, Mette-Helene Kronborg; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ilboudo, Jean-Baptiste;
An approach for commercialising a product from Parkia biglobosa in order to improve the economic situation of rural women in south-western Burkina Faso was explored. Income is generated from sales of a derivative from the fermented seeds called soumbala. About one fifth of the women (18%) were...... a potential to improve the economic situation of women through increased production and sale of soumbala....
Karmaker, Bue; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Chung, Donna; Clarke, Aileen
Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) usually undertaken between the ages of 1-9 years and is widely practised in some part of Africa and by migrants from African countries in other parts of the world. Laws prohibit FGM in almost every country. FGM can cause immediate complications (pain, bleeding and infection) and delayed complications (sexual, obstetric, psychological problems). Several factors have been associated with an increased likelihood of FGM. In Burkina Faso, the prevalence o...
Chung Donna; Kandala Ngianga-Bakwin; Karmaker Bue; Clarke Aileen
Abstract Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) usually undertaken between the ages of 1-9 years and is widely practised in some part of Africa and by migrants from African countries in other parts of the world. Laws prohibit FGM in almost every country. FGM can cause immediate complications (pain, bleeding and infection) and delayed complications (sexual, obstetric, psychological problems). Several factors have been associated with an increased likelihood of FGM. In Burkina Faso, the pre...
Filippi, Véronique; Ganaba, Rasmané; Calvert, Clara; Murray, Susan F.; Storeng, Katerini T.
Background In African countries, caesarean sections are usually performed to save mothers and babies’ lives, sometimes in extremis and at considerable costs. Little is known about the health and lives of women once discharged after such surgery. We investigated the long-term effects of life-saving caesarean section on health, economic and social outcomes in Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted a 4 year ...
Bisseye, Cyrille; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Nagalo, Bolni Marius; Kiba, Alice; Compaoré, Tegwindé Rebeca; Tao, Issoufou; Simpore, Jacques
Introduction Syphilis remains a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso. However, few published data are available on the prevalence of syphilis in the general population. This study had two main objectives: to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis in a cohort of 37,210 first time blood donors and to study socio-demographic factors associated with the risk of infection by Treponema pallidum. Methods Antibodies to Treponema pallidum were screened for, by us...
Abstract Background This methodological article is based on a health policy research project conducted in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Concept mapping (CM) was used as a research method to understand the local views of equity among stakeholders, who were concerned by the health policy under consideration. While this technique has been used in North America and elsewhere, to our knowledge it has not yet been applied in Africa in any vernacular language. Its application raises many issues and ce...
Kiendrébéogo, D; Kambiré, R; Jamonneau, V; Lingué, K; Solano, P; Courtin, F
In the first half of the XXth century, while Upper-Volta (now Burkina Faso) was suffering a terrible epidemic of sleeping sickness, the French colonial administration encouraged the movement of people from Upper-Volta to Ivory Coast to meet their demands for labour. This led to the establishment of Mossi villages, such as those of Koudougou, in the Ivorian forest with populations originating from areas of Upper-Volta that were not only densely populated but also severely affected by sleeping sickness. Since 2000, most cases of sleeping sickness in the Koudougou district of Burkina Faso have been in people originally from Ivory Coast. Who are they? Where did they settle in Burkina Faso? Where do they come from in Ivory Coast? After having retraced the epidemiological history of Koudougou villages in Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast, the history of ten cases of sleeping sickness detected passively at Koudougou hospital since 2000 were analysed. All cases originated from the forest area of Ivory Coast. Understanding the spread of sleeping sickness between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast will assist in the identification of areas of disease risk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Introgression of Sahel livestock genes southwards in West Africa may be favoured by human activity and the increase of the duration of the dry seasons since the 1970’s. The aim of this study is to assess the gene flow patterns in Burkina Faso goat and to ascertain the most likely factors influencing geographic patterns of genetic variation in the Burkina Faso goat population. Results A total of 520 goat were sampled in 23 different locations of Burkina Faso and genotyped for a set of 19 microsatellites. Data deposited in the Dryad repository: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.41h46j37. Although overall differentiation is poor (FST = 0.067 ± 0.003, the goat population of Burkina Faso is far from being homogeneous. Barrier analysis pointed out the existence of: a genetic discontinuities in the Central and Southeast Burkina Faso; and b genetic differences within the goat sampled in the Sahel or the Sudan areas of Burkina Faso. Principal component analysis and admixture proportion scores were computed for each population sampled and used to construct interpolation maps. Furthermore, Population Graph analysis revealed that the Sahel and the Sudan environmental areas of Burkina Faso were connected through a significant number of extended edges, which would be consistent with the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal. Genetic variation of Burkina Faso goat followed a geographic-related pattern. This pattern of variation is likely to be related to the presence of vectors of African animal trypanosomosis. Partial Mantel test identified the present Northern limit of trypanosome vectors as the most significant landscape boundary influencing the genetic variability of Burkina Faso goat (p = 0.008. The contribution of Sahel goat genes to the goat populations in the Northern and Eastern parts of the Sudan-Sahel area of Burkina Faso was substantial. The presence of perennial streams explains the existence of trypanosome vectors. The South
The NGO Terre Verte pursues the realisation of bocage perimeters (wégoubri in the mooré language) in Burkina Faso. They are an innovative concept of rural development that has been established in the 1990s in the experimental farm of Guiè and is now adopted in other experimental farms in Burkina Faso. The deterioration of the rural landscape in the Sahel region has worsened in the last decades, endangering local populations. The creation of bocage perimeters in this rural landscape is a way ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, women must overcome numerous barriers when they need modern healthcare. Respect of gender norms within the household and the community may still influence women's ability to obtain care. A lack of gender-sensitive instruments for measuring women's ability to overcome barriers compromises attempts to adequately quantify the burden and risk of exclusion they face when seeking modern healthcare. The aim of this study was to create and validate a synthetic measure of women's access to healthcare from a publicly available and possibly internationally comparable population-based survey. Method Seven questionnaire items from the Burkina Faso 2003 DHS were combined to create the index. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the index. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA were applied to evaluate the factorial structure and construct validity of the index while taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data. Results The index has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.75, suggesting adequate reliability. In EFA, three correlated factors fitted the data best. In CFA, the construct of perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking emerged as a second-order latent variable with three domains: socioeconomic barriers, geographical barriers and psychosocial barriers. Model fit indices support the index's global validity for women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso. Evidence for construct validity comes from the finding that women's index scores increase with household living standard. Conclusion The DHS items can be combined into a reliable and valid, gender-sensitive index quantifying reproductive-age women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso. The index complies conceptually with the sector-cross-cutting capability approach and enables measuring directly the perceived access to healthcare. Therefore it
Full Text Available This commentary traces recent regime change and political transition in Burkina Faso. After mass demonstrations Blaise Compaoré was forced to resign his presidency on 31 October 2014. His resignation was preceded by his attempt to change the constitution to allow him to stand for a fifth consecutive term in office. It is argued in this briefing that the way Compaoré’s rule ended should have come as no surprise because it was typical of both Burkina Faso’s political history since decolonisation and also the army’s historical role in the country’s presidential turnover. It was also typical of the current wave of mass protest struggles taking place in other African countries.
Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou
differences were found in oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices according to location and gender. At age 12, important factors of high caries experience were location (urban), and consumption of soft drinks and fresh fruits. In 35-44-year-olds, gender (female), high education level, dental visit......OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of dental knowledge and attitudes among 12 year-old children and 35-44 year-olds in Burkina Faso; to evaluate the pattern of oral health behaviour among these cohorts in relation to location, gender and social characteristics and; to evaluate the relative effect...
Valéry Ridde; Seni Kouanda; Aristide Bado; Nicole Bado; Slim Haddad
Since 2007, Burkina Faso has subsidized 80% of the costs of child birth. Women are required to pay 20% (900 F CFA = 1.4 Euros), except for the indigent, who are supposed to be exempted. The objective of the policy is to increase service utilization and reduce costs for households. We analyze the efficacy of the policy and the distribution of its benefits. The study was carried out in Ouargaye district. The analysis was based on two distinct cross-sectional household surveys, conducted before ...
The world’s population is increasing by about 85 million every year (LEISINGER, 2000; WORLD BANK, 2000). These figures are closely related to the rapid growth of urban centers. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions most affected by urbanization. It has an annual growth rate of 2.8% in the total population and 5.8% in the urban population (WORLD BANK, 2000). This process can also be seen in Burkina Faso, where the capital, Ouagadougou, had a growth rate of 6.8% in 1998 com...
Full Text Available Higher school of law at the University of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso. Insect flight populations infesting traditional millet storage have been followed by sticky trap during fifteen months in Senegal. Distribution analysis of species show that Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. (52 % of insect total number is most abundant, following by Ephestia cautella WLK. (7V, 6 %, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. (17, 4 % o, Cryptolestes sp. (10, 1 % o and Rhyzopertha dominica F. (9, 9 %>. Infestation has been discussed in relation between storage methodology. Relation between seasonal fluctuation of S. cerealella and several abiotic factors of ecosystem has been found.
Tomicic Catherine; Vernez David; Belem Tounaba; Berode Michèle
PURPOSE: In Burkina Faso, gold ore is one of the main sources of income for an important part of the active population. Artisan gold miners use mercury in the extraction, a toxic metal whose human health risks are well known. The aim of the present study was to assess mercury exposure as well as to understand the exposure determinants of gold miners in Burkinabe small-scale mines.METHODS: The examined gold miners' population on the different selected gold mining sites was composed by persons ...
Assessment of available water is the basis that allows for sustainable management of the water resource. Special need concerns the assessment of groundwater resources, about which, often little is known. The present study aims to explore the water resource, with a focus on groundwater, of a small catchment (3.5km2), situated in a semi-arid zone in Burkina Faso (West Africa). A 5-year data set of stable isotopes of water, groundwater level and other hydrologic data is used to gain insight into...
Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama
Background: Recent reports estimated the annual number of stillbirths and under-five year child deaths occurring in the world to 3.2 million and 7.7 million, respectively. Over 95% of these deaths only occur in low-income countries, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Burkina Faso in West Africa is one of the poorest countries in the world with reported very high perinatal mortality rate (PNMR), neonatal mortality rate (NMR), infant mortality rate (IMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5...
Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide-resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Burkina Faso. For three years, between 2008 and 2010, WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of resistance to all the major classes of insecticides at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season. Species identification and genotyping for target site mutations was also performed and the sporozoite rate in adults determined. Results At the onset of the study, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was already prevalent in An. gambiae s.l. from the south-west of the country but mosquitoes from the two sites in central Burkina Faso were largely susceptible. Within three years, DDT and permethrin resistance was established in all four sites. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance remains relatively rare and largely confined to the south-western areas although a small number of bendiocarb survivors were found in all sites by the final round of monitoring. The ace-1R target site resistance allele was present in all localities and its frequency exceeded 20% in 2010 in two of the sites. The frequency of the 1014F kdr mutation increased throughout the three years and by 2010, the frequency of 1014F in all sites combined was 0.02 in Anopheles arabiensis, 0.56 in An. gambiae M form and 0.96 in An. gambiae S form. This frequency did not differ significantly between the sites. The 1014S kdr allele was only found in An. arabiensis but its frequency increased significantly throughout the study (P = 0.0003 and in 2010 the 1014S allele frequency was 0.08 in An. arabiensis. Maximum sporozoite rates (12% were observed in Soumousso in 2009 and the difference between sites is significant for each year. Conclusion Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is now established in An. gambiae s.l. throughout Burkina Faso. Results from diagnostic dose assays are highly variable within and
Dicko, M.H.; Hilhorst, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Laane, N.C.M.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.
Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was hig
S. Gies; S.O. Coulibaly; C. Ky; F.T. Ouattara; B.J. Brabin; U. D'Alessandro
Malaria preventive strategies in pregnancy were assessed in a health center randomized trial comparing intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) with and without community based promotional activities in rural Burkina Faso. The study involved 2,240 secundigravidae an
The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...
The vast majority of land users at the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso make a living by farming small plots, where mainly staple crops are produced for subsistence use. Both area interventions and line interventions comprising indigenous techniques as well as introduced techniques can be encountered
Zida, Elisabeth Pawindé; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke;
Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi re...
In twee- of meertalige samenlevingen, zo wordt vaak gesteld, zou vertalen tot opzekere hoogte overbodig zijn aangezien de verschillende talen veelal complementairworden gebruikt. Een voorbeeld van zo’n meertalige samenleving in West-Afrika isBurkina Faso, waar het Frans in termen van sociaal en poli
Sanon-Ouattara, Féridjou Emilie Georgette
SAMENVATTING In twee- of meertalige samenlevingen, zo wordt vaak gesteld, zou vertalen tot op zekere hoogte overbodig zijn aangezien de verschillende talen veelal complementair worden gebruikt. Een voorbeeld van zo’n meertalige samenleving in West-Afrika is Burkina Faso, waar het Frans in termen van
Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.
The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to
Bagayoko, F.; Yonkeu, S.; Elbers, J.A.; Giesen, van de N.
Seasonal variability of the energy partitioning was analyzed with a combination of eddy fluxes of sensible and latent heat and weather data on intensely farmed land in the savanna area of Eastern Burkina Faso, West Africa. The analysis covers two rainy seasons (May-October 2003 and 2004), one dry se
Karsten, L.; Pennink, B.
During the 1990s Total Quality Management (TQM) became diffused to Burkina Faso. The overarching logic of privatization due to Structural Adjustment Programs prepared the ground for far-reaching changes in management practices. TQM became exhorted as a new way of manufacturing. This new management c
Zougmoré, R.; Kambou, N.F.; Zida, Z.
The half-moon technique has been recently introduced in northern Burkina Faso as a method for the rehabilitation of sealed and crusted bare soils locally called zipellé. As this technique, like zaï and mulching practices, interested many farmers, a trial was conducted to study the effect on soil pro
Storeng, KT; Akoum, MS; Murray, SF
: Global advocacy campaigns increasingly highlight the negative impact of reproductive morbidity on economic productivity and development in order to justify donor investment in maternal health. Anthropological approaches nuance such narrow economic estimations of reproductive health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork from Burkina Faso in West Africa, this paper analyses the dynamic, and sometimes contradictory, relationship between women's work and reproductive health in impoverished communi...
The introduction of biogas to Burkina Faso was done in 1976 through program of research and development. Agricultural and Animal waste is the principal substrates and the produced gas is useful principally to satisfy the domestic energy needs. The technological outputs go from 200 has 300 liters per m3 of tank whereas the biological outputs are of 100 has 300 liters per kilogram of dry matter. The cost of the installations vary from 12000 to 100000 Fcfa per m3 of tank according to the type of digester. In August 1998, only the installation of biogas of the School of Water and Drill of Dinderesso (Bobo-Dioulasso) produced biogas. According to the estimates, Burkina Faso respectively has an annual average potential of production theoretical and accessible about 4694 million and 2790 million m3 of biogas coming by order from importance from livestock wastes, farming, human and urban. By taking a coefficient of 60% to take account of the imperfections of technology and implementation, 1674 million m3 of biogas (accessible) could have been produced from the biomass over the period 1990-1996. For the same period, this quantity of biogas could have generated annually 2000 to 2344 GWh of electricity (cogeneration) against 218 GWh for the SONABEL
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of large scale, organized vector control programmes, individual protective measures against mosquitoes are essential for reducing the transmission of diseases like malaria. Knowledge of the types and effectiveness of mosquito control methods used by households can aid in the development and promotion of preventive measures. Methods A matched, population-based case control study was carried out in the semi-urban region of Nouna, Burkina Faso. Surveys and mosquito captures were conducted for each participating household. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression and Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results In Nouna, Burkina Faso, the main types of reported mosquito control measures used included sleeping under bed nets (insecticide-treated and untreated and burning mosquito coils. Most of the study households kept animals within the compound or house at night. Insecticide house sprays, donkeys, rabbits and pigs were significantly associated with a reduced risk of malaria only in univariate analyses. Conclusion Given the conflicting results of the effects of zooprophylaxis from previous studies, other community-based preventive measures, such as bed nets, coils and insecticide house-spraying, may be of more benefit.
Huybregts, Lieven Fernand; Roberfroid, Dominique Albert; Kolsteren, Patrick Wilfried; Van Camp, John Hendrik
The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy but no consistent pattern of avoided food types was found. Most of the mentioned 'forbidden' foods were in related to physical discomfort during gestation. Interviewees also admitted to ignoring culturally determined food prohibitions/prescriptions. No differences were observed in food intake, food choice and nutrient intake between the group of pregnant and non-pregnant women. During the third trimester of gestation women did not show any major differences in food and nutrient intake compared with women from the first/second trimester. The mean nutrient intakes were found to be insufficient compared with the recommended daily allowances, especially for pregnant women. In conclusion, pregnant women in this rural area of Burkina Faso do not seem to restrict their diet significantly during pregnancy. The additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy are not accounted for in their dietary practises.
Laure Stella Ghoma Linguissi; Bolni Marius Nagalo; Cyrille Bisseye; Thrse S Kagon; Mahamoudou Sanou; Issoufou Tao; Victoire Benao; Jacques Simpor; Bibiane Kon
Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella among pregnant women at Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. Methods: All patient sera were tested for rubella and toxoplasmosis anti-IgG using commercial ELISA kits (PlateliaTM Rubella IgG and Platelia™Toxo IgG). The presence of anti-rubella and anti-toxoplasmosis IgM in serum samples was tested using commercial ELISA kits Platelia Rubella IgM and Platelia Toxo IgM. Results:Among all the pregnant women tested for toxoplasmosis and rubella, their prevalence were 20.3%and 77.0%, respectively. Pregnant women in the age group of 18-25 years showed the highest frequency of anti-toxoplasmosis (34.5%) and anti-rubella IgG (84.6%). The prevalence of anti-toxoplasma and anti-rubella IgG decreased between 2006 and 2008 from 32.7%to 12.1%and 84.6%to 65.0%, respectively. There was no significant association between age and the mean titer of anti-toxoplasmosis IgG among pregnant women. Conclusions: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and rubella is necessary in pregnant women in Burkina Faso because of the low immunization coverage rate of rubella and the high level of exposure to these two infections which can be harmful to the newborn if contracted by women before the third trimester of pregnancy.
Full Text Available Background: Estimating maternal mortality level is constantly challenging researchers and planners both in rich and poor countries. In developing countries, particularly in Burkina Faso where the registration system is not working properly, censuses and surveys are the main providers of maternal mortality estimates. However, censuses provide more reliable data about maternal mortality especially at sub-national level. Strength of this situation, the census 2006 of Burkina Faso collected information about maternal mortality. Unfortunately, the census also under reported the phenomenon. In this regard, a methodology was developed to provide adjusted estimates of the phenomenon.Methods: This paper aims to assess the census 2006 estimates of maternal mortality through a critical review of the questionnaire, data quality, adjustment technique and outputs. Incoherencies, duplicated cases and missing data were the key aspects of the data quality assessment. The assumptions and outputs of the method were examined and comparison made with existent estimates.Results: Findings highlighted weaknesses regarding the assumptions of the method and showed that the levels of the phenomenon were still under-estimated. In this research, propositions have been made concerning data cleaning, situations of adjustment coefficients less than 1 and the problem of weak assumptions. Findings led to a MMRatio of 331 [293-402] maternal deaths per 100 000 live births.Conclusion: The level of maternal mortality as published in the census 2006 report (MMRatio of 307 is acceptable because falling in the range 293-402. However, the questionnaire, data and method used needed improvements.
Pale, Siébou; Taonda, Sibiri Jean-Baptiste; Bougouma, Boniface; Mason, Stephen C
Sorghum malt and dolo quality evaluation criteria and parameters affecting quality were surveyed in six cities in Burkina Faso through questionnaires addressed to malt processors, dolo processors, retailers, and consumers. The major quality criteria for malt quality assessment were perceived to be taste and presence/absence of roots in the malt. Taste, alcohol content, and wort sufficiently cooked were perceived as major criteria for the dolo quality assessment. The major parameters affecting malt quality were perceived to be malt production period, proportions of grain and the amount of water entering malting, presence of pesticide residues in the malting grains, and age of grain. Processing method, yeast source, proportions of the components (crushed grain, water, mucilage, yeast) entering dolo production, malt quality, wort temperature at time of inoculation, amount of energy available for cooking, wort and sediment boiling time, quality of mucilage, malt with non-sweet taste, presence/absence of roots in the malt, and ease of filtering crushed malt were perceived as major parameters affecting the dolo quality. These results will be used in the improvement of the dolo supply chain in Burkina Faso by providing more reliable information for training programs for efficient dolo brewing processes, development of best cropping practices to improve grain quality, and providing better selection criteria for sorghum breeding programs. PMID:21883085
Kirshen, P.; Jost, C.; Roncoli, M. C.; Hoogenboom, G.
Burkina Faso is part of the Sahel-Sudan climatic zone south of the Sahara Desert. The rainfall of the region is characterized by extreme seasonal and annual temporal and spatial variability. Soils are generally of low fertility. The major livelihood activity in Burkina Faso, one of the lowest ranked countries in the world in the Human Development Index where 80 percent of the population rely on subsistence farming, is rainfed cultivation of cereal crops. Cotton is the dominant export crop and is mostly grown in the southwest. Livestock management is an important complement to farm activities, especially in the Sahelian zone. There are several major rivers flowing through the region and many ephemeral streams. Surface water resources are becoming more important to Burkina Faso as it tries to improve food security and water supplies, and increase energy production. One of the major opportunities to improve livelihoods in the region has been improvements in seasonal rainfall forecasting based upon global sea surface temperatures. In the past decade, the generation and use of forecasts in Burkina Faso has evolved from the nation just receiving forecasts almost as an after thought from USA and European meteorological services to the Burkina Faso Meteorological Services generating their own forecasts with support from these services. There is now also more focused international research on improving the forecasts for this region. The use of stochastic decision support tools (DST) that combine the seasonal forecasts with hydrologic and crop models, land conditions, and information on farmer and policy maker goals could improve both rainfed and irrigated agricultural systems. Their implementation requires overcoming many technical and socio-economic challenges. Examples include forecasting the start and end of rains, dissemination and explanation of forecasts, streamflow forecasting in data scarce regions, possible different incentives for subsistence and cash crop farmers
Labor migration from Burkina Faso did not end when direct recruitment of workers by planters from the Ivory Coast was terminated at independence in 1960. Methodological problems and differences in the objectives of the 1975 and 1985 censuses and the 1960-61 sample survey have limited the usefulness of existing data on migration. Migrants from Burkina Faso have always been unskilled workers in search of wage employment. The migrant population in 1960-61 was estimated at 152,442, of whom 90% were males primarily under 40 years old. The proportion of women and children increased from 8.2% in 1961 to 12.8% in 1973. Between the 1975 and 1985 censuses, there were few significant changes in the dominant characteristics of migrants. 80% of the 808,000 residents living abroad according to official sources were male and 80% were aged 15-40 years. 53% of migrants according to a 1975 study were under 20 years old at the 1st departure, and most were single. At the national level, labor migration is viewed as a necessary evil that should continue as long as possible in the absence of employment opportunities at home. After independence in 1960, 56.6% of migrants from Burkina Faso went to the Ivory Coast, 31.3% to Ghana, and 3.9% to Mali. In 1975 and 1985 respectively, 74.4% and 91.2% went to the Ivory Coast and 11.8% and 8.8% to Ghana. The demographic consequences of migration in Burkina Faso include a lowering of the natural increase rate and a reduction of the economically active population amounting to about 16% between 1975-85. The disproportionate departure of men has left an increasing number of women in charge of agricultural operations. A strong current of return migration has also developed, including many children under 15. It was estimated in 1990 that half of migrants to the Ivory Coast receive professional training, with the other half exposed to new agricultural techniques and methods of organizing work. 87% of returning male migrants in 1985 went back to their
Erismann, Séverine; Shrestha, Akina; Diagbouga, Serge; Knoblauch, Astrid; Gerold, Jana; Herz, Ramona; Sharma, Subodh; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Drescher, Axel; Yang, Ray-yu; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio
Background Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled “Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification” (VgtS), a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i) describe schoolchildren’s health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii) pr...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Female genital mutilation (FGM usually undertaken between the ages of 1-9 years and is widely practised in some part of Africa and by migrants from African countries in other parts of the world. Laws prohibit FGM in almost every country. FGM can cause immediate complications (pain, bleeding and infection and delayed complications (sexual, obstetric, psychological problems. Several factors have been associated with an increased likelihood of FGM. In Burkina Faso, the prevalence of FGM appears to have increased in recent years. Methods We investigated social, demographic and economic factors associated with FGM in Burkina Faso using the 2003 Demographic Health Survey (DHS. The DHS is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey (multistage stratified random sampling of households of women of reproductive age (15-49 years. Associations between potential risk factors and the prevalence of FGM were explored using χ2 and t-tests and Mann Whitney U-test as appropriate. Logistic regression modelling was used to investigate social, demographic and economic risk factors associated with FGM. Main outcome measures i whether a woman herself had had FGM; ii whether she had one or more daughters with FGM. Results Data were available on 12,049 women. Response rates by region were at least 90%. Women interviewed were representative of the underlying populations of the different regions of Burkina Faso. Seventy seven percent (9267 of the women interviewed had had FGM. 7336 women had a daughter of whom 2216 (30.2% had a daughter with FGM and 334 (4.5% said that they intended that their daughter should have it. Univariate analysis showed that age, religion, wealth, ethnicity, literacy, years of education, household affluence, region and who had responsibility for health care decisions in the household had (RHCD were all significantly related to the two outcomes (p Conclusions and Policy implications Factors associated with FGM are varied
Full Text Available Patrick GC Ilboudo,1–3 Serge MA Somda,4 Johanne Sundby3 1Département de Santé Publique, Unité de Recherche sur les Politiques et Systèmes de Santé, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 2Agence de Formation, de Recherche et d'Expertise en Santé pour l'Afrique (AFRICSanté, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 4Département des Maladies Non Transmissibles, Unité de Formation et d'Appui Méthodologique, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Introduction: Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results: The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41; whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24; and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95
Full Text Available A raw clay material from Burkina Faso has been characterized for pozzolan elaboration. The analysis showed that SiO2 (45.91 wt. %, Al2O3 (28.29 wt. % and Fe2O3 (9.75 wt. % are the main oxides and kaolinite (71 wt. % is the principle mineral. The sample has been activated at 680 °C during 2 or 5 hours. The pozzolanic activity has been accessed by coupling several methods. The chemical methods showed the good lime fixing ability by the activated sample. At the first 24 hours, more than 50 wt. % of the lime is fixed and at 28 days around 90 wt. % of lime are fixed. Mineralogical analyses showed the disappearing of portlandite (CH and the formation of new C-S-H hydrates. The pozzolanic index (81 % calculated from mechanical strength of mortars made with 25 wt. % substitution of cement by the pozzolan confirm it suitability for portland cement replacement in the field of building materials.
Odile G. Nacoulma
Full Text Available A total of fourteen (14 species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso wereanalyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities usingthe DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic andtotal flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana andLannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the otherfruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit alsoshowed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with highantioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents.There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidantactivities.
Pale, Augustin; Ladner, Joël
This qualitative assessment, based on discussions and discourse collected in interviews with members of the general population, addresses the popular view of pharmaceutical drugs in Burkina Faso. The main results demonstrate a strong preference for drugs sold in the street and their largely "off-label" uses. These drugs not only treat defined diseases but also generate street discussions, popular images and social relationships that lead to their consumption, sometimes excessive. Furthermore, the links between the legal and illegal street markets, related in part to the legal status of different drugs, also leads to questions about good and bad, true and false. These distinctions, considered as labels, influence the population's behavior and attitude concerning street medication.
La mosquée, lieu de culte des musulmans, est née à Médine en Arabie Saoudite. Elle s’est vite répandue dans le monde : Asie, Afrique, Europe Amérique etc. Son architecture a été influencée par les différentes cultures, l’organisation et les religions des autres peuples qui l’ont reçue. Au Burkina Faso comme dans les autres pays, la mosquée est apparue avec l’Islam. Au Moogo, ce sont les Yarse, Simi-Moose (Peul-Moose) et Peul qui ont amené l’Islam et la mosquée. Ainsi, la réalisation de la mos...
S. T. Balima
Full Text Available The various kinds of information released in the press and other media are cultural products that partake in the shaping of citizens' opinions and minds. Radio and television in particular present their audiences in Burkina Faso with various life-styles through diverse entertainment programmes which have grown popular among the urban population. These are fertile fields for cultural imperialism in the country. In the on-going process of internationalization of culture facilitated by the new communication technology, the cultural identity of Africans is increasingly threatened. This phenomenon is the result of adverse political and economic conditions with significant cultural consequences. In the long run, these cultural consequences will lead to the marginalization of Africa on the international scene and its increased dependence on the western powers.
Full Text Available The influence of MgO on mechanical and microstructural properties of raw clay material from Burkina Faso was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and numerical simulation. The mineralogical composition was modified with the formation of new crystalline phases such as mullite, spinel – Mg, enstatite and forsterite. During the sintering and with add of MgO, the mullite quantity decrease contrary to forsterite and affect the different properties of sintered products. The mechanical properties were improved with MgO amount around 2 – 5 wt%. For magnesia amount higher than 5 wt%, the magnesia is not entirely consumed and is originated to the formation of pores in the manufactured products which are detrimental to the mechanical properties.
Ouédraogo, Nafissatou; Kaplon, Jérôme; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred Sababénédjo; Pothier, Pierre; Barro, Nicolas; Ambert-Balay, Katia
Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-)PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%), adenovirus (31.2%) and genogroup II norovirus (18.2%) were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7-17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1-11.7, respectively). Sapovirus (10.3%), astrovirus (4.9%), genogroup I norovirus (2.7%) and Aichivirus A (0.8%) were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P (36.5%), and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%). Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5%) predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7%) was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C). Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children. PMID:27092779
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are a major risk group for malaria in endemic areas. Only little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women with malaria and anaemia preventive drug regimens in the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. In this study, we collected information on malaria and anaemia prevention behaviour in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso. Methods Cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative survey among 225 women of eight villages in rural northwestern Burkina Faso. Four of the villages had a health centre offering antenatal care (ANC services while the other four were more than five kilometers away from a health centre. Results Overall ANC coverage (at least one visit was 71% (95% in health centre villages vs 50% in remote villages. Malaria and anaemia were considered as the biggest problems during pregnancy in this community. ANC using women were quite satisfied with the quality of services, and compliance with malaria and anaemia prevention regimens (chloroquine and iron/folic acid was high in this population. Knowledge on the benefit of bed nets and good nutrition was less prominent. Distance, lack of money and ignorance were the main reasons for women to not attend ANC services. Conclusions There is an urgent need to improve access of rural SSA women to ANC services, either through increasing the number of rural health centres or establishing functioning outreach services. Moreover, alternative malaria and anaemia prevention programmes such as intermittent preventive treatment with effective antimalarials and the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets need to become implemented on a large scale.
Background Providing health care services in Africa is hampered by severe scarcity of personnel, medical supplies and financial funds. Consequently, managers of health care institutions are called to measure and improve the efficiency of their facilities in order to provide the best possible services with their resources. However, very little is known about the efficiency of health care facilities in Africa and instruments of performance measurement are hardly applied in this context. Objective This study determines the relative efficiency of primary care facilities in Nouna, a rural health district in Burkina Faso. Furthermore, it analyses the factors influencing the efficiency of these institutions. Methodology We apply a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based on data from a comprehensive provider and household information system. In the first stage, the relative efficiency of each institution is calculated by a traditional DEA model. In the second stage, we identify the reasons for being inefficient by regression technique. Results The DEA projections suggest that inefficiency is mainly a result of poor utilization of health care facilities as they were either too big or the demand was too low. Regression results showed that distance is an important factor influencing the efficiency of a health care institution Conclusions Compared to the findings of existing one-stage DEA analyses of health facilities in Africa, the share of relatively efficient units is slightly higher. The difference might be explained by a rather homogenous structure of the primary care facilities in the Burkina Faso sample. The study also indicates that improving the accessibility of primary care facilities will have a major impact on the efficiency of these institutions. Thus, health decision-makers are called to overcome the demand-side barriers in accessing health care. PMID:22828358
Full Text Available Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263 and without (n = 50 diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%, adenovirus (31.2% and genogroup II norovirus (18.2% were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7-17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1-11.7, respectively. Sapovirus (10.3%, astrovirus (4.9%, genogroup I norovirus (2.7% and Aichivirus A (0.8% were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P (36.5%, and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%. Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5% predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7% was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C. Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children.
Soudré, Albert; Ouédraogo-Koné, Salifou; Wurzinger, Maria; Müller, Simone; Hanotte, Olivier; Ouédraogo, Anicet Georges; Sölkner, Johann
Trypanosomosis is an important disease affecting humans as well as animals. It remains a big constraint to livestock productions in tropical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the importance of trypanosomosis among cattle diseases in Burkina Faso, mainly in tsetse-challenged areas, and to capture information on how farmers apply available methods for controlling the disease. A survey has been carried out in 29 villages of Burkina Faso in three regions (north, southwest, and west regions). One hundred and thirty-four cattle breeders were interviewed individually with a questionnaire. The results indicate that among the 16 diseases mentioned by cattle breeders, trypanosomosis is the most important one in tsetse-challenged areas. Overall, 76.12 % of the breeders mentioned it as the most important disease, while 54.55 % of the farmers in the southwest region and 70.91 % of the farmers in the west region ranked it as a priority disease. Chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy is widely used as a control method. Isometamidium chloride and diminazene aceturate were used by 53.49 and 46.52 % of the responders, respectively. Among farmers, 85.55 % ranked diminazene aceturate as the less efficient while 14.45 % ranked isometamidium chloride as the most efficient trypanocid. Trypanocidal drug quality and drug resistance were raised as a major concern by 30.77 and 50 % of the respondents, respectively. According to them, zebu cattle are more susceptible to trypanosomosis than taurine Baoule cattle and their crosses with zebu, emphasizing that crossing susceptible breeds with trypanotolerant ones, could be used as part of an integrated control strategy. PMID:23108586
Full Text Available Since 2007, Burkina Faso has subsidized 80% of the costs of child birth. Women are required to pay 20% (900 F CFA = 1.4 Euros, except for the indigent, who are supposed to be exempted. The objective of the policy is to increase service utilization and reduce costs for households. We analyze the efficacy of the policy and the distribution of its benefits.The study was carried out in Ouargaye district. The analysis was based on two distinct cross-sectional household surveys, conducted before (2006; n= 1170 and after (2010; n = 905 the policy, of all women who had had a vaginal delivery in a public health centre.Medical expenses for delivery decreased from a median of 4,060 F CFA in 2006 to 900 F CFA in 2010 (p<0.001. There was pronounced contraction in the distribution of expenses and a reduction in interquartile range. Total expenses for delivery went from a median of 7,366 F CFA in 2006 to 4,750 F CFA in 2010 (p = 0.001. There was no exacerbation of the initial inequalities of the share in consumption after the policy. The distribution of benefits for medical expenses showed a progressive evolution. The greatest reduction in risk of excessive expenses was seen in women in the bottom quintile living less than 5 km from the health centres. Only 10% of those in the poorest quintile were exempted. The subsidy policy was more effective in Burkina Faso than in other African countries. All categories of the population benefited from this policy, including the poorest. Yet despite the subsidy, women still carry a significant cost burden; half of them pay more than they should, and few indigents are fully exempted. Efforts must still be made to reach the indigent and to reduce geographic barriers for all women.
Oumarou Sambaré; Fidèle Bognounou; Rüdiger Wittig; Adjima Thiombiano
Riparian forests are classified as endangered ecosystems in general, particularly in sahelian countries like Burkina Faso because of human-induced alterations and civil engineering works. The modification of this important habitat is continuing, with little attention being paid to the ecological or human consequences of these changes. The objective of this study is to describe the variation of woody species diversity and dynamic in riparian forests on different type of watercourse banks along phytogeographical gradient in Burkina Faso. All woody species were systematically measured in 90 sample plots with sides of 50 m × 20 m.Density, dominance, frequency and species and family importance values were computed to characterize the species composition. Different diversity indices were calculated to examine the heterogeneity of riparian forests. A total of 196 species representing 139 genera and 51 families were recorded in the overall riparian forests. The species richness of individuals with dbh ≥ 5cm increased significantly from the North to the South along the phytogeographical gradient and varied significantly between the different types of riparian forests. Similarity in tree species composition between riparian forests was low, which indicates high beta diversity and reflects differences in habitat conditions and topography.The structural characteristics varied significantly along the phytogeographical gradient and between the different types of riparian forests.The diameter class distribution of trees in all riparian forests showed a reverse “J” shaped curve except riparian forest of stream indicating vegetation dominated by juvenile individuals. Considering the ecological importance of riparian forest, there is a need to delineate and classify them along watercourses throughout the country.
Ce remarquable ouvrage est le fruit d’un colloque intitulé « Environnement, histoire du peuplement et relations interethniques au Burkina Faso » qui s’est tenu à l’Université de Ouagadougou du 5 au 8 décembre 2001. Il s’inscrivait dans le cadre d’une coopération de quinze ans entre l’Université Johann Wolfang Goethe de Francfort s/Main et l’université de Ouagadougou. L’histoire du Burkina Faso a de tout temps été marquée par une grande mobilité des populations. L’accès à la terre, qui se situ...
Bourgerie, S.; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Sajaloli, B; Yengué, E; Morabito, D.
International audience BIOSOL is a multidisciplinary scientific program (soil science, agronomy, geography) which aims at understanding and promoting agro-ecological practices among peasant communities in Burkina-Faso. In this work, the pedological, geochemical and microbiological characteristics of agricultural soils were investigated in order to make an inventory of soil fertility. Two sites (villages of Sampiéri and Bandougou) with contrasted pedo-climatic conditions were selected.
Adama Sow; Issa Sidibé; Zakaria Bengaly; Augustin Z Bancé; Sawadogo, Germain J.; Philippe Solano; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Renaud Lancelot; Jeremy Bouyer
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of African trypanosomosis that constitute a major constraint to development in Africa. Their control is an important component of the integrated management of these diseases, and among the techniques available, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is the sole that is efficient at low densities. The government of Burkina Faso has embarked on a tsetse eradication programme in the framework of the PATTEC, where SIT is an important component. The pr...
López Grimau, Víctor; Amante García, Beatriz; Smith, Tarik
Burkina Faso (Western Africa) is one of the poorest countries of the world. Its semi-arid climatology is prone to extreme variations depending on the season, chaining long drought periods with heavy rainfalls concentrated in May and October. The lacks in the supply and quality water, especially in rural areas, mean the main cause of illness for intestinal parasites, with especial incidence in the infantile population. The study is located in the rural area of Yako, where one of every three...
Storeng, Katerini T.; Ouattara, Fatoumata
In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how ...
Souleymane Sanon; Adama Gansane; Lamoussa P. Ouattara; Abdoulaye Traore; Issa N. Ouedraogo; Alfred Tiono; Donatella Taramelli; Nicoletta Basilico; Sodiomon B Sirima
Background: Resistance of malaria parasites to existing drugs complicates treatment, but an antimalarial vaccine that could protect against this disease is not yet available. It is therefore necessary to find new effective and affordable medicines. Medicinal plants could be a potential source of antimalarial agents. Some medicinal plants from Burkina Faso were evaluated for their antiplasmodial and cytotoxic properties in vitro.Methods: Crude dichloromethane, methanol, water-methanol, aqueou...
Martin-Prével, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, S.; Castan, F; Coulibaly, D.; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, M.; Lange, M.; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde
Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity a...
Laurent, P.J.; Mathieu, P.
Metadata only record Social dynamics of local interest groups, especially those that concern land tenure issues, can significantly impact implementation of community projects. This newsletter provides a case study of a particular conflict simmering between Nuni and Mossi inhabitants of Burkina Faso concerning access and rights to land that quickly reached its boiling point upon execution of a community forest project. Before implementation of the project by a local NGO, tensions between th...
Daniel Etongo; Ida Nadia S. Djenontin; Markku Kanninen; Kalame Fobissie
Climate variability and change significantly affect smallholder farmers’ food security and livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa. Tree planting is one of the measures promoted by development programs to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Tree planting is also believed to positively contribute to livelihoods. This paper examines factors influencing smallholders’ tree planting activities in four villages in the Ziro province, Southern Burkina Faso. Furthermore, it analyses the challenges encount...
Elshout, S.; Sandwidi, B.; É. Ouédraogo; Kaboré, R.; Tapsoba, G.
Metadata only record This paper discusses the results of a soil fertility management programme that was part of an integrated rural development project, and carried out as part of the pre-implementation phase of the soil fertility action plan (developed by the Burkina Faso government). It analyses the soil fertility management practices of a sample of 40 farming families that participated in project activities in 1998 and 1999.
Hien, Victor; Kabore, Daniel; Youl, Sansan; Lowenberg-DeBoer, J.
Stochastic dominance was used to determine the risk characteristics of phosphate fertilization of millet, sorghum and maize with commercial NPK fertilizer, rock phosphate and partially acidulated rock phosphate in Burkina Faso. On-farm-trial data from 1989, 1990 and 1991 in three rainfall zones was used. The analysis shows that among the four treatments tested, commercial NPK fertilizer has the most desirable risk characteristics. It is acceptable to risk averse decision makers for all three ...
A. Bargués Tobella; Reese, H.; Almaw, A; J. Bayala; A. Malmer; H. Laudon; U. Ilstedt
Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to...
Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Russell, Steve; D’Exelle, Ben
This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication whi...
Ganaba Rasmané; Marshall Tom; Sombié Issiaka; Baggaley Rebecca F; Ouédraogo Thomas W; Filippi Véronique
Abstract Background Little is known about the reproductive health of women who survive obstetric complications in poor countries. Our aim was to determine how severe obstetric complications in Burkina Faso affect reproductive events in the first year postpartum. Methods Data were collected from a prospective cohort of women who either experienced life threatening (near-miss) pregnancy-related complications or an uncomplicated childbirth, followed from the end of pregnancy to one year postpart...
This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication whi...
Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Palamuleni, Martin Enoch; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby
Background Burkina Faso (BF) and Congo Democratic Republic (CDR) are among the top-ten poverty and hunger stricken countries globally. The influence of poverty and hunger on health is enormous. The objectives of the study are to; examine the association between poverty and nutritional status, it also identified socio-demographic and health related mediating factors that contribute to the relationship between poverty and poor nutritional status. The study focused on married or cohabiting women...
Full Text Available Cette étude évalue l’impact des changements climatiques sur les revenus agricoles des agriculteurs au Burkina Faso, en utilisant l’approche ricardienne. Cette méthode permet de modéliser les revenus agricoles en fonction des variables climatiques, édaphiques, hydrologiques et socio-économiques. Plusieurs modèles économétriques ont été testés sur la base des données primaires de la campagne agricole 2002-2003. Ces modèles ont permis d’établir d’une part la relation qui existe entre le revenu agricole et les variables climatiques (température et précipitation et d’autre part, d’analyser la sensibilité des revenus agricoles par rapport à ces variables climatiques. Des simulations ont été faites sur la base des prévisions du groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat (GIEC. Les résultats de l’étude ont montré que la relation entre le revenu et le climat est non linéaire. L’impact marginal de la température sur le revenu agricole est de -19,9 dollars US par hectare tandis que celui de la précipitation est de +2,7 dollars US par hectare. L’analyse des élasticités montre que l’agriculture est très sensible à la précipitation au Burkina. L’augmentation des précipitations de 1% entraine une hausse des revenus agricoles de 14,7%. Cependant, une augmentation des températures de 1% entraine une baisse des revenus agricoles de 3,6%. Les analyses de sensibilité ont montré que les paysans perdront 93% de leurs revenus suite à une augmentation de la température de 5°C. Ils perdront tout leur revenu suite à une diminution des précipitations de 14% (ceteris paribus. Du fait des conditions climatiques déjà difficiles, les scenarii de diminution des précipitations ou/et d’augmentation des températures sont très dommageables à l’agriculture au Burkina. Par ailleurs, l’étude a montré que la pratique de l’irrigation et l’accès à la vulgarisation ont un effet
R. T. Ouedraogo
Full Text Available A Mobile Laboratory was developed for use primarily during the epidemic meningitis season in Burkina Faso. This report describes the Mobile Laboratory characteristics, its use to date, problems encountered and their resolution, and future directions. During 2004, the mobile laboratory intervention in three remote Burkina Faso districts experiencing meningitis epidemics led to more speciﬁc case management and led directly to vaccination of one district. However, in a second district, the intervention occurred too late to allow vaccination. During 2006, the Mobile Laboratory was used to conduct an emergency carriage study that for the ﬁrst time occurred during the peak of a meningococcal serogroup A epidemic. This information is critical for the design of meningococcal conjugate vaccine schedules and vaccine approaches. During 2004-6, technicians in 11 district laboratories received training by Mobile Laboratory staff. Numerous problems with the initial prototype laboratory were identiﬁed, namely that the solar power cells could not provide enough energy to the refrigerator and incubator to maintain appropriate temperatures and having a single integrated unit required use of a separate vehicle for specimen transport. A second laboratory was developed during 2005-6 that used a generator or local energy source for power and that had a laboratory that could be detached from the vehicle. Currently the main limitation of the Mobile Laboratory is that it has not been integrated into routine Ministry of Health activities, limiting its use both during and between meningitis seasons.Un Laboratoire Mobile a été développé pour être utilisé essentiellement pendant la saison d’épidémie de méningite au Burkina Faso. Ce rapport décrit les caractéristiques du Laboratoire Mobile, son utilisation à ce jour, les problèmes rencontrés et leur résolution ainsi que les orientations futures. Au cours de l’année 2004, l’intervention du
The first cases of AIDS in Burkina Faso were reported in 1986. During the past ten years, there have been several types of research conducted in Burkina Faso in the field of social sciences, including KABP, focus groups, and ethnographic studies. This article reviews approximately 100 publications and presents the results most relevant to prevention. Although general knowledge of the disease, its transmission and means of protection has improved, part of the population remains poorly informed; erroneous ideas remain prevalent and certain concepts, for example asymptomatic infection, are ignored. Young women in rural areas have the poorest knowledge. Understanding the information is conditioned by underlying perceptions of blood and physiology, the "components of the person", pre-existent and sexually transmitted diseases, and modes of transmission. Research on sexuality has elucidated the age at which individuals become sexually active, and paramatrimonial practices. The prevalence of STD is high. STD are mostly treated by traditional practitioners or by automedication. Family planning is insufficiently developed. AIDS prevention should be integrated into wider considerations of reproductive health. The popular perception that "Others" are responsible for bringing AIDS into the country has often been reinforced by health messages. Consequently, people do not sufficiently consider themselves vulnerable to HIV infection. The populations that are most vulnerable, for various reasons that have been analysed, include young girls and women, married women, prostitutes, truck drivers, and young men from rural areas. The message "Fidelity or condom" has been widely used. However, it has hindered the generalisation of the use of condoms, because asking for a condom consequently implies distrust of the partner. The interpretation of fidelity is diverse, and many people who choose this means of prevention believe erroneously that they are protected. Studies of the social
Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB is considered a real threat to the achievement of TB control. Testing of mycobacterial culture and testing of drug susceptibility (DST capacity are limited in resource-poor countries, therefore inadequate treatment may occur, favouring resistance development. We evaluated the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus (Hain Lifescience, Germany in order to detect DR-TB directly in clinical specimens as a means of providing a more accurate management of chronic TB patients in Burkina Faso, a country with a high TB-HIV co-infection prevalence. Methods Samples were collected in Burkina Faso where culture and DST are not currently available, and where chronic cases are therefore classified and treated based on clinical evaluation and sputum-smear microscopy results. One hundred and eight chronic TB patients (sputum smear-positive, after completing a re-treatment regimen for pulmonary TB under directly observed therapy were enrolled in the study from December 2006 to October 2008. Two early morning sputum samples were collected from each patient, immediately frozen, and shipped to Italy in dry ice. Samples were decontaminated, processed for smear microscopy and DNA extraction. Culture was attempted on MGIT960 (Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, USA and decontaminated specimens were analyzed for the presence of mutations conferring resistance to rifampin and isoniazid by the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus. Results We obtained a valid molecular test result in 60/61 smear-positive and 47/47 smear-negative patients. Among 108 chronic TB cases we identified patients who (i harboured rifampin- and isoniazid-susceptible strains (n 24, (ii were negative for MTB complex DNA (n 24, and (iii had non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections (n 13. The most represented mutation conferring rifampin-resistance was the D516V substitution in the hotspot region of the rpoB gene (43.8% of cases. Other mutations recognized
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a scarcity of reliable data on perinatal mortality (PNM in Sub-Saharan Africa. The PROMISE-EBF trial, during which we promoted exclusive breastfeeding, gave us the opportunity to describe the epidemiology of PNM in Banfora Health District, South-West in Burkina Faso. Study objectives To measure the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR in the PROMISE-EBF cohort in Banfora Health District and to identify potential risk factors for perinatal death. Methods We used data collected prospectively during the PROMISE-EBF-trial to estimate the stillbirth rate (SBR and early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR. We used binomial regression with generalized estimating equations to identify potential risk factors for perinatal death. Results 895 pregnant women were enrolled for data collection in the EBF trial and followed-up to 7 days after birth. The PNMR, the SBR and the ENMR, were 79 per 1000 (95% CI: 59-99, 54 per 1000 (95% CI: 38-69 and 27 per 1000 (95% CI: 9-44, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, nulliparous women (RR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.6-5.0, primiparae mothers (RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9, twins (RR = 4.0, 95% CI: 2.3-6.9 and giving birth during the dry season (RR = 2.1 95% CI: 1.3-3.3 were factors associated with increased risk of perinatal death. There was no evidence that risk of perinatal death differed between deliveries at home and at a health centre Conclusion Our study observed the highest PNMR ever reported in Burkina. There is an urgent need for sustainable interventions to improve maternal and newborn health in the country.
Østergaard, Lise Rosendal
Although no cases of the Ebola virus disease occurred in Burkina Faso during the West African epidemic, it sparked front line health workers' reflections on issues of security, global equity and fairness. Based on an ethnographic study of rural dispensaries in Burkina Faso on the practical...... of the threat of Ebola has intensified existing tensions between health workers and the Government. Seeing Ebola from a distance entailed that the health workers perceived Ebola as a negative potentiality having immediate effects on their individual and collective reflections on risk acceptability. That made...
Rosendal Østergaard, Lise; Samuelsen, Helle
This article explores the discrepancies between the vocal public discourse on HIV/AIDS and sexuality as generally encouraged by policy-makers and donor communities in Africa, and the often hushed voices of their target groups: young people in African communities. Based on fieldwork among urban youth in Senegal and Burkina Faso, we describe the silence of young people with regard to HIV/AIDS and sexuality as a social phenomenon, with focus given to family relations, peer relations and gender aspects in partnerships. Drawing on Foucault and Morrell, an inability and unwillingness to speak about HIV/AIDS and sexuality are analysed as a response to an everyday life characterised by uncertainty. This response represents a certain degree of resistance, while it constitutes a major barrier to any HIV/AIDS prevention effort. Finally, we stress that despite great constraints in their everyday lives, young people have some room to manoeuvre and are able to apply some negotiating strategies to reduce sexually-related health risks.
Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ is a policy instrument meant to mitigate climate change while also achieving poverty reduction in tropical countries. It has garnered critics for homogenising environmental and development governance and for ignoring how similar efforts have tended to exacerbate gender inequalities. Nonetheless, regarding such schemes as inevitable, some feminists argue for requirements that include women′s empowerment and participation. In this paper we move beyond discussions about safeguards and examine whether the very framing of REDD+ programs can provide openings for a transformation as argued for by its proponents. Following the REDD+ policy process in Burkina Faso, we come to two important insights: REDD+ is a solution in need of a problem. Assumptions about gender are at the heart of creating ′actionable knowledge′ that enabled REDD+ to be presented as a policy solution to the problems of deforestation, poverty and gender inequality. Second, despite its ′safeguards′, REDD+ appears to be perpetuating gendered divisions of labour, as formal environmental decision-making moves upwards; and responsibility and the burden of actual environmental labour shifts further down in particularly gendered ways. We explore how this is enabled by the development of policies whose stated aims are to tackle inequalities.
Pascaline Coulibaly-Lingani; Mulualem Tigabu; Patrice Savadogo; Per-Christer Odén
This study examines variations in the performance of partic-ipatory forest management programs among four forest management groups (FMGs) in southern Burkina Faso, and assesses the factors that influence their members’ perceptions of performance through a house-hold survey of 216 members. Variations in performance scores among the FMGs were analyzed through multivariate analysis of variance while multinomial regression analysis was used to identify factors that influ-ence their perception of the performance. The results reveal significant differences in performance scores among FMGs. Members of some FMGs perceived that the participatory forest management program ena-bled them to get benefits from the sale of fuelwood while performance scores in the forest conservation and decision-making processes is gener-ally poor. The score for economic performance of FMGs in turn was related to better access to roads and markets. Group size tended to en-hance economic performance via its strong influence on annual fuelwood harvest, while the resource base appeared to be inconsequential. Mem-bers of the forest management groups perceived that large group size and group heterogeneity, particularly in terms of ethnicity, as well as knowledge and awareness of problems related to the forest environment have no influence on the performance of their respective groups. For rural communities to have a favorable disposition toward sustainable forest management, differences in member understanding of collective actions and their impact before and during the implementation of partic-ipatory forest management programs should be considered.
Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo R; Zubieta, Ana C; MkNelly, Barbara; Nteziyaremye, Anastase; Gerardo, Maria Filipinas D; Dunford, Christopher
This study examined the association between food insecurity, determined by a modified version of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM), and total daily per capita (DPC) consumption (measured as household expenditures) in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, and the Philippines. Household food insecurity was determined by an adapted 9-item US HFSSM version. A short version of the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) consumption module measured household expenditures. Focus groups were used to adapt the survey instrument to each local context. The sample (n approximately 330 per country) includes residents of urban and rural areas. A 12-month food expenditure aggregate was generated as part of the total household expenditures calculation. DPC food expenditure, which represented over 60% of the total household consumption, as well as expenditures on specific food groups correlated with food insecurity both as a continuous Food Insecurity Score (FinSS) and a tricategorical food insecurity status variable. ANOVA and regression analysis were executed adjusting for social and demographic covariates. Food-secure households have significantly higher (P expenditures as well as expenditures on animal source foods, vegetables, and fats and oils than moderately and severely food-insecure households. The results offer evidence that the US HFSSM is able to discriminate between households at different levels of food insecurity status in diverse developing world settings.
Bakasso, S; Lamien-Meda, A; Lamien, C E; Kiendrebeogo, M; Millogo, J; Ouedraogo, A G; Nacoulma, O G
Aqueous acetone extracts prepared from five Indigofera species of Burkina Faso, namely Indigofera colutea (Burm.) Murril., I. macrocalyx Guilld et Perr., I. nigritana Hook f., I. pulchra willd. and I. tinctoria L., were investigated for their phytochemical composition and their antioxidant activities. Standard methods and TLC were used to screen the phytochemical composition. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods, respectively. These extracts were also evaluated for their antioxidant potentials using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assays. Flavonoids, saponins, quinones, sterols/triterpenes and tannins were present in all these species except for I. pulchra where quinones were not found. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin and myricetin in I. colutea; gallic acid, quercitrin, myricetin in I. tinctoria; galangin and myricetin in I. macrocalyx were identified by thin layer chromatography. Among these, I. colutea, I. tinctoria, I. nigritana and I. macrocalyx, which had the highest phenolic content, were also found to possess the best antioxidant activities. The results indicated a good correlation between antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (puses. PMID:18817242
Marschall, Paul; Flessa, Steffen
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the impact of increased access to primary care on provider costs in the rural health district of Nouna, Burkina Faso. This study question is crucial for health care planning in this district, as other research work shows that the population has a higher need for health care services. From a public health perspective, an increase of utilisation of first-line health facilities would be necessary. However, the governmental budget that is needed to finance improved access was not known. The study is based on data of 2004 of a comprehensive provider cost information system. This database provides us with the actual costs of each primary health care facility (Centre de Santé et de Promotion Sociale, CSPS) in the health district. We determine the fixed and variable costs of each institution and calculate the average cost per service unit rendered in 2004. Based on the cost structure of each CSPS, we calculate the total costs if the demand for health care services increased. We conclude that the total provider costs of primary care (and therefore the governmental budget) would hardly rise if the coverage of the population were increased. This is mainly due to the fact that the highest variable costs are drugs, which are fully paid for by the customers (Bamako Initiative). The majority of other costs are fixed. Consequently, health care reforms that improve access to health care institutions must not fear dramatically increasing the costs of health care services. PMID:18197447
Full Text Available Background: In several African cities the prevalence of unmarried cohabitation among youth has risen considerably. Because of its potentially negative implications for women and their children, in some countries cohabitation has even become a matter of heated public debate and policy concern. In contrast to industrialized countries, however, the choice between marriage and cohabitation in the region has attracted little attention. Objective: The purpose of the study is to explore the rising phenomenon of young, unmarried, cohabiting couples in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso, and to evaluate how characteristics of both partners involved in a dating relationship affect the choice between marriage and non-marital cohabitation when forming a first union. Methods: Based on life history data including unique relationship biographies, the study takes a competing risks approach to examine relationship transitions to a first marriage or unmarried cohabitation. Results: A long spell of unmarried cohabitation is common among youth in Ouagadougou today, and children's exposure to cohabitation is high. While occupation, especially male occupation, is a crucial determinant of entry into union - having a similar effect on marriage and cohabitation risks - partners' educational attainment, ethnic endogamy, and religion significantly affect the choice between marriage and cohabitation. Conclusions: Ideational changes rather than economic ones motivate youth to choose cohabitation instead of marriage. Cohabitation in Ouagadougou has not become the "poor man's wedding", as Oppenheimer's hypothesis would suggest, but rather the preferred choice of dating couples who are more willing and able to distance themselves from familial expectations and marital norms.
Full Text Available Changes in rainfall regime during the last five decades over the West African Sahel have significantly modified the hydrological regime of many rivers with a significant impact on water resources. In this study, the main hydrological processes on the Nakanbe watershed in Burkina Faso are described with two hydrological models: GR2M (lumped and monthly model and ORCHIDEE (ORganising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms (distributed and half hourly model. Both models were calibrated on the watershed from observed runoff data at Wayen outlet (area of 22,000 km2 for the 1978–1999 period. The mean annual hydrological balance components on the watershed over this period are composed of about 4% of runoff, 10% of groundwater recharge and 86% of actual evapotranspiration for both models. An assessment of the hydrological impacts of the changes in rainfall regime simulated by five regional climate models shows some discrepancies. The hydrological simulations show that the hydrological impacts on the water balance of the watershed come mainly from the changes in rainfall field with regard to the frequency and the intensity of rain events. Compared to the decrease in frequency, it appears that the decrease in the intensity of rain events is much more prejudicial to runoff and groundwater recharge.
Full Text Available A survey of the parasites of abomasa, small, and large intestines of 94 bovines conveyed to the main slaughterhouse of Ouagadougou from the central and northern part of Burkina Faso allowed the identification of nine different worm species: Cooperia punctata, Cooperia pectinata, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Moniezia expensa, Avitellina sp., Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichuris sp. By far, Cooperia sp. was the most prevalent (89.4/, followed by H. contortus (66/, and O. radiatum (42.6/. The other worm species were much less prevalent. While only one cattle was free of parasites, it was noticed that polyparasitism was very common. There was a wide range of worm burden (0 to 42290 with however in most animals high worm numbers specially of Cooperia sp. This study confirmed that the rainy season constitutes a period of worm explosion. During the hot and dry season, H. contortus seemed primarily able to undergo arrested development in the L4 stage and secondarily to remain in the adult stage. Statistical analyses of levels of infestation did not show any significant difference according to age, sex, and weight of cattle.
Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the association between three polymorphisms of renin-angiotensin system and the essential hypertension in the population of Burkina Faso. Methodology. This was a case-control study including 202 cases and 204 matched controls subjects. The polymorphisms were identified by a classical and a real-time PCR. Results. The AGT 235M/T and AT1R 1166A/C polymorphisms were not associated with the hypertension while the genotype frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism between patients and controls (DD: 66.83% and 35.78%, ID: 28.22% and 50.98%, II: 4.95% and 13.24%, resp. were significantly different (p < 10−4. The genotype DD of ACE gene (OR = 3.40, p < 0.0001, the increasing age (OR = 3.83, p < 0.0001, obesity (OR = 4.84, p < 0.0001, dyslipidemia (OR = 3.43, p = 0.021, and alcohol intake (OR = 2.76, p < 0.0001 were identified as the independent risk factors for hypertension by multinomial logistic regression. Conclusion. The DD genotype of the ACE gene is involved in susceptibility to hypertension. Further investigations are needed to better monitor and provide individualized care for hypertensive patients.
Tchelougou, Daméhan; Kologo, Jonas K.; Karou, Simplice D.; Yaméogo, Valentin N.; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W.; Ouermi, Djeneba; Compaoré, Tegwindé R.; Assih, Maléki; Pietra, Virginio; Zabsonré, Patrice; Simpore, Jacques
Objective. This study aimed to investigate the association between three polymorphisms of renin-angiotensin system and the essential hypertension in the population of Burkina Faso. Methodology. This was a case-control study including 202 cases and 204 matched controls subjects. The polymorphisms were identified by a classical and a real-time PCR. Results. The AGT 235M/T and AT1R 1166A/C polymorphisms were not associated with the hypertension while the genotype frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism between patients and controls (DD: 66.83% and 35.78%, ID: 28.22% and 50.98%, II: 4.95% and 13.24%, resp.) were significantly different (p < 10−4). The genotype DD of ACE gene (OR = 3.40, p < 0.0001), the increasing age (OR = 3.83, p < 0.0001), obesity (OR = 4.84, p < 0.0001), dyslipidemia (OR = 3.43, p = 0.021), and alcohol intake (OR = 2.76, p < 0.0001) were identified as the independent risk factors for hypertension by multinomial logistic regression. Conclusion. The DD genotype of the ACE gene is involved in susceptibility to hypertension. Further investigations are needed to better monitor and provide individualized care for hypertensive patients. PMID:26351579
Full Text Available This article demonstrates the central role of ambiguity in the (reproduction process of conservation practice. It argues that some current political economy as well as environmentality approaches to research conservation practice fail to capture the complexity of the lived experience of local conservationists. The article focuses on the multiple identities of rangers in interaction with other residents at the periphery of the W Park in Burkina Faso, as rangers are local conservationists who simultaneously submit to and produce conservation practices. Park rangers are village men who are recruited under the banner of community participation in conservation projects and state forestry. On a day-to-day basis, these rangers help the foresters with the management of the natural resources on the one hand, and guide tourists, especially in the hunting concessions, on the other. They occupy ambiguous positions at the crossroads of conservationist, state, political, economic, spiritual, social, and cultural practices, inherent to their conservation occupations at the lowest echelon, where residents have to transform conservation policies into practices. It is precisely this ambiguity that turns out to ensure the conservation implementation.
Bamba Sanata; Oudraogo Abdoul Salam; Sangar Ibrahim; Zida Adama; Ciss Mamoudou; Karou D Simplice; Simpore Jacques; Guiguemd T Robert; Hennequin Christophe
Objective:To identify Candida species in asymptomatic subjects in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) by the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2013 in Bobo-Dioulasso to collect fecal and urine specimens from voluntary donors. Fungal strains were isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 135 samples including stools (78.5%, 106/135) and urine (21.5%, 29/135) were analyzed. The results revealed that fecal specimens contained mainly Candida krusei (C. krusei) (42.5%) followed by Candida albicans (29.3%), Candida glabrata (18.0%) and Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis) (4.7%). C. krusei (34.6%) was also found to be the most frequently identified in urine samples followed by Candida albicans (27.0%), C. tropicalis (15.4%) and Candida parapsilosis. However, uncommon species such as Candida nivariensis, Candida kefyr, Candida norvegensis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae and Candida robusta were also identified from fecal and urines samples. Conclusions:This study noted the emergence of species such as C. krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsiolosis, C. tropicalis, Candida nivariensis, Candida norvegensis, and others. It is an imperative to take into account the existence of these species in the therapeutic management of patients in Bobo-Dioulasso.
Thomas, Y. B.
Farmers in Burkina Faso are among the most exposed to climate change/ climate variability, as their livelihoods are greatly linked to climate hazards. Rainfall and in some extent temperature are among the inputs farmers use to take decisions in their farming activities. A better understanding of factors that shape farmers' perceptions of climate change and decision to adapt farming practices is needed to take appropriate measures. In the current study farmers' perception of climate change and climate variability- specifically, changes in rainfall and temperature- were compared to historical recorded climate data. Primary data was collected through village focus-group surveys and household surveys. Nine Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted in the study areas' villages; 450 households were also selected randomly from three locations and sampled out through a multi-stage sampling procedure. Secondary data on the historical precipitation and temperature of Burkina Faso from 1960 to 2012 was obtained from the National Meteorological Service of Burkina Faso (DGM) and the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and temperature anomalies methodology have been used to assess anomalies in rainfall and temperature covering a period of 48 years, from 1964 to 2011; and Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimator to assess the significance of the trends and the Theil-Sen slope estimator is used to identify their magnitude. The analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change indicates that most farmers perceived a declining trend of precipitation and an increasing trend of temperature in all areas. Results from recorded climate data's analysis, revealed contrasting evidence, while that farmers' perception of temperature match with historical data, their perception of rainfall evolution were not always corroboted by scientific evidence.
Courtin, F; Jamonneau, V; Kambiré, R; Solano, P
Following the sociopolitical unrest that occurred in Ivory Coast in 2002, 360,000 Burkinabe immigrants returned to Burkina Faso that was the epicenter of sleeping sickness last century and is now thought to be free of autochthonous transmission. The purpose of this study was to determine if the massive return of immigrants from human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) endemic areas of Ivory Coast to areas in Burkina Faso where the vector (tsetse fly) is currently present could lead to re-emergence of the disease. Risk areas for re-emergence were identified taking into account the number of returning immigrants, history of the disease, and presence of tsetse flies. Based on these criteria, study was focused on two villages, i.e., Folonzo and Gbalara, located in southern Burkina Faso near the Ivory Coast border. Study in these two villages consisted of characterization of the population (repatriates or not, origin, ...) and medical surveys to assess the presence/absence of the disease. Departure of some returning immigrants from areas including sleeping sickness foci in Ivory Coast (e.g. center west) confirmed the potential risk of re-emergence of the disease. Although no case of sleeping sickness was diagnosed, several serologically positive people were identified and will be followed up. This study failed to demonstrate a clear-cut correlation between massive population movements due to war and reemergence of sleeping sickness. However, this study may have been timed too soon after the return of immigrants to detect reemergence of HAT that could require several years.
Full Text Available We report herein the case of 19-year-old female farmer who suffered a double snakebite on the right foot. After an unsuccessful traditional treatment, she consulted a health center, 48 hours after the bite. Upon arrival at the hospital, she showed signs of severe damage, including hemorrhagic syndrome, extensive gangrene of the bitten limb and severe acute renal failure. Due to financial constraints, neither antivenom nor the scheduled amputation was performed. After 35 days of hospitalization, she returned home, against the advice of medical personnel. Our case summarizes the daily challenges of patients and practitioners that suffer snakebite envenomation in Bobo-Dioulasso, western Burkina Faso.
VALERO RELLOSO, JAVIER
[ES] El propósito principal del presente TFG es facilitar algunas herramientas para contribuir a la mejora del estado nutricional de la población en las zonas rurales de Burkina Faso. La justificación objetiva del mismo se apoya en cumplir con varios de los Objetivos del Milenio y de los Objetivos del Desarrollo Sostenible, en particular: la lucha por la erradicación de la pobreza y el hambre, la educación de calidad, la igualdad de sexos, el uso de energías renovables, etc. El objetivo co...
Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO, in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.. Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North and Nayala (Northwest to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55 respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61 plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31 families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main
Somé Issa T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A (VA deficiency is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and school-age children are a vulnerable group. In Burkina Faso, the production and consumption of red palm oil (RPO is being promoted as a food supplement for VA. The objective of the study was to assess the impact on serum retinol of adding RPO to school lunch in two test zones of Burkina Faso. Methods Over one school year, 15 ml RPO was added to individual meals 3 times a week in selected primary schools in two sites. Serum retinol was measured with HPLC at baseline and exactly 12 months later to take account of seasonality. A simple pre-post test design was used in the Kaya area (north-central Burkina, where 239 pupils from 15 intervention schools were randomly selected for the evaluation. In Bogandé (eastern Burkina, 24 schools were randomised for the controlled intervention trial: 8 negative controls (G1 with only the regular school lunch; 8 positive controls (G2 where the pupils received a single VA capsule (60 mg at the end of the school year; and 8 schools with RPO through the school year (G3. A random sample of 128 pupils in each school group took part in the evaluation. Results In Kaya, serum retinol went from 0.77 ± 0.37 μmol/L at baseline to 1.07 ± 0.40 μmol/L one year later (p Conclusion RPO given regularly in small amounts appears highly effective in the reduction of VA deficiency. RPO deserves more attention as a food supplement for VA and as a potential source of rural income in Sahelian countries.
Reij, Chris; Smale, Melinda; Tappan, Gary; Spielman, David J.; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul
The Sahel—the belt of land that stretches across Africa on the southern edge of the Sahara—has always been a tough place to farm. Rainfall is low and droughts are frequent. The crust of hard soil is, at times, almost impermeable, and harsh winds threaten to sweep away everything in their path. Over the past three decades, however, hundreds of thousands of farmers in Burkina Faso and Niger have transformed large swaths of the region’s arid landscape into productive agricultural land, improving food security for about 3 million people. Once-denuded landscapes are now home to abundant trees, crops, and livestock. Although rainfall has improved slightly from the mid-1990s relative to earlier decades, indications are that farmer management is a stronger determinant of land and agroforestry regeneration. Sahelian farmers achieved their success by ingeniously modifying traditional agroforestry, water, and soil-management practices. To improve water availability and soil fertility in Burkina Faso’s Central Plateau, farmers have sown crops in planting pits and built stone contour bunds, which are stones piled up in long narrow rows that follow the contours of the land in order to capture rainwater runoff and soil. These practices have helped rehabilitate between 200,000 and 300,000 hectares of land and produce an additional 80,000 tons of food per year. In southern Niger, farmers have developed innovative ways of regenerating and multiplying valuable trees whose roots already lay underneath their land, thus improving about 5 million hectares of land and producing more than 500,000 additional tons of food per year. While the specific calculations of farm-level benefits are subject to various methodological and data limitations, the order of magnitude of these benefits is high, as evidenced by the wide-scale adoption of the improved practices by large numbers of farmers. Today, the agricultural landscapes of southern Niger have considerably more tree cover than they
Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D.
The paper describes two different savings arrangements around cattle that have been developed in two villages in the eastern region of Burkina Faso and raises the question of why two forms have evolved in the same region, populated by the same ethnic groups, and where crop and livestock production s
Yoda, Lalbila Aristide
Burkina Faso heeft ruim elf miljoen inwoners en er worden meer dan zestig talen gesproken. De belangrijkste taal is het Moore, dat door de helft van de inwoners wordt gesproken; verder is er onder meer het Bisa, een kleine regionale taal. Frans is de officiële taal, maar slechts tien tot vijftien pr
Maatman, A; Sawadogo, H; Schweigman, C; Ouedraogo, A
Agricultural production in the northwest region of Burkina Faso is seriously endangered by soil erosion and an overall decline in Soil fertility. In the past 15 years various anti-erosion methods have been adopted in this region with quite some success. The widespread promotion lion of rock bunds is
Ouédraogo, A; Ouédraogo, T L; Ouoba, D E; Sawadogo, J P
Smoking is a worldwide phenomenon and many studies have demonstrated that tobacco use is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. We investigated aspects of the supply of, and demand for, tobacco in Burkina Faso, with a view to helping the public authorities design strategies to combat this phenomenon. We used data on the importation of tobacco and the making of cigarettes in Burkina Faso and carried out a survey of adolescents and young adults (n = 289) with a mean age of 20.9 years. In 1997, Burkina Faso imported 1,905, 214 metric tons of tobacco of all kinds, with a CAF value of 5,808, 905,269 CFA francs. In the survey, 30.7% of those interviewed said that they smoked. These individuals gave various reasons for their use of tobacco including imitating friends (38.6%) and personal liberty (14.1%). These young people were generally aware of the risks of tobacco use, but this did not deter them from smoking. In countries like Burkina Faso, which is faced with many challenges, controlling tobacco advertising and providing ways and means to help young people to stop smoking or to deter them from starting to smoke are of major importance for future public health.
Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog;
the shade of six randomly selected Parkia biglobosa trees during one season in south-central Burkina Faso. The area under the canopy of each tree was divided into four main plots according to cardinal directions, and sub-divided into three concentric zones. Control plots were established outside the tree...
Bayala, J.; Mando, A.; Ouédraogo, E.; Teklehaimanot, Z.
Tree pruning generates organic resources whose nitrogen content is not always recycled appropriately. A field experiment was conducted in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to test the possibilities of improving soil properties and crop production through the application of Parkia biglobosa (néré)
Boelee, Eline; Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Laamrani, Hammou; Cecchi, Philippe
Background Physical and chemical parameters of water in reservoirs can be affected by natural and manmade pollutants, causing damage to the aquatic life and water quality. However, the exact water quality considerations depend on what the water will be used for. Brick making, livestock watering, fisheries, irrigation and domestic uses all have their own specific water quality requirements. In turn, these uses impact on water quality. Methodology Water quality was assessed with a variety of methods in small multipurpose reservoirs in the São Francisco Basin in Brazil, Limpopo in Zimbabwe, Souss Massa in Morocco and Nakambé in Burkina Faso. In each case the first step was to select the reservoirs for which the water quality was to be monitored, then identify the main water uses, followed by a determination of key relevant water quality parameters. In addition, a survey was done in some cases to identify quality perceptions of the users. Samples were taken from the reservoir itself and related water bodies such as canals and wells where relevant. Results Accordingly in the four basins different methods gave different locally relevant results. In the Preto River in the Sao Francisco in Brazil small reservoirs are mainly used for irrigated agriculture. Chemical analysis of various small reservoirs showed that water quality was mainly influenced by geological origins. In addition there was nutrient inflow from surrounding areas of intensive agriculture with high fertilizer use. In the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe small reservoirs are used for almost all community water needs. Plankton was selected as indicator and sampling was carried out in reservoirs in communal areas and in a national park. Park reservoirs were significantly more diversified in phytoplankton taxa compared to those in the communal lands, but not for zooplankton, though communal lands had the highest zooplankton abundance. In Souss Massa in Morocco a combination of perceptions and scientific water
Full Text Available Abstract Background A well-functioning referral system is fundamental to primary health care delivery. Understanding the providers' referral decision-making process becomes critical. This study's aim was to assess the correctness of diagnoses and appropriateness of the providers' referral decisions from health centers (HCs to district hospitals (DHs among patients with severe malaria and pneumonia. Methods A record review of twelve months of consultations was conducted covering eight randomly selected HCs to identify severe malaria (SM cases among children under five and pneumonia cases among adults. The correctness of the diagnosis and appropriateness of providers' referral decisions were determined using the National Clinical Guidebook as a 'gold standard'. Results Among the 457 SM cases affecting children under five, only 66 cases (14.4% were correctly diagnosed and of those 66 correctly diagnosed cases, 40 cases (60.6% received an appropriate referral decision from their providers. Within these 66 correctly diagnosed SM cases, only 60.6% were appropriately referred. Among the adult pneumonia cases, 5.9% (79/1331 of the diagnoses were correctly diagnosed; however, the appropriateness rate of the provider's referral decision was 98.7% (78/79. There was only one case that should not have been referred but was referred. Conclusions The adherence to the National Guidelines among the health center providers when making a diagnosis was low for both severe malaria cases and pneumonia cases. The appropriateness of the referral decisions was particularly poor for children with severe malaria. Health center providers need to be better trained in the diagnostic process and in disease management in order to improve the performance of the referral system in rural Burkina Faso.
Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Andonaba, Jean Baptiste; Ouédraogo, Muriel Sidnoma; Tapsoba, Gilbert Patrice; Ilboudo, Léopold; Savadogo, Cérina; Barro-Traoré, Fatou; Niamba, Pascal; Traoré, Adama
Pedicure-manicure represents the aesthetic care of hands, feet and nails. In Burkina Faso, the use of manicure-pedicure products, the techniques used and the level of risk remain unknown. The aim of our study was to evaluate the practice of manicure-pedicure in the city of Ouagadougou. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of all practitioners with at least six months experience in aesthetic care and customers present at the time of the survey from December 2010 to November 2012. We interviewed a total of 313 practitioners and 313 clients. The average age of practitioners was 19 years and of customers was 32.2 years. Fixed location practitioners were mostly women (96.87%) while mobile practitioners were mostly men (68.37%); 64.53% of customers were women. The percentage of practitioners who did not receive professional training was 93.92%. 29.7% of practitioners soaked the instruments in javel water for at least ten minutes; 75.71% knew that the use of certain tools was dangerous and 26.51% had side effects. 40.25% of customers knew that the used equipment may pose some risks and 30.35% were victims of accidents. The manicure and pedicure is done in hair salons by untrained hairdressers to the professional practice. The origin and composition of the products is not known. Not recommended products are used (foot soak shampoo, razor blade and scissors for feet scraping). The use of manicure and/or pedicure is sometimes necessary but that should not obscure the risks to which it exposes customers. Customers education and practitioners training seem necessary to minimize risks. PMID:27642448
Imran, M.; Stein, A.; Zurita-Milla, R.
Poverty at the national and sub-national level is commonly mapped on the basis of household surveys. Typical poverty metrics like the head count index are not able to identify its underlaying factors, particularly in rural economies based on subsistence agriculture. This paper relates agro-ecological marginality identified from regional and global datasets including remote sensing products like the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall to rural agricultural production and food consumption in Burkina Faso. The objective is to analyze poverty patterns and to generate a fine resolution poverty map at the national scale. We compose a new indicator from a range of welfare indicators quantified from Georeferenced household surveys, indicating a spatially varying set of welfare and poverty states of rural communities. Next, a local spatial regression is used to relate each welfare and poverty state to the agro-ecological marginality. Our results show strong spatial dependency of welfare and poverty states over agro-ecological marginality in heterogeneous regions, indicating that environmental factors affect living conditions in rural communities. The agro-ecological stress and related marginality vary locally between rural communities within each region. About 58% variance in the welfare indicator is explained by the factors of rural agricultural production and 42% is explained by the factor of food consumption. We found that the spatially explicit approach based on multi-temporal remote sensing products effectively summarizes information on poverty and facilitates further interpretation of the newly developed welfare indicator. The proposed method was validated with poverty incidence obtained from national surveys.
Barbier, Bruno; Yacouba, Hamma; Karambiri, Harouna; Zoromé, Malick; Somé, Blaise
In this study, the authors investigate farmers’ vulnerability to climate variability and evaluate local adoption of technology and farmers’ perceptions of adaptation strategies to rainfall variability and policies. A survey was conducted in a community in northern Burkina Faso following the crop failure of 2004. In 2006, following a better harvest, another survey was conducted to compare farmers’ actions and reactions during two contrasted rainy seasons. The results confirm that farmers from this community have substantially changed their practices during the last few decades. They have adopted a wide range of techniques that are intended to simultaneously increase crop yield and reduce yield variability. Micro water harvesting (Zaï) techniques have been widely adopted (41%), and a majority of fields have been improved with stone lines (60%). Hay (48%) and sorghum residues are increasingly stored to feed animals during the dry season, making bull and sheep fattening now a common practice. Dry season vegetable production also involves a majority of the population (60%). According to farmers, most of the new techniques have been adopted because of growing land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than because of climate variability. Population pressure has reached a critical threshold, while land scarcity, declining soil fertility and reduced animal mobility have pushed farmers to intensify agricultural production. These techniques reduce farmers’ dependency on rainfall but are still insufficient to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Thirty-nine percent of the population remains vulnerable after a good rainy season. Despite farmers’ desire to remain in their own communities, migrations are likely to remain a major source of regular income and form of recourse in the event of droughts.
Full Text Available Background: Resistance of malaria parasites to existing drugs complicates treatment, but an antimalarial vaccine that could protect against this disease is not yet available. It is therefore necessary to find new effective and affordable medicines. Medicinal plants could be a potential source of antimalarial agents. Some medicinal plants from Burkina Faso were evaluated for their antiplasmodial and cytotoxic properties in vitro.Methods: Crude dichloromethane, methanol, water-methanol, aqueous and alkaloids extracts were prepared for 12 parts of 10 plants. Chloroquine-resistant malaria strain K1 was used for the in vitro sensibility assay. The Plasmodium lactacte dehydrogenase technique was used to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration of parasites activity (IC50. The cytotoxic effects were determined with HepG2 cells, using the tetrazolium-based colorimetric technique, and the selectivity index (SI was calculated.Results: Sixty crude extracts were prepared. Seven extracts from Terminalia avicenoides showed IC50 < 5 µg/mL. The IC50 of dichloromethane, methanol, aqueous and alkaloids extracts ranged between 1.6 µg/mL and 4.5 µg/mL. Three crude extracts from Combretum collinum and three from Ficus capraefolia had an IC50 ranging between 0.2 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL. Crude extracts from these three plants had no cytotoxic effect, with SI > 1. The other plants have mostly moderate or no antimalarial effects. Some extracts from Cordia myxa, Ficus capraefolia and Opilia celtidifolia showed cytotoxicity, with an SI ranging between 0.4 and 0.9.Conclusion: Our study showed a good antiplasmodial in vitro activity of Terminalia avicenoides, Combretum collinum and Ficus capraefolia. These three plants may contain antiplasmodial molecules that could be isolated by bio-guided phytochemical studies.
Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G
Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests. PMID:17478091
Hounkpatin, Ozias; Welp, Gerhard; Amelung, Wulf
The conversion of natural ecosystems into agricultural land affects the atmospheric CO2 concentration whose increase contributes to global warming. In the low activity clay soils (LAC) of the tropics, farming is largely dependent on the level of soil organic carbon (SOC) for sustainable crop production. In this study, we investigated the changes in SOC in Plinthosols along a cultivation chronosequence in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso). The chronosequence consisted of undisturbed savannah (Y0) and 11 agricultural fields with short and long histories of cultivation ranging from 1-year-old cropland to 29-year-old cropland (Y29). About 14 soil profiles were described and soil composite samples were taken per horizon. Particulate organic matter (POM) was fractionated according to particle size: fraction 2000 - 250 μm (POM1), 250 μm - 53 μm (POM2), 53 μm - 20 μm (POM3), and POM1 > POM3 > POM2 carbon no matter the duration of land use. However, SOC losses occurred not only in the labile C pools but also in the stabile nonPOM fraction with increasing duration of agricultural land use. Compared to the initial carbon content in the Y0 field, about 59% of carbon content loss occurred in the POM1 (> 250 μm), 53% in the POM2 (250 - 53 μm), 52 % in the POM3 (53 - 20 μm) and 47% in the nonPOM fraction (carbon was found as nonPOM, indicating that organo-mineral associations are a key parameter for carbon stabilization, its depletion with increasing cultivation intensity suggests that the destruction of aggregates in these fields increased the vulnerability of this pool to microbial degradation. Keywords: Soil organic carbon, Plinthosols, low activity clay soil, POM
Full Text Available Background: Family structure and union dissolution has been one of the most thoroughly studied determinants of children's wellbeing worldwide. To date, however, few of these studies have examined sub-Saharan Africa, especially countries in West Africa where marital breakdowns are not uncommon. Objective: We attempt to examine the effects of a mother's divorce and widowhood on children's risk of mortality under age 5 and on their probability of entering primary school. Methods: Survival data analysis methods, specifically Kaplan-Meier and piecewise exponential models, are used for analysis, based on data come from the 2000 Migration and Urban Integration Survey of Burkina Faso. Results: Compared to those of intact families, children of divorced parents experience higher estimated mortality risks under age 5 and a lower probability of entering school, even after controlling for various other factors. This effect is large and significant during the first two years after the divorce. The death of the father is also found to greatly reduce a child's likelihood of entering school, but its effect on mortality is not significant. Conclusions: The results indicate that the family context plays an important role in determining two important aspects of children's welfare: their probabilities of dying before age 5 and of entering school. Comments: Children of divorced parents or a deceased father are living in precarious situations and their specific needs should be taken into account in policies in order to improve the wellbeing of all children. Attention must be directed to the first two years following the union dissolution.
Bila, Blandine; Kouanda, Seni; Desclaux, Alice
A qualitative study conducted in 2006 shows that many people in Burkina Faso, living with HIV and receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), have difficulties in meeting the expenses related to care. This anthropological analysis considers their perceptions, the causes and the social impact of these economic problems. This research is based on semi-structured interviews with 35 people living with HIV (PLWHIV) infection, contacted through HIV care programs in Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouahigouya. After recording, transcribing and indexing the interviews, we analysed them. Even when they did not have to pay for treatment, most of the subjects faced economic problems dealing with follow-up care and monitoring, transportation, and other expenses, and these problems occur when PLWHIV have already faced the long, complex and expensive therapeutic itinerary before the test that diagnosed HIV infection. The new diet required by the treatment is also mentioned. Moreover, work problems often due to the disease (low output at work, inability to work, job loss) have already decreased patients' income by the time they get treatment. It is not easy for them to return to the level of resources they had before their disease, even if they can find a job. This financial exhaustion frequently leads to the exclusion of PLWHIV from their former solidarity networks, mostly because they can no longer participate in collective contributions or return what they were given when they were totally dependent. The analysis of these conversations shows the relevance of the concept of "social suffering" in describing the social effects of the economic problems that face many PLWHIV on ART, even when treatment is subsidized.
Full Text Available Burkina Faso is actively pursuing the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in its development plans. Several policy and institutional mechanisms have been put in place, including the adoption of a national IWRM action plan (PAGIRE and the establishment so far of 30 local water management committees (Comités Locaux de l’Eau, or CLE. The stated purpose of the CLE is to take responsibility for managing water at sub-basin level. The two case studies discussed in this paper illustrate gaps between the policy objective of promoting IWRM on the one hand, and the realities associated with its practical on-the-ground implementation on the other. A significant adjustment that occurred in practice is the fact that the two CLE studied have been set up as entities focused on reservoir management, whereas it is envisioned that a CLE would constitute a platform for sub-basin management. This reflects a concern to minimise conflict and optimally manage the country’s primary water resource and illustrates the type of pragmatic actions that have to be taken to make IWRM a reality. It is also observed that the local water management committees have not been able to satisfactorily address questions regarding access to, and allocation of, water, which are crucial for the satisfactory functioning of the reservoirs. Water resources in the reservoirs appear to be controlled by the dominant user. In order to correct this trend, measures to build mutual trust and confidence among water users 'condemned' to work together to manage their common resource are suggested, foremost of which is the need to collect and share reliable data. Awareness of power relationships among water user groups and building on functioning, already existing formal or informal arrangements for water sharing are key determinants for successful implementation of the water reform process underway.
South-West Burkina Faso (60 000 km2) is located in the upstream parts at the junction of the water basins of the rivers Comoe, Volta and Niger. The mean precipitation value is around 1000 mm in one rainy season (monsoon) starting April and finishing October. More than 80% of precipitation occur between June and August. In our area two great lithological units are encountered: the sedimentary deposits in the West, mainly sandstones of the Upper Precambrian and the crystalline and metamorphic substratum in the East. Our main concern dealt with the sedimentary aquifers within 9 well defined geological formations on the edge of the Taoudeni basin dipping less than 10o NNW. These watersheds have an important hydric potential in surface waters as well as in groundwaters and still embrace nowadays relatively important reclamation lands. The physical context and the water reserve in the southwest present a possibility of expansion and development which has already started being exploited. Since 1970 this region has undertaken an intense activity of mobilization and use of the waters. It has been noted that the managing and exploitation of the important natural potential occurs spontaneously and/or individually without enough critical concern related to the needs and the resources. This situation has already led in some places to shortages, conflicts about the uses and risks of overexploitation of the areas and in an inadequate use of the reclamation lands. This situation implies serious problems as to the qualitative protection of the resource. This inappropriate approach is the consequence of an incomplete knowledge of the water resources. Today new demands arise as to the mobilization the use of the groundwater resources and to the qualitative protection. In order to solve these problems as quickly as possible, from 1997 to 1999 isotopic investigation have been undertaken (18O enables to identify the recharge areas. 14C and 3H define the ''age'' of the water)
Full Text Available Understanding land cover degradation patterns and the effects of geomorphological units on phytodiversity is important for guiding management decisions and restoration strategies in the Sahelian vulnerables zones. This paper describes land cover degradation by combining Landsat TM image analysis and field data measurements in the Gourouol catchment of the Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. Erdas Imagine 9.2 and Arc-GIS.10 were applied. The change patterns were obtained by superposing land cover maps for 1992 and 2010. The field data were collected by the mean of inventories according to the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological relevés methods. Plot sizes were 50 m x 20 m for woody species and 10 m x 10 m for herbaceous species. Six land cover types were identified and mapped: cultivated lands, bared lands, lowlands, which all spatially increased; and shrub-steppes, grasslands and water bodies, which all spatially decreased. The dynamic patterns based on the geomorphological units were non-degraded lowlands, stable sand dunes and degraded glacis. High plant diversity was found in lowlands, whereas low diversity occurred in glacis. A significant dissimilarity was observed between communities. The Shannon diversity indices in plant communities were approximately close to ln(species richness. The Pielou indices were close to 1, indicating a species fairly good distribution. Our results showed a variation of land cover over time and the effects of geomorphological units on phytodiversity. Furthermore, this variation helps oppose land degradation in the Sahel.
Bamba; Sanata; Ouédraogo; Abdoul; Salam; Sangaré; Ibrahim; Zida; Adama; Cissé; Mamoudou; Karou; D.Simplice; Simpore; Jacques; Guiguemdé; T.Robert; Hennequin; Christophe
Objective::To identify Candida species in asymptomatic subjects in Bobo-Dioulasso(Burkina Faso) by the matrix—assisted laser desortption ionization—time of flight mass spectrometry.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2013 in BohoDioulasso to coiled fecal and urine specimens from voluntary donors.Fungal strains were isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and analyzed using matrix—assisted laser desorption ionisation—time-of—flight mass spectrometry.Results:A total of 135 samples including stools(78.5%,106/135) and urine(21.5%,29/135) were analyzed.The results revealed that fecal specimens contained mainly Candida krusei(C.krusei)(42.5%) followed by Candida albicans(29.3%),Candida glabrata(18.0%) and Candida tropicalis(C.tropicalis)(4.7%).C.krusei(34.6%) was also found to be the most frequently identified in urine samples followed by Candida albicans(27.0%).C.tropicalis(15.4%) and Candida parapsilosis,However,uncommon species such as Candida nivariensis.Candida kefyr.Candida norvegensis,Candida parapsilosis.Candida lusitaniae and Candida robusta were also identified from fecal and urines samples.Conclusions:This study noted the emergence of species such as C.krusei,Candida glabrata,Candida parapsiolosis,C.tropicalis,Candida nivariensis,Candida norvegensis,and others.It is an imperative to take into account the existence of these species in the therapeutic management of patients in Bobo—Dioulasso.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As more point of care diagnostics become available, the need to transport and store perishable medical commodities to remote locations increases. As with other diagnostics, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs must be highly reliable at point of use, but exposure to adverse environmental conditions during distribution has the potential to degrade tests and accuracy. In remote locations, poor quality diagnostics and drugs may have significant negative health impact that is not readily detectable by routine monitoring. This study assessed temperature and humidity throughout supply chains used to transport and store health commodities, such as RDTs. Methods Monitoring devices capable of recording temperature and humidity were deployed to Burkina Faso (8, Senegal (10, Ethiopia (13 and the Philippines (6 over a 13-month period. The devices travelled through government supply chains, usually alongside RDTs, to health facilities where RDTs are stored, distributed and used. The recording period spanned just over a year, in order to avoid any biases related to seasonal temperature variations. Results In the four countries, storage and transport temperatures regularly exceeded 30.0°C; maximum humidity level recorded was above 94% for the four countries. In three of the four countries, temperatures recorded at central storage facilities exceeded pharmaceutical storage standards for over 20% of the time, in another case for a majority of the time; and sometimes exceeded storage temperatures at peripheral sites. Conclusions Malaria RDTs were regularly exposed to temperatures above recommended limits for many commercially-available RDTs and other medical commodities such as drugs, but rarely exceeded the recommended storage limits for particular products in use in these countries. The results underline the need to select RDTs, and other commodities, according to expected field conditions, actively manage the environmental conditions in
Sawadogo, Alizèta; Nagalo, Estérer; Nacro, Souleymane; Rouamba, Mathurin; Kenis, Marc
The flea beetle Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the main pest of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Burkina Faso and several other West African countries. Adults severely defoliate plants, resulting in seedling mortality, poor growth, and low yields. To study the population dynamics of the pest in the Sissili Province of Burkina Faso, 12 sites were monitored weekly during a year and 31 sites were inspected for damage at the peak period of insect abundance. The effect of cropping systems (hedge, intercropping, and monoculture) and surrounding vegetation on population densities of A. whitfieldi was assessed. Beetles were rarely found in the dry season and peaked in the second half of the rainy season. The cropping system did not significantly influence the abundance and attack level. In contrast, the close vicinity of fallow lands seems to increase damage levels. Many aspects of the biology and ecology of A. whitfieldi remain to be investigated before sustainable control methods can be developed. However, this study already allows us to propose recommendations for further research on management. PMID:26206896
Tapsoba, François; Legras, Jean-Luc; Savadogo, Aly; Dequin, Sylvie; Traore, Alfred Sababenedyo
In South-West of Burkina Faso, palm wine is produced by spontaneous fermentation of the sap from a specific palm tree Borassus akeassii and plays an important role in people's lives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main agent of this alcoholic fermentation but little is known about the diversity of the isolates from palm. In this work, 39 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated from palm wine samples collected from 14 sites in Burkina Faso, as well as 7 isolates obtained from sorghum beer (Dolo) from 3 distant sites. Their diversity was analyzed at 12 microsatellite loci, and compared to the genotypes obtained for other African yeast populations isolated from Cocoa hulks from Ghana, sorghum beer from Ivory Coast, palm wine from Djibouti Republic, and to our database of strains from miscellaneous origins (bread, beer, wine, sake, oaks…). The ploidy of these strains has been assessed as well by flow cytometry. Our results show that B. akeassii palm wine contains a specific yeast population of diploid strains, different from Dolo produced in the same area and from other palm wine strains from Ivory Coast, Nigeria, or Djibouti Republic. In contrast, Dolo strains appeared as a group of related and mainly tetraploid strains despite being isolated from different countries. PMID:26202324
Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy
A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice.
Full Text Available Artificial Insemination of 'Azawak' and 'Gourunsi' Cows in Burkina Faso. The strus synchronization and the fertility after artificial insemination of 'Azawak' (Bos indicus, n = 66 and 'Gourunsi' (Bos taurus, n = 20 cows were monitored in periurban soudano-sahelian area of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. The synchronization was performed by the application of subcutaneous progestagen implants, placed on the ear for 10 days, followed by prostaglandin F2a and PMSG injections respectively at the & h and 10th day after the insert of the implant. The rate of strus observed by the farmer was 94.2 % in the 48 hours fol-lowing the withdrawal of the implant. It varied significantly according to the groups 'Azawak' and 'Gourunsi' (100 %> and 75 %, respectively. The rates of fertility determined by rectal palpation in 'Azawak' and 'Gourunsi' females were 24.2 % and 10 %, respectively. The fertility varied according to the time of insemination : when the females were inseminated 36 to 48 hours after the withdrawal of the implants the rate of fertility was weak (0 to 12.5 % for 'Gourunsi' and 'Azawak' cows, respectively. When inseminations were perfomed 24 to 36 hours after the withdrawal of the implant, the rates of fertility were respectively 42.3 % and 50 % for 'Azawak' and Gourunsi' groups.
Storeng, Katerini T; Ouattara, Fatoumata
In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is 'life-saving care' which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a 'first step' towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion. PMID:25132157
Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy
A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice. PMID:26681703
Abdoul Karim Ouattara; Cyrille Bisseye; Birama Diarra; Tegwind Rebeca Compaore; Florencia Djigma; Virginio Pietra; Remy Moret; Jacques Simpore
Objective: To investigate 4 combinations of mutations responsible for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in a rural community of Burkina Faso, a malaria endemic country. Methods: Two hundred individuals in a rural community were genotyped for the mutations A376G, G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism assays and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The prevalence of the G6PD deficiency was 9.5% in the study population. It was significantly higher in men compared to women (14.3%vs 6.0%, P=0.049). The 202A/376G G6PD A-was the only deficient variant detected. Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic parasitaemia was significantly higher among the G6PD-non-deficient persons compared to the G6PD-deficient (P Conclusions:This study showed that the G6PD A-variant associated with protection against asymptomatic malaria in Burkina Faso is probably the most common deficient variant.
Full Text Available Use of Wild Plants Species in Three Adjoining Village Southern Burkina Faso. Wild species are very important for people in developing countries. To enrich the knowledge of useful wild species, series of ethnobotanical surveys was conducted in three adjoining villages of southern Burkina Faso. This survey has permitted to identify 147 species distributed in 117 genera and 52 families. Woody species represent 60% and grass 40%. Fifty percent of the species used belong to seven families: Poaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Combretaceae, Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Anacardiaceae. Ninety-seven species are used in medicines, 47 for crafts, 46 for cattle feeding, 40 for human nutrition and 21 to provide fire. In all plants use categories, the calculation of index values showed that there are species that are used more than others. Thus, Sarcocephalus latifolius is the species most commonly used in medicines, Parkia biglobosa in human nutrition, Afzelia africana in cattle feeding, Vitellaria paradoxa in crafts and Detarium microcarpum in wood fuel. The evaluation of the diversity of use revealed that wood species have high diversity of uses than herbaceous. V. paradoxa is the species most diversely used. The top five most used species are V. paradoxa, P. biglobosa, Khaya senegalensis, Tamarindus indica and A. africana. The results of this study provide a database to assess the availability and the evolutionary trend of species widely used in the locality.
S Traore; Y M Wang; W G Chung
The present study evaluates the predictive accuracy of the feed forward backpropagation artificial neural network (BP) in evapotranspiration forecasting from temperature data basis in Dédougou region located in western Burkina Faso, sub-Saharan Africa. BP accuracy is compared to the conventional Blaney–Criddle (BCR) and Reference Model developed for Burkina Faso (RMBF) by referring to the FAO56 Penman–Monteith (PM) as the standard method. Statistically, the models accuracies were evaluated with the goodness-of-fit measures of root mean square error, mean absolute error and coefficient of determination between their estimated and PM observed values. From the statistical results, BP shows similar contour trends to PM, and performs better than the conventional methods in reference evapotranspiration (ET_ref) forecasting in the region. In poor data situation, BP based only on temperature data is much more preferred than the other alternative methods for ET_ref forecasting. Furthermore, it is noted that the BP network computing technique accuracy improves significantly with the addition of wind velocity into the network input set. Therefore, in the region, wind velocity is recommended to be incorporated into the BP model for high accuracy management purpose of irrigation water, which relies on accurate values of ET_ref.
Bougaïré-Zangréyanogho, Marie Danielle
Danielle Bougaïré onderzocht de redenen waarom in Burkina Faso de voorlichtingscampagnes over gezinsplanning, vrouwenbesnijdenis en aidsbestrijding geen merkbare attitudeverandering teweegbrengen. Ze concludeert dat de dramatische levensomstandigheden van de bevolking (armoede, analfabetisme, margin
Ondo Zue Abaga, Norbert
Vetiver was chosen to form hedges around the cotton crops and market gardens in Burkina Faso, in order to limit pollutants dispersal towards plants, surface water and groundwater. The influence of vetiver on the fate of two heavy metals (Cu and Cd) and an insecticide (endosulfan) in the soil-water-vetiver system was studied in two representative soils of Burkina Faso, a vertisol and a lixisol. Batch adsorption coefficient measurements, pot and leaching experiments, under phytotronic and outdo...
Coulibaly, K.; Vall, E.; Autfray, P. (ed.); Sedogo, PM.
Technical and Economic Performance of Maize/Cowpea and Maize/Mucuna Associations in the Real Situation of Cultivation in Burkina Faso: Potentials and Constraints. Western Burkina Faso, population pressure has led to the abandonment of fallow. Continuous cropping of cotton and maize are recognized to severely reduce soil fertility. In order to increase the productivity of cropping systems and contribute to the recovery of soil fertility, farmers of Tuy involved in the "Fertipartenaires" projec...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of young children affected by malaria have no access to formal health services. Home treatment through mothers of febrile children supported by mother groups and local health workers has the potential to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial was implemented from 2002–2004 in a malaria endemic area of rural Burkina Faso. Six and seven villages were randomly assigned to the intervention and control arms respectively. Febrile children from intervention villages were treated with chloroquine (CQ by their mothers, supported by local women group leaders. CQ was regularly supplied through a revolving fund from local health centres. The trial was evaluated through two cross-sectional surveys at baseline and after two years of intervention. The primary endpoint of the study was the proportion of moderate to severe anaemia in children aged 6–59 months. For assessment of the development of drug efficacy over time, an in vivo CQ efficacy study was nested into the trial. The study is registered under http://www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN 34104704. Results The intervention was shown to be feasible under program conditions and a total of 1.076 children and 999 children were evaluated at baseline and follow-up time points respectively. Self-reported CQ treatment of fever episodes at home as well as referrals to health centres increased over the study period. At follow-up, CQ was detected in the blood of high proportions of intervention and control children. Compared to baseline findings, the prevalence of anaemia (29% vs 16%, p P. falciparum parasitaemia, fever and palpable spleens was lower at follow-up but there were no differences between the intervention and control group. CQ efficacy decreased over the study period but this was not associated with the intervention. Discussion The decreasing prevalence of malaria
Waongo, M.; Koalaga, Z.; Zougmore, F.
In many developing countries a long time series of solar radiation measurements are not often available. This is due to the cost, maintenance and calibration requirements of measuring devices. Consequently, the use of solar energy by Photovoltaic (PV) conversion copes with the choice and the optimization of the PV system. This work concerned the analysis of climate parameters strongly influencing the Photovoltaic (PV) systems energy production and the simulation of an ideal system based on a single PV module. Estimation and analysis of time series of climate parameters covered a set of six weather stations with respect to the three climatic zones in Burkina Faso (BF), over 38 years. The analysis showed that the solar irradiation in BF lies between 3 kWh/m2/day and 7.5 kWh/m2/day. The highest values of the solar irradiation are measured in the Northern part of the country while lowest values are measured in the Southern part. Daily mean temperature for all weather stations was greater than the Standard Test Condition (STC) temperature (25°C) over a long period of the year. Information on solar irradiation and temperature is fundamental for PV systems sizing process. For PV performance evaluation, a simulation is carried out using an ideal system composed of a single PV module from TENESOL Company. This simulation is performed for three classes of climatic conditions "Mean situation", "Adverse situation", and "Beneficial situation", and evaluated for six sitesacross BF. The results revealed intra-annual and spatial variability of Maximum Power (MP). Across BF, MP varied between 60 W/day and 190 W/day in Sahelian zone, between 65 W/day and 185 W/day in soudano-sahelian zone, and between 67 W/day and 208 W/day in Soudanian zone. MP intra-annual variability is higher during the period July-August, mainly for "Beneficial situation". The negative effect of temperature on PV energy production is specially amplified in Sahelian zone due to its highest temperatures. This
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended a universal antiretroviral therapy (ART for all HIV-infected children before the age of two since 2010, but this implies an early identification of these infants. We described the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission (PMTCT cascade, the staffing and the quality of infrastructures in pediatric HIV care facilities, in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2011 in all health care facilities involved in PMTCT and pediatric HIV care in Ouagadougou. We assessed them according to their coverage in pediatric HIV care and WHO standards, through a desk review of medical registers and a semi-structured questionnaire administered to health-care workers (HCW. RESULTS: In 2011, there was no offer of care in primary health care facilities for HIV-infected children in Ouagadougou. Six district hospitals and two university hospitals provided pediatric HIV care. Among the 67 592 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 2011, 85.9% were tested for HIV. The prevalence of HIV was 1.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 1.7%-1.9%. Among the 1 064 HIV-infected pregnant women attending antenatal clinics, 41.4% received a mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention intervention. Among the HIV-exposed infants, 313 (29.4% had an early infant HIV test, and 306 (97.8% of these infants tested received their result within a four-month period. Among the 40 children initially tested HIV-infected, 33 (82.5% were referred to a health care facility, 3 (9.0% were false positive, and 27 (90.0% were initiated on ART. Although health care facilities were adequately supplied with HIV drugs, they were hindered by operational challenges such as shortage of infrastructures, laboratory reagents, and trained HCW. CONCLUSIONS: The PMTCT cascade revealed bottle necks in PMTCT intervention and HIV early infant diagnosis. The staffing in HIV care and quality of health care infrastructures
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malariometric parameters are often primary endpoints of efficacy trials of malaria vaccine candidates. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of malaria prior to the conduct of a series of drug and vaccine trials in a rural area of Burkina Faso. METHODS: Malaria incidence was prospectively evaluated over one year follow-up among two cohorts of children aged 0-5 years living in the Saponé health district. The parents of 1089 children comprising a passive case detection cohort were encouraged to seek care from the local health clinic at any time their child felt sick. Among this cohort, 555 children were randomly selected for inclusion in an active surveillance sub-cohort evaluated for clinical malaria during twice weekly home visits. Malaria prevalence was evaluated by cross-sectional survey during the low and high transmission seasons. RESULTS: Number of episodes per child ranged from 0 to 6 per year. Cumulative incidence was 67.4% in the passive and 86.2% in the active cohort and was highest among children 0-1 years. Clinical malaria prevalence was 9.8% in the low and 13.0% in the high season (p>0.05. Median days to first malaria episode ranged from 187 (95% CI 180-193 among children 0-1 years to 228 (95% CI 212, 242 among children 4-5 years. The alternative parasite thresholds for the malaria case definition that achieved optimal sensitivity and specificity (70-80% were 3150 parasites/µl in the high and 1350 parasites/µl in the low season. CONCLUSION: Clinical malaria burden was highest among the youngest age group children, who may represent the most appropriate target population for malaria vaccine candidate development. The pyrogenic threshold of parasitaemia varied markedly by season, suggesting a value for alternative parasitaemia levels in the malaria case defintion. Regional epidemiology of malaria described, Sapone area field centers are positioned for future conduct of malaria vaccine trials.
Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV constitutes the second most common viral pathogen causing pediatric diarrhea after rotavirus. In Africa, diarrhea is a major health problem in children, and yet few studies have been performed regarding NoV. The association of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA and susceptibility to NoV infection is well established in Caucasian populations with non-secretors being resistant to many common NoV strains. No study regarding HBGA and NoV susceptibility has yet been performed in Africa. We collected 309 stool and 208 saliva samples from diarrheal children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; May 2009 to March 2010. NoV was detected using real-time PCR, and genotyped by sequencing. Saliva samples were ABO, Lewis and secretor phenotyped using in house ELISA assays. NoV was detected in 12% (n = 37 of the samples. The genotype diversity was unusually large; overall the 37 positive samples belonged to 14 genotypes. Only children <2 years of age were NoV positive and the GII.4 NoVs were more frequent in the late dry season (Jan-May. NoV infections were observed less in children with the secretor-negative phenotype or blood group A (OR 0.18; p = 0.012 and OR 0.31; p = 0.054; respectively, with two non-secretors infected with genotypes GII.7 and GII.4 respectively. Lewis-negative (Le(a-b- children, representing 32% of the study population, were susceptible to GII, but were not infected with any NoV GI. GII.4 strains preferentially infected children with blood group B whereas secretor-positive children with blood group O were infected with the largest variety of genotypes. This is the first study identifying host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to NoV in an African population, and suggests that while the non-secretor phenotype provides protection; the Lewis b antigen is not necessary for GII infection.
Kabore Bontogho, P. E.; Boubacar, I.; Afouda, A.; Joerg, H.
Assessing landscape and population's dynamics at watershed level contribute to address anthropogenic aspect of climate change issue owing to the close link between LULC and climate changes. The objective of this study is to explore the dependencies of population to land management changes in Massili basin (2612 km²) located in central Burkina Faso. A set of three satellite scenes was acquired for the years 1990 (Landsat 7 ETM), 2002 (Landsat 7 ETM+) and 2013 (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS) from the Global Land Cover Facility's (GLCF) website. Census data were provided by the National institute of statistics and demographic (INSD). The satellites images were classified using object-oriented classification method which was supported by historic maps and field data. Those were collected in order to allow for class definition, verification and accuracy assessments. Based on the developed land use maps, change analysis was carried out using post classification comparison in GIS. Finally, derived land use changes were compared with census data in order to explore links between population dynamics and the land use changes. It was found in 1990 that Massili watershed LULC was dominated by Tree/shrub savannah (69%, 1802.28 km2 ), Farm/Fallow was representing 22%, Gallery forest (4%), Settlement (3%), Barre soil (1%), Water bodies (1%). In 2002, the major landscape was Farm (54%). Tree/Shrub savannas were reduced to 36% while the Gallery Forest was decreased to1% of the basin area. The situation has also slightly changed in 2013 with an increase of the area devoted to farm/fallow and settlement at a rate of 3% and Gallery forest has increased to 4%. The changes in land use are in agreement with a notable increase in population. The analysis of census data showed that the number of inhabitants increased from 338 inhabitants per km2 in 1990 to 1150 inhabitants per km2 in 2013. As shown by statistical analysis (Kendall correlation tau=0.9), there is a close relation between both dynamics.
Kabore, Seraphine Sawadogo
L'objectif principal de cette recherche est la mise au point d'une architecture d'integration de donnees socio-bio-geographiques et de donnees satellitales dans un Systeme d'Information Geographique (SIG) en vue d'une aide a la prise de decisions dans un environnement semi-aride au nord du Burkina Faso. Elle repond a la question fondamentale de l'interpretation des effets des facteurs climatiques et socioeconomiques sur le milieu pastoral. La recherche s'est appuyee sur plusieurs hypotheses de travail: possibilite d'utilisation de modele de simulation, d'approche multicritere et de donnees de teledetection dans un cadre de systeme d'information geographique. L'evolution spatiotemporelle des parametres de productivite du milieu a ete evaluee par approche dynamique selon le modele de Wu et al. (1996) qui modelise les interactions entre le climat, le milieu physique, le vegetal et l'animal pour mieux quantifier la biomasse primaire. A ce modele, quatre parametres ont ete integres par approche floue et multicritere afin de prendre en compte la dimension socioeconomique de la productivite pastorale (apport majeur de la recherche): la sante, l'education, l'agriculture et l'eau. La teledetection (imagerie SPOT) a permis de definir la production primaire a partir de laquelle les simulations ont ete realisees sur 10 annees. Les resultats obtenus montrent une bonne correlation entre biomasse primaire in situ et celle calculee pour les deux modeles, avec toutefois une meilleure efficacite du modele modifie (4 fois plus) dans les zones de forte productivite ou l'on note un taux de surexploitation agricole eleve. A cause de la variabilite spatiale de la production primaire in situ, les erreurs des resultats de simulation (8 a 11%) sont acceptables et montrent la pertinence de l'approche grace a l'utilisation des SIG pour la spatialisation et l'integration des differents parametres des modeles. Les types de production secondaire preconises (production de lait pendant 7 mois ou
Toonen, Hilde M.
Most households in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on wood as primary energy source. The availability of wood is decreasing and deforestation is a major ecological problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The scarcity of wood is demanding for a sustainable solution. The sun seems to provide a good alternative. Solar energy is free, without unhealthy smoke or chances to burns. The idea of using solar energy for cooking is not new: many different techniques have already been tested. Most variants are expensive, and therefore not available for most families in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cheap solar cooking device is the CooKit, a cardboard panel cooker covered with aluminium foil. In the adaptation to the CooKit, as to all innovations, it is important that the users are convinced of the advantages. An important step in the adaptation process is learning how to use the cooking device; the best way to do this is by home practice. Monitoring and evaluating the real use is needed, for it is interesting to know if the CooKit is actually used, and also to find out how women have implemented the new technique in their kitchens. In 2005, the SUPO foundation started a project in Burkina Faso: Programme Energie Solaire Grand-Ouaga (PESGO). The aim of PESGO is to introduce the CooKit in the urban households in Ouagadougou by providing training sessions and home assistance. In this paper, a mid-term review on this small-scale cooking project is presented. The possibilities and challenges of solar cooking are outlined, taking the urban context of Ouagadougou in account. In PESGO, dependence on weather conditions is found to be one of the challenges: if sunrays are blocked by clouds or dust in the air, the cooking will be slowed down. The CooKit cannot replace firewood entirely, and a complementary element has to be found. SUPO is exploring the use of Jatropha oil as a complement to the CooKit. The Jatropha plant is drought tolerant and its fruits contain oil which can be used as fuel substitute. Further
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite low endemicity, malaria remains a major health problem in urban areas where a high proportion of fevers are presumptively treated using anti-malarial drugs. Low acquired malaria immunity, behaviour of city-dwellers, access to health care and preventive interventions, and heterogenic suitability of urban ecosystems for malaria transmission contribute to the complexity of the malaria epidemiology in urban areas. Methods The study was designed to identify the determinants of malaria transmission estimated by the prevalence of anti-circumsporozoite (CSP antibodies, the prevalence and density of Plasmodium falciparum infection, and the prevalence of malarial disease in areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina-Faso. Thick blood smears, dried blood spots and clinical status have been collected from 3,354 randomly chosen children aged 6 months to 12 years using two cross-sectional surveys (during the dry and rainy seasons in eight areas from four ecological strata defined according to building density and land tenure (regular versus irregular. Demographic characteristics, socio-economic information, and sanitary and environmental data concerning the children or their households were simultaneously collected. Dependent variables were analysed using mixed multivariable models with random effects, taking into account the clustering of participants within compounds and areas. Results Overall prevalences of CSP-antibodies and P. falciparum infections were 7.7% and 16.6% during the dry season, and 12.4% and 26.1% during the rainy season, respectively, with significant differences according to ecological strata. Malaria risk was significantly higher among children who i lived in households with lower economic or education levels, iii near the hydrographic network, iv in sparsely built-up areas, v in irregularly built areas, vi who did not use a bed net, vii were sampled during the rainy season or ii had traveled outside of Ouagadougou
Full Text Available Abstract Background This methodological article is based on a health policy research project conducted in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Concept mapping (CM was used as a research method to understand the local views of equity among stakeholders, who were concerned by the health policy under consideration. While this technique has been used in North America and elsewhere, to our knowledge it has not yet been applied in Africa in any vernacular language. Its application raises many issues and certain methodological limitations. Our objective in this article is to present its use in this particular context, and to share a number of methodological observations on the subject. Methods Two CMs were done among two different groups of local stakeholders following four steps: generating ideas, structuring the ideas, computing maps using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis methods, and interpreting maps. Fifteen nurses were invited to take part in the study, all of whom had undergone training on health policies. Of these, nine nurses (60% ultimately attended the two-day meeting, conducted in French. Of 45 members of village health committees who attended training on health policies, only eight were literate in the local language (Moore. Seven of these (88% came to the meeting. Results The local perception of equity seems close to the egalitarian model. The actors are not ready to compromise social stability and peace for the benefit of the worst-off. The discussion on the methodological limitations of CM raises the limitations of asking a single question in Moore and the challenge of translating a concept as complex as equity. While the translation of equity into Moore undoubtedly oriented the discussions toward social relations, we believe that, in the context of this study, the open-ended question concerning social justice has a threefold relevance. At the same time, those limitations were transformed into strengths. We understand that it was
In many developing countries a long time series of solar radiation measurements are not often available. This is due to the cost, maintenance and calibration requirements of measuring devices. Consequently, the use of solar energy by Photovoltaic (PV) conversion copes with the choice and the optimization of the PV system. This work concerned the analysis of climate parameters strongly influencing the Photovoltaic (PV) systems energy production and the simulation of an ideal system based on a single PV module. Estimation and analysis of time series of climate parameters covered a set of six weather stations with respect to the three climatic zones in Burkina Faso (BF), over 38 years. The analysis showed that the solar irradiation in BF lies between 3 kWh/m2/day and 7.5 kWh/m2/day. The highest values of the solar irradiation are measured in the Northern part of the country while lowest values are measured in the Southern part. Daily mean temperature for all weather stations was greater than the Standard Test Condition (STC) temperature (25°C) over a long period of the year. Information on solar irradiation and temperature is fundamental for PV systems sizing process. For PV performance evaluation, a simulation is carried out using an ideal system composed of a single PV module from TENESOL Company. This simulation is performed for three classes of climatic conditions 'Mean situation', 'Adverse situation', and 'Beneficial situation', and evaluated for six sitesacross BF. The results revealed intra-annual and spatial variability of Maximum Power (MP). Across BF, MP varied between 60 W/day and 190 W/day in Sahelian zone, between 65 W/day and 185 W/day in soudano-sahelian zone, and between 67 W/day and 208 W/day in Soudanian zone. MP intra-annual variability is higher during the period July-August, mainly for 'Beneficial situation'. The negative effect of temperature on PV energy production is specially amplified in Sahelian zone due to its highest temperatures. This
Shearer, Jessica C
Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a
Full Text Available Background: National surveys in low-income countries increasingly rely on self-reported measures of health. The ease, speed, and economy of collecting self-reports of health make such collection attractive for rapid appraisals. However, the interpretation of these measures is complicated since different cultures understand and respond to the same question in different ways. Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to develop a culturally sensitive tool to study the self-reported health (SRH of the local adult population in Burkina Faso. Design: The study was carried out in the 2009 rainy season. The sample included 27 men and 25 women aged 18 or older who live in semi-urban Nouna, Burkina Faso. Three culturally adapted instruments were tested: a SRH question, a wooden visual analogue scale (VAS, and a drawn VAS. Respondents were asked to explain their answers to each instrument. The narratives were analyzed with the content analysis technique, and the prevalence of poor SRH was estimated from the quantitative data by stratification for respondent background variables (sex, age, literacy, education, marital status, ethnicity, chronic diseases. The correlation between the instruments was tested with Spearman's correlation test. Results: The SRH question showed a 38.5% prevalence of poor SRH and 44.2% prevalence with both VAS. The correlation between the VAS was 0.89, whereas the correlation between the VAS and the SRH question was 0.60–0.64. Nevertheless, the question used as the basis of each instrument was culturally sensitive and clear to all respondents. Analysis of the narratives shows that respondents clearly differentiated between the various health statuses. Conclusion: In this pilot, we developed and tested a new version of the SRH question that may be more culturally sensitive than its non-adapted equivalents. Additional insight into this population's understanding and reporting of health was also obtained. A larger sample is needed
Assan Gnoumou; Fidèle Bognounou; Karen Hahn; Adjima Thiombiano
Shifting agriculture,fire,and over exploitation of wood and copal resin are the major causes of Guibourtia copallifera Benn.vulnerability in the south-west of Burkina Faso.Conservation of endangered species requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of small populations.In the present study,we investigated the diversity and the dynamics of G.copallifera communities in two different types of land use history,a protected area (stated forest of Comoé-Leraba) and an unprotected area (the woodlands of Tourni and Timba).A total of 17 rectangular plots (50 m × 20 m) were sampled in both protected and unprotected areas.All woody species were systematically identified,measured and classified into diameter and height classes.In the two different types of land use,the dynamics of G.copallifera's communities were good,and the diversities were similar and low with high β diversity.
Zongo, D; Kabre, B G; Dayeri, D; Savadogo, B; Poda, J N
Despite great progress in schistosomiasis control over the past decade in Burkina Faso, this disease remains a public health problem. This study analyzes parasitologic data from investigations of Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni, and mollusks. The prevalence rate of S. haematobium varies from 3.3% to 50.4%; that for S. mansoni (tested only in the western part of the country) from 3.3% to 39.1%. Prevalence rates are higher in school-aged boys than girls, but the reverse is true among adults. Studies of mussels showed the presence of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus senegalensis and Bulinus globosus in these areas. Our results indicate that behavioral factors as well as the dynamics and the distribution of the intermediate mollusks play a major role in the persistence of the disease.
Belem, Bassirou; Nacoulma, Blandine Marie Ivette; Gbangou, Roland;
In the French-speaking countries of Africa, strategies of conservation, inherited from thecolonial time, exclude the bordering people in the management of the national parks plant resources. Today, policies and legislation try to reconcile forest conservation and development by associating local...... this issue in the case of the "Parc National Kaboré Tambi" in Burkina Faso, byproposing a combination of ethno-botanical surveys and botanical inventories. The article analyses the importance of the park plant species, identify the constraints faced by local people to harvest the park plant products, analyse...... the park vegetation structure and assess the degree of regeneration of the main useful species. The surveys reveal that bordering people consider the park as their granary, their pharmacy, their pasture, their place of religious worship, and the source of the strength of their territory. They harvest...
Full Text Available Employment is widely perceived as being amongst the most important channels for translating growth into poverty reduction. This paper focuses on two countries, Burkina Faso and Vietnam, with very distinct patterns of growth and poverty reduction between 1993-2003. We use household survey data to examine how employment transmitted growth to the poor in these two countries and find that there are two important factors that maximize the effectiveness of this transmission channel: (1 an increase in labor productivity that is (a broad based and (b concentrated in sectors where the poor are disproportionately employed or to which they have access, and (2 strong (domestic and foreign demand for the goods and services produced by the poor, and access to these markets.
Full Text Available This study estimates the impact on Burkina Faso of eliminating tariffs on imports from the EU under EPAs, considering trade, revenue and welfare effects. At complete elimination of tariffs on all products imports from trade classification sections (TDC 01-13 from the EU. Burkina Faso is likely to experience both welfare gains and losses depending on the values of imports of each trade classification section in question. The overall welfare effect relative to GDP tends to be very small and positive, but potential tariff revenue losses are enormous even when the country has up to fifteen - twenty-five years in which to implement the tariff reductions, unless with scope for tax substitution. EPAs effects are concentrated on those product sections where trade creation outweighs trade diversion such as Animal products, Vegetable products, Animal/Veg. products, Mineral products, and Textiles products. Besides, product sections with the greatest market opportunities for EU suppliers to displace any of the other suppliers, ECOWAS and/or ROW include sections where trade diversion outweighs trade creation effects, such as prepared foodstuffs, product of chemicals, plastics, raw hides & skin, etc. The sensitive products (SPs to be excluded from tariff removal should include sections in which ECOWAS member nations are suppliers to regional importers so that excluding them as SPs would improve the welfare gain compared to estimates where tariff are removed from those products in which ECOWAS have zero potential. The results at this level of aggregation will provide useful information to the on-going negotiations between ECOWAS and the EU in determining Burkinabe's products to be exempted from tariff removal during EPAs based on the severity of the effects on varied trade classification (TDC sections, among other considerations.
Full Text Available Abstract Until 2010, Burkina Faso was an exception to the international trend of abolishing user fees for antiretroviral treatment (ART. Patients were still expected to pay 1,500F CFA (2 Euros per month for ART. Nevertheless, many non-governmental organizations (NGOs exempted patients from payment. The objective of this study was to investigate how NGOs selected the beneficiaries of payment exemptions for government-provided ART and rationed out complementary medical and psychosocial services. For this qualitative study, we conducted 13 individual interviews and three focus group discussions (n = 13 persons with program staff in nine NGOs (4,000 patients, two NGO coordinating structures and one national program. These encounters were recorded and transcribed, and their content was thematically analyzed. The results were presented to the NGOs for feedback. Results indicate that there are no concrete guidelines for identifying patients warranting payment exemptions. Formerly, ART was scarce in Burkina Faso and the primary criterion for treatment selection was clinical. Our results suggest that this scarcity, mediated by an approach we call sociotherapeutic rationality (i.e. maximization of clinical success, may have led to inequities in the provision of free ART. This approach may be detrimental to assuring equity since the most impoverished lack resources to pay for services that maximize clinical success (e.g. viral load that would increase their chances of being selected for treatment. However, once selected into treatment, attempts were made to ration-out complementary services more equitably. This study demonstrates the risks entailed by medication scarcity, which presents NGOs and health professionals with impossible choices that run counter to the philosophy of equity in access to treatment. Amid growing concerns of an international funding retreat for ART, it is important to learn from the past in order to better manage the potentially
Van de Perre Philippe
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492 among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273 among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2% experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the reproductive health of women who survive obstetric complications in poor countries. Our aim was to determine how severe obstetric complications in Burkina Faso affect reproductive events in the first year postpartum. Methods Data were collected from a prospective cohort of women who either experienced life threatening (near-miss pregnancy-related complications or an uncomplicated childbirth, followed from the end of pregnancy to one year postpartum or post-abortum. Documented outcomes include menses resumption, sexual activity resumption, dyspareunia, uptake of contraceptives, unmet needs for contraception and women's reproductive intentions. Participants were recruited in seven hospitals between December 2004 and March 2005 in six towns in Burkina Faso. Results Reproductive events were associated with pregnancy outcome. The frequency of contraceptive use was low in all groups and the method used varied according to the presence or not of a live baby. The proportion with unmet need for contraception was high and varied according to the time since end of pregnancy. Desire for another pregnancy was highest among near-miss women with perinatal death or natural abortion. Women in the near-miss group with induced abortion, perinatal death and natural abortion had significantly higher odds of subsequent pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies were observed mainly in women in the near-miss group with live birth and the uncomplicated delivery group. Conclusions Considering the potential deleterious impact (on health and socio-economic life of new pregnancies in near-miss women, it is important to ensure family planning coverage includes those who survive a severe complication.
Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality
Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients' rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers' fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some
Full Text Available Diversification and inter-species integration in rural livestock system in Burkina Faso. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of existing relation between several animal species bred in extensive livestock systems. Data were collected about breeding importance of cattle, sheep, goat and fowl in four villages of the central region of Burkina Faso (Namanegma, Villy-Moukouan, Luili-Nobere and Yambasse. These villages are located in the Soudano-Sahelian agroclimatic zone. Partial correlation and bivariate ordinary least square methods are computed. The results show that livestock practices are related to diversification and species integration strategies of rural households. That is, many households (16.64/ breed four species together, while 6.14/ of households possess one species. Three and two species breeders account for 14.95 and 14.36/ of households respectively. Poultry represents a driving activity in extensive livestock system. From a social welfare standpoint, fowl activity accounts for 49.42/ of households employment. Cattle breeding is the highest stage in this system and represents a kind ofsocioeconomic prestige for the breeder. The four types of livestock are correlated at different levels. Thus, high correlation degrees are noted between poultry and goat (p > 0.50. On the other hand, there is a weak relation between the remote livestock levels (e.g. poultry and cattle, p < 0.50. These results suggest that incentive policies for livestock must take into account breeders strategies. To promote poultry production can create track down effect on the entire livestock system.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Predation of aquatic immature stages has been identified as a major evolutionary force driving habitat segregation and niche partitioning in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto in the humid savannahs of Burkina Faso, West Africa. Here, we explored behavioural responses to the presence of a predator in wild populations of the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae that typically breed in permanent (e.g., rice field paddies and temporary (e.g., road ruts water collections. Methods Larvae used in these experiments were obtained from eggs laid by wild female An. gambiae collected from two localities in south-western Burkina Faso during the 2008 rainy season. Single larvae were observed in an experimental arena, and behavioural traits were recorded and quantified a in the absence of a predator and b in the presence of a widespread mosquito predator, the backswimmer Anisops jaczewskii. Differences in the proportion of time allocated to each behaviour were assessed using Principal Component Analysis and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results The behaviour of M and S form larvae was found to differ significantly; although both forms mainly foraged at the water surface, spending 60-90% of their time filtering water at the surface or along the wall of the container, M form larvae spent on average significantly more time browsing at the bottom of the container than S form larvae (4.5 vs. 1.3% of their overall time, respectively; P P P P Conclusions Behavioural differences between larvae of the M and S form of An. gambiae in response to an acute predation risk is likely to be a reflection of different trade-offs between foraging and predator vigilance that might be of adaptive value in contrasting aquatic ecosystems. Future studies should explore the relevance of these findings under the wide range of natural settings where both forms co-exist in Africa.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality rates (IMR remain high in many sub-Saharan African countries, especially in rural settings where access to health services may be limited. Studies in such communities can provide relevant data on the burden of and risk factors for infant death. We measured IMR and explored risk factors for infant death in a cohort of children born in Banfora Health District, a rural area in South-West Burkina Faso. Methods A prospective community-based cohort study was nested within the PROMISE-EBF trial (NCT00397150 in 24 villages of the study area. Maternal and infant baseline characteristics were collected at recruitment and after birth, respectively. Home visits were conducted at weeks 3, 6, 12, 24 and 52 after birth. Descriptive statistics were calculated using robust standard errors to account for cluster sampling. Cox multivariable regression was used to investigate potential risk factors for infant death. Results Among the 866 live born children included in the study there were 98 infant deaths, yielding an IMR of 113 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 89–143. Over 75% of infant deaths had occurred by 6 months of age and the post neonatal infant mortality rate was 67 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 51–88. Infections (35% and preterm births complications (23% were the most common probable causes of death by 6 months. Multivariable analyses identified maternal history of child death, polygyny, twin births and poor anthropometric z-scores at week-3 as factors associated with increased risk of infant death. Conclusions We observed a very high IMR in a rural area of Burkina Faso, a country where 75% of the population lives in rural settings. Community-based health interventions targeting mothers and children at high risk are urgently needed to reduce the high burden of infant deaths in these areas.
Full Text Available The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages (< 5 months, 5-12 months and > 12 months were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91 % were infected by one or more para sites. Ascaris suum (40 %; 100-1 400 EPG was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21 %; 100-4 200 EPG, Oesophagostomum spp. (18 %; 100-1 000 EPG, Hyostrongylus rubidus (11 %; 100-1 800 EPG, Globocephalus spp. 10 %; 100-400 EPG and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG. The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239 than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05 more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR. This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and approaches to better detect and respond to the region's priority communicable disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incremental costs of establishing and subsequently operating activities for detection and response to the priority diseases under the IDSR. Methods We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Results Over the period studied (2002–2005, the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines, service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR.
Zongo, Dramane; Kabre, B Gustave; Dayeri, Dianou; Savadogo, Boubacar; Poda, Jean-Noël
In spite of great progress in schistosomiasis control during the last decade in Burkina Faso, this disease remains a public health concern in the country. Indeed, our study consisted of the analysis of parasitological data related to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni and in malacological investigations. The prevalence rate of Schistosoma haematobium varies from 3.3% to 50.4% and from 3.3% to 39.1% for Schistosoma mansoni, but only in the western part of Burkina Faso. Schoolboys are more infested than girls, but the phenomenon is reversed in adults. Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus senegalensis and Bulinus globosus were collected during this study. Thus, the behavioral factors as well as the dynamics and the distribution of the intermediate mollusks play a major role in the persistence of the disease.
SUMMARY Although West Africa shows remarkably low prevalence, AIDS remains a burning issue for the population of Ouagadougou. The capital of Burkina Faso has the highest rates in the country with an HIV prevalence in 2010 of 2.1% among adults aged 15-49, compared to 1% at the national level (UNAIDS 2012:19). Indeed, AIDS is a disease that many people associate with socially unacceptable and condemnable sexual behavior. This study aims to better understand and contextualize the dynamics ...
Murray, SF; Akoum, MS; Storeng, KT
Accumulating evidence indicates that health crises can play a key role in precipitating or exacerbating poverty. For women of reproductive age in low-income countries, the complications of pregnancy are a common cause of acute health crisis, yet investigation of longer-term dynamics set in motion by such events, and their interactions with other aspects of social life, is rare. This article presents findings from longitudinal qualitative research conducted in Burkina Faso over 2004-2010. Guid...
Javier Perez-Saez; Lorenzo Mari; Enrico Bertuzzo; Renato Casagrandi; Sokolow, Susanne H.; De Leo, Giulio A; Theophile Mande; Natalie Ceperley; Jean-Marc Froehlich; Mariam Sou; Harouna Karambiri; Hamma Yacouba; Amadou Maiga; Marino Gatto; Andrea Rinaldo(Dip Ing. Idraulica, Padova)
We study the geography of schistosomiasis across Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of water-based disease dynamics. The model quantitatively addresses the geographic stratification of disease burden in a novel framework by explicitly accounting for drivers and controls of the disease, including spatial information on the distributions of population and infrastructure, jointly with a general description of human mobility and climatic/ecological drivers. Spatial patterns of di...
Ridde, Valéry; Rossier, Clementine; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bazié, Fiacre; Kadio, Kadidiatou
Background In most African countries, indigents treated at public health centres are supposed to be exempted from user fees. In Africa, most of the available knowledge has to do with targeting processes in rural areas, and little is known about how to select the worst-off in an urban area. In rural communities of Burkina Faso, trials of participatory community-based selection of indigents have been effective. However, the process for selecting indigents in urban areas is not yet clear. Method...
Kadio Kadidiatou; Kafando Yamba; Yaogo Maurice; Ridde Valéry; Ouedraogo Moctar; Sanfo Marou; Coulibaly Norbert; Bicaba Abel; Haddad Slim
Abstract Background Systems to exempt the indigent from user fees have been put in place to prevent the worst-off from being excluded from health care services for lack of funds. Yet the implementation of these mechanisms is as rare as the operational research on this topic. This article analyzes an action research project aimed at finding an appropriate solution to make health care accessible to the indigent in a rural district of Burkina Faso. Research This action research project was initi...
Toxic algal blooms are an issue affecting water quality and can cause harmful health impacts. The aim of the conducted case study is to assess such blooms by chlorophyll a and phycocyanin detection as indicators of the occurrence. Using demonstrated single reflectance ratio algorithms published as in  and processed with provided tools for hyperspectral Proba1-CHRIS imagery in a study site including Loumbila reservoir near Ouagadougou, capital of Burkina Faso to investigate potentials of this approach.
Andreoli, Arianna; Giorgetti, Pier Francesco; Pietra, Virginio; Melzani, Alessia; Seni, Wetien; Castelli, Francesco; Simpore, Jaques
We evaluated the performance of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT; Malaria Quick Test®; Cypress Diagnostic) compared with the standard thick-smear microscopy method using blood samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and individuals of unknown HIV status collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Our results show that 42.1% of 114 HIV-infected patients were concordantly RDT- and thick smear-positive, and 55.3% were concordantly negative. Sensitivity and specificit...
The consequences of habitat change for human well-being are assumed to be especially extreme in Burkina Faso. The country is located in a highly drought-sensitive zone of West Africa, and small‐scale subsistence farmers may be especially affected if losses of biodiversity lead to changes in ecosystem functioning; many depend on more or less degraded lands for agricultural production. The overall aim of the present thesis consequently was to characterize the functional traits of soil-organ...
Ezezika Obidimma C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural biotechnology public-private partnerships (PPPs have been recognized as having great potential in improving agricultural productivity and increasing food production in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is much public skepticism about the use of GM (genetically modified crops and suspicion about private sector involvement in agbiotech projects. This case study sought to understand the role of trust in the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton in Burkina Faso project by exploring practices and challenges associated with trust-building, and determining what makes these practices effective from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ understanding of trust in general as well as in the context of agbiotech PPPs. Relevant documents and articles were analyzed to generate descriptions of how trust was operationalized in this evolving agbiotech PPP. Data was analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We derived four key lessons from our findings. First, strong collaboration between research, industry and farmers greatly contributes to both the success of, and fostering of trust in, the partnership. Second, this case study also revealed the important, though often unrecognized, role of researchers as players in the communication strategy of the project. Third, effective and comprehensive communication takes into account issues such as illiteracy and diversity. Fourth, follow-up at the field level and the need for a multifaceted communications strategy is important for helping push the project forward. Conclusions Burkina Faso’s well-established and effective cotton selling system laid the foundation for the implementation of the Bt cotton project – particularly, the strong dialogue and the receptivity to collaboration
Full Text Available The NGO Terre Verte pursues the realisation of bocage perimeters (wégoubri in the mooré language in Burkina Faso. They are an innovative concept of rural development that has been established in the 1990s in the experimental farm of Guiè and is now adopted in other experimental farms in Burkina Faso. The deterioration of the rural landscape in the Sahel region has worsened in the last decades, endangering local populations. The creation of bocage perimeters in this rural landscape is a way to remediate problems linked to overly extensive agriculture. Through a holistic approach to the problem, the experimental farm of Guiè has been able to integrate environmental preservation into the Sahel agriculture thanks to three axes of intervention: applied research, education and direct help to the peasants. An experimental farm relies on ﬁve technical teams, each supervised by a coordinator.The concept is based on the creation of bocage perimeters in a mixed propriety regime, comprising individually owned plots and common grounds, managed by an association of beneﬁciaries. The result is a restored environment, in which agriculture is no longer tantamount to erosion and livestock farming to overgrazing, where trees and bushes are harmoniously integrated into the environment.The increase in agricultural yields observed after a few years of soil restoration leads to the conclusion that those projects will be economically viable. A system of credits for farmers could allow the implementation of such a system, which represents the only solution for the millions of hectares of degraded soil in the Sahel region.L’ONG Terre Verte réalise au Burkina Faso des périmètres bocagers (wégoubri en langue mooré. Il s’agit d’un concept novateur de développement rural mis au point dans la ferme pilote de Guiè dans les années 1990, adopté depuis par d’autres fermes pilotes du pays. La dégradation du paysage rural du Sahel s’est aggravée au
Yamamoto, S S; Louis, V R; Sié, A; Sauerborn, R
In Burkina Faso where cooking with biomass is very common, little information exists regarding kitchen characteristics and their impact on air pollutant levels. The measurement of air pollutants such as respirable particulate matter (PM10), an important component of biomass smoke that has been linked to adverse health outcomes, can also pose challenges in terms of cost and the type of equipment needed. Carbon monoxide could potentially be a more economical and simpler measure of air pollution. The focus of this study was to first assess the association of kitchen characteristics with measured PM10 and CO levels and second, the relationship of PM10 with CO concentrations, across these different kitchen characteristics in households in Nouna, Burkina Faso. Twenty-four-hour concentrations of PM10 (area) were measured with portable monitors and CO (area and personal) estimated using color dosimeter tubes. Data on kitchen characteristics were collected through surveys. Most households used both wood and charcoal burned in three-stone and charcoal stoves. Mean outdoor kitchen PM10 levels were relatively high (774 μg/m(3), 95 % CI 329-1,218 μg/m(3)), but lower than indoor concentrations (Satterthwaite t value, -6.14; p kitchens were negatively associated with PM10 (OR = 0.06, 95 % CI 0.02-0.16, p value kitchens (Spearman's r = 0.82, p < 0.0001), indoor stove use (Spearman's r = 0.82, p < 0.0001), and the presence of a smoker in the household (Spearman's r = 0.83, p < 0.0001). Weak correlations between area PM10 and personal CO levels were observed with three-stone (Spearman's r = 0.23, p = 0.008) and improved stoves (Spearman's r = 0.34, p = 0.003). This indicates that the extensive use of biomass fuels and multiple stove types for cooking still produce relatively high levels of exposure, even outdoors, suggesting that both fuel subsidies and stove improvement programs are likely necessary to address this problem. These
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of African trypanosomosis that constitute a major constraint to development in Africa. Their control is an important component of the integrated management of these diseases, and among the techniques available, the sterile insect technique (SIT is the sole that is efficient at low densities. The government of Burkina Faso has embarked on a tsetse eradication programme in the framework of the PATTEC, where SIT is an important component. The project plans to use flies from a Glossina palpalis gambiensis colony that has been maintained for about 40 years at the Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES. It was thus necessary to test the competitiveness of the sterile males originating from this colony. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During the period January-February 2010, 16,000 sterile male G. p. gambiensis were released along a tributary of the Mouhoun river. The study revealed that with a mean sterile to wild male ratio of 1.16 (s.d. 0.38, the abortion rate of the wild female flies was significantly higher than before (p = 0.026 and after (p = 0.019 the release period. The estimated competitiveness of the sterile males (Fried index was 0.07 (s.d. 0.02, indicating that a sterile to wild male ratio of 14.4 would be necessary to obtain nearly complete induced sterility in the female population. The aggregation patterns of sterile and wild male flies were similar. The survival rate of the released sterile male flies was similar to that observed in 1983-1985 for the same colony. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that gamma sterilised male G. p. gambiensis derived from the CIRDES colony have a competitiveness that is comparable to their competitiveness obtained 35 years ago and can still be used for an area-wide integrated pest management campaign with a sterile insect component in Burkina Faso.
Burkina Faso started the implementation of the code of conduct since 2008 as a member state of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The process went through several steps and actions. The first step was the implementation of a regulatory infrastructure with the development of legislation and regulation framework and the establishment of a regulatory body (National Authority for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety). The key legislation is the law n°032-2012/AN on nuclear safety and safeguards. Then, the country undertook actions for the enforcement of the regulations through licensing and inspections regime. This leads to the recovering of orphan sources and the establishment of a national register of radioactive sources using RAIS software. In 2009 and 2010, the regulatory body proceeded to a wide spread inventory of radioactive sources and search of orphan sources in the country covering the thirteen regions according to the administrative division. The registered sources belong mainly to the categories III and IV. There is a low quantity of categories I and II sources. As Burkina Faso has no facility for disused sources and waste management, a contract of return is requested for their importation during the licensing process. The objective is to set a good management of the sources and assure their security. Some sources imported many years ago have no more suppliers and no return contract. An action is currently running for the repatriation of some of them with the support of IAEA. In supporting the government effort for safety and security of sources, an integrated Nuclear Security Plan has been developed by an INSERV mission taking account the radioactive material. The good implementation of these activities and the principles of the code needs a well trained staff. ARSN developed a program of training for its regulatory staff and make it participate to IAEA trainings. Our success stories are likely the well drafted law on nuclear safety and
Full Text Available In Africa, protected areas can play an important role in mitigating the effects of climate change through carbon sequestration but they are threatened due to increasing land degradation and deforestation (LDD. The Total Wildlife Reserve of Bontioli (TWRB in Burkina Faso is one of the country’s refuges with high biodiversity. This reserve is seriously threatened by human activities, and little information is available about the on-site causes of degradation extent. This study was carried out to investigate drivers and extent of LDD in the TWRB. Household surveys, focus group discussions and field observations were used to identify socio-economic factors that influence land use and land cover (LULC changes. The socio-economic data were analyzed using rankings and binary logistic regression techniques. Logistic regression model was used to establish the relationship between socio-economic drivers and land cover change. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to analyze land use and LULC changes over 29 years, employing Landsat images of 1984, 2001 and 2013. We performed a supervised classification based on the maximum likelihood algorithm to derive vegetation maps. The results revealed significant (p <0.05 LULC change from one class of LULC to another. From 1984 to 2001, tree savannas, bare soils and agricultural lands increased by 17.55%, 18.79% and 21778.79%, respectively, while woodland, gallery forest, shrub savannas and water bodies decreased by 22.02%, 5.03%, 40.08% and 31.2%, respectively. From 2001 to 2013, gallery forests decreased by 14.33%, tree savannas by 22.30% and shrub savannas by 5.14%, while agricultural lands increased by 167.87% and woodlands by 3.21%. LDD occurred at a higher rate in areas bordering the reserve compared to the core-protected area and the inaccessible areas. Agricultural expansion and wood cutting activities were the main direct causes of LDD. Extensive land utilization for agriculture is a major threat to
Ismayilova, Leyla; Gaveras, Eleni; Blum, Austin; Tô-Camier, Alexice; Nanema, Rachel
Objectives Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. Methods This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10–15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity. We used a Latent Class Analysis to identify underlying patterns of maltreatment. Further, the relationships between latent classes and mental health outcomes were tested using mixed effected regression models adjusted for clustering within villages. Results About 15% of the children in the study scored above the clinical cut-off for depression, 17.8% for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 6.4% for low self-esteem. The study identified five distinct sub-groups (or classes) of children based on their exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Children with the highest exposure to violence at home, at work and in the community (Abused and Exploited class) and children not attending school and working for other households, often away from their families (External Laborer class), demonstrated highest symptoms of depression and trauma. Despite living in adverse conditions and working to assist families, the study also identified a class of children who were not exposed to any violence at home or at work (Healthy and Non-abused class). Children in this class demonstrated significantly higher self-esteem (b = 0.92, SE = 0.45, pfamily-level poverty and violence in the family. PMID:27764155
Full Text Available On est aujourdhui en passe, grâce aux efforts de générations dhistoriens, au Burkina comme ailleurs en Afrique, de dresser un tableau déjà à fort complet, même sil y a encore beaucoup à faire, de lhistoire ancienne des groupes, des communautés. On a bien avancé les connaissances sur lhistoire ancienne, sur lhistoire des traumatismes et des métissages de toute nature de lépoque coloniale, et aujourdhui sur lhistoire des temps de lindépendance: histoire rurale, histoire des villes, histoire des échanges fondamentaux et des ? ux et re? ux entre ville et campagne, histoire des migrations, histoire économique et politique, histoire des femmes aussi, etc. (cf. bibliographie indicative, même si beaucoup de ces travaux nont pas été publiés. Le Burkina-Faso, en dé? nitive, est un des pays de lAfrique francophone où la connaissance et la ré? exion historiques ont le plus progressé. Nous en sommes aujourdhui à la troisième génération dhistoriens, puisque le Burki-nabe Joseph Ki-Zerbo fut le premier historien africain francophone à avoir proposé, à lépoque, et en dépit du faible nombre de travaux pré-existants, une magistrale histoire générale de lAfrique qui fait encore autorité.
Burkina Faso; First Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility and Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion-Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Burkina Faso
International Monetary Fund
Economic recovery has gained momentum, and short-term prospects have improved. Program implementation is good. Fiscal consolidation is essential for Burkina Fasoâ€™s macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Structural reforms remain focused on a few priority areas supporting growth and macroeconomic stability. Terms-of-trade and weather-related shocks are the main risks to the economic outlook. Executive Directors commend the government for their commitment to sound policies and encou...
Dicko, Mamoudou H; Hilhorst, Riet; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; Laane, Colja; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J
Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was higher than the monophenolase and o-diphenolase specific activities of PPO. For POX, there was a diversity of isoforms among varieties. No clear correlation could be made between the quantitative composition of the grain in phenolics, PPO, and POX, and resistance of plant to pathogens. In general, varieties good for a thick porridge preparation ("tô") had low phenolic compounds content and a medium POX activity. From the red varieties, those used for local beer ("dolo") had a high content in phenolic compounds and PPO, and a low POX activity. The variety considered good for couscous had a low POX content. The characteristics might be useful as selection markers for breeding for specific applications. PMID:12059160
Brümmer, Christian; Papen, Hans; Wassmann, Reiner; Brüggemann, Nicolas
Despite a considerable knowledge of the significant role of termites in the global methane budget, very little is known about their contribution to the global nitrous oxide (N2O) budget. Release of N2O from termite (Cubitermes fungifaber) mounds was measured at a natural savanna site in the southwest of Burkina Faso from May to September 2006. Termite N2O emissions were around 20 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 at the end of the dry season, and up to two orders of magnitude higher than N2O emissions from the surrounding termite-free soil after the onset of the rainy season. The average N2O emission rate from termite mounds during the observation period was 204 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1, and termite mounds contributed 3.0% to total N2O emissions from this savanna ecosystem. However, in other tropical terrestrial ecosystems with other termite species and/or higher termite density this share might be significantly higher.
Christopher M Jones
Full Text Available In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose=65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively. An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency=0.4, which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa.
Mouline, K; Mamai, W; Agnew, P; Tchonfienet, M; Brengues, C; Dabire, R; Robert, V; Simard, F
In West Africa, M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) Giles, frequently occur together, although with different population bionomics. The S form typically breeds in rain-dependant water collections and is present during the rainy season only whereas the M form can thrive all year long in areas with permanent breeding opportunities. In the present study, we explored physiological and developmental trade-offs at play in laboratory colonies and field populations of the M and S forms that originated from an area of sympatry in Burkina Faso, where M and S larvae exhibit such habitat segregation. In the laboratory, larvae of the M form developed slower than the S form (mean values 9.51 and 8.85 days, respectively, Wilcoxon's test, P < 0.001). Although wing length and dry weight at emergence showed large variations, M females were on average 8% heavier than S females of similar wing length. Higher nutritional reserves (proteins and lipids) in teneral adults explained part of this weight difference, reflecting a better ability of the M form to garner resources at the larval stage. Furthermore, a higher rate of ovarian maturation was observed in the M form after a single bloodmeal. The relevance of these findings for parasite transmission is discussed. PMID:22681446
Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, Sylvestre; Castan, Florence; Coulibaly, Dramane; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, Mahama; Lange, Matthias; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde
Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity assessed by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the Dietary Diversity Score of an index-member of the household (IDDS = number of food groups consumed in the last 24 h), and food expenditure were collected. Food prices of the 17 most frequently consumed food items were recorded throughout the study area. Food prices at local markets increased considerably between 2007 and 2008, especially those of fish (113%), cereals (53%), and vegetable oil (44%), increasing the household monthly food expenditure by 18%. Thirty-three percent of households were food secure in 2007 and 22% in 2008 (P = 0.02). Individuals consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and meat/poultry in 2008 than in 2007 (mean IDDS = 5.7 ± 1.7 food groups in 2007 vs. 5.2 ± 1.5 in 2008; P crisis. PMID:22833656
Windisch, Ricarda; de Savigny, Don; Onadja, Geneviève; Somda, Antoine; Wyss, Kaspar; Sié, Ali; Kouyaté, Bocar
Organizational changes, increased funding and the demands of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) treatment create particular challenges for governance in the health sector. We assess resource allocation, policy making and integration of the national responses to ARV provision and reproductive health in Burkina Faso, using national and district budgets related to disease burden, policy documents, organizational structures, and coordination and implementation processes. ARV provision represents the concept of a "crisis scenario", in which reforms are pushed due to a perception of urgent need, whereas the national reproductive health programme, which is older and more integrated, represents a "politics-as-usual scenario". Findings show that the early years of the national response to HIV and AIDS were characterized by new institutions with overlapping functions, and failure to integrate with and strengthen existing structures. National and district budget allocations for HIV compared to other interventions were disproportionately high when assessed against burden of disease. Strategic documents for ARV provision were relatively less developed and referred to, compared to those of the Ministry of Health Directorates for HIV and for Family Health and district health planning teams for reproductive health services. Imbalances and new structures potentially trigger important adverse effects which are difficult to remedy and likely to increase due to the dynamics they create. It therefore becomes crucial, from the outset, to integrate HIV/AIDS funding and responses into health systems.
Somé, N; Poda, J N; Guissou, I P
A series of investigations concerning snakebites and management of envenomations was carried out from 1981 to 2000 in the medical District of Dano, Province of loba in Burkina Faso. Viper bites were more frequent than Elapid ones. The seasonal distribution of the envenomations reflected the cycle of field work and other specific activities. Care seeking within the Traditional System of Health Care (STSS) was more frequent than within the Conventional System of Health Care (SCSS). Lethality was higher at STSS level in cases of viper bites and, conversely, higher in SCSS in the cases of Elapid envenomations. This highlighted the interest in medicinal plants for treating snakebites particularly in case of neurotoxic envenomation. We classified several dozens medicinal plants within an inventory. Some of them have been studied and deemed worthy of interest. Others are used for the treatment of other types of poisoning (pesticides, plants toxic) and/or used in traditional rites. We hope to follow the Côte d'Ivoire experience such that African snake venom, neutralised by modern antivenom, might also be neutralised by the African natural resources.
Full Text Available The New Misola consists of millet soybean, peanut, vitamins, minerals, and industrial amylase. Our objective is to demonstrate that porridge made from local grains and legumes restores the nutritional balance of malnourished children. The study was carried on 304 malnourished children aged 6–48 months including 172 girls and 132 boys from Saint Camille Medical Centre. At the beginning, these malnourished children had a WHZ z-score of −3.10 and a WAZ z-score of −3.85, which reflected, according to WHO, a severe malnutrition. After eight weeks of nutritional rehabilitation, a normal WHZ of −1.41 was obtained. These children recovered more than those in a similar study performed in 2006 with the old formula of Misola. This study shows that malnutrition remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso. It should be necessary that public health services and the epidemiologists work in synergy with nutritionists and “nutrigenetics” in order to combat malnutrition efficiently.
Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.
Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.
Condamine, J L; Artigues, S; Catherine, V; Diagnougou, N; Ouoba, T
The center for rehabilitation and fitting of the disabled in Bogande, Burkina Faso has been in operation since 1992. It was created by a non-governmental organization named Actions de Solidarité Internationale (ASI). The primary goal of the center is to provide support devices to restore upright position and mobility and allow social reinsertion especially for disabled persons between the ages of 0 and 20 years. Approximately one hundred people are treated annually. Treatment is delivered either directly in villages or in dispensaries if the disabled person can be brought in with the assistance of family members or health care workers. This policy has enhanced the quality of information, training, and prevention. Patients with severe disabilities beyond the scope of treatment at the center are contraindicated. The activities of the center have been organized with a view to covering costs. A welding shop has been set up to produce aid devices and provide revenues to pay for some services. The major lessons of this experience involve the need for active recruitment in villages, for contraindicating patients with severe untreatable disability, for developing economically sustainable programs, for training management staff, and for good financial planning. In 4 years of operation, the rehabilitation and fitting center has demonstrated its ability to meet the needs of the disabled in Bogande.
Yentema, Onadja; Alioune, Ouedraogo; Abdoul Dorosso, Samate
Essential oils have a significant role in the society where they are variously used in fields such as medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, chemical and food-processing industries. This justifies interest which they cause and thus systematic studies are undertaken on aromatic species, allowing without any doubt their use advisedly. This study concerns the characterization of the essential oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus of Burkina Faso, extracted by drive with the water vapor in a distillation operation. The analysis of the chemical composition is carried out by Gas Chromatography. It shows that the 16 made up ones identified account for 65. 2% of the essential oil composition. These compounds belong to the two classes regularly met in essential oils: the mono ones and sesquiterpenes. However, proportion of monoterpenes (53. 2%) is higher than that of sesquiterpenes (12%). Among the identified compounds two monoterpenes (the piperitone and δ-2-carene) remain the principal components in the essential oil. Then the authors determine the density d = 0.9057 by double weighing, the optical activity α = +28.175 by polarimetry and the refractive index n = 1.465 by an interferometric method which they describe. Cymbopogon schoenanthus is an aromatic plant of the family of Poaceae very often used in traditional pharmacopoeia for internal as well as external treatments.
Konan Lambert Amani
Full Text Available The mean cost price of electricity in Burkina Faso at the end of the last quarter of 2012 was 158 FCFA/kWh for a country where more than 46% of the population lives below the national poverty threshold. To look for solution to that problem, the resort to photovoltaic solar energy is justified for that country. The purpose of this study is to promote the integration of both technical and economical surveys in solar energy preliminary projects in Ouagadougou. To reach that, investigations were carried out in some households and attention was paid from the calibration of the domestic electric meters. Energy demands collected within each household allow us to design a corresponding solar kit through optimization rules. An estimate was edited and financial viability study for each household was also carried out thereafter. In this study, only households using the national electricity network calibration meter on their disadvantage favorably answered to all financial indicators and appear as the only one that could profit from such project. This work is helpful to note that photovoltaic solar energy still stays at a primitive level of competitiveness compared to conventional energy resources for small systems in Ouagadougou.
Storeng, Katerini Tagmatarchi; Akoum, Mélanie Stephanie; Murray, Susan F
Global advocacy campaigns increasingly highlight the negative impact of reproductive morbidity on economic productivity and development in order to justify donor investment in maternal health. Anthropological approaches nuance such narrow economic estimations of reproductive health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork from Burkina Faso in West Africa, this paper analyses the dynamic, and sometimes contradictory, relationship between women's work and reproductive health in impoverished communities. Specifically, it examines the consequences of life-threatening 'near-miss' obstetric complications for women's work across domestic, agricultural and economic spheres over a four-year period. Such events provide a window onto the diverse ways in which production and reproduction are intimately linked within women's everyday lives. Reproduction and production entail sources of potential empowerment and enhancement, as well as potential threats, to health and well-being. In the aftermath of 'near-miss' events, the realms of reproduction and production sometimes jeopardise each other and at other times reinforce each other, while strength in one domain can compensate for weakness in the other. Women's experiences thus reveal how 'production' and 'reproduction' are mutually constituted, challenging the purely instrumental accounts of pregnancy-related 'productivity loss' that dominate current global health discourse. PMID:22897630
Dimobe, K.; Goetze, D.; Ouédraogo, A.; Thiombiano, A.; Porembski, S.
Local knowledge could form an effective channel and base through which climate change adaptation and mitigation can be realized. This paper uses the context of savannas ecosystem services in Burkina Faso to examine local knowledge and perspectives on the changing trends in vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. The survey targeted farmers, traditional authorities and administrators at the local government level. Semi-structured questionnaires were employed for one-on-one interviews and focused group discussions for data collection. Descriptive statistics and explanatory factor analysis were used to analyze the collected data. A total of 230 farmers, 6 traditional authorities and 5 administrators belonging to 32 villages were interviewed. Most of local people (95.1-96.7%) believe that climate change is occurring, and cited general increases in average temperatures, fluctuating rainfall regimes and extended drought periods as some of their observations. They explain the increasing changes and vulnerability of savannas ecosystems through the longer time spent and distance covered to collect medicinal plants and forest food; decreasing productivity and availability of fodder, fuel wood, forest food and medicinal plant, changing uses of forest food and medicinal plant species. The views of farmers were generally shared by the traditional authorities and administrators. Adaptation actions employed by local communities are tree planting, protection of forestry resources, migration, awareness raising, conservation of soil and water resources.
Prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Burkina Faso: evaluation of vertical transmission by PCR, molecular characterization of subtypes and determination of antiretroviral drugs resistance
Sagna, Tani; Bisseye, Cyrille; Compaore, Tegewende R.; Kagone, Therese S.; Djigma, Florencia W.; Ouermi, Djeneba; Pirkle, Catherine M.; Zeba, Moctar T. A.; Bazie, Valerie J. T.; Douamba, Zoenabo; Moret, Remy; Pietra, Virginio; Koama, Adjirita; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Sia, Joseph D.; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques
Background Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is a public health problem in Burkina Faso. The main objective of this study on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission was to determine the residual risk of HIV transmission in infants born to mothers receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Moreover, we detect HIV antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance among mother–infant pairs and identify subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF) in Burkina Faso. Design In this study, 3,215 samples of pregnant women were analyzed for HIV using rapid tests. Vertical transmission was estimated by polymerase chain reaction in 6-month-old infants born to women who tested HIV positive. HIV-1 resistance to ARV, subtypes, and CRFs was determined through ViroSeq kit using the ABI PRISM 3,130 sequencer. Results In this study, 12.26% (394/3,215) of the pregnant women were diagnosed HIV positive. There was 0.52% (2/388) overall vertical transmission of HIV, with rates of 1.75% (2/114) among mothers under prophylaxis and 0.00% (0/274) for those under HAART. Genetic mutations were also isolated that induce resistance to ARV such as M184V, Y115F, K103N, Y181C, V179E, and G190A. There were subtypes and CRF of HIV-1 present, the most common being: CRF06_CPX (58.8%), CRF02_AG (35.3%), and subtype G (5.9%). Conclusions ARV drugs reduce the residual rate of HIV vertical transmission. However, the virus has developed resistance to ARV, which could limit future therapeutic options when treatment is needed. Resistance to ARV therefore requires a permanent interaction between researchers, physicians, and pharmacists, to strengthen the network of monitoring and surveillance of drug resistance in Burkina Faso. PMID:25630709
Prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Burkina Faso: evaluation of vertical transmission by PCR, molecular characterization of subtypes and determination of antiretroviral drugs resistance
Full Text Available Background: Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission is a public health problem in Burkina Faso. The main objective of this study on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission was to determine the residual risk of HIV transmission in infants born to mothers receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Moreover, we detect HIV antiretroviral (ARV drug resistance among mother–infant pairs and identify subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF in Burkina Faso. Design: In this study, 3,215 samples of pregnant women were analyzed for HIV using rapid tests. Vertical transmission was estimated by polymerase chain reaction in 6-month-old infants born to women who tested HIV positive. HIV-1 resistance to ARV, subtypes, and CRFs was determined through ViroSeq kit using the ABI PRISM 3,130 sequencer. Results: In this study, 12.26% (394/3,215 of the pregnant women were diagnosed HIV positive. There was 0.52% (2/388 overall vertical transmission of HIV, with rates of 1.75% (2/114 among mothers under prophylaxis and 0.00% (0/274 for those under HAART. Genetic mutations were also isolated that induce resistance to ARV such as M184V, Y115F, K103N, Y181C, V179E, and G190A. There were subtypes and CRF of HIV-1 present, the most common being: CRF06_CPX (58.8%, CRF02_AG (35.3%, and subtype G (5.9%. Conclusions: ARV drugs reduce the residual rate of HIV vertical transmission. However, the virus has developed resistance to ARV, which could limit future therapeutic options when treatment is needed. Resistance to ARV therefore requires a permanent interaction between researchers, physicians, and pharmacists, to strengthen the network of monitoring and surveillance of drug resistance in Burkina Faso.
Full Text Available Lineage organization, motor of the cotton farming growth? The Bwa of Burkina Faso. In Burkina Faso, country producing cotton, the social situations, the results and performances of the cotton farmers are various. The present research focus on the cotton area of Houndé in the Bwaba region. It is one of the most productive areas of the country where the growth of cotton has been a success story. The reasons for this success are analysed in the village called Dossi, focusing on the links between the cotton growth and the social organization, particularly the lineage one. The national cotton production is based on the Cotton Groups Farmers. Dossi's analysis shows that two kinds of relationships organize Cotton Groups Farmers: relationships between founding lineages and hosted families on one hand, relationships between elders and subjected members of the lineages on the other hand. The traditional lineage organization, adapting and rationalizing cotton production's management, became one of the key to cotton's success, in the area of Houndé. The cotton business could grow because it did not challenge the traditionnal organization. Nevertheless, economic and social inequalities increased with the development of cotton production in the villages. Today, belonging to a founding lineage is decisive in the cotton production context. However, social transformations are in progress inside founding lineages. Indeed some cadets manage big farms whereas it would have been impossible fifty years ago. Farm advice should be given according to the lineage position of each farmer. It would guarantee for all farmers the improvement of their social and economic condition. Today, it is necessary to strengthen rural cotton farming communities because they are weakened by the privatization of a part of cotton industry in Burkina Faso.
Harries, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Manzi, Marcel; Firmenich, Peter; Mathela, Richard; Drabo, Joseph; Onadja, G; Arnould, Line; Harries, A. D.
In an urban district hospital in Burkina Faso we investigated the relative proportions of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 among those tested, the baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and the response to and outcome of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 7368 individuals (male=32%; median age=34 years) were included in the analysis over a 6 year period (2002-2008). The proportions of HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual infection were 94%, 2.5% and 3.6%, respectively. HIV-1-infected individu...
Nikiema Béatrice; Haddad Slim; Ridde Valéry; Ouedraogo Moctar; Kafando Yamba; Bicaba Abel
Abstract Background User fees were generalized in Burkina Faso in the 1990 s. At the time of their implementation, it was envisioned that measures would be instituted to exempt the poor from paying these fees. However, in practice, the identification of indigents is ineffective, and so they do not have access to care. Thus, a community-based process for selecting indigents for user fees exemption was tested in a district. In each of the 124 villages in the catchment areas of ten health centre...
Full Text Available Chez les Musulmans du Burkina Faso, les mariages sont célébrés selon deux modes différents: d’une part, on trouve le mariage « traditionnel » qui s’accompagne d’une cérémonie religieuse et d’autre part, il y a le mariage “civil”, qui est marqué par une cérémonie officielle ayant lieu à la mairie. Les contrastes existants entre ces deux fêtes se révèlent notamment à travers les repas servis à cette occasion. La fête traditionnelle offre des plats et des boissons considérés comme « africains », tandis que le repas servi lors de la fête civile se compose essentiellement de tubabu dumuni ou « nourriture des Blancs ». La manière de manger amplifie également la distinction observée entre les deux fêtes: lors du repas traditionnel, les gens mangent dans les mêmes plats et avec la main, alors qu’à l’occasion de la cérémonie civile, ils utilisent assiettes, fourchettes et couteaux. A travers l’analyse de ces deux formes de cérémonies comme de leurs différences, cet article s'intéresse au discours très présent sur l’opposition entre « traditionnel » et « moderne » au Burkina Faso urbain.Muslims of Burkina Faso celebrate weddings in two distinct ways; a “traditional” celebration accompanies the religious ceremony, while a “civil” wedding party marks the official marriage which takes place at the town hall. The foods served are important markers of the contrasts between these two occasions. While so-called “African” food and drink is served at the traditional ceremony, the civil ceremony is marked by the serving of tubabu dumuni or “white man’s food”. Another distinction is the manner of eating. At the traditional meal guests eat from shared bowls, using their hands, while at the “civil” celebration the food is served on plates and is meant to be eaten with cutlery. Drawing on these two ceremonial forms and the marked distinctions between them, this paper
Bankole, Akinrinola; Hussain, Rubina; Sedgh, Gilda; Rossier, Clementine; Kaboré, Idrissa; Guiella, Georges
Au Burkina Faso, l’avortement n’est autorisé que pour sauver la vie et protéger la santé de la femme enceinte, et dans les cas de viol, d’inceste ou de graves malformations foetales. Par conséquent, la grande majorité des femmes qui mettent fin à leur grossesse le font dans le secret, par peur des poursuites, et pour éviter la stigmatisation sociale qui entoure la pratique. C’est pourquoi la plupart des avortements clandestins se produisent dans des conditions à risque, qui mettent en danger ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Parliament of Burkina Faso passed a policy to reduce the direct costs of obstetric services and neonatal care in the country’s health centres, aiming to lower the country’s high national maternal mortality and morbidity rates. Implementation was via a “partial exemption” covering 80% of the costs. In 2008 the German NGO HELP launched a pilot project in two health districts to eliminate the remaining 20% of user fees. Regardless of any exemptions, women giving birth in Burkina Faso’s health centres face additional expenses that often represent an additional barrier to accessing health services. We compared the total cost of giving birth in health centres offering partial exemption versus those with full exemption to assess the impact on additional out-of-pocket fees. Methods A case–control study was performed to compare medical expenses. Case subjects were women who gave birth in 12 health centres located in the Dori and Sebba districts, where HELP provided full fee exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Controls were from six health centres in the neighbouring Djibo district where a partial fee exemption was in place. A random sample of approximately 50 women per health centre was selected for a total of 870 women. Results There was an implementation gap regarding the full exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Only 1.1% of the sample from Sebba but 17.5% of the group from Dori had excessive spending on birth related costs, indicating that women who delivered in Sebba were much less exposed to excessive medical expenses than women from Dori. Additional out-of-pocket fees in the full exemption health districts took into account household ability to pay, with poorer women generally paying less. Conclusions We found that the elimination of fees for facility-based births benefits especially the poorest households. The existence of excessive spending related to direct costs of
Community assessment of availability, consumption, and cultural acceptability of food sources of (pro)vitamin A: Toward the development of a dietary intervention among preschool children in rural Burkina Faso
Nana, C.P.; Brouwer, I.D.; Zagré, N.M.; Kok, F.J.; Traoré, A.S.
Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso and elsewhere in the developing world. Dietary diversification is a promising strategy that needs to be explored to strengthen the country's ongoing supplementation program. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify loca
Yameéogo, Jerome; Somé, Antoine; Lykke, Anne Mette;
The South-Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso experienced as other agro-climatic zones of the country problems of environmental degradation, particularly soil and natural vegetation, due high climatic variability. Soil and water conservation techniques like zaï and stone-rows were tested and adopted in...
Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Nagot, Nicolas; Samadoulougou, Sekou; Sokey, Mamadou; Guiré, Abdoulaye; Sombié, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas
ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate trends in HIV prevalence and changes in reported sexual behaviors between 1998 and 2014 in Burkina Faso. Methods: We obtained data on HIV prevalence from antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites (N = 9) that were consistently included in surveillance between 1998 and 2014. We also analyzed data on HIV prevalence and reported sex behaviors from 3 population-based surveys from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted in 1998–99, 2003, and 2010. Sex behavior indicators comprised never-married youth who have never had sex; sex with more than 1 partner; sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; condom use at last sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; and sex before age 15. We calculated survey-specific HIV prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend to compare HIV prevalence across survey years and to analyze trends in reported sex behaviors. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages 15–49 decreased by 72% in urban areas, from 7.1% in 1998 to 2.0% in 2014, and by 75% in rural areas, from 2.0% in 2003 to 0.5% in 2014. HIV declined most in younger age groups, which is a good reflection of recent incidence, with declines of 55% among 15–19-year-olds, 72% among 20–24-year-olds, 40% among 25–29-year-olds, and 7% among those ≥30 years old (considering urban and rural data combined). Data reported in the DHS corroborated these declines in HIV prevalence: between 2003 and 2010, HIV prevalence dropped significantly—by 89% among girls ages 15–19, from 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.6) to 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.4), and by 78% among young women ages 20–24, from 1.8% (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0) to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.7). During the same time period, people reported safer sex behaviors. For example, significantly higher percentages of never-married youth reported they had never had sex, lower percentages of sexually active youth reported multiple
Beogo, Idrissa; Huang, Nicole; Drabo, Maxime K; Yé, Yazoumé
In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria inflicts a high healthcare expenditure to individuals. However, little is known about healthcare expenditure to individual affected by malaria and determinants of healthcare seeking behaviour in urban settings where private sector is thriving. This study investigated the level and correlates of expenditure among individuals with self-reported malaria episode in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional household survey conducted in August-November 2011 in Ouagadougou covered 8,243 individuals (1,600 households). Using Generalized Estimating Equations, the analysis included 1082 individuals from 715 households, who reported an episode of malaria. Of individuals surveyed, 38.3% sought care from public, 27.4% from private providers, and, 34.2% self-medicated. The median cost for malaria treatment was USD10.1 (4,850.0XOF) with significant different between public, private and self-medication (p<0.001). In public primary care health facilities, the median cost was USD8.4 (4,050.0XOF) for uncomplicated malaria and USD15.2 (7,333.5XOF) for severe malaria. In private-for-profit facilities run by a medical doctor, the median cost was USD30.3 (14,600.0XOF) for uncomplicated malaria and USD 43.0 (20,725.0XOF) for severe malaria. Regardless of the source of care, patients with insurance incurred significantly higher expenditure compared to those without insurance (p<0.001) and medicine accounted for the largest share of the expenditure. The type of provider, having insurance, and the severity of the malaria predict the amount of money spent. The high financial cost of malaria treatment regardless of the providers poses threat to the goal of universal access to malaria interventions, the unique way to achieve elimination goals. PMID:27154586
Digre, Peder; Simpson, Evan; Cali, Shannon; Lartey, Belinda; Moodley, Melissa; Diop, Ndack
Background More than 500 000 young children die from dehydration caused by severe diarrhea each year, globally. Although routine use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) could prevent almost all of these deaths, ORS utilization remains low in many low–income countries. Previous research has suggested that misperceptions among caregivers may be an obstacle to wider use of ORS. Methods To better understand the extent of ORS utilization and the reasons for use or non–use in low–resource settings, the project team conducted a semi–structured, quantitative survey of 400 caregivers in Burkina Faso in 2014. All caregivers had a child below the age of five who had diarrhea lasting 2 days or more in the previous 2 months. Results Although more than 80% of caregivers were aware of ORS, less than half reported using it to treat their child’s diarrhea. Replacing fluids lost due to diarrhea was considered a low priority by most caregivers, and many said they considered antibiotics more effective for treating diarrhea. Users and non–users of ORS held substantially different perceptions of the product, though all caregivers tended to follow recommendations of health care workers. A significant proportion of users reported difficulty in getting a child to drink ORS. Costs and access to ORS were not found to be significant barriers to use. Conclusions Misperceptions among caregivers and health workers contribute to low utilization of ORS. Better caregiver understanding of diarrheal disease and the importance of rehydration, as well as increased recommendation by health workers, will help to increase ORS utilization. Improving product presentation and taste will also help to increase use.
Yira, Y.; Diekkrüger, B.; Steup, G.; Bossa, A. Y.
This study investigates the impacts of land use change on water resources in the Dano catchment, Burkina Faso, using a physically based hydrological simulation model and land use scenarios. Land use dynamic in the catchment was assessed through the analysis of four land use maps corresponding to the land use status in 1990, 2000, 2007, and 2013. A reclassification procedure levels out differences between the classification schemes of the four maps. The land use maps were used to build five land use scenarios corresponding to different levels of land use change in the catchment. Water balance was simulated by applying the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) using observed discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level for model calibration and validation. Model statistical quality measures (R2, NSE and KGE) achieved during calibration and validation ranged between 0.6 and 0.9 for total discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level, indicating a good agreement between observed and simulated variables. After a successful multivariate validation the model was applied to the land use scenarios. The land use assessment exhibited a decrease of savannah at an annual rate of 2% since 1990. Conversely, cropland and urban areas have increased. Since urban areas occupy only 3% of the catchment it can be assumed that savannah was mainly converted to cropland. The conversion rate of savannah was lower than the annual population growth of 3%. A clear increase in total discharge (+17%) and decrease in evapotranspiration (-5%) was observed following land use change in the catchment. A strong relationship was established between savannah degradation, cropland expansion, discharge increase and reduction of evapotranspiration. The increase in total discharge is related to high peak flow, suggesting (i) an increase in water resources that are not available for plant growth and human consumption and (ii) an alteration of flood risk for both the population within and
Ibrahim, B.; Karambiri, H. [Institut International d' Ingenierie de l' Eau et de l' Environnement (2iE), Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso); Polcher, J. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique du CNRS, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Rockel, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Institute of Coastal Research/Group Regional Atmospheric Modeling, Geesthacht (Germany)
West African monsoon is one of the most challenging climate components to model. Five regional climate models (RCMs) were run over the West African region with two lateral boundary conditions, ERA-Interim re-analysis and simulations from two general circulation models (GCMs). Two sets of daily rainfall data were generated from these boundary conditions. These simulated rainfall data are analyzed here in comparison to daily rainfall data collected over a network of ten synoptic stations in Burkina Faso from 1990 to 2004. The analyses are based on a description of the rainy season throughout a number of it's characteristics. It was found that the two sets of rainfall data produced with the two driving data present significant biases. The RCMs generally produce too frequent low rainfall values (between 0.1 and 5 mm/day) and too high extreme rainfalls (more than twice the observed values). The high frequency of low rainfall events in the RCMs induces shorter dry spells at the rainfall thresholds of 0.1-1 mm/day. Altogether, there are large disagreements between the models on the simulate season duration and the annual rainfall amounts but most striking are their differences in representing the distribution of rainfall intensity. It is remarkable that these conclusions are valid whether the RCMs are driven by re-analysis or GCMs. In none of the analyzed rainy season characteristics, a significant improvement of their representation can be found when the RCM is forced by the re-analysis, indicating that these deficiencies are intrinsic to the models. (orig.)
Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Pinet, Sylvain; Gal, Laetitia; Cochonneau, Gérard; Martinez, Jean-Michel
Monitoring turbidity and Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSSC) of inland waters is essential to address several important issues: erosion, sediment transport and deposition throughout watersheds, reservoir siltation, water pollution, human health risks, etc. This is especially important in regions with limited conventional monitoring capacities such as West Africa. In this study, we explore the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data (MODIS, MOD09Q1 and MYD09Q1 products, red (R) and near infrared (NIR) bands) to monitor turbidity and SSSC for the Bagre Reservoir in Burkina Faso. High values of these parameters associated with high spatial and temporal variability potentially challenge the methodologies developed so far for less turbid waters. Field measurements (turbidity, SSSC, radiometry) are used to evaluate different radiometric indices. The NIR/R ratio is found to be the most suited to retrieve SSSC and turbidity for both in-situ spectoradiometer measurements and satellite reflectance from MODIS. The spatio temporal variability of MODIS NIR/R together with rainfall estimated by the Tropical Rainforest Measuring Mission (TRMM) and altimetry data from Jason-2 is analyzed over the Bagre Reservoir for the 2000-2015 period. It is found that rain events of the early rainy season (February-March) through mid-rainy season (August) are decisive in triggering turbidity increase. Sediment transport is observed in the reservoir from upstream to downstream between June and September. Furthermore, a significant increase of 19% in turbidity values is observed between 2000 and 2015, mainly for the July to December period. It is especially well marked for August, with the central and downstream areas showing the largest increase. The most probable hypothesis to explain this evolution is a change in land use, and particularly an increase in the amount of bare soils, which enhances particle transport by runoff.
Sagna, T; Djigma, F; Zeba, M; Bisseye, C; Karou, S D; Ouermi, D; Pietra, V; Gnoula, C; Sanogo, K; Nikiema, J B; Simpore, J
The vaginal swabs among HIV-positive women in Africa often revealed opportunistic infections such as human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Mycoplasma that induce respectively cervix cancer and diseases such as vaginosis, abortions, infertility in through salpingitis. The purposes of this study were to: (1) seek for, the prevalence of pathogens such as HPV and Mycoplasma; (2) characterize the strains of HPV and estimate their prevalence; (3) identify among these women, those who were co-infected by these pathogens in order to cure them. From February 2009 to January 2010, 156 HIV-positive women attending our medical centers and aged from 19-45 years (mean age 33.65 +/- 5.75 years) had voluntarily accepted vaginal specimen's tests. PCR, ELISA and molecular hybridization were used for the identification and characterization of these pathogens. The results revealed the presence of Mycoplasma and HPV in 25.64 and 58.33% cases, respectively. The following HPV genotypes and the following prevalence were recorded: HPV-50'S (24.11%), HPV-18 (21.28%), HPV-30'S (18.44%) and HPV-16 (5.67%). The study also enable the identification of co-infections such as HPV-18 strains with HPV-30'S (5.67%) and HPV-30'S with HPV-50'S (3.55%). Other germs infecting the female genital tract including Candida albicans (20.51%), Escherichia coli (12.18%), Treponema pallidum (3.85%), Streptococcus agalactiae (3.21%) and Staphylococcus aureus (1.92%) were isolated. This preliminary research work showed the incidence of several genital pathogens, this could be a springboard for nationwide epidemiological study on HPV strains circulating in Burkina Faso. PMID:21313918
Full Text Available Objective : The study analysed the effect of Information, Education, and Communication (IEC campaign activities on the adoption of a community-based health insurance (CHI scheme in Nouna, Burkina Faso. It also identified the factors that enhanced or limited the campaign's effectiveness. Design : Complementary data collection approaches were used. A survey was conducted with 250 randomly selected household heads, followed by in-depth interviews with 22 purposively selected community leaders, group discussions with the project management team, and field observations. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between household exposure to campaign and acquisition of knowledge as well as household exposure to campaign and enrolment. Results : The IEC campaign had a positive effect on households’ knowledge about the CHI and to a lesser extent on household enrolment in the scheme. The effectiveness of the IEC strategy was mainly influenced by: 1 frequent and consistent IEC messages from multiple media channels (mass and interpersonal channels, including the radio, a mobile information van, and CHI team, and 2 community heads’ participation in the CHI scheme promotion. Education was the only significantly influential socio-demographic determinant of knowledge and enrolment among household heads. The relatively low effects of the IEC campaign on CHI enrolment are indicative of other important IEC mediating factors, which should be taken into account in future CHI campaign evaluation. Conclusion : The study concludes that an IEC campaign is crucial to improving the understanding of the CHI scheme concept, which is an enabler to enrolment, and should be integrated into scheme designs and evaluations.
Patrick G C Ilboudo
Full Text Available This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a "near miss" event. To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women's quality of life; b for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children's education and c for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions.
Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Russell, Steve; D'Exelle, Ben
This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a "near miss" event). To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a) for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women's quality of life; b) for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children's education and c) for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions.
Full Text Available Climate variability and change significantly affect smallholder farmers’ food security and livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa. Tree planting is one of the measures promoted by development programs to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Tree planting is also believed to positively contribute to livelihoods. This paper examines factors influencing smallholders’ tree planting activities in four villages in the Ziro province, Southern Burkina Faso. Furthermore, it analyses the challenges encountered and willingness to continue tree planting under current tenure arrangements. The data was obtained through key informants, household interviews, focus group discussions, and field observations. Results indicate that the majority of farmers interviewed planted Mangifera indica (50%, Anacardium occidentale (32% and Moringa oleifera (30%. In a number of trees planted, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Mangifera indica and Anacardium occidentale dominated. Tree planters were mainly farmers who held large and old farm areas, were literate and relatively wealthy, had favorable attitudes toward tree planting, and with considerable years of participation in a farmers’ group. The main reasons for planting trees included income generation from the sale of tree products, access to markets and local support for tree planting. Preference for agriculture, tenure insecurity and lack of sufficient land were the main reasons cited for not planting trees. Farm households that were relatively poor, had smaller workforces and smaller farm sizes were not willing to continue tree planting. To effectively engage farmers in tree planting and to make it more attractive, policies are needed that address tenure insecurity for migrants, enable better access to markets, and support fair pricing structures for wood and other tree resources.
Full Text Available Background: A growing body of evidence points to the emission of greenhouse gases from human activity as a key factor in climate change. This in turn affects human health and wellbeing through consequential changes in weather extremes. At present, little is known about the effects of weather on the health of sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the related anticipated effects of climate change partly due to scarcity of good quality data. We aimed to study the association between weather patterns and daily mortality in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS area during 1999–2009. Methods: Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station in the Nouna HDSS area and linked to mortality data on a daily basis. Time series Poisson regression models were established to estimate the association between the lags of weather and daily population-level mortality, adjusting for time trends. The analyses were stratified by age and sex to study differential population susceptibility. Results: We found profound associations between higher temperature and daily mortality in the Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso. The short-term direct heat effect was particularly strong on the under-five child mortality rate. We also found independent coherent effects and strong associations between rainfall events and daily mortality, particularly in elderly populations. Conclusion: Mortality patterns in the Nouna HDSS appear to be closely related to weather conditions. Further investigation on cause-specific mortality, as well as on vulnerability and susceptibility is required. Studies on local adaptation and mitigation measures to avoid health impacts from weather and climate change is also needed to reduce negative effects from weather and climate change on population health in rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa.
Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma
Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. PMID:27209555
Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Cissé, Assana; Gabriël, Sarah; Sahlu, Ida; Dorny, Pierre; Bauer, Cici; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ganaba, Rasmané
Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis) are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis. Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control
Public utility of electricity gathers the production, the transformation, the distribution, the import, the export and the sale of electrical energy. The public utility of electricity is ensured by the State, the territorial collectivity or by thirds under terms of contracts signed with the State or the territorial collectivities. The offer of electricity is exclusively assured by the SONABEL. Its total production in 2006 was 548,397,372 kWh compared with 516,224,848 in 2005, that is to say an increase of 6.23%. The imported energy in 2006 was 139,323,910 kWh; that accounts for 25% of total energy produced. The thermal production was about 467.728.921 kWh against 415,751,943 kWh in 2005, that is to say an increase of 13%. Water power represented 8,068,451 kWh in 2006, that is to say a fall of 20%. In Burkina Faso, total energy offered (energy imported, heat energy, hydroelectric power) is increase by 7.19% in comparison to 2005 and reached up of 687,721,282 kWh in 2006. In spite of this important electrical production, only 7 to 8% of the total population have electricity. That is mainly caused by the capital cost of electricity installations. To mitigate this difficulty, a national policy of energy was developed to strengthen the access of electricity to the population, to fall the costs of electricity, to develop rural electrification and to growth on the part of renewable energies in the national energy assessment. That is why it is necessary to implement the project of access to the energy services (PASE) whose overall cost is estimated to 41.1 million US dollars
Pingrewaoga Bema Abdoul Hadi Savadogo
Full Text Available This paper addresses the education of young Muslims in Burkina Faso through relevant literature analysis and the authors’ observations, highlighting the pathways of study in Arabic-speaking countries and the social dynamics around them. The central theme is associated with the more general debate about education and diversity, because it discusses, on the one hand, the educational hegemony of secular orientation carried out in French adopted by part of the society and made official by the nation-state; on the other hand, it stresses the movement of another part of society that continues to enroll their children in Muslim schools where teaching is conducted in Arabic or bilingual (French and Arabic. The study describes the sociopolitical contexts that constitute the institutions of Islamic education, emphasizing the importance of Franco-Arabic schools and new Muslim private universities from the non-public higher education network. Following this discussion, there is a debate about the contribution of these young graduated men and women (inside and outside the country to hold and maintain the educational system. This paper also highlights the political action of these groups that claims for citizenship through religious practices. We conclude by stressing the existence of the fundamental contribution of Islam, which remains a powerful space for the construction of social and interpersonal meanings even in post-colonial dynamics. This is the scenario in which the reconstruction of networks may be converted into an overall challenge for social occupational therapy to mediate conflicts emerging from the confrontation of values and social practices.
Konaté Amadou T
Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical presentation of malaria, considered as the result of a complex interaction between parasite and human genetics, is described to be different between rural and urban areas. The analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity in children with uncomplicated malaria, living in these two different areas, may help to understand the effect of urbanization on the distribution of P. falciparum genotypes. Methods Isolates collected from 75 and 89 children with uncomplicated malaria infection living in a rural and an urban area of Burkina Faso, respectively, were analysed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes to compare P. falciparum diversity. Results The K1 allelic family was widespread in children living in the two sites, compared to other msp1 allelic families (frequency >90%. The MAD 20 allelic family of msp1 was more prevalent (p = 0.0001 in the urban (85.3% than the rural area (63.2%. In the urban area, the 3D7 alleles of msp2 were more prevalent compared to FC27 alleles, with a high frequency for the 3D7 300bp allele (>30%. The multiplicity of infection was in the range of one to six in the urban area and of one to seven in the rural area. There was no difference in the frequency of multiple infections (p = 0.6: 96.0% (95% C.I: 91.6–100 in urban versus 93.1% (95%C.I: 87.6–98.6 in rural areas. The complexity of infection increased with age [p = 0.04 (rural area, p = 0.06 (urban area]. Conclusion Urban-rural area differences were observed in some allelic families (MAD20, FC27, 3D7, suggesting a probable impact of urbanization on genetic variability of P. falciparum. This should be taken into account in the implementation of malaria control measures.
Alfred B Tiono
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and seasonal pattern of malaria in children in South-West Burkina Faso, and to compare, in a randomized trial, characteristics of cases detected by active and passive surveillance. This study also enabled the planning of a malaria vaccine trial. METHODS: Households with young children, located within 5 kilometers of a health facility, were randomized to one of two malaria surveillance methods. In the first group, children were monitored actively. Each child was visited twice weekly; tympanic temperature was measured, and if the child had a fever or history of fever, a malaria rapid diagnostic test was performed and a blood smear collected. In the second group, children were monitored passively. The child's parent or caregiver was asked to bring the child to the nearest clinic if he was unwell. Follow up lasted 13 months from September 2009. RESULTS: Incidence of malaria (Fever with parasitaemia ≥5,000/µL was 1.18 episodes/child/year in the active cohort and 0.89 in the passive cohort (rate ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.13-1.54. Malaria cases in the passive cohort were more likely to have high grade fever; but parasite densities were similar in the two groups. Incidence was highly seasonal; when a specific case definition was used, about 60% of cases occurred within the 4 months June-September. CONCLUSION: Passive case detection required at least a 30%-40% increase in the sample size for vaccine trials, compared to active detection, to achieve the same power. However we did not find any evidence that parasite densities were higher with passive than with active detection. The incidence of malaria is highly seasonal and meets the WHO criteria for Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC. At least half of the malaria cases in these children could potentially be prevented if SMC was effectively deployed.
Full Text Available The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg and selenium (Se were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg, methylmercury (MeHg, and total Se (TSe. Ratios of δ13C and δ15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs were calculated using mean δ15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted δ15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female Sex workers (FSW are important in driving HIV transmission in West Africa. The Yerelon clinic in Burkina Faso has provided combined preventative and therapeutic services, including anti-retroviral therapy (ART, for FSWs since 1998, with evidence suggesting it has decreased HIV prevalence and incidence in this group. No data exists on the costs of such a combined prevention and treatment intervention for FSW. This study aims to determine the mean cost of service provision per patient year for FSWs attending the Yerelon clinic, and identifies differences in costs between patient groups. METHODS: Field-based retrospective cost analyses were undertaken using top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for 2010. Expenditure and service utilisation data was collated from primary sources. Patients were divided into groups according to full-time or occasional sex-work, HIV status and ART duration. Patient specific service use data was extracted. Costs were converted to 2012 US$. Sensitivity analyses considered removal of all research costs, different discount rates and use of different ART treatment regimens and follow-up schedules. RESULTS: Using the top-down costing approach, the mean annual cost of service provision for FSWs on or off ART was US$1098 and US$882, respectively. The cost for FSWs on ART reduced by 29%, to US$781, if all research-related costs were removed and national ART monitoring guidelines were followed. The bottom-up patient-level costing showed the cost of the service varied greatly across patient groups (US$505-US$1117, primarily due to large differences in the costs of different ART regimens. HIV-negative women had the lowest annual cost at US$505. CONCLUSION: Whilst FSWs may require specialised services to optimise their care and hence, the public health benefits, our study shows that the cost of ART provision within a combined prevention and treatment intervention setting is comparable to providing ART to
Somé, Anyirékun Fabrice; Zongo, Issaka; Compaoré, Yves-Daniel; Sakandé, Souleymane; Nosten, François; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Rosenthal, Philip J
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), with regular use of amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ/SP) during the transmission season, is now a standard malaria control measure in the Sahel subregion of Africa. Another strategy under study is SMC with dihydroartemisinin plus piperaquine (DP). Plasmodium falciparum single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in P. falciparum crt (pfcrt), pfmdr1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps are associated with decreased response to aminoquinoline and antifolate antimalarials and are selected by use of these drugs. To characterize selection by SMC of key polymorphisms, we assessed 13 SNPs in P. falciparum isolated from children aged 3 to 59 months living in southwestern Burkina Faso and randomized to receive monthly DP or AQ/SP for 3 months in 2009. We compared SNP prevalence before the onset of SMC and 1 month after the third treatment in P. falciparum PCR-positive samples from 120 randomly selected children from each treatment arm and an additional 120 randomly selected children from a control group that did not receive SMC. The prevalence of relevant mutations was increased after SMC with AQ/SP. Significant selection was seen for pfcrt 76T (68.5% to 83.0%, P = 0.04), pfdhfr 59R (54.8% to 83.3%, P = 0.0002), and pfdhfr 108N (55.0% to 87.2%, P = 0.0001), with trends toward selection of pfmdr1 86Y, pfdhfr 51I, and pfdhps 437G. After SMC with DP, only borderline selection of wild-type pfmdr1 D1246 (mutant; 7.7% to 0%, P = 0.05) was seen. In contrast to AQ/SP, SMC with DP did not clearly select for known resistance-mediating polymorphisms. SMC with AQ/SP, but not DP, may hasten the development of resistance to components of this regimen. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00941785.).
Abdoul; Karim; Ouattara; Cyrille; Bisseye; Bapio; Valery; Jean; Télesphore; Elvira; Bazie; Birama; Diarra; Tegwindé; Rebeca; Compaore; Florencia; Djigma; Virginio; Pietra; Remy; Moret; Jacques; Simpore
Objective:To investigate 4 combinations of mutations responsible for glucose-6—phosphate dehydrogenase(G6PD) deficiency in a rural community of Burkina Faso,a malaria endemic country.Methods:Two hundred individuals in a rural community were genotyped for the mutations A376 G.G202A,A542 T,G680T and T968 C using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism assays and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism.Results:The prevalence of the G6 PD deficiency was 9.5%,in the study population.It was significantly higher in men compared to women(14.23%vs 6.0%,P=0.049).The 202A/376 G G6PD Awas the only deficient variant detected.Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic parasitemia was significantly higher among the C6PD-non—deficient persons compared to the G6PD-deficient(P<0.001).The asymptomatic parasitemia was also significantly higher among G(SPI) nondeficient compared to C6PD—heterozygous females(P<0.001).Conclusions:This study showed that the G6 PD A- variant associated with protection against asymptomatic malaria in Burkina Faso is probably the most common deficient variant.
Soulama, Issiaka; Sermé, Samuel S; Bougouma, Edith C; Diarra, Amidou; Tiono, Alfred B; Ouedraogo, Alphonse; Konate, Amadou T; Nebie, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B
The association between P. falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 polymorphism in the pathogenicity of malaria disease was investigated. We therefore compared the prevalence of different alleles between symptomatic and asymptomatic malarial children under five years of age living in Burkina Faso. Blood filter papers were collected during the 2008 malaria transmission season from 228 symptomatic and 199 asymptomatic children under five years of age. All patients were living in the rural area of Saponé at about 50 km from Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. P. falciparum parasite DNA was extracted using QIAGEN kits and the alleles diversity was assessed by a nested PCR. PCR products were then digested by restriction enzymes based on already described polymorphic regions of the eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 genes. The individual alleles eba-175_FCR3 and msp-3_K1 frequencies were statistically higher (p 0.05). The comparative analysis of P. falciparum genotypes indicated that the polymorphism in eba-175 and msp-3 genotypes varied between asymptomatic and symptomatic clinical groups and may contribute to the pathogenesis of malaria. PMID:26634149
Full Text Available Dans la première moitié du XXème siècle, alors que la Haute-Volta (actuel Burkina Faso subissait une terrible épidémie de maladie du sommeil, l’administration coloniale française a orchestré des déplacements massifs de populations de la Haute-Volta vers la Côte d’Ivoire, pour exploiter le territoire. Cela a conduit à la mise en place de villages de colonisation Mossi en zone forestière ivoirienne, comme ceux de Koudougou, issus de l’une des régions les plus peuplées de Haute-Volta, mais aussi l’une des plus touchées par la maladie du sommeil. Depuis 2000, au Burkina Faso, c’est dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou que sont dépistés passivement le plus grand nombre de trypanosomés en provenance de Côte d’Ivoire. Qui sont-ils ? Où habitent-ils au Burkina Faso ? D’où viennent-ils de Côte d’Ivoire ? Après avoir retracé l’histoire épidémiologique des villages de Koudougou au Burkina Faso et en Côte d’Ivoire, nous avons recherché les trypanosomés dépistés passivement depuis 2000 dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou au Burkina Faso. Au total, dix trypanosomés ont été enquêtés. Le processus de propagation de la maladie du sommeil dans l’espace ivoiro-burkinabé a été mis en évidence et des zones à risque de la maladie identifiées dans ce même espace.
Nianogo, AJ.; Sawadago, L.; Zoundi, JS.
Farmers' Practices and Strategies for Ruminants' Supplementation in Mixed Crop-livestock Farming Systems in the Central Plateau and North of Burkina Faso. With the purpose to understand the farmers' practices and strategies for ruminants supplementation, mixed crop-livestock farms have been surveyed in three agro-ecological zones of Burkina Faso. The results obtained indicated that lactating females' supplementation is almost permanent whatever be the period of the year, but the objectives va...
Sondo, B; Sya, D; Paré, R; Kouanda, S; Savadogo, L
We investigated contraceptive practices in the rural health district of Kaya in Burkina Faso with the aim of a) comparing the sociodemographic and cultural characteristics of individuals who were well and poorly informed concerning contraceptive methods; b) analyzing the pattern of use of these contraceptive methods by the populations. We carried out a two-level cluster survey by the Hendersen method. For each household investigated, the chief, his wife (or one wife selected at random in polygamous families) and an adolescent (or one adolescent selected at random if there was more than one adolescent) were interviewed. Significantly more men than women were well informed concerning contraceptive methods. Similarly, a higher proportion of male adolescents than of female adolescents were well informed concerning contraceptive methods. The individuals who were well informed concerning contraceptive methods differed from those who were not well informed in terms of age, religion, level of education and radio listening habits. The prevalence of use of contraceptive methods in this study was found to be 4 to 36%, depending on the group studied. The majority of individuals expressed an intention to use contraceptive methods in the future: 59 to 78%, depending on the group studied. The contraceptive methods chosen for current and future use were, in order: the pill, condoms and contraceptive implants and the intrauterine device. Current patterns of contraceptive use favor, in decreasing order of preference, abstinence, the pill, condoms and contraceptive implants. There was also a strong tendency for individuals to experiment with diverse contraceptive methods. Thus, in the future, there is likely to be a trend towards the abandoning of abstinence in favor of the pill, condoms and contraceptive implants. Of these newer methods, condoms are likely to be the least popular and their relegation to a lower level of importance is likely to have disastrous consequences in terms
Jaquet, Antoine; Garanet, Franck; Balestre, Eric; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Azani, Jean Claude; Bognounou, René; Dah, Elias; Kondombo, Jean Charlemagne; Dabis, François; Drabo, Joseph
Introduction The scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant improvement in survival of the HIV-positive patient but its effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are less known and context-dependent. Our aim was to assess the temporal changes and factors associated with HRQOL among HIV-positive adults initiating HAART in Burkina Faso. Methods HIV-positive people initiating HAART were prospectively included and followed over a one-year period in three HIV clinics of Ouagadougou. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit using physical (PHS) and mental (MHS) summary scores derived from the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item short-form health survey (MOS SF-36) questionnaire. Toxicity related to HAART modification and self-reported symptoms were recorded during follow-up visits. Determinants associated with baseline and changes in both scores over a one-year period were assessed using a mixed linear model. Results A total of 344 patients were included. Their median age at baseline was 37 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30–44] and their median CD4 count was 181 cells/mm3 (IQR 97–269). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] PHS score increased from 45.4 (11.1) at baseline to 60.0 (3.1) at 12 months (p<10−4) and the mean (SD) MHS score from 42.2 (8.7) to 43.9 (3.4) (p<10−2). After one year of treatment, patients that experienced on average two symptoms during follow-up presented with significantly lower PHS (63.9) and MHS (43.8) scores compared to patients that presented no symptoms with PHS and MHS of 68.2 (p<10−4) and 45.3 (p<10−3), respectively. Discussion The use of HAART was associated with a significant increase in both physical and mental aspects of the HRQOL over a 12-month period in this urban African population. Perceived symptoms experienced during follow-up visits were associated with a significant impairment in HRQOL. The appropriate and timely management of reported symptoms during the
Full Text Available Introduction: The scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has led to a significant improvement in survival of the HIV-positive patient but its effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL are less known and context-dependent. Our aim was to assess the temporal changes and factors associated with HRQOL among HIV-positive adults initiating HAART in Burkina Faso. Methods: HIV-positive people initiating HAART were prospectively included and followed over a one-year period in three HIV clinics of Ouagadougou. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit using physical (PHS and mental (MHS summary scores derived from the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item short-form health survey (MOS SF-36 questionnaire. Toxicity related to HAART modification and self-reported symptoms were recorded during follow-up visits. Determinants associated with baseline and changes in both scores over a one-year period were assessed using a mixed linear model. Results: A total of 344 patients were included. Their median age at baseline was 37 years [interquartile range (IQR 30–44] and their median CD4 count was 181 cells/mm3 (IQR 97–269. The mean [standard deviation (SD] PHS score increased from 45.4 (11.1 at baseline to 60.0 (3.1 at 12 months (p < 10−4 and the mean (SD MHS score from 42.2 (8.7 to 43.9 (3.4 (p<10−2. After one year of treatment, patients that experienced on average two symptoms during follow-up presented with significantly lower PHS (63.9 and MHS (43.8 scores compared to patients that presented no symptoms with PHS and MHS of 68.2 (p<10−4 and 45.3 (p<10−3, respectively. Discussion: The use of HAART was associated with a significant increase in both physical and mental aspects of the HRQOL over a 12-month period in this urban African population. Perceived symptoms experienced during follow-up visits were associated with a significant impairment in HRQOL. The appropriate and timely management of reported symptoms during
Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Simpore, Jacques
showed the highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes. PMID:24662935
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN is an important tool in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM strategy. For ITNs to be effective they need to be used correctly. Previous studies have shown that many factors, such as wealth, access to health care, education, ethnicity and gender, determine the ownership and use of ITNs. Some studies showed that free distribution and public awareness campaigns increased the rate of use. However, there have been no evaluations of the short- and long-term impact of such motivation campaigns. A study carried out in a malaria endemic area in south-western Burkina Faso indicated that this increased use declined after several months. The reasons were a combination of the community representation of malaria, the perception of the effectiveness and usefulness of ITNs and also the manner in which households are organized by day and by night. Methods PermaNet 2.0® and Olyset® were distributed in 455 compounds at the beginning of the rainy season. The community was educated on the effectiveness of nets in reducing malaria and on how to use them. To assess motivation, qualitative tools were used: one hundred people were interviewed, two hundred houses were observed directly and two houses were monitored monthly throughout one year. Results The motivation for the use of bednets decreased after less than a year. Inhabitants' conception of malaria and the inconvenience of using bednets in small houses were the major reasons. Acceptance that ITNs were useful in reducing malaria was moderated by the fact that mosquitoes were considered to be only one of several factors which caused malaria. The appropriate and routine use of ITNs was adversely affected by the functional organization of the houses, which changed as between day and night. Bednets were not used when the perceived benefits of reduction in mosquito nuisance and of malaria were considered not to be worth the inconvenience of daily use. Conclusion In
Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques
showed the highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes.
Ispasanie, Emma; Pluschke, Gerd; Hodgson, Abraham; Sie, Ali; MacLennan, Calman; Koeberling, Oliver
Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and a considerable health problem in the 25 countries of the 'African Meningitis Belt' that extends from Senegal in West Africa to Ethiopia in the East. Approximately 80% of cases of meningococcal meningitis in Africa have been caused by strains belonging to capsular serogroup A. After the introduction of a serogroup A conjugate polysaccharide vaccine, MenAfriVac (™), that began in December 2010, the incidence of meningitis due to serogroup A has markedly declined in this region. Currently, serogroup W of N. meningitidis accounts for the majority of cases. Vaccines based on sub-capsular antigens, such as Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), are under investigation for use in Africa. To analyse the antigenic properties of a serogroup W wave of colonisation and disease, we investigated the molecular diversity of the protein vaccine antigens PorA, Neisserial Adhesin A (NadA), Neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA) and factor H binding protein (fHbp) of 31 invasive and carriage serogroup W isolates collected as part of a longitudinal study from Ghana and Burkina Faso between 2003 and 2009. We found that the isolates all expressed fHbp variant 2 ID 22 or 23, differing from each other by only one amino acid, and a single PorA subtype of P1.5,2. Of the isolates, 49% had a functional nhbA gene and 100% had the nadA allele 3, which contained the insertion sequence IS1301 in five isolates. Of the W isolates tested, 41% had high fHbp expression when compared with a reference serogroup B strain, known to be a high expresser of fHbp variant 2. Our results indicate that in this collection of serogroup W isolates, there is limited antigenic diversification over time of vaccine candidate outer membrane proteins (OMP), thus making them promising candidates for inclusion in a protein-based vaccine against meningococcal meningitis for Africa. PMID:25901274
Full Text Available La présente étude traite de la biodiversité microbienne et des paramètres physico-chimiques de quelques vins de rônier produits traditionnellement au Burkina Faso. Elle a consisté à la détermination des paramètres physico-chimiques et microbiologiques du vin de rônier issu de la fermentation spontanée de la sève de rônier.L’étude de la composition physico-chimique et des aspects microbiologiques a été réalisée à l’aide des méthodes standards de microbiologie et de physico-chimie. Douze échantillons de sève de rônier fermentée naturellement ont été collectés dans la région de Bobo Dioulasso où ce vin est abondamment produit.Le pH, l’acidité totale, la teneur en sucres totaux et en alcool variaient entre 3,6 et 4,5 ; 0,1 et 1,28 % (m/v ; 0,58 et 8,72 % (m/v ; 4,08 et 7,25 % (v/v respectivement. La flore mésophile totale était entre 1,4.108 et 2,5.108UFC et la flore de levures entre 3,4 106 et 2,85 107UFC par millilitre de vin.Les coliformes totaux étaient présents dans 25 % des échantillons (BFH1, BFH5 et BFH10 à un nombre de l’ordre de 1,28.106 à 4,6.106UFC/ml témoignant une qualité hygiénique pauvre. Lactobacillus, Bacillus, et Acetobacter thermo-tolérants et alcoolo-tolérants impliqués dans le processus de fermentation spontanée de la sève de rônier ont été également isolés et identifiés dans les échantillons BFH1, BFH9 et BFH12.La connaissance des paramètres physico-chimiques et microbiologiques de la sève fermentée du rônier est nécessaire non seulement pour la valorisation de cette boisson locale et traditionnelle mais aussi pour l’exploitation de la biodiversité microbienne.
Liu, Jinxiu; Heiskanen, Janne; Aynekuly, Ermias; Pellikka, Petri
Tree crown cover (CC) is an important vegetation attribute for land cover characterization, and for mapping and monitoring forest cover. Free data from Landsat and Sentinel-2 allow construction of fine resolution satellite image time series and extraction of seasonal features for predicting vegetation attributes. In the savannas, surface reflectance vary distinctively according to the rainy and dry seasons, and seasonal features are useful information for CC mapping. However, it is unclear if it is better to use spectral bands or vegetation indices (VI) for computation of seasonal features, and how feasible different VI are for CC prediction in the savanna woodlands and agroforestry parklands of West Africa. In this study, the objective was to compare seasonal features based on spectral bands and VI for CC mapping in southern Burkina Faso. A total of 35 Landsat images from November 2013 to October 2014 were processed. Seasonal features were computed using a harmonic model with three parameters (mean, amplitude and phase), and spectral bands, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), tasseled cap (TC) indices (brightness, greenness, wetness) as input data. The seasonal features were employed to predict field estimated CC (n = 160) using Random Forest algorithm. The most accurate results were achieved when using seasonal features based on TC indices (R2: 0.65; RMSE: 10.7%) and spectral bands (R2: 0.64; RMSE: 10.8%). GNDVI performed better than NDVI or NDWI, and NDWI resulted in the poorest results (R2: 0.56; RMSE: 11.9%). The results indicate that spectral features should be carefully selected for CC prediction as shown by relatively poor performance of commonly used NDVI. The seasonal features based on three TC indices and all the spectral bands provided superior accuracy in comparison to single VI. The method presented in this study provides a feasible method to map
Full Text Available Sorghum production in a Piliostigma reticulatum Park in the North Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso. En zone sahélo-soudanienne, les systèmes de production sont des associations cultures-ligneux. Les ligneux sélectionnés sont des espèces fruitières et/ou à rôle écologique prouvé. Face à l'aridification climatique, les populations adoptent de plus en plus l'espèce Piliostigma reticulatum. De manière à quantifier l'impact de cette espèce sur la production du sorgho, principale culture de la région, quinze pieds de Piliostigma reticulatum, âgés de 7 ans ont été suivis en association avec le sorgho blanc, pendant trois ans. Les paramètres suivis sont: la croissance et les composantes du rendement. Des échantillons de sol ont été prélevés pour déterminer les effets de l'espèce sur les propriétés du sol. Les trois traitements comparés étaient: culture sous houppier, culture à la limite du houppier et culture hors houppiers. Sous le houppier de Piliostigma reticulatum, le statut du carbone organique est amélioré de 67 % dans l'horizon 0-10 cm et de 46% dans l'horizon 10-20 cm. Le taux d'azote total est amélioré de 62% dans l'horizon 0-10 cm. En outre, le rapport C/N présente des valeurs relativement faibles. A 30 jour après le semis, on constate une meilleure croissance du sorgho sous houppier par rapport aux placettes hors houppier. Cependant, selon les années, la meilleure croissance initiale sous houppier ne se traduit pas nécessairement par des gains de production en paille et en grains du sorgho par rapport aux autres placettes. Des investigations complémentaires sont nécessaires pour expliquer ces observations et évaluer l'intérêt de cette association pour les agriculteurs.
highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes.
Mouhouddine, Alihoumadi; Yameogo, Suzanne; Genthon, Pierre; Travi, Yves
African cities are presently facing the combined impacts of growing urbanization and climate change. In several instances; providing safe drinking water for all is still a challenge, especially for cities located on basement aquifers, were groundwater is scarce. Here we assess the effects of climate change and land use change on groundwater amount and quality in the main city of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) taking advantage of the CIEH borehole, where a mostly continuous record lasts since 1978. This record spans most of the Great African Drought (1970-1990) and recovery from the Drought since the 2000s. A piezometric network of 14 wells and boreholes was setup around the CIEH borehole and monitored during the 2013-2014 hydrologic year. The piezometric network spans an old settlement, the Ouagadougou University, a vegetable gardening area and a natural forested area. Water balance estimates are provided by a 1D box model. The study area, although it lies partly on an old settlement in Ouagadougou and on the University area, presents a rather uniform runoff coefficient of 22% and ET amounting to 80-90 % of rainfall, which usually characterizes natural areas. It is suspected that the almost absence of asphalted surfaces, the presence of trees and flow of rainwater from roofs toward bare soils or sumps could be responsible of this budget. However, the two wells located in the forested Bangr Weogo recreational area are characterized by almost no runoff and a nearly 100 % ET. While drinking water can be pumped in several places in the city of Ouagadougou, chemical major analyses show that two mechanisms impact groundwater quality during the rainy season: (i) rise of the water table at pit latrine level, mainly in old settlements, and entrainment of harmful substances from soil to the aquifer in gardening area near some artisan activities. The CIEH borehole is not fully representative of its neighboring area since (i) it lies in a piezometric low, (ii) it presents the
Yaméogo, T M; Kyelem, C G; Poda, G E A; Sombié, I; Ouédraogo, M S; Millogo, A
Meningococcal meningitis remains a periodical threat in the African meningitis belt. The countries concerned, such as Burkina Faso, provided guidelines for its surveillance, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention during outbreaks. The objective of this study is to assess the quality of the surveillance system and case management during an outbreak in Fada N'Gourma district. A retrospective study of the meningitis outbreak in 2007 was conducted by literature review and interviews of health caretakers across 27 health centers (CSPS) and three units in the regional hospital in the district.We reported all data available about surveillance and case management, and then we compared it with the guidelines of the Ministry of Health. The case definition and notification forms were available in all centers and units. During the outbreak, 861 cases were recorded, but only 89% was notified at the upper level and 87% of notification forms were available. The age is marked on all the forms, while the interval between the onset of symptoms and consultation is noted only in 90.7%. The forms were distributed weekly at the district level. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram coloration was performed for a limited number of cases (150/349 samples, 42.9%); it showed Gram-negative diplococcus in 86%. Culture was performed for a limited number of patients (7 cases). According to the results of a central level laboratory study, the outbreak was due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis. The case management guidelines were available in all the centers and units which were supervised during the outbreak. Anti-biotherapy was appropriate in 93.6% of the cases. A shortage of antibiotics (free prepositioning) was observed in 7 centers (23.3%). The mortality rate was 3.5%. This assessment shows an under-notification of cases, despite the existence of a surveillance system and supervision, a weak laboratory contribution in germ identification, appropriate case management, and shortage of antibiotics during
Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems to exempt the indigent from user fees have been put in place to prevent the worst-off from being excluded from health care services for lack of funds. Yet the implementation of these mechanisms is as rare as the operational research on this topic. This article analyzes an action research project aimed at finding an appropriate solution to make health care accessible to the indigent in a rural district of Burkina Faso. Research This action research project was initiated in 2007 to study the feasibility and effectiveness of a community-based, participative and financially sustainable process for exempting the indigent from user fees. A interdisciplinary team of researchers from Burkina Faso and Canada was mobilized to document this action research project. Results and knowledge sharing The action process was very well received. Indigent selection was effective and strengthened local solidarity, but coverage was reduced by the lack of local financial resources. Furthermore, the indigent have many other needs that cannot be addressed by exemption from user fees. Several knowledge transfer strategies were implemented to share research findings with residents and with local and national decision-makers. Partnership achievements and difficulties Using a mixed and interdisciplinary research approach was critical to grasping the complexity of this community-based process. The adoption of the process and the partnership with local decision-makers were very effective. Therefore, at the instigation of an NGO, four other districts in Burkina Faso and Niger reproduced this experiment. However, national decision-makers showed no interest in this action and still seem unconcerned about finding solutions that promote access to health care for the indigent. Lessons learned The lessons learned with regard to knowledge transfer and partnerships between researchers and associated decision-makers are: i involve potential users of the
Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO estimates suggest that age-specific death rates from non-communicable diseases are higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in high-income countries. The objectives of this study were to examine, in Burkina Faso, the prevalence of non-communicable disease symptoms by age, gender, socioeconomic group and setting (rural/urban, and to assess gender and socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of these symptoms. Methods We obtained data from the Burkina Faso World Health Survey, which was conducted in an adult population (18 years and over with a high response rate (4822/4880 selected individuals. The survey used a multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling strategy to identify participants. The survey collected information on socio-demographic and economic characteristics, as well as data on symptoms of a variety of health conditions. Our study focused on joint disease, back pain, angina pectoris, and asthma. We estimated prevalence correcting for the sampling design. We used multiple Poisson regression to estimate associations between non-communicable disease symptoms, gender, socioeconomic status and setting. Results The overall crude prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI were: 16.2% [13.5; 19.2] for joint disease, 24% [21.5; 26.6] for back pain, 17.9% [15.8; 20.2] for angina pectoris, and 11.6% [9.5; 14.2] for asthma. Consistent relationships between age and the prevalence of non-communicable disease symptoms were observed in both men and women from rural and urban settings. There was markedly high prevalence in all conditions studied, starting with young adults. Women presented higher prevalence rates of symptoms than men for all conditions: prevalence ratios and 95% CIs were 1.20 [1.01; 1.43] for joint disease, 1.42 [1.21; 1.66] for back pain, 1.68 [1.39; 2.04] for angina pectoris, and 1.28 [0.99; 1.65] for asthma. Housewives and unemployed women had the highest prevalence rates of non-communicable disease
Full Text Available Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF mass drug administration (MDA for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future.A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.8% in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6% and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0-4.2 epg. Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9-6.1% and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3-26.6 epg. A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS. In this assessment, 351 children aged 6-7 years and 345 children aged 10-14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2-2.1% and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0-4.1% of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to <10% in STH prevalence according to the pre-defined cut-off values.Through large-scale preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso has effectively controlled STH in school age children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also demonstrated that LF TAS provides one feasible and efficient platform to assess the
Full Text Available Effects of Preventive Medical Treatments on the Productivity of Local Guinea-Fowl (Numida meleagris in the Sub-Humid Region of Burkina Faso. A study to measure the efficiency of preventive medical treatments on subsequent reproductive performances of local guinea fowl kept under natural photoperiod in the sub-humid region of Burkina Faso has been conducted. Two groups of 200 day-old guinea chicks each (T1 and T2 have been maintained under controlled conditions of feed, water allowance and more generally habitat (ex: temperature. T1 received no preventive medical treatment while Group T2 was vaccinated against Newcastle disease, and supplemented with a coccidiostatic and a trichomonacid. Percent mortality in T2 was significantly lower than in T1: 21% vs 43% (P < 0.05. In both groups, the livability of chicks with hatching body weights < 25 g at birth was very low (26% and 28% survival in T1 and T2, respectively. No significant differences were observed for body weights between the two groups at 60 weeks of age irrespective of the sex (P < 0.05 in both cases. A comparison of laying rates observed during the entire laying period (May to October indicated a significant difference between T2 and T1 (19 vs 13%, respectively; P < 0.05. The onset of lay was observed at 219 days in T2 but only at 255 days in T1. A general tendency for heavier egg weights in T2 than in T1 was also observed (ex: 40.1 + 3.0 g in T2 vs 38.0 + 1.7 g in T1 at 52 weeks of age, respectively. Our results confirm observations by farmers that the overall reproductive performances of guinea fowl in Burkina Faso is generally very low. The prevention of diseases by a preventive programme improves laying rates and egg weights while significantly decreasing mortality in breeder flocks. The improvement of the average body weight and the laying rate over the season by improved feed, preventive treatments and, possibly, genetic selection of breeder flocks would be of major interest in this
Dossou, Bernadette; Balma, Didier; Mahamadou SAWADOGO; Jarvis, Devra
Le concept de conservation in situ de l’agrobiodiversité est en pleine expérimentation au Burkina Faso. Afin de déterminer le degré d’implication et de participation de la femme dans ce processus, une étude a été menée. Ainsi, des enquêtes auprès de 48 hommes et 109 femmes ont été réalisées dans les localités de Médéga, Tougouri, Gourga, Pobé–Mengao, Ouahigouya. Les données issues de l’enquête sont complétées par des observations directes dans les champs, greniers, cuisines, marchés, lieux de...
In the French-speaking countries of Africa, strategies of conservation, inherited from the colonial time, exclude the bordering people in the management of the national parks plant resources. Today, policies and legislation try to reconcile forest conservation and development by associating local...... this issue in the case of the “Parc National Kaboré Tambi” in Burkina Faso, by proposing a combination of ethno-botanical surveys and botanical inventories. The article analyses the importance of the park plant species, identify the constraints faced by local people to harvest the park plant products......, analyse the park vegetation structure and assess the degree of regeneration of the main useful species. The surveys reveal that bordering people consider the park as their granary, their pharmacy, their pasture, their place of religious worship, and the source of the strength of their territory...
Ouattara, Fatoumata; Tagmatarchi Storeng, K.
Au Burkina Faso comme dans de nombreux autres pays africains, l'avortement provoqué se caractérise par une réprobation sociale et une restriction légale. Cependant, l'avortement non médicalisé est un problème de santé publique majeur qui constitue l'une des causes principales de la mortalité maternelle. Non seulement il est dramatique pour les femmes concernées et pour les travailleurs de la santé en contact avec elles, mais les acteurs de la sphère institutionnelle sont également confrontés ...
Iuel-Brockdorff, Ann-Sophie Julie D; Dræbel, Tania; Fabiansen, Christian;
The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of new formulations of six corn-soy blended flours (CSB) and six lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with different quantities of milk and qualities of soy to be used for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Furthermore...... trial evaluating the effectiveness of these new formulations. The study involved an observed test-meal and a three-day take-home ration of the experimental food supplements to 6-30-months-old healthy children, followed by questionnaire-based interviews about the acceptability of these supplements...... children in rural Burkina Faso based on general appreciation of the supplements and organoleptic properties. All experimental foods received good ratings and there was no significant difference between the foods. However, after the take-home ration, 58% of participants receiving CSB reported having left...
Introduction La mortalité maternelle reste encore élevée dans les pays en développement notamment en Afrique où une femme parmi 16 en âge de reproduction sera touchée par cette mortalité contre 1 femme parmi 2400 dans les pays développés. Au Burkina Faso, ce risque de mortalité est de 1 parmi 12 pour une femme en âge de reproduction. La littérature internationale montre qu’un meilleur accès aux soins qualifiés à l’accouchement et aux soins obstétricaux d’urgence est la solution majeure ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28 days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2 g/kg and 3.4 g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia .
Sorgho, Hermann; Bahgat, Mahmoud; Poda, Jean-Noel; Song, Wenjian; Kirsten, Christa; Doenhoff, Michael J; Zongo, Issaka; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Ruppel, Andreas
The performance of indirect haemagglutination assays (IHA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) were compared with 450 sera from a Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area in Burkina Faso. All participants in this survey provided at least one sample each of stool, urine and serum. From those with an egg-negative Kato-Katz thick smear, a second stool sample was examined. IHA was based on either extracts of adult S. mansoni worms (SmIHA) or S. japonicum egg antigen (SjIHA). For ELISA, three antigen preparations were used, namely: (i) soluble S. mansoni adult worm antigens (SWAP); (ii) soluble S. mansoni egg antigens (SEA); and (iii) a cationic exchange fraction of S. mansoni eggs (CEF6). IFAT was performed with S. mansoni male worm sections. Among the egg-excretors, the sensitivity of ELISA was high and egg antigens performed slightly better (SEA, 96%; CEF6, 97%) than worm antigen (94%). Sensitivity of IHA was satisfactory with homologous (Sm, >85%), but not heterologous (Sj, 56%) parasite antigen. In IFAT, the parenchyma-associated fluorescence showed high sensitivity (95%), but gut-associated fluorescence, which is known to be a sensitive diagnostic marker for schistosome-infected European travelers, was observed only in 76% of a sub-sample of 100 of the endemic sera. Among sera from egg-negative individuals, many gave positive reactions in several or all of the tests employed. These reactions (formally "false positive") are considered to represent true infections, since chemotherapy had not yet been delivered to this population. For the purpose of further surveys in Burkina Faso or other resource-poor settings, we suggest IHA as an accurate diagnostic test and propose to further improve its performance by including egg rather than worm antigens.
Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G.; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains. PMID:27679613
Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains.
Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Yameogo, Pouiré; Diarra, Birama; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Yonli, Albert; Compaore, Tegwindé Rebeca; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Djigma, Florencia Wenkuuni; Simpore, Jacques
The G-6-PD deficiency has an important polymorphism with genotypic variants such as 202A/376G, 376G/542T and 376G/968T known in West African populations. It would confer protection against severe forms of malaria although there are differences between the various associations in different studies. In this study we genotyped six (06) variants of the G-6-PD gene in people with symptomatic malaria in urban areas in Burkina Faso. One hundred and eighty-two (182) patients who tested positive using rapid detection test and microscopy were included in this study. A regular PCR with the GENESPARK G6PD African kit was run followed by electrophoresis, allowing initially to genotype six SNPs (G202A, A376G, A542T, G680T, C563T and T968C). Women carrying the mutations 202A and/or 376G were further typed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes rs1050828 and rs1050829. In the study population the G-6-PD deficiency prevalence was 9.9%. In addition of G-6-PD A- (202A/376G) variant, 376G/542T and 376G/968T variants were also detected. Hemoglobin electrophoresis revealed that 22.5% (41/182) of the individuals had HbAC compared with2.2% with HbAS and one individual had double heterozygous HbSC. There was no correlation between the G-6-PD deficiency or haemoglobinopathies and symptomatic malaria infections in this study. Our study confirms that the G-6-PD deficiency does not confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum infections. As opposed to previous genotyping studies carried out in Burkina Faso, this study shows for the first time the presence of the variant A- (376G/968C) and warrants further investigation at the national level and in specific ethnic groups. PMID:27413522
Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Sidibé, Issa; Vreysen, Marc J B; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry
African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s). PMID:20060501
Introduction La Région Nord du Burkina Faso a donné lieu à de nombreux travaux, dont j’ai tenté de rendre compte dans un texte récent : « Lutte contre l’aridité climatique au Burkina Faso ; quarante ans de recherche et d’appui au développement ; bilan et perspectives ». En cette année 2012 où la communauté internationale focalise sa réflexion sur l’eau, il me semble utile de revenir de façon plus détaillée et plus quantitative sur le défi que représente la lutte contre les aléas climatiques, ...
Gérard Foulon; Romaric T. Some
The implementation of cost-recovery and the unequal distribution of health care services between cities and countryside, explain the reduction in health care access in Burkina Faso. To face this context it is necessary to reconsider the manner in which health districts are financed and to reduce the household contribution to a level compatible with the ability to pay for the majority of the population. Without this change, the system will continue to produce serious social inequalities. Patie...
Changes in the availability and uses of wild yams according to climatic dryness and land-cover in Western Burkina Faso (West Africa) : a joint ecological and ethno-botanical approach using GIS and remote-sensing
Devineau, Jean-Louis; Aurouet, A.; Douanio, M.; Hladik, A.
The regional variability in the uses of wild yams is assessed according to their availability in relation with land-use and climatic conditions from the South to the North sudanian sectors in Western Burkina Faso. The study involves field studies and modelling of the geographical distribution of yams and seeks correlations between environmental and ethno-biological data. Terrain analysis consists of phyto-ecological surveys and interviews with local inhabitants. A cluster analysis of a multi-...
Induced abortion without medical or legal request in countries where it is prohibitedsuch as Burkina Faso poses both a public health and social problems. It is this doubleproblematic that this thesis explored in order to understand the causes of the difficultiesfacing the country to fight against unsafe abortions, and the factors that increased thispractice among young people. Immersion in abortion universe (health facilities andlives of women and men who have experienced abortion) and interv...
Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.; McCuaig, T. Campbell
The integration of field mapping and analytical studies of magmatic units of the northeast of Burkina Faso has provided new information on the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane. Structural, geochemical and geochronological analyses have helped to clarify the geological evolution of the region during the Tangaean Event (D1) and Eburnean Orogeny (D2) through to the Wabo Tampelse Event (D3). Further to this, zircon U-Pb geochronology data have demonstrated that the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane represents some of the oldest outcropping geology in the Palaeoproterozoic Baoulé-Mossi domain recognised to date, with the oldest age at 2253 ± 9 Ma. The geochronology and geology suggests that the basement or a pre-Birimian crust to the Birimian Supergroup may be found in the northeast of Burkina Faso. The Eburnean Orogeny in the northeastern Burkina is preceded by the two phases of deformation (D1-x and D1), and two phases of magmatism. D1-x is associated with the emplacement of the Dori Batholith at the onset of D1 (2164-2141 Ma). D1 ductile-brittle deformation formed F1 folds and discrete high-strained mylonite zones that deformed the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane during a southwest-directed palaeo-principal transport direction. The pre-Birimian to Birimian supracrustal rocks and intrusions were regionally metamorphosed during D1 to greenschist to amphibolite facies. The Eburnean Orogeny (2130-1980 Ma) is characterised by northwest-southeast shortening; it was followed by north-northwest to south-southeast shortening with development of sinistral strike-slip faults and shears. D2 brittle-(ductile) deformation is manifested by refolding of F1 by northeast-trending F2, and development of a pervasive northeast-trending S2 to S2-C foliation. Metamorphic grade attained greenschist facies during D2 with development of the mineral assemblage of quartz
Millenium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...
Millenium Challenge Corporation — This performance evaluation will follow a theory-based approach that examines the entire project logic. This means examining along the causal chain from activities...
In response to the increasing demand for food linked to the substantial growth of population in Burkina Faso, irrigation has been widely used by the farming community to support agricultural production. Thus a promising option for water resources development in such a context is to increase the number of small dams. It is assumed that the great number of small dams may have effect on sub-basins' hydrological dynamic. This study aims to assess the seasonal and the intra-seasonal change in river basins hydrology with the case study of the Faga River sub-basin located in Burkina-Faso, West Africa, using Water Simulation Model (WaSiM). For this watershed the number of small dams is slightly very important (More than 60) and their impact on the watershed runoff has been estimated simultaneously with the change in climate pattern. The coefficient of variation for rainfall in this sub-basin from 1982 to 2010 is 0.097 and the stream flow presents a seasonal average of 25.58Km3 per month for the same period. The intra-seasonal climate variation for the same period is estimated at 0.087 in the scenario where any dam has not been considered. Results based on simulation including the five important dams over the sub-basin show that the overall effect of small dams is on average a 20.76% in runoff. Projections using the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 climate scenarios with increase of 25% of dams' number show a probable decrease of about 29.54% and 35.25% of the average during the next fifty years runoff. The study findings show that small dams reduce significantly the runoff from their watershed and the uncertainties related to the sustainability of the resource seems to be increasing during the same period. Therefore, despite the very large number of water storage infrastructures, reservoirs operating strategies have to be achieved for water sustainability within the Faga sub-basin.
Ouedraogo, Denis; Artavia-Mora, Luis; Bedi, Arjun; Thiombiano, Boundia Alexandre
Background Retention in care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) is a critical challenge in many African countries including Burkina Faso. Delivering text messaging (short message service, SMS) interventions through mobile phones may help facilitate health service delivery and improve patient health. Despite this potential, no evaluations have been delivered for national scale settings to demonstrate the impact of mobile health (mHealth) for PLHIV. Objectives This study aims to test the impact of SMS text messaging reminders for PLHIV in Burkina Faso, who are under ART. The evaluation identifies whether patients who receive SMS text messages are more likely to (1) retain in care (measured as a dichotomous variable), (2) adhere to antiretroviral regimens (measured as the number of doses missed in the past 7 days), and (3) experience slower disease progression (measured with T-lymphocytes cells). The second objective is to assess its effects on the frequency of health center visits, physical and psychosocial health, nutrition and whether the type of message (text vs image) and frequency (weekly vs semiweekly) have differential impacts including the possibility of message fatigue over time. Methods This 24-month, wide-scale intervention implements a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the impact of four variants of a mHealth intervention versus a control group. Our sample comprises adult patients (>15 years of age) undergoing antiretroviral therapy with access to mobile phone services. Multivariate regression analysis will be used to analyze the effect of the intervention on the study population. Data collection is done at baseline and three follow-up waves 6, 12, and 24 months after the intervention starts. Results The targeted 3800 patients were recruited between February 2015 and May 2015. But political uncertainty delayed the launch of the intervention until October 2015. Data
Full Text Available Depuis 2008, le Burkina Faso a adopté le coton-Bt en milieu paysan, à partir de variétés africaines transformées. L’étude menée est la première étude ex post, couvrant la période de 2008–2013, relative aux impacts financiers respectifs des sociétés cotonnières et des paysans, chaque catégorie étant prise globalement. L’étude est originale en tenant compte de la transformation génétique imparfaite des variétés utilisées. L’étude évalue les impacts financiers d’une situation réelle d’utilisation du coton-Bt par rapport à une situation de référence sans recours au coton-Bt. L’évaluation est faite aussi par rapport au scénario anticipé lors de la décision d’adoption et dont l’hypothèse d’un gain de rendement au champ de 30 % n’a pas été confirmée. L’évaluation est réalisée par la méthode de budget partiel avec des calculs de sensibilité à trois critères, industriel, commercial et du prix mondial. Pour les paysans, l’impact financier est positif, mais le ratio de rentabilité du surcoût des semences est à peine acceptable. Pour les sociétés cotonnières, l’impact financier est modeste et est devenu négatif à mesure que le prix mondial du coton est descendu de son record historique, en raison du manque à gagner en quantité de fibre produite, de la réduction en longueur du coton fibre et de l’application d’un malus à la vente à l’exportation. L’image d’un pays fournissant habituellement un coton de qualité est négativement affectée. L’adoption du coton-Bt au Burkina Faso constitue un cas rare d’évolution technologique induisant une divergence d’impacts entre les deux catégories d’acteurs avec une incidence négative potentielle sur le financement de la recherche pour poursuivre le progrès technique.
Mosqueira, Beatriz; Soma, Dieudonné D; Namountougou, Moussa; Poda, Serge; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Ali, Ouari; Fournet, Florence; Baldet, Thierry; Carnevale, Pierre; Dabiré, Roch K; Mas-Coma, Santiago
A pilot study to test the efficacy of combining an organophosphate-based insecticide paint and pyrethroid-treated Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes was performed in a real village setting in Burkina Faso. Paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, comprised of two organophosphates (OPs) and an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR), was tested in combination with pyrethroid-treated LLINs. Efficacy was assessed in terms of mortality for 12 months using Early Morning Collections of malaria vectors and 30-minute WHO bioassays. Resistance to pyrethroids and OPs was assessed by detecting the frequency of L1014F and L1014S kdr mutations and Ace-1(R)G119S mutation, respectively. Blood meal origin was identified using a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The combination of Inesfly 5A IGR™ and LLINs was effective in killing 99.9-100% of malaria vector populations for 6 months regardless of the dose and volume treated. After 12 months, mortality rates decreased to 69.5-82.2%. The highest mortality rates observed in houses treated with 2 layers of insecticide paint and a larger volume. WHO bioassays supported these results: mortalities were 98.8-100% for 6 months and decreased after 12 months to 81.7-97.0%. Mortality rates in control houses with LLINs were low. Collected malaria vectors consisted exclusively of Anopheles coluzzii and were resistant to pyrethroids, with a L1014 kdr mutation frequency ranging from 60 to 98% through the study. About 58% of An. coluzzii collected inside houses had bloodfed on non-human animals. Combining Inesfly 5A IGR™ and LLINs yielded a one year killing efficacy against An. coluzzii highly resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to OPs that exhibited an anthropo-zoophilic behaviour in the study area. The results obtained in a real setting supported previous work performed in experimental huts and underscore the need to study the impact that this novel strategy may have on clinical
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Besides existing artemisinin-based combination therapies, alternative safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against falciparum malaria are needed. Methylene blue (MB was the first synthetic antimalarial drug ever used, and recent studies have been promising with regard to its revival in malaria therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of two MB-based malaria combination therapies, MB-artesunate (AS and MB-amodiaquine (AQ, compared to the local standard of care, AS-AQ, in Burkina Faso. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Open-label randomised controlled phase II study in 180 children aged 6-10 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Nouna, north-western Burkina Faso. Follow-up was for 28 days and analysis by intention-to-treat. The treatment groups were similar in baseline characteristics and there was only one loss to follow-up. No drug-related serious adverse events and no deaths occurred. MB-containing regimens were associated with mild vomiting and dysuria. No early treatment failures were observed. Parasite clearance time differed significantly among groups and was the shortest with MB-AS. By day 14, the rates of adequate clinical and parasitological response after PCR-based correction for recrudescence were 87% for MB-AS, 100% for MB-AQ (p = 0.004, and 100% for AS-AQ (p = 0.003. By day 28, the respective figure was lowest for MB-AS (62%, intermediate for the standard treatment AS-AQ (82%; p = 0.015, and highest for MB-AQ (95%; p<0.001; p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: MB-AQ is a promising alternative drug combination against malaria in Africa. Moreover, MB has the potential to further accelerate the rapid parasite clearance of artemisinin-based combination therapies. More than a century after the antimalarial properties of MB had been described, its role in malaria control deserves closer attention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00354380.
Full Text Available Background: The benefits of universal access to voluntary contraception have been widely documented in terms of maternal and newborn survival, women's empowerment, and human capital. Given population dynamics, the choices and opportunities adolescents have in terms of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services could significantly affect the burden of diseases and nations’ human capital. Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to assess the patterns and trends of modern contraception use among sexually active adolescents by socio-economic characteristics and by birth spacing and parity; to explore predictors of use of modern contraception in relation to the health system; and to discuss implications of the findings for family planning policy and programmes. Design: Data are from the last three Demographic and Health Surveys of Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, and Nigeria. The descriptive analysis focused on sexually active adolescents (15- to 19-year age group, used modern contraception as the dependent variable, and a series of contact points with the health system (antenatal care, institutional delivery, postnatal care, immunisation as covariates. The multivariate analysis used the same covariates, adjusting for socio-economic variables. Results: There are two different groups of sexually active adolescents: those married or in a union with very low use of modern contraception and lower socio-economic status, and those unmarried, among whom nearly 50% are using modern contraception. Younger adolescents have lower modern contraceptive prevalence. There are significant inequality issues in modern contraception use by education, residence, and wealth quintile. However, while there was no significant progress in Burkina Faso and Nigeria, the data in Ethiopia point to a significant and systematic reduction of inequalities. The narrowing of the equity gap was most notable for childbearing adolescents with no education or living
Une Politique D’adaptation Climatique Inachevée Mais Persistante Le Cas de la Zone Pastorale du CEZIET de Samorogouan (Burkina Faso A climate adaptation policy, incomplete but persistent: the case of the Pastoral Zone of CEZIET of Samorogouan (Burkina Faso
Full Text Available A Samorogouan (Burkina Faso, les migrations des pasteurs ont été planifiées par un projet de la Banque Mondiale : le Projet d’Élevage Ouest Volta (PEOV. Avec l’agrément des autorités locales, le projet a délimité un vaste territoire (125.000 ha dédié au « ranching » et à l’accueil des éleveurs qui ont fuit la sècheresse des années 70. Le projet a été retiré de la zone durant la Révolution sankariste de 1984. Aujourd’hui, pendant que l’emprise du défrichement augmente, de multiples conflits entre les éleveurs installés, la Justice, les services déconcentrés et les agriculteurs apparaissent à propos du statut de La zone.In Samorogouan (Burkina Faso, pastoral migration has been planned by the World Bank through a project titled « Projet d’Élevage Ouest Volta (PEOV ». With the agreement of the local authorities, the project defines a large territory (125.000 hectares dedicated to ranching and to the settlement of the pastoralists who had fled the region during the droughts of the 70s. The project was cancelled in 1984, during the Sankarist revolution. Nowadays, the pastoral zone is threatened by clearance and by various conflicts between settled pastoralists, Justice, the local administration and farmers.
Bayen, P.; Sop, T. K.; Lykke, A. M.; Thiombiano, A.
Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-sylvo-pastoral productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental design with three replicates per restoration technique. A total of 174 seedlings were planted in each study site. The results showed that the soil water content varied according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p curcas is unsuited to denuded land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that J. curcas may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.
Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J.; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit
This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users’ needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management.
Barthélémy Yélémou; Sidzabda Djibril Dayamba; Dasmane Bambara; Georges Yaméogo; Salawu Assimi
In the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso,Piliostigma reticulatum (DC) Hochst and Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach) are precursor species of fallow land colonization and they are used by rural villagers.The present study aimed to assess the contribution of Piliostigma species to soil quality improvement.We quantified organic carbon,total nitrogen,soil microbial biomass,soil basal respiration and metabolic quotient from soil samples taken under and outside Piliostigma canopies.We used one-way ANOVA to test for differences in the above parameters between locations (beneath and outside Piliostigma canopies).We recorded increased total organic carbon under Piliostigma from 31％-105％ and in total nitrogen from 23％-66％.Microbial biomass was 13％-266％ higher beneath canopies as compared to outside canopies.Basal respiration was also higher beneath canopies.The chemical elements varied by class of soil texture.Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was significantly correlated to clay (r =0.80) and silt (r =0.79) content.Piliostigma stands produced abundant litter due to their leaf biomass.Thus,they contribute to improved total organic carbon and total nitrogen content in the different phytogeographic zones and improve soil fertility
Wenddabo Olivier Sawadogo
Full Text Available The use of mathematical modeling as a tool for decision support is not common in Africa in solving development problems. In this article we talk about the numerical simulation of groundwater level of the plain of Gondo (Burkina Faso and the sensitivity analysis of the hydrodynamic parameters. The domain has fractures which have hydraulic coefficients lower than those of the rock. Our contribution is to bring brief replies to the real problem posed in the thesis of Mr. KOUSSOUBE . Namely that what causes the appearance of the piezometric level observed and impact of surface water on the piezometry. The mathematical model of the flow was solved by programming the finite element method on FreeFem++. A local refinement of the mesh at fracture was used. We then conduct a sensitivity analysis to see which hydrodynamic parameters influences much of the solution. The method used for the sensitivity analysis is based on the calculation of the gradient by the adjoint equation and requires great computational power. To remedy this, we used a technique of distributed computing and we launched our application to the Moroccan grid (magrid. This allowed us to reduce the computation time. The results allowed to highlight the role of fractures and contributions of surface water on the evolution of the piezometric level of the plain of Gondo and identified the parameters that greatly influence the piezometric level.
Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit
This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users' needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management.
Roch K Dabiré
Full Text Available An entomological survey was carried out at 15 sites dispersed throughout the three eco-climatic regions of Burkina Faso (West Africa in order to assess the current distribution and frequency of mutations that confer resistance to insecticides in An. gambiae s.l. populations in the country. Both knockdown (kdr resistance mutation variants (L1014F and L1014S, that confer resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, were identified concomitant with the ace-1 G119S mutation confirming the presence of multiple resistance mechanisms in the An. gambiae complex in Burkina Faso. Compared to the last survey, the frequency of the L1014F kdr mutation appears to have remained largely stable and relatively high in all species. In contrast, the distribution and frequency of the L1014S mutation has increased significantly in An. gambiae s.l. across much of the country. Furthermore we report, for the first time, the identification of the ace.1 G119S mutation in An. arabiensis populations collected at 8 sites [corrected]. This mutation, which confers resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, has been reported previously only in the An. gambiae S and M molecular forms. This finding is significant as organophosphates and carbamates are used in indoor residual sprays (IRS to control malaria vectors as complementary strategies to the use of pyrethroid impregnated bednets. The occurrence of the three target-site resistance mutations in both An. gambiae molecular forms and now An. arabiensis has significant implications for the control of malaria vector populations in Burkina Faso and for resistance management strategies based on the rotation of insecticides with different modes of action.
In Burkina Faso, the analysis of the consequences of the urbanization in terms of poverty, based on a spatio-time-series approach, organized in function, on the one hand, information of the household surveys – 1994-95 and 1998 –, and the demographic and health surveys – 1992-93 and 1998-99 – and, on the other hand, the administrative division according to 30 provinces, allows to formulate three conclusions. Firstly, the study shows that the growth rate of the incidence of relative regional ur...
Maatma, Arnoldus Johannes
Le présente étude a pour but d'analyser les perspectives d'intensification durable des systemes de production agricole dans la région Nord-Quest du Burkina Faso par des techniques a faibles couts. Zie: Résumé
Maatma, Arnoldus Johannes
Le présente étude a pour but d'analyser les perspectives d'intensification durable des systemes de production agricole dans la région Nord-Quest du Burkina Faso par des techniques a faibles couts. Zie: Résumé
Full Text Available Empirical modelisation of socio-economic determinants in smallholder farming management in southwest of Burkina Faso. The study aims at identifying farmer’s decision rules and the socio-economic determinants of organic resource dynamics. Decision rules study and socio-economic determinants of organic resource dynamics allowed quantification of their impact on these organic resource dynamics. The main results of the investigations reveal that principal decision rules are edicted and managed by local authorities. These decision rules concern collective management and access to the cultivated land, grazing land, and homestead and to the bush. Farmers have also a diversity of individual rules covering production, consumption, marketing and relations between themselves. Survey of a sample of one hundred farmers selected for their representativity allowed to quantify relations between farm needs and their organic resource use. These relations permitted developing empirical statistical models (needs of land to cultivate, food grains needs, cash needs, fuel wood needs depending on farming system. Fuel wood needs were established with survey measured data. These needs expressed in kilogramme consumed wood per day per person were established for the dry season (0.97 kg per person and per day and for the wet season (1.36 kg per person and per day. Average fuel wood consumption per person and per day has an exponential decay when the household size increases. When land is available, land need for cultivation mainly depends on labour availability. Food grain needs is constant (180 kg per person and per year. It is the same in both farming systems studied. Money needs depend on cash crop surfaces, livestock’s products and extra agricultural activities of the farmer.
Benewinde J-B. Zoungrana
Full Text Available Accurate quantification of land use/cover change (LULCC is important for efficient environmental management, especially in regions that are extremely affected by climate variability and continuous population growth such as West Africa. In this context, accurate LULC classification and statistically sound change area estimates are essential for a better understanding of LULCC processes. This study aimed at comparing mono-temporal and multi-temporal LULC classifications as well as their combination with ancillary data and to determine LULCC across the heterogeneous landscape of southwest Burkina Faso using accurate classification results. Landsat data (1999, 2006 and 2011 and ancillary data served as input features for the random forest classifier algorithm. Five LULC classes were identified: woodland, mixed vegetation, bare surface, water and agricultural area. A reference database was established using different sources including high-resolution images, aerial photo and field data. LULCC and LULC classification accuracies, area and area uncertainty were computed based on the method of adjusted error matrices. The results revealed that multi-temporal classification significantly outperformed those solely based on mono-temporal data in the study area. However, combining mono-temporal imagery and ancillary data for LULC classification had the same accuracy level as multi-temporal classification which is an indication that this combination is an efficient alternative to multi-temporal classification in the study region, where cloud free images are rare. The LULCC map obtained had an overall accuracy of 92%. Natural vegetation loss was estimated to be 17.9% ± 2.5% between 1999 and 2011. The study area experienced an increase in agricultural area and bare surface at the expense of woodland and mixed vegetation, which attests to the ongoing deforestation. These results can serve as means of regional and global land cover products validation, as they
Bertin Ouédraogo M.
Full Text Available Borassus akeassii called" rônier " in French marks the South-Western landscape of Burkina Faso and plays an important role in local people livelihood. The present article is about this species uses and its socio-economic roles. Investigations have been made in three villages and in Banfora markets. The interviewed people were the villagers, extractors and retailers of sap, the outfitters and retailers of handicraft products. Some quantifications of sap and handicraft objects produced and sold have been conducted with the actors of the sector. Financial fallout has been also studied taking into account the high and low production periods. The results revealed that five parts of the tree were used as food, six as medicine and three in handicraft. Product prices varied with the period of production, the category of the seller and the object dimension. In dry cold period, from November to February, sap trading yielded net incomes of 277347 ± 94 653 FCFA for the extractors whereas the incomes amounted to 319 368 ± 163 969 FCFA from March to October. A craftsman could get a net income of 277 933 ± 2 787 FCFA during the high production period and 110 383 ± 25 371 FCFA during the low production period. Due to such an importance, there is a need for research program on the resource base, the improvement and management of the species. A better organization of the actors of the sector will improve their access to market information, to know the requirements of the market and to be aware of the impacts of product quality on the profit of the actors of the sector.
Murray, Susan F; Akoum, Mélanie S; Storeng, Katerini T
Accumulating evidence indicates that health crises can play a key role in precipitating or exacerbating poverty. For women of reproductive age in low-income countries, the complications of pregnancy are a common cause of acute health crisis, yet investigation of longer-term dynamics set in motion by such events, and their interactions with other aspects of social life, is rare. This article presents findings from longitudinal qualitative research conducted in Burkina Faso over 2004-2010. Guided by an analytic focus on patterns of continuity and change, and drawing on recent discussions on the notion of 'resilience', and the concepts of 'social capital' and 'bodily capital', we explore the trajectories of 16 women in the aftermath of costly acute healthcare episodes. The synthesis of case studies shows that, in conditions of structural inequity and great insecurity, an individual's social capital ebbs and flow over time, resulting in a trajectory of multiple adaptations. Women's capacity to harness or exploit bodily capital in its various forms (beauty, youthfulness, physical strength, fertility) to some extent determines their ability to confront and overcome adversities. With this, they are able to further mobilise social capital without incurring excessive debt, or to access and accumulate significant new social capital. Temporary self-displacement, often to the parental home, is also used as a weapon of negotiation in intra-household conflict and to remind others of the value of one's productive and domestic labour. Conversely, diminished bodily capital due to the physiological impact of an obstetric event or its complications can lead to reduced opportunities, and to further disadvantage. PMID:23063215
Full Text Available This article illustrates the need for studies on ''cultural ecosystem services'' to be based on ethnographic studies. It presents research conducted among a small, little-known population of savannah farmers, the Seme people of Burkina Faso (in West Africa. According to their concepts, sacred sites of hills and water bodies harbour genies. These genies play a major role in setting in place the essential components of the person during conception and birth and then they watch over the new human being until death. In addition, a flexible form of territorial and social anchoring of individuals and groups as well as the integration of outsiders, are achieved through this category of sites. These sites are related to two other broad categories of sacred sites which together make up a system, the first dedicated to male initiation and the others to agricultural activities. This relationship between Water Bodies and Hills and these other sites appears during a great collective ritual which is held every 40 years or so and which results in a major renewal of society. This is the last stage of male initiation during which the genies, who are initiated with the humans, shift to other categories of sites. These genies, which act as a sort of double, as guardians and censors of humans, thus they accompany or control biological and social reproduction and agricultural production activities. Ad hoc conservation measures of sites located among the Seme which overlook the existence of this relationship among categories of sites are inadequate. They could be useless, or worse, could serve to endorse the destruction of other sites and thus of the entire system. As analogous concepts are found widely throughout West Africa, the lessons learned from these case studies have more than local value.
Perez-Saez, Javier; Mari, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Casagrandi, Renato; Sokolow, Susanne H; De Leo, Giulio A; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Froehlich, Jean-Marc; Sou, Mariam; Karambiri, Harouna; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Amadou; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea
We study the geography of schistosomiasis across Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of water-based disease dynamics. The model quantitatively addresses the geographic stratification of disease burden in a novel framework by explicitly accounting for drivers and controls of the disease, including spatial information on the distributions of population and infrastructure, jointly with a general description of human mobility and climatic/ecological drivers. Spatial patterns of disease are analysed by the extraction and the mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The relevance of the work lies in the novel mapping of disease burden, a byproduct of the parametrization induced by regional upscaling, by model-guided field validations and in the predictive scenarios allowed by exploiting the range of possible parameters and processes. Human mobility is found to be a primary control at regional scales both for pathogen invasion success and the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development highlighted by systematic reviews are accounted for by the average distances of human settlements from water bodies that are habitats for the parasite's intermediate host. Our results confirm the empirical findings about the role of water resources development on disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free also by inspection of empirical prevalence patterns. We conclude that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the proposed framework provides a powerful tool for large-scale public health planning and schistosomiasis management. PMID:26513655
Stahlman, Shauna; Liestman, Benjamin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kouanda, Seni; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Bamba, Amara; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouamé, Abo; Baral, Stefan D
Introduction Transgender women are at high risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. However, there are limited empiric data characterizing HIV-related risks among transgender women in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of these analyses is to determine what factors, including sexual behaviour stigma, condom use and engagement in sex work, contribute to risk for HIV infection among transgender women across three West African nations. Methods Data were collected via respondent-driven sampling from men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women during three- to five-month intervals from December 2012 to October 2015 across a total of six study sites in Togo, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. During the study visit, participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of variables of interest between transgender women and MSM. A multilevel generalized structural equation model (GSEM) was used to account for clustering of observations within study sites in the multivariable analysis, as well as to estimate mediated associations between sexual behaviour stigma and HIV infection among transgender women. Results In total, 2456 participants meeting eligibility criteria were recruited, of which 453 individuals identified as being female/transgender. Transgender women were more likely than MSM to report selling sex to a male partner within the past 12 months (ptransgender women have distinct behaviours from those of MSM and that stigma perpetuated against transgender women is impacting HIV-related behaviours. Furthermore, given these differences, interventions developed for MSM will likely be less effective among transgender women. This situation necessitates dedicated responses for this population, which has been underserved in the context of both HIV surveillance and existing responses. PMID:27431465
Full Text Available Abstract Background User fees were generalized in Burkina Faso in the 1990 s. At the time of their implementation, it was envisioned that measures would be instituted to exempt the poor from paying these fees. However, in practice, the identification of indigents is ineffective, and so they do not have access to care. Thus, a community-based process for selecting indigents for user fees exemption was tested in a district. In each of the 124 villages in the catchment areas of ten health centres, village committees proposed lists of indigents that were then validated by the health centres' management committees. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this community-based selection. Methods An indigent-selection process is judged effective if it minimizes inclusion biases and exclusion biases. The study compares the levels of poverty and of vulnerability of indigents selected by the management committees (n = 184 with: 1 indigents selected in the villages but not retained by these committees (n = 48; ii indigents selected by the health centre nurses (n = 82; and iii a sample of the rural population (n = 5,900. Results The households in which the three groups of indigents lived appeared to be more vulnerable and poorer than the reference rural households. Indigents selected by the management committees and the nurses were very comparable in terms of levels of vulnerability, but the former were more vulnerable socially. The majority of indigents proposed by the village committees who lived in extremely poor households were retained by the management committees. Only 0.36% of the population living below the poverty threshold and less than 1% of the extremely poor population were selected. Conclusions The community-based process minimized inclusion biases, as the people selected were poorer and more vulnerable than the rest of the population. However, there were significant exclusion biases; the selection was very restrictive
Galactionova, Katya; Bertram, Melanie; Lauer, Jeremy; Tediosi, Fabrizio
Recent results from the phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine show that the vaccine induced partial protection against clinical malaria in infants and children; given the high burden of the disease it is currently considered for use in malaria endemic countries. To inform adoption decisions the paper proposes a generalizable methodology to estimate the cost of vaccine introduction using routinely collected and publicly available data from the cMYP, UNICEF, and WHO-CHOICE. Costing is carried out around a set of generic activities, assumptions, and inputs for delivery of immunization services adapted to a given country and deployment modality to capture among other factors the structure of the EPI program, distribution model, geography, and demographics particular to the setting. The methodology is applied to estimate the cost of RTS,S introduction in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. At an assumed vaccine price of $5 per dose and given our assumptions on coverage and deployment strategy, we estimate total economic program costs for a 6-9 months cohort within $23.11-$28.28 per fully vaccinated child across the 6 countries. Net of procurement, costs at country level are substantial; for instance in Tanzania these could add as much as $4.2 million per year or an additional $2.4 per infant depending on the level of spare capacity in the system. Differences in cost of vaccine introduction across countries are primarily driven by differences in cost of labour. Overall estimates generated with the methodology result in costs within the ranges reported for other new vaccines introduced in SSA and capture multiple sources of heterogeneity in costs across countries. Further validation with data from field trials will support use of the methodology while also serving as a validation for cMYP and WHO-CHOICE as resources for costing health interventions in the region.
Caroline L Trotter
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated serological correlates of protection against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA in Burkina Faso before the introduction of NmA conjugate vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected blood from a representative sample (N = 1022 of Bobo-Dioulasso residents. Sera were evaluated for serum bactericidal antibody (SBA activity against NmA strains of immunotype L11 (F8238 and L10 (3125 and NmA-specific IgG. Seroprevalence was compared to the age-specific NmA meningitis incidence in Bobo-Dioulasso during March 2007-February 2008. Meningococcal carriage was evaluated in a subset (N = 538. Geometric mean titres (GMT/concentrations (GMC of SBA and NmA-specific IgG increased with age, peaking around age 20 years. Overall, 70% of our sample had NmA-specific IgG ≥2 ug/mL. Meningitis incidence was highest in those aged <6 months and 5-19 years. No NmA carriers were found. Compared to the reference strain SBA, GMTs were higher against a locally isolated strain and around 40-fold lower against Dutch strain 3125. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides estimates of natural immunity to NmA, according to a variety of antibody measures, which will be helpful in ascertaining antibody persistence after MenAfriVac™ introduction. Age-specific seroprevalence of reference strain SBA titres most likely reflects exposure to meningococci and consecutive reactive immunity. We could not define any serological correlate of protection.
Andonaba, Jean Baptiste; Barro-Traoré, Fatou; Yaméogo, Téné; Diallo, Boukary; Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Traoré, Adama
La localisation cutanée de la maladie tuberculeuse demeure une forme rare et représente seulement 2,1% des localisations. L'objet de cette étude est de rapporter le profil épidémiologique, anatomoclinique et évolutif des cas de tuberculose ganglio-cutanée diagnostiqués dans un CHU au Burkina Faso. La fréquence de la tuberculose cutanée est très faible au CHUSS. Six cas ont été diagnostiqués entre 2004 et 2010, soit une fréquence de un cas par an. La durée d’évolution des cas allait de deux jusqu’à dix ans avant leur diagnostic. Les lésions observées étaient: trois scrofulodermes, trois gommes, une tuberculose testiculaire associée à un mal de Pott, un cas de polyadénopathies et des cicatrices atropho-rétractiles dans la plupart des cas. Sur le plan anatomopathologique, des granulomes tuberculoïdes ont été mis en évidence dans tous les cas avec une forte réaction tuberculinique à l'IDR. Sous antituberculeux pendant six mois, l’évolution a été bonne dans tous les cas mais au prix de séquelles cutanées cicatricielles inesthétiques. Son ampleur reste peut-être encore méconnue. Le renforcement du plateau technique du CHU et une bonne collaboration interdisciplinaire contribuerait à un meilleur diagnostic et prise en charge de cette affection. PMID:24648863
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. However, people's health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants. METHOD: We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study. RESULTS: Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.28, and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07-1.39. Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers
Full Text Available Studies on plant conservation in sacred groves provide mixed results, with some showing their effectiveness while others do not. We argue that beyond the variety of field cases, studies usually suffer from overrating rare species and insufficient consideration of societal data. The sacred sites of Bondoukuy department in Bwaba cultural area (Burkina Faso were geo-referenced and measured; the most abundant ligneous species were listed and their abundance recorded. Their conservation status and dynamics were assessed based on the core vs. satellite species model of Hanski. Data interpretations relied on the phytogeographical affinities of abundant species and on anthropological knowledge of the Bwaba society. The vast majority of shrines were less than 1 ha, located in or near villages in specific landscape features, and covered with trees. The most abundant species of shrines belonged mostly to local phytochories, but were subject to rather high anthropisation. The results support the concept that wooded shrines preserve local biodiversity, but indicate threats from an invasive alien species. The location and condition of shrines appeared to be constitutive features: the Bwaba system of thought involves a series of sacred sites (with and without trees located in remarkable features of the landscape, and their way of life has resulted in the proximity of these sites to the villages. The beliefs that promote plant cover conservation do so only to a certain extent and regardless of the species content, which raises the concern that alien species may upset the established communities. These beliefs have led the Bwaba to choose the most humid environments in which to set up their wooded shrines, which is interesting from a conservation perspective. The study advocates for a better consideration of social data to identify the key elements of the dynamics of the vegetation of sacred groves.
Icard-Vernière, C; Picq, C; Courbis, L; Mouquet-Rivier, C
Leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso were assessed as a potential vehicle for food fortification. First, iron and zinc bioaccessibility were measured by dialysability method in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces and in traditional whole dishes consisting of maize paste plus leafy vegetable sauces. Iron dialysability and solubility were higher in amaranth than in Jew's mallow sauce, pointing to a marked effect of the matrix. Iron dialysability was hardly affected by the maize paste contrary to zinc dialysability, which was reduced. Second, iron and zinc bioaccessibility was assessed in the same sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA or iron sulfate. Added iron, i.e. iron supplied by fortification, represented 60% of total iron at the low fortification level and 80% at high level. In amaranth sauces with the high level of fortification using NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate, fractional dialysable iron reached respectively 66% and 26% compared to only 8.1% in the unfortified sauce. Similarly, in Jew's mallow sauces, fractional dialysable iron was 57% and 5% respectively with NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate and less than 1% in the unfortified sauce. Concomitantly, fractional dialysable zinc increased by respectively 20% and 40% in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA whereas it remained unchanged with iron sulfate. Iron fortification could be an efficient way to greatly increase the available iron content of green leafy vegetable sauces and for this purpose NaFeEDTA is more effective than iron sulfate whatever the food matrix. PMID:26787350
Galactionova, Katya; Bertram, Melanie; Lauer, Jeremy; Tediosi, Fabrizio
Recent results from the phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine show that the vaccine induced partial protection against clinical malaria in infants and children; given the high burden of the disease it is currently considered for use in malaria endemic countries. To inform adoption decisions the paper proposes a generalizable methodology to estimate the cost of vaccine introduction using routinely collected and publicly available data from the cMYP, UNICEF, and WHO-CHOICE. Costing is carried out around a set of generic activities, assumptions, and inputs for delivery of immunization services adapted to a given country and deployment modality to capture among other factors the structure of the EPI program, distribution model, geography, and demographics particular to the setting. The methodology is applied to estimate the cost of RTS,S introduction in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. At an assumed vaccine price of $5 per dose and given our assumptions on coverage and deployment strategy, we estimate total economic program costs for a 6-9 months cohort within $23.11-$28.28 per fully vaccinated child across the 6 countries. Net of procurement, costs at country level are substantial; for instance in Tanzania these could add as much as $4.2 million per year or an additional $2.4 per infant depending on the level of spare capacity in the system. Differences in cost of vaccine introduction across countries are primarily driven by differences in cost of labour. Overall estimates generated with the methodology result in costs within the ranges reported for other new vaccines introduced in SSA and capture multiple sources of heterogeneity in costs across countries. Further validation with data from field trials will support use of the methodology while also serving as a validation for cMYP and WHO-CHOICE as resources for costing health interventions in the region. PMID:26518406
Serge Theophile Soubeiga
Full Text Available Introduction: Despite many prevention efforts, the number of children infected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa through vertical transmission remains high. This infection can be reduced through programmes of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the PMTCT protocol at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods: From August 2012 to September 2013, samples of dried blood spot (DBS were collected from 160 children aged 6 weeks born to HIV-1 positive mothers who were under PMTCT protocol at Saint Camille Medical Centre and 40 children of the same age group from orphanages and whose mothers were dead or unknown. The samples were tested using the Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative kit. The clinical data of mothers were collected and analyzed using SPSS Version 17.0 and Epi Info Version 6.0 softwares. Results: Among pregnant women in this study, 52.5% were predominantly young (24–29 years and 60.62% were housewives. In total, 50.5% (101/200 were in combination of AZT/3TC/NVP and 29.5% (59/200 were on prophylaxis (AZT/3TC. The rate of vertical transmission of HIV-1 was 0.0% (p<0.001 in children whose mothers were taking a combination of AZT/3TC/NVP (0/101 or were on a prophylaxis AZT/3TC treatment (0 /59. The rate of HIV-1 transmission in orphaned children was 15.0% (6/40. Conclusions: The PMTCT protocol is effective and reduces very significantly (p<0.001 the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child. In addition, screening by PCR of orphaned children vertically infected with HIV, enabled them to receive an early treatment.
Laure Stella Ghoma Linguissi; Remy Moret; Jean Baptiste Nikiema; Jacques Simpore; Cyrille Bisseye; Tani Sagna; Bolni Marius Nagalo; Djeneba Ouermi; Florencia W Djigma; Salvatore Pignatelli; Joseph D Sia; Virginio Pietra
Objective: To evaluate efficiency of HAART in the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted on 1 300 women attending the antenatal service at Saint Camille Medical Centre from September 2010 to July 2011. The HIV status of mothers was determined by rapid tests and ELISA. Discordant results were confirmed by real-time PCR. PCR was used to determine HIV status of children born from HIV-positive mothers. Results: Among 1 300 pregnant women tested for HIV, 378 were seropositive. Mothers were predominantly housewives (69.7%), and their mean age was (28.32±0.15) years. The overall prevalence of HIV transmission from mother to child was 4.8% (18/378). This prevalence differed significantly from 0.0% (0/114) to 6.8% (18/264) in children born from mothers under HAART and those with mothers under New Prophylactic Protocol (AZT + 3TC + NVP), respectively (P<0.01). Children’s mortality rate during the medical follow up was 1.3% (5/378). Among 16 women with HIV dubious status by ELISA, the Real Time PCR confirmed 2/16 (12.5%) as HIV positive. Conclusions: The protocol of prevention of mother to children HIV transmission (PMTCT) is effective. The rate of HIV vertical transmission is significantly reduced. Early diagnosis determined by PCR of children born from HIV- positive mother is necessary and recommended in the context of PMTCT in Burkina Faso. We also found that PCR is an effective tool to confirm HIV status in pregnant women.
Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Arimond, Mary
To be useful proxies of micronutrient intake at the population level in resource-limited societies, dietary diversity indicators should be simple and easy to collect in large surveys and their accuracy needs to be assessed. The present study aimed at comparing food group diversity indicators (FGI) derived from simple qualitative list-based questionnaires (qFGI) to the same indicators derived from quantitative 24-h recalls (QFGI). Both methods were administered separately on each of 3 recall days to women in 2 districts of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data were available for a total of 526 women x recalls. This study was performed within the framework of the Women's Dietary Diversity Project, which sought to analyze the relationships between various QFGI and the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) of women's diets across 11 micronutrients. The comparison between paired qFGI and QFGI scores was made both in terms of accuracy of the reporting by the list-based questionnaire, taking the QFGI as the gold standard, and in terms of performance of indicators in predicting an MPA > 60%. Examination of paired QFGI-qFGI differences revealed that the more disaggregated the FGI, the higher were the mean differences in scores. Food groups most frequently misreported often corresponded to foods put in small quantities in sauces. Overreporting by list-based questionnaires was observed for indicators applying a 15-g minimum quantity of consumption for a group to count in the score and this may result in weaker performance in predicting the MPA. These results highlight trade-offs between accuracy and simplicity when operationalizing FGI through qualitative questionnaires.
Berthé, Abdramane; Berthé-Sanou, Lalla; Konaté, Blahima; Hien, Hervé; Tou, Fatoumata; Somda, Serge; Bayala, Éric; Drabo, Maxime; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean
In sub-Saharan Africa, various studies have been conducted on severe disability in activities of daily living, instrumental or domestic activities. These studies have reported different rates without describing the social context for understanding their results. This study was conducted in Burkina Faso to fill the gaps in scientific information on disability in these areas. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in Bobo-Dioulasso among the older population, aged 60 and above. Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done with the help of Stata. A systematic random sample of 351 aging adults was interviewed. Moderate to severe functional disability or the need for supervision or assistance was present in 7% in activities of daily living and 86% in instrumental or domestic activities of daily living. This need for assistance varied according to the different activities or items in each domain. The proportions of disability found in this study are higher than those of previous studies that measured the often severe disabilities. All persons with disability claimed to have stable human resources which help them to manage their disabilities. The social context instrumental or domestic activities of daily living are divided by generation and/or by sex. That explains some results. With this division, it's inacceptable in some family that elders and/or old men do instrumental or domestic activities of daily living as prepare meals, do laundry, carry water to wash. The variation of this division from one family to another complicates the assessment of functional disability. To best manage elders disabilities, strategies must develop to: 1) retard the resignation of the family in care of its elderly in functional disability, 2) anticipate the preparation of formal social networks, public structures to support the elderly. PMID:26707555
Full Text Available Abstract Background Initiatives to raise the quality of care provided to mothers need to be given priority in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA. The promotion of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs is a common strategy, but their implementation is often challenging, limiting their potential impact. Through a cross-country perspective, this study explored CPGs for maternal health in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania. The objectives were to compare factors related to CPG use including their content compared with World Health Organization (WHO guidelines, their format, and their development processes. Perceptions of their availability and use in practice were also explored. The overall purpose was to further the understanding of how to increase CPGs' potential to improve quality of care for mothers in SSA. Methods The study was a multiple case study design consisting of cross-country comparisons using document review and key informant interviews. A conceptual framework to aid analysis and discussion of results was developed, including selected domains related to guidelines' implementability and use by health workers in practice in terms of usability, applicability, and adaptability. Results The study revealed few significant differences in content between the national guidelines for maternal health and WHO recommendations. There were, however, marked variations in the format of CPGs between the three countries. Apart from the Ghanaian and one of the Tanzanian CPGs, the levels of both usability and applicability were assessed as low or medium. In all three countries, the use of CPGs by health workers in practice was perceived to be limited. Conclusion Our cross-country study suggests that it is not poor quality of content or lack of evidence base that constitute the major barrier for CPGs to positively impact on quality improvement in maternal care in SSA. It rather emphasises the need to prioritise the format of guidelines to increase their usability and
Meissner, Peter E; Mandi, Germain; Witte, Steffen; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Mansmann, Ulrich; Rengelshausen, Jens; Schiek, Wolfgang; Jahn, Albrecht; Sanon, Mamadou; Tapsoba, Théophile; Walter-Sack, Ingeborg; Mikus, Gerd; Burhenne, Jürgen; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Schirmer, Heiner; Kouyaté, Bocar; Müller, Olaf
Background Safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against falciparum malaria are urgently needed for the poor populations in malaria endemic countries. Methylene blue (MB) combined with chloroquine (CQ) has been considered as one promising new regimen. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of CQ-MB in African children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Secondary objectives were to assess the efficacy and the acceptance of CQ-MB in a rural population of West Africa. Methods In this hospital-based randomized controlled trial, 226 children (6–59 months) with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were treated in Burkina Faso. The children were 4:1 randomized to CQ-MB (n = 181; 25 mg/kg CQ and 12 mg/kg MB over three days) or CQ (n = 45; 25 mg/kg over three days) respectively. The primary outcome was the incidence of severe haemolysis or other serious adverse events (SAEs). Efficacy outcomes were defined according to the WHO 2003 classification system. Patients were hospitalized for four days and followed up until day 14. Results No differences in the incidence of SAEs and other adverse events were observed between children treated with CQ-MB (including 24 cases of G6PD deficiency) compared to children treated with CQ. There was no case of severe haemolysis and also no significant difference in mean haemoglobin between study groups. Treatment failure rates were 53.7% (95% CI [37.4%; 69.3%]) in the CQ group compared to 44.0% (95% CI [36.3%; 51.9%]) in the CQ-MB group. Conclusion MB is safe for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, even in G6PD deficient African children. However, the efficacy of the CQ-MB combination has not been sufficient at the MB dose used in this study. Future studies need to assess the efficacy of MB at higher doses and in combination with appropriate partner drugs. PMID:16179085
Full Text Available We study the geography of schistosomiasis across Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of water-based disease dynamics. The model quantitatively addresses the geographic stratification of disease burden in a novel framework by explicitly accounting for drivers and controls of the disease, including spatial information on the distributions of population and infrastructure, jointly with a general description of human mobility and climatic/ecological drivers. Spatial patterns of disease are analysed by the extraction and the mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The relevance of the work lies in the novel mapping of disease burden, a byproduct of the parametrization induced by regional upscaling, by model-guided field validations and in the predictive scenarios allowed by exploiting the range of possible parameters and processes. Human mobility is found to be a primary control at regional scales both for pathogen invasion success and the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development highlighted by systematic reviews are accounted for by the average distances of human settlements from water bodies that are habitats for the parasite's intermediate host. Our results confirm the empirical findings about the role of water resources development on disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free also by inspection of empirical prevalence patterns. We conclude that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the proposed framework provides a powerful tool for large-scale public health planning and schistosomiasis management.
Angeluccetti, Irene; Coviello, Velio; Vezza, Paolo; Grimaldi, Stefania; Steffenino, Sara; Magloire Koussoubé, Alain
Soil erosion is currently menacing the availability of arable land in various countries worldwide. In particular the countries located in the Sahel area of Sub-Saharan Africa are extremely prone to this type of environmental degradation. The same countries rely traditionally upon subsistence farming, which makes the population more vulnerable to environmental changes. The study here presented exploits remote sensed data for identifying the main degradation processes occurring in a small catchment of central Burkina Faso (i.e., Boulbi watershed). This catchment, approximately 100 square km large, is characterized by the presence of a 30 years old dam, whose reservoir feeds 80 ha of rice-fields. This produce contributes up to 13% of the regional rice production. Nonetheless other crops, along with rain-fed rice, are grown all across the Boulbi catchment during the rainy season. Both the increasing gully erosion and the urbanization of the capital city pushing from the North are significantly threatening the farming activities. By using aerial frames acquired with a 16 years' time interval (i.e., 1996, 2012), free satellite imagery, and field surveys, the base cartography of the investigated area was updated and the most active gullies were identified. Moreover a change detection analysis was performed on both artifacts and land use features. More than 200.000 square m of erosion areas and an increase of nearly 90% in built-up areas were detected. In addition, the importance of producing up-to-date base data was proven by the exploitation of the outcomes for the production of a catchment land and water management plan.
Full Text Available Les contributions des internautes sur les sites d’information ont déjà fait l’objet de nombreuses recherches dans le contexte européen ou nord-américain (Degand & Simonson 2011, Falguères 2008, Paulussen & Ugille 2008, Rebillard & Touboul 2010, Calabrese 2014. Sur base d’une étude de terrain menée au Burkina Faso en 2012, cet article vise à cerner les mutations induites par les commentaires des internautes postés sur les sites des médias en ligne. Ces mutations concernent la pratique professionnelle des journalistes, qui se trouve interrogée par les avis et interpellations des internautes, les modalités de la participation citoyenne et même les usages du pouvoir politique. Les journalistes et les pouvoirs publics sont de plus en plus attentifs à cette participation en ligne, comme en témoignent les rappels à l’ordre réguliers de l’instance de régulation de la communication qui en supervise les contenus. Dans les rédactions de presse écrite, les commentaires postés par les internautes sur le site du journal sont valorisés jusqu’à se trouver repris en titre à la Une de l’édition papier. Et, dans les cénacles politiques, les débats en ligne ont même pu influencer certaines prises de décisions, dans un contexte social et sécuritaire très sensible. Après un bref aperçu de la presse burkinabè en ligne, cet article décrit les dynamiques professionnelles, politiques et sociales liées à l’émergence de cette forme d’expression participative, qui poussent à s’interroger sur la nature et la vocation du journalisme d’information et la place de la liberté d’expression dans ce pays d’Afrique subsaharienne. Web user contribution to news sites in Europe and North America has already been the subject of much research (Degand & Simonson 2011, Falguères 2008, Paulussen & Ugille 2008, Rebillard & Touboul 2010, Calabrese 2014. Based on field research
Full Text Available Analysis of the Determinants of Households'Fish Demand in Burkina Faso: the Case of a Rural Area (Vallée du Kou and Urban Areas (Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouagadougou. A study was conducted in 2004 in Burkina Faso in order to analyze the determinants of households' fish demand in both rural (Vallée du Kou and urban (Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouagadougou areas. To achieve this objective, 535 households were surveyed, the data collected were analyzed and a double-log regression function was constructed. The results of this study showed that households' fish consumption varied considerably according to the area (rural or urban. Households' fish demand was influenced by the availability of the product in the market. In addition to that, when the fish supply frequency increased, the duration of the conservation of the product was reduced or was annulled. The study revealed that the determinants of fish demand in rural area in Vallée du Kou included the size of the household, the prize of the fish in the market, the level of education and the revenue of the head of the household. In urban areas, these determinants include mainly the revenue of the head of the household, fish supply frequency, and conservation methods of the product.
Full Text Available Use of the chemical products in a tropical agrosystem: diagnosis of the risk of environmental pollution in the cotton area of eastern Burkina Faso. The aim through this work was to make a diagnosis of the risk of environmental pollution, consequence of the use of the chemical products of the cotton plant in the area of eastern Burkina Faso. A follow-up of sixty cotton exploitations in the province of Kompienga and observations on husbandries made it possible to collect the data. The study revealed a manifest inaccuracy of proportioning and dilution of insecticides with an average of spreading number of 9.30. Moreover 61.66% of cotton producers applied insecticides of Gossypium sp. (cotton to Vigna unguiculata (bean, Colocynthis vulgaris L. (melon and Zea mays (corn respectively in 60.50%, 9.30%, and 2.32% of the cases of diverted use. The sources of the environmental risk are the parallel circuits of provisioning of pesticides, the washing of the equipment of spreading in the sources of supply water and not respect of the technical routes of chemical products using. The estimate of the risks made it possible to put medical forward those of order, ground and water pollution and of development of resistance at the parasites targeted by the insecticidal treatments. A promotion of good husbandries is essential in the optics of a durable exploitation of the natural resources of the area.
Iavazzo, Pietro; Terracciano, Stefano; Topa, Maria Elena; Adamo, Paola; Coly, Adrien; De Paola, Francesco; Giordano, Simonetta; Giugni, Maurizio; Traoré, Seydou Eric
Desertification affects about two-thirds of the countries of the world, and one-third of the earth's surface, namely one-fifth of the world population. The seriousness of desertification depends on various factors, including climate (temperature, precipitation, wind, humidity), geomorphological and geological condition, vegetation cover, water and wind erosion, soil nutrient status and salinization, land use and land management, biodiversity, etc. Even the climate changes can contribute to the advance of desertification. Indeed hotter and drier conditions would extend the area prone to desertification to encompass areas currently not at risk. In addition, the rate of desertification would increase due to increases in erosion leading to an irreversible status of desertification process. This study was carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), and aimed to estimate the effects of climate change on sensitivity to desertification in the area of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) providing a prediction tool useful for optimization of land management. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation to the local conditions of the Environmentally Sensitive Areas Index (ESAI), developed within the MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use). A noteworthy advantage of this methodology is the flexibility, that allows to take into account several indices (climate, soil, vegetation cover, land management) operationally defined through the inclusion or exclusion of parameters scored on the basis of their impact on sensitivity to desertification. Therefore, an upgrade of the original method was developed adding a further index (Erosion Quality Index) for the evaluation of the cumulative impact of water and wind erosion in desertification process, by the RUSLE equation and the WEQ method, respectively. Climate simulations over the time period 2010-2050 were provided by the CMCC (Centro Euro
Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.
Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must
Stahlman, Shauna; Liestman, Benjamin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kouanda, Seni; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Bamba, Amara; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouamé, Abo; Baral, Stefan D
Introduction Transgender women are at high risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. However, there are limited empiric data characterizing HIV-related risks among transgender women in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of these analyses is to determine what factors, including sexual behaviour stigma, condom use and engagement in sex work, contribute to risk for HIV infection among transgender women across three West African nations. Methods Data were collected via respondent-driven sampling from men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women during three- to five-month intervals from December 2012 to October 2015 across a total of six study sites in Togo, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. During the study visit, participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of variables of interest between transgender women and MSM. A multilevel generalized structural equation model (GSEM) was used to account for clustering of observations within study sites in the multivariable analysis, as well as to estimate mediated associations between sexual behaviour stigma and HIV infection among transgender women. Results In total, 2456 participants meeting eligibility criteria were recruited, of which 453 individuals identified as being female/transgender. Transgender women were more likely than MSM to report selling sex to a male partner within the past 12 months (p<0.01), to be living with HIV (p<0.01) and to report greater levels of sexual behaviour stigma as compared with MSM (p<0.05). In the GSEM, sexual behaviour stigma from broader social groups was positively associated with condomless anal sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09, 1.62) and with selling sex (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02, 1.50). Stigma from family/friends was also associated with selling sex (AOR=1.42, 95% CI=1.13, 1.79), although no significant associations were identified with prevalent HIV infection
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is limited published information on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in West Africa. The aim of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis antigens in residents of three villages in Burkina Faso. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three villages were selected: The village of Batondo, selected to represent villages where pigs are allowed to roam freely; the village of Pabré, selected to represent villages where pigs are usually confined; and the village of Nyonyogo, selected because of a high proportion of Muslims and limited pig farming. Clustered random sampling was used to select the participants. All participants were asked to answer an interview questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and to provide a blood sample. The sera were analysed using an AgELISA. The prevalence of "strong" seropositive results to the presence of antigens of the larval stages of T. solium was estimated as 10.3% (95%CI: 7.1%-14.3%, 1.4% (0.4%-3.5% and 0.0% (0.0%-2.1% in the 763 participants who provided a blood sample in Batondo, Pabré and Nyonyogo, respectively. The prevalence of "weak" seropositive test results to the presence of antigens of the larval stages of T. solium was 1.3% (0.3%-3.2%, 0.3% (0.0%-1.9% and 4.5% (2.0%-8.8% in Batondo, Pabré and Nyonyogo, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression, which included only Batondo and Pabré, showed that village, gender, and pork consumption history were associated with AgELISA seroprevalence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study illustrates two major points: 1 there can be large variation in the prevalence of human seropositivity to the presence of the larval stages of T. solium cysticercosis among rural areas of the same country, and 2 the serological level of the antigen, not just whether it is positive or negative, must be considered when assessing prevalence of human cysticercosis antigens.
Koine Maxime Drabo
Full Text Available There is increasing evidence demonstrating the importance of healthcare systems for improvement of chronic illness care. The aims of this study were to develop a comprehensive assessment of the health services capacity to provide tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care but also to enhance patient empowerment, social network and community support. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 to 31 of August 2007 in 3 districts of Burkina Faso. We used a step-by-step model and the assessment of chronic illness care (ACIC scale to assess capacities of 24 first line health centres (FLHC and 3 district hospitals (DH for providing TB and HIV/AIDS care. Data for the step-by-step model were extracted from medical records of 75 TB and 66 HIV patients. The ACIC scale was completed by health professionals, 6 medical doctors and 18 nurses, working at the DH level and at the FLHC level, respectively. The biological test for confirmation was free of charge for all the TB patients but only for 10.6% (7/66 HIV cases. Up to the time of the survey, 5 TB (6.6% and 18 HIV+ patients (27.3% have been hospitalised for care at least once, 64 TB (85.3% had been declared cured and 38 HIV (54.5% were under antiretroviral treatment. Health care process organisation for TB and HIV care had distinct areas of weaknesses. From a maximum ACIC score of 11, the overall score for TB care ranged between 1.9 and 4.9 with a median of 3.7 and for HIV care between 2.1 and 6.7 with a median of 4.1. This study provides an illustration of assessing the HIV and TB care combining data from the routine information system and from the chronic illness care assessment tool, to encompass both disease control and patient health perspective. It provides to health managers arguments for clear conclusions and sufficient data for action.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, the availability and accessibility of oral health services are seriously constrained and the provision of essential oral care is limited. Reports from the region show a very low utilization of oral health care services, and visits to dental-care facilities are mostly undertaken for symptomatic reasons. The objectives of the present study were to describe the prevalence of oral symptoms among adults in Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso and the use of oral health services and self-medication in response to these symptoms and to measure the associations between predisposing, enabling and needs factors and decisions to seek oral health care. Methods The conceptual design of the study was derived from both the Andersen-Newman model of health care utilization and the conceptual framework of the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes. Data were obtained by two-stage stratified sampling through four areas representative of different stages of urbanization of Ouagadougou. The final study population comprised 3030 adults aged 15 years or over and the response rate was 65%. Results Overall, 28% of the respondents had experienced an oral health problem during the past 12 months; a high proportion (62% reported pain or acute discomfort affecting daily life. In response to symptoms, only 28% used oral health facilities, 48% used self-medication and 24% sought no treatment at all. Multivariate analyses revealed that several socio-economic and socio-cultural factors such as religious affiliation, material living conditions and participation in a social network were significantly associated with the use of oral health care services by adults who had experienced oral health problems during the previous year. Conclusion The proportion of people who have obtained oral health care is alarmingly low in Ouagadougou and self-medication appears to be an important alternative source of care for
Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against falciparum malaria are urgently needed for the poor populations in malaria endemic countries. Methylene blue (MB combined with chloroquine (CQ has been considered as one promising new regimen. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of CQ-MB in African children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Secondary objectives were to assess the efficacy and the acceptance of CQ-MB in a rural population of West Africa. Methods In this hospital-based randomized controlled trial, 226 children (6–59 months with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were treated in Burkina Faso. The children were 4:1 randomized to CQ-MB (n = 181; 25 mg/kg CQ and 12 mg/kg MB over three days or CQ (n = 45; 25 mg/kg over three days respectively. The primary outcome was the incidence of severe haemolysis or other serious adverse events (SAEs. Efficacy outcomes were defined according to the WHO 2003 classification system. Patients were hospitalized for four days and followed up until day 14. Results No differences in the incidence of SAEs and other adverse events were observed between children treated with CQ-MB (including 24 cases of G6PD deficiency compared to children treated with CQ. There was no case of severe haemolysis and also no significant difference in mean haemoglobin between study groups. Treatment failure rates were 53.7% (95% CI [37.4%; 69.3%] in the CQ group compared to 44.0% (95% CI [36.3%; 51.9%] in the CQ-MB group. Conclusion MB is safe for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, even in G6PD deficient African children. However, the efficacy of the CQ-MB combination has not been sufficient at the MB dose used in this study. Future studies need to assess the efficacy of MB at higher doses and in combination with appropriate partner drugs.
HRP2 and pLDH-Based Rapid Diagnostic Tests, Expert Microscopy, and PCR for Detection of Malaria Infection during Pregnancy and at Delivery in Areas of Varied Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Study in Burkina Faso and Uganda
Cunningham, Jane; Angutoko, Patrick; Ategeka, John; Compaoré, Yves-Daniel; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Somé, Fabrice A.; Ouattara, Aminata; Rouamba, Noél; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Hopkins, Heidi
Background Intermittent screening and treatment (IST) of malaria during pregnancy has been proposed as an alternative to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), where IPTp is failing due to drug resistance. However, the antenatal parasitaemias are frequently very low, and the most appropriate screening test for IST has not been defined. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a multi-center prospective study of 990 HIV-uninfected women attending ANC in two different malaria transmission settings at Tororo District Hospital, eastern Uganda and Colsama Health Center in western Burkina Faso. Women were enrolled in the study in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and followed to delivery, generating 2,597 blood samples for analysis. Screening tests included rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and microscopy, compared to nPCR as a reference standard. At enrolment, the proportion of pregnant women who were positive for P. falciparum by HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT, microscopy and PCR was 38%, 29%, 36% and 44% in Uganda and 21%, 16%, 15% and 35% in Burkina Faso, respectively. All test positivity rates declined during follow-up. In comparison to PCR, the sensitivity of the HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT and microscopy was 75.7%, 60.1% and 69.7% in Uganda, 55.8%, 42.6% and 55.8% in Burkina Faso respectively for all antenatal visits. Specificity was greater than 96% for all three tests. Comparison of accuracy using generalized estimating equation revealed that the HRP2- detecting RDT was the most accurate test in both settings. Conclusions/Significance The study suggests that HRP2-based RDTs are the most appropriate point-of-care test currently available for use during pregnancy especially for symptomatic women, but will still miss some PCR-positive women. The clinical significance of these very low density infections needs to be better defined. PMID
Culture d'une légumineuse et d'une céréale dans le système zaï avec différents amendements organo-minéraux -productivité et impact sur les propriétés biologiques d'un sol ferrugineux dégradé dénudé en Région nord soudanienne au Burkina Faso
Some, D.; Hien, E.; Assigbetse, K.; Drevon, JJ; Masse, D.
Legume and Cereal Cropping in Zaï System with Different Organo-mineral Amendments - Productivity and Impact on Biological Properties of Degraded Bare Alfisol in North Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso. Zaï is an agricultural practice that allows the cultivation of abandoned degraded soils. An experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of this practice on the production of sorghum and cowpea, as well as on the biological properties of soils. The experiment was ...
Full Text Available Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso Résumé Cette étude a pour objectif d’évaluer la dépendance économique des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé aux produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL et d’identifier les déterminants de cette dépendance. Des enquêtes ont été menées auprès de 583 ménages de 14 villages riverains de ces forêts. Les résultats montrent que le revenu moyen annuel par ménage est de 846 800 F CFA avec une contribution de 60% du revenu des cultures et 12% du revenu d’élevage. Les PFNL procurent en moyenne 72 479 F CFA par ménage et par an à près de 93% des ménages enquêtés. La dépendance économique des ménages aux PFNL est estimée à 12%. Elle diminue avec le revenu, traduisant une plus grande dépendance des ménages pauvres des PFNL. Par ailleurs, les hommes sont économiquement moins dépendants des PFNL que les femmes. Les principaux déterminants de la dépendance aux PFNL sont le statut d’autochtone, la taille du ménage, la superficie forestière et la densité de population du département qui affectent positivement la dépendance aux PFNL. Dans le cadre d’une politique de réduction de la pauvreté en milieu rural, il faut prendre des mesures qui favorisent l’accès durable des ménages les plus pauvres aux ressources forestières. Mots clés : Produits forestiers non ligneux, dépendance économique, modélisation économétrique, Burkina Faso. Economic dependence on non-timber forest products: case of households living near the Forests of Boulon and Koflande, in the south-western of Burkina Faso Abstract This study aims at assessing the household economic dependence on non-timber forest products (NTFPs in Boulon and Koflande Forest area and the main determinants of that dependence. The data have been collected with a sample of 583
L'étude propose de contribuer au débat qui prévaut quant à la dynamique de pauvreté au Burkina Faso entre 1998 et 2003, et présente une nouvelle évidence empirique de cette dernière en termes non monétaires. L'analyse produit deux conclusions. En premier lieu, la mise en évidence récente par la Banque mondiale d'une diminution de la pauvreté, fondée sur l'élaboration d'un indicateur partiel des dépenses des ménages - dont le niveau pour 1998 est quasiment influencé par le seul « retrait » d'u...
Nyeland, B.; Kvamm, B. L.
to prøver som ægte dobbeltprøver. Koncentrationsniveauet for hver komponent var på 0,01-0,1 µg/l. Resultaterne blev vurderet ved anvendelse af Excel regneark i hver af de 3 runder. Den samlede, statistiske vurdering blev foretaget ud fra et statistisk program WINAMIQAS V2.0 baseret på ISO 5725.......DMU har i perioden 1998 - 2003 afholdt 3 runder præstationsprøvninger: NEXT I 1998-1999: Pesticider 1 i drikkevand. Der deltog i alt 21 danske og udenlandske laboratorier i præstationsprøvningerne. Prøvningerne omfattede 24 pesticider i matricen drikkevand. I hver af de 3 runder blev der udsendt...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP is currently being scaled up in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite high antenatal clinic (ANC attendance, coverage with the required two doses of SP remains low. The study investigated whether a targeted community-based promotion campaign to increase ANC attendance and SP uptake could effectively improve pregnancy outcomes in the community. Methods Between 2004 and 2006 twelve health centres in Boromo Health District, Burkina Faso were involved in this study. Four were strategically assigned to community promotion in addition to IPTp-SP (Intervention A and eight were randomly allocated to either IPTp-SP (Intervention B or weekly chloroquine (Control. Primi- and secundigravidae were enrolled at village level and thick films and packed cell volume (PCV taken at 32 weeks gestation and at delivery. Placental smears were prepared and newborns weighed. Primary outcomes were peripheral parasitaemia during pregnancy and at delivery, placental malaria, maternal anaemia, mean and low birth weight. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of women with ≥ 3 ANC visits and ≥ 2 doses of SP. Intervention groups were compared using logistic and linear regression with linearized variance estimations to correct for the cluster-randomized design. Results SP uptake (≥ 2 doses was higher with (Intervention A: 70% than without promotion (Intervention B: 49% (OR 2.45 95%CI 1.25–4.82 p = 0.014. Peripheral (33.3% and placental (30.3% parasite rates were significantly higher in the control arm compared to Intervention B (peripheral: 20.1% OR 0.50 95%CI 0.37–0.69 p = 0.001; placental: 20.5% OR 0.59 95%CI 0.44–0.78 p = 0.002 but did not differ between Intervention A (17.4%; 18.1% and Intervention B (20.1; 20.5% (peripheral: OR 0.84 95%CI 0.60–1.18 p = 0.280; placental: OR 0.86 95%CI 0.58–1.29 p = 0.430. Mean PCV and birth weight and
Yira, Yacouba; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Steup, Gero; Yaovi Bossa, Aymar
This study assesses the potential impact of climate change on water resources in the Dano catchment (Burkina Faso, West Africa). There is now essential consensus on the importance of performing multi (climate)-model assessments in order to estimate the response of the West African climate to global change. Taking advantage of the results of the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX-Africa) project, this study evaluates climate change impacts on water resources using an ensemble of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) in a catchment that is potentially vulnerable to climate change and presents a low adaptive capacity. The ensemble of RCMs was first evaluated to get an estimate of the historical simulated rainfall for the catchment by comparing RCM-based simulated historical rainfall to the observed rainfall data provided by the National Meteorological Service (DGM). In general, the simulated historical rainfall agrees within some degree of variability with the observed rainfall in regard to the mean annual cycle of precipitation. However, significant biases such as a double-peaked rainy season as well as the timing of the rainy season were exhibited by individual RCMs. A statistical bias correction (Quantile mapping) was then applied to the RCM-based simulated daily rainfall for the overlapping period of 1971-2000. The results confirm the effectiveness of the applied bias correction method for rainfall. Temperature and bias corrected rainfall data from the ensemble of RCMs was used as input for the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) to simulate river discharge, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater depth. To take into account the concern of the potential alteration of the climate change signal due to bias correction, uncorrected climate data for a single RCM was also applied to the hydrological model. The simulated hydrological variables show a similar behavior under observed and bias corrected climate data for the
Schlumberger, M; Bamoko, A; Yaméogo, T M; Rouvet, F; Ouedraogo, R; Traoré, B; Tinto, M; Bakyono, J F; Sombie, I; Bazié, B B; Ganama, S; Savadogo, Y; Yelkoumi, G A
The impact of a Computerized Immunization Register (CIR) on Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), with sending SMS to parents before immunization sessions, has never been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study is to measure EPI quickness and completeness of vaccinations after sending call-back SMS to parents through CIR put in place in a health center. In a health center, chosen at random (Colma 1) in the city of Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, West Africa, mothers, at first EPI session, if they had a mobile phone available at hand or in her surrounding, were randomized for receiving, or not, a call-back SMS before following EPI sessions, after child registration on a Francophone CIR (Siloxane's Intervax ©). Mothers, which were sent SMS and did not correctly followed sessions were asked through mobile phone why their child was late for EPI. 523 newborns were included in the study, with 253 whose parents were sent SMS, and 268 being informed of sessions only by ordinary methods. At second EPI session at 2 months of age, there was a statistical significant increase of coverage for children whose parents received SMS (pSMS (p=0.03). At third EPI session at 3 months of age, attendance to EPI for children whose parents were sent SMS was significantly better (pSMS (p=0.02). At fourth EPI session at 4 months of age, attendance for children with SMS was significantly better for children whose parents were sent SMS (pSMS, 19 (19%) parents could not be reached on the telephone. 31/82 (38%) mothers had shifted for EPI to a more proximate vaccination center (Colma 2), and 5 (6%) to private or civil servants clinic. 14/82 (17%) mothers had been travelling far from health center. Ten (12%) admitted neglect of EPI sessions. Two (2%) children had deceased, and one mother did not come back to Colma 1 after her child's AEFI. One child has been dismissed two times of vaccination following recommendation not to open a measles multi-dose vial for a single child
Full Text Available Glossina palpalis gambiensis et G. tachinoides sont des vecteurs majeurs des trypanosomoses humaines et animales en Afrique de l’Ouest. Sur une partie de leur aire de répartition, elles sont présentes en sympatrie, mais très peu d’informations sont disponibles sur leurs interactions. Nous avons capturé ces deux espèces en utilisant un système attractif composé d’écrans de tissu noir/bleu/ noir muni de film adhésif, afin de retenir toutes les glossines posées et de pouvoir mesurer la hauteur à laquelle elles se sont posées, ainsi que leur rythme d’activité en fonction de l’heure de la journée. L’étude a eu lieu dans deux zones du sud du Burkina Faso : Kartasso en amont du fleuve Mouhoun, où seule G. p. gambiensis est présente, et Folonzo sur le fleuve Comoé, où les deux espèces cohabitent. Les résultats, sur 3 800 glossines capturées, montrent une forte prédominance des captures de G. tachinoides par rapport à G. p. gambiensis à Folonzo (84 % contre 16 % des captures respectivement. À Kartasso, où elle est seule, G. p. gambiensis est capturée en moyenne à 46 cm du sol. À Folonzo, G. p. gambiensis est en moyenne attrapée à une hauteur de 65 cm, et G. tachinoides à 55 cm, ces différences de hauteurs étant significatives. Les femelles sont capturées en général plus haut que les mâles. Les deux espèces montrent un rythme d’activité similaire en fonction de l’heure de capture, mais seule G. p. gambiensis réduit sa hauteur de vol aux heures les plus chaudes. Plusieurs hypothèses, non exclusives, sont évoquées pour expliquer ces hauteurs de capture différentes : la nature de la galerie forestière, un comportement d’approche qui différerait entre espèces, mais aussi la possibilité de phénomènes de compétition interspécifique en relation avec l’utilisation de ressources énergétiques limitées (métabolisme lié à la proline. Sont également discutées les conséquences possibles
Topa, Maria Elena; Iavazzo, Pietro; Terracciano, Stefano; Adamo, Paola; Coly, Adrien; De Paola, Francesco; Giordano, Simonetta; Giugni, Maurizio; Traoré, Seydou Eric
Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century. The African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Due to its complexity, dynamism and extent, desertification is complicated to check and assess. The absence of an agreed methodology for the identification of affected areas is a critical point in desertification monitoring and assessment. An integrated approach which uses both qualitative and quantitative measures is crucial to reach the aim of sustainable resource use and has to be reflected in application of sets of indicators. The selection of appropriate indicators and their integration and interpretation should be conducted by the objectives to be achieved and the questions to be answered. This study, carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (Climate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to assess the sensitivity to desertification in peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation to the local conditions of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification And Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (vegetation, soil, climate) and anthropogenic factors (land management). All local data, arranged in a GIS environment, allowed the generation of maps identifying Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and an Index of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAI). Changes and integrations to the original methodology have been set taking into account the environmental and social features of the whole sub-Saharan west Africa in order to allow the use of
Millenium Challenge Corporation — Overview of the Evaluation The impact evaluation sought to answer three key questions: (1) What was the impact of the program on school enrollment? (2) What was the...
Full Text Available Technical and Economic Performance of Maize/Cowpea and Maize/Mucuna Associations in the Real Situation of Cultivation in Burkina Faso: Potentials and Constraints. Western Burkina Faso, population pressure has led to the abandonment of fallow. Continuous cropping of cotton and maize are recognized to severely reduce soil fertility. In order to increase the productivity of cropping systems and contribute to the recovery of soil fertility, farmers of Tuy involved in the "Fertipartenaires" project decided to test different maize and legume intercropping patterns. The objective of the study was to develop experimentation in farmers' conditions concerning maize/legume intercrops which should be economically efficient and technically acceptable. Volunteer producers have tested the maize/cowpea (13 producers and the maize/mucuna (10 producers. Cowpea was already produced by farmers as a cash or food-crop at a small-scale in pure stands for grain products and mucuna was newly introduced as a fodder crop for cattle.The maize-legume intercropping was a new practice in the region. For each experimental plot, the intercropping was compared with the sole cultivation of corn (control. The sets of production practices (SPP were monitored until the measure of the yield. For both intercrops, homogeneous SPP were defined by principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical ascending classification (HAC and the most efficient ones, technically and economically, were compared with monoculture of maize by variance analysis (ANOVA. It emerged that the dates of tillage and sowing, plant density, date of weeding, and soil fertility levels are the performance factors for maize/ legume intercrops. Maize/legume intercropping lead significantly (P< 10% to an increase of biomass from 22 to 29% compared to monoculture of maize without increasing the work duration. The maize/cowpea intercrop provided higher income than the maize/ mucuna one. Studies should continue to improve
rendement de lait implique nécessairement une référence à sa productrice : la vache. Ici déjà, la question de genre est introduite. L’entretien du troupeau est la fonction de l’homme, tandis que l’exploitation du lait revient à la femme. Or cette fonction d’exploitation du lait assoit dans le même temps une liberté économique de la femme qui en est la propriétaire. Enfin cet article montre le pouvoir symbolique et social donné à la femme, affirmé par le lait maternel. Celui-ci est le vecteur des plus grandes qualités nécessaires à un « bon peul », mais peut aussi devenir la voie de transmission de pouvoirs maléfiques. Maîtresse du pouvoir lacté, la femme en hérite d’un statut particulier propre à la société peule.When milk becomes a social issue: the FulBe case in Burkina FasoThe question of breastfeeding as a factor of HIV transmission is a reason for interest in milk as a subject of research. Mother-child transmission of HIV is an important public health issue in the South. The successful implementation of preventive programmes requires different approaches, such as those of the social sciences. The perceptions which valorize breastfeeding are deeply rooted in the majority of ‘traditional’ societies, and these perceptions valorize in turn local perceptions of milk. In effect, in FulBe society, milk has a value which goes beyond the simple question of breastfeeding, being present at the very heart of the socio-economic structure. It is this aspect which constitutes the focus of this article.The FulBe’s word of milk also means ‘that which is the best’. Milk and its producers, cows, are the fundament of local socio-economic organization. Men are in charge of the care of the herd while women are concerned with the exploitation of milk. In this particular ethnographic case, milk provides women with the possibility of economic and social emancipation, because milk becomes the property of women as soon as they are married and they
From Laboratory Studies to the Field Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes: A Case Study of Technology Transfer from Switzerland to Burkina Faso on the Field of Photochemical Detoxification of Biorecalcitrant Chemical Pollutants in Water
Full Text Available The Fenton and photo-Fenton detoxification of non-biodegradable chemical pollution in water was investigated under simulated UV light in the laboratory and under direct sunlight in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The laboratory experiments enable one to make a systematic diagnosis among three types of wastewaters, identifying a biorecalcitrant wastewater containing the Chloro-hydroxy-Pryridine (CHYPR. The application of the photo-Fenton process on effluent containing the CHYPR showed not to stimulate the generation of biodegradable by-products. Optimal conditions for detoxification of effluent containing the CHYPR were found at pH=2.8, [Fe2+]=5.2 mM, initial [H2O2]=768 mM, for an effluent concentrated at 2.2 mM of CHYPR. The application of the photochemical process on a field pilot solar photoreactor for the detoxification of water polluted with a pesticide made with Endosulfan showed very promising results, with potential biodegradable effluents obtained at the end of the photochemical treatment. Optimal conditions of the applied study were found at pH=3. [H2O2]=8 mM and [Fe2+]=0.18 mM for an initial concentration of 0.36 mM of Endosulfan.
Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate microbiological quality of traditionally millet-based fermented gruels consumed as weaning foods at different stages of the processes as prepared at household level in Ouagadougou, capital of Burkina Faso in 2004, February to May. Our methodology is based on the use of traditional enumeration of four categories of micro-organisms like the enterobacteria that cause fecal contaminations, staphylococcal for the hygiene of producers, Bacillus as cereals contaminant and diarrhea and vomiting agents for young children; Clostridium like telluric agents. These enumerations were coupled with the identification of the characteristic colonies. Fermentation followed by sufficient cooking remains a good means of reduction of the microbial population, especially non-sporulated micro-organisms. MC agar count at 35ºC went from 4.0×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation to 1.9×105 cfu/mL (after fermentation to reach zero values. On BP agar at 35ºC, the count was 5.1×105 cfu/mL (before fermentation, 2.3×105 cfu/mL (after fermentation and 7.2×104 cfu/mL (after cooking. On MYP agar at 35ºC, the results are as follows: 9.9×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation, 1.0×107 cfu/mL (after fermentation and 1.6×103 cfu/mL (after cooking. Finally, we obtained on TSC agar at 46ºC about 4.1×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation, 2.7×107 cfu/mL (after fermentation and 8.0×103 cfu/mL (after cooking. Identifications showed a strong presence of sporulated germs and non-sporulated acid tolerant germs especially after cooking. These results show how difficult these types of germs are to eliminate.
Kania, D; Bekalé, A M; Nagot, N; Mondain, A-M; Ottomani, L; Meda, N; Traoré, M; Ouédraogo, J B; Ducos, J; Van de Perre, P; Tuaillon, E
People screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in Africa remain generally unaware of their status for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infections. We evaluated a two-step screening strategy in Burkina Faso, using both HIV RDTs and Dried Blood Spot (DBS) assays to confirm an HIV-positive test, and to test for HBV and HCV infections. HIV counselling and point-of-care testing were performed at a voluntary counselling and testing centre with HBV, HCV status and HIV confirmation using DBS specimens, being assessed at a central laboratory. Serological testing on plasma was used as the reference standard assay to control for the performance of DBS assays. Nineteen out of 218 participants included in the study were positive for HIV using RDTs. A fourth-generation HIV ELISA and immunoblot assays on DBS confirmed HIV status. Twenty-four out of 25 participants infected with HBV were found positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using DBS. One sample with a low HBsAg concentration on plasma was not detected on DBS. Five participants tested positive for HCV antibodies were confirmed positive with an immunoblot assay using DBS specimens. Laboratory results were communicated within 7 days to participants with no loss to follow up of participants between the first and second post-test counselling sessions. In conclusion, DBS collection during HIV point-of-care testing enables screening and confirmation of HBV, HCV and HIV infections. Diagnosis using DBS may assist with implementation of national programmes for HBV, HCV and HIV screening and clinical care in middle- to low-income countries. PMID:23902574
Full Text Available Human antibody response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6 has recently emerged as a potentially useful tool for malaria epidemiological studies and for the evaluation of vector control interventions. However, the current understanding of the host immune response to mosquito salivary proteins and of the possible crosstalk with early response to Plasmodium parasites is still very limited. We report here the analysis of IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses among anti-gSG6 IgG responders belonging to Mossi and Fulani from Burkina Faso, two ethnic groups which are known for their differential humoral response to parasite antigens and for their different susceptibility to malaria. The IgG1 antibody response against the gSG6 protein was comparable in the two groups. On the contrary, IgG4 titers were significantly higher in the Fulani where, in addition, anti-gSG6 IgG4 antibodies appeared in younger children and the ratio IgG4/IgG1 stayed relatively stable throughout adulthood. Both gSG6-specific IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies showed a tendency to decrease with age whereas, as expected, the IgG response to the Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP exhibited an opposite trend in the same individuals. These observations are in line with the idea that the An. gambiae gSG6 salivary protein induces immune tolerance, especially after intense and prolonged exposure as is the case for the area under study, suggesting that gSG6 may trigger in exposed individuals a Th2-oriented immune response.
Full Text Available Farmers' Practices and Strategies for Ruminants' Supplementation in Mixed Crop-livestock Farming Systems in the Central Plateau and North of Burkina Faso. With the purpose to understand the farmers' practices and strategies for ruminants supplementation, mixed crop-livestock farms have been surveyed in three agro-ecological zones of Burkina Faso. The results obtained indicated that lactating females' supplementation is almost permanent whatever be the period of the year, but the objectives vary according to the seasons. In general, animal supplementation during the dry season deals with four major objectives: (i incomes generation, (ii care of draught animal, (iii productivity, and (iv risks management for animal losses (thefts and mortalities. When the nutritional stress becomes important, incomes generation gives up progressively the ground to the risk management. The supplementation strategy relies on a maximum valorization (70-80% of the cases of feeds produced in the farm or collected in the bush. Farmers also purchase feeds (salt, cereals bran, agro-industrial by-products in cash and, livestock remains the frequent source of funds. The results of the study suggest that the development of feeding systems for these mixed crop-livestock farms would focus on alternatives considering the variability of farmers' objectives by the time, and being built on feed that can be easily mobilized by farmers, and offering a low cash cost price, for example green forage and fruit of shrubs rich in energy and nitrogen.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the inhibition of oxidative stress related enzymes of aqueous acetone extracts, as well as antibacterial activity from five Indigofera species well-known medicinal plant from Burkina. Also are investigated in this study the potential contribution of tannins and of flavonol in these activities Particularly, aqueous acetone extracts were investigated for their Lipoxygenase (LOX, Xanthine Oxidase (XO and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitions that are implied in inflammation, gout and Alzheimer’s etiology diseases. Interestingly, I. macrocalyx which had the highest flavonol content (of all showed more inhibition against LOX and XO (51.16 and 77.33% respectively. Our study showed a significant correlation between XO inhibition and total flavonol content (R2 = 0.9052. AChE was low sensible to all extracts. In contrast, the extracts were rich in tannin compounds especially in I. tinctoria extract. And results of the in vitro antibacterial activities of these extracts against five bacteria showed that all bacteria were sensible to all extracts particularly S. typhimurium and B. cereus. Our results suggest that the five studied species prove to be good sources of inhibition of the three enzymes involved in oxidative stress and also to have some antibacterial properties. That is what probably explains their uses in folk medicine, singularly, in the treatment of gout, dysentery and anti-inflammatory diseases.
Drost, S.; Wijk, van, C.; Vellema, S.
This case study found out how a public-private partnership in Burkina Faso helped female shea nut producers to link up with the cosmetic industry. Empirical data collected from October-December 2011 revealed that the shea value chain partnership between a international shea processing company, a development organisation, and a local service provider, enabled the connection between the dynamics of the shea market in Burkina Faso, wherein the demand for shea kernels by international and local b...
Worthington, Andrew C.; Lee, Boon L.
In this study, productivity growth in 35 Australian universities is investigated using non-parametric frontier techniques over the period 1998-2003. The five inputs included in the analysis are full-time equivalent academic and non-academic staff, non-labor expenditure and undergraduate and postgraduate student load while the six outputs are…
Somé, J.F.; Desclaux, A.; Ky-Zerbo, O.; Lougué, M.; Kéré, S.; Obermeyer, C.; Simaga, F.
Objectifs l’augmentation du taux de personnes qui connaissent leur statut VIH est un impératif, notamment en Afrique subsaharienne, ce qui impose d’évaluer les stratégies utilisées pour accroître la fréquentation des services de dépistage. Cet article vise à faire le bilan de la pertinence, de la faisabilité et de l’efficacité des campagnes nationales de dépistagemenées entre 2006 et 2010 au Burkina Faso. Méthodologie une analyse de toutes les données de fréquentation du conseil dépistage sur cette période a été faite, couplée à des entretiens avec les principaux acteurs intervenant dans le dépistage. Résultats les résultats montrent que les huit campagnes de dépistage organisées sur la période ont permis à 487 727 personnes de faire leur test VIH. Ce nombre représente 50 % du nombre total de personnes ayant fait leur test et contribue à hauteur de 24,6 % au dépistage des personnes séropositives identifiées au cours de cette période. Les campagnes ont touché des populations difficiles à atteindre (en particulier les jeunes), à un coût moindre. Conclusions cette stratégie est donc pertinente pour identifier les personnes VIH+. Son intérêt pour la prévention, important selon les soignants et au vu des populations jeunes qui y participent, devrait être mesuré par des études complémentaires. Les campagnes sont efficaces et coût-efficaces même dans un pays de niveau de prévalence faible. Ces résultats soulignent l’intérêt de la synergie entre les associations et les services de santé dans l’offre de services de conseil et dépistage. PMID:24681563
Full Text Available Organic substrates recycling in the sub-urban agriculture of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso for soils fertilization: description of the different actors and their practices. This study aimed to establish an overview of the main actors of the sub-urban agriculture of Ouagadougou, their practices and expectations, and to characterize the used organic substrates (OS. For that, a farm survey was carried out on the most representative sites with 64 persons (cereal farmers, truckers and nurserymen randomly chosen. OS were sampled with each actor, when available. Thus, 27 samples were taken and characterized through chemical analyses and laboratory incubations to follow organic carbon mineralization. The results highlighted that 35% of cereal farmers, 69% of truckers and 95% of nurserymen were 20 to 40 years old, that a large proportion of cereal farmers and truckers were not sent to school while 70% of nurserymen had at least primary education. Sub-urban agriculture was the only activity for 43% of farmers, 83% of truckers and 91% of nurserymen. Moreover, 71% of cereal farmers and 73% of nurserymen used municipal wastes as source of organic matter against only 17% of truckers, the majority of them using animal manures. The main criterion of choice of OS was their availability without any other consideration. Even if a large majority of the actors think that composts of OS were better than brut OS, a minority of them used currently composts. The best ways for an adoption and utilization of OS composts were to facilitate their accessibility and to promote these composts, composting techniques and their interests through advertising in mass media. Chemical analyses and laboratory incubations showed a great variability of the SUW, both in the same group and actors' groups. However, in case of total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorous contents, the following tendencies were observed: Contenttruckers > Contentfarmers > Contentnurserymen. For the
Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and a considerable health problem in the 25 countries of the ‘African Meningitis Belt’ that extends from Senegal in West Africa to Ethiopia in the East. Approximately 80% of cases of meningococcal meningitis in Africa have been caused by strains belonging to capsular serogroup A. After the introduction of a serogroup A conjugate polysaccharide vaccine, MenAfriVac™, that began in December 2010, the incidence of meningitis due to serogroup A has markedly declined in this region. Currently, serogroup W of N. meningitidis accounts for the majority of cases. Vaccines based on sub-capsular antigens, such as Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA, are under investigation for use in Africa. To analyse the antigenic properties of a serogroup W wave of colonisation and disease, we investigated the molecular diversity of the protein vaccine antigens PorA, Neisserial Adhesin A (NadA, Neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA and factor H binding protein (fHbp of 31 invasive and carriage serogroup W isolates collected as part of a longitudinal study from Ghana and Burkina Faso between 2003 and 2009. We found that the isolates all expressed fHbp variant 2 ID 22 or 23, differing from each other by only one amino acid, and a single PorA subtype of P1.5,2. Of the isolates, 49% had a functional nhbA gene and 100% had the nadA allele 3, which contained the insertion sequence IS1301 in five isolates. Of the W isolates tested, 41% had high fHbp expression when compared with a reference serogroup B strain, known to be a high expresser of fHbp variant 2. Our results indicate that in this collection of serogroup W isolates, there is limited antigenic diversification over time of vaccine candidate outer membrane proteins (OMP, thus making them promising candidates for inclusion in a protein-based vaccine against meningococcal meningitis for Africa.
Full Text Available Résumé Dans un contexte d’accroissement de la pression humaine sur les espaces agricoles, de réduction des pâturages et de divagation des animaux, les paysans sont intéressés par des solutions qui leur permettent d’accroitre la production de biomasses à l’hectare tout en préservant la fertilité de leur sol. Dans la littérature, il est prouvé que les légumineuses jouent un rôle important dans l’amélioration des systèmes de culture. Mais, leur adoption est faible par les agriculteurs dans la zone cotonnière à l’ouest du Burkina Faso. L’objectif de cet article est de déterminer les performances agronomiques et économiques du niébé et du mucuna dans le cadre d’une démarche d’expérimentation chez et par les paysans (ECPP. Sur deux campagnes agricoles (2010 et 2011, nous avons utilisés les données sur les caractéristiques de 81 exploitations (45 pour le niébé et 36 pour le mucuna, les données économiques et agronomiques. Les résultats indiquent que le niébé est sensible à l’arrière effet de la précédente fertilisation contrairement au mucuna. Le mucuna qui aurait un réel intérêt pour les agriculteurs engagés dans l’intensification de leur élevage, offre l’opportunité de produire plus de biomasse (plus de 1,5 t/ha par unité de surface avec une meilleure qualité. Le niébé pourrait constituer une source de revenu pour les exploitations agricoles du Tuy avec une productivité de travail pouvant atteindre 10 379 FCFA par jour. Mais, dans un contexte de rareté de l’espace agricole, les expérimentations doivent se poursuivre pour tester les associations céréales/légumineuses avec les agriculteurs qui ont un rôle à jouer dans la création de ces cultures associées. Mots clés : Légumineuse, expérimentation chez et par les paysans, temps de travail, performance économique,
Full Text Available ffects of local amendments on yields, nutrition indexes and mineral balances in a cotton-maize rotation system in the west of Burkina Faso. After 20 years of continuous cropping system on a tropical ferruginous soil, the effects of three amendments on crop yield and nutrients uptake were studied for two years in this system. Compost, phosphate rock and dolomite amendments at respectively the rate of 6, 0.3 and 1.5 t.ha-1 were compared to the control soil not amended. The experimental design was a block Fisher with three amendments and four replications. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and maize (Zea mays L. mineral nutrition were determined as well as their yields. These plants dry matter productions were measured after harvesting. Results showed that compost, phosphate rock and dolomite application to soil improved the dry matter production of cotton and maize plants. Soil amendment with 6 t.ha-1 of compost significantly improved cotton seed and maize production. In the same time, the application of 1.5 t.ha-1 of dolomite limestone significantly increased maize yield. The application of phosphate rock (0.3 t.ha-1 had no effect on cotton or maize yields as well as their dry matter production. Compost, phosphate rock and dolomite application to soil had no influence on cotton and maize plants contents in N, P and K. Seventy days after sowing, the amendments did not improve cotton nutrition indexes which revealed a good nutrition for P, K and S. Nutrition indexes indicated that N deficiencies in cotton plants with amended soils (IN < 80 were more important than those observed with cotton plants grown on control soil (IN = 84. The application of mineral fertilizer to the control soil or to amended soils gave positive balances for nutrients like P (45 to 100 kg.ha-1 and S (5 to 24 kg.ha-1, while soils amended with phosphate rock and dolomite showed a high deficit for N and K, compared to the control soil. The study showed that compost combined to
Full Text Available Contribution to the study by PY/GC-MS of organic matter linked to fine particles (0-50 µm in some soils under long-term natural formations in Burkina Faso. The study aims to enhance the knowledge on organic matter of Arenosols, Ferralsols, and Cambisols in Burkina Faso. It deals with the distribution of C and N in three particles size fractions and is focused on the structures of organic matter linked to the (0-50 µm fraction. The results showed that total organic matter was lower than 2% in all soil units. More than 70% of total carbon were held by the finest fraction. The main products released by PY/GC-MS technique of the (0-50 µm fraction were lignin derived compounds, non lignin derived aromatic compounds, carbohydrates derived compounds, fatty acids methyl esters and nitrogen derived compounds. The aliphatic compounds ranged from C12 to C18, C16 being the dominant one. The aliphatic compounds were negatively correlated with the aromatic compounds. A positive correlation was observed between the nitrogen derived compounds and the amounts of clay. On the other hand, the carbohydrates derived compounds were negatively correlated with clay particles. Furthermore, the study pointed out some different structures of lignin such as syringyl, guaiacyl, and p.hydrophenyl. Depending on the nature of wood (hard wood, soft wood and grasses, they reflected the composition of vegetation on the studied sites. Therefore, PY/GC-MS technique was efficient for structural characterization of low amounts of soil organic matter.
Offrir une réponse aux besoins médicaux et psychosociaux des patients tuberculeux au Burkina Faso. Quelles stratégies adopter? / Responding to the medical and psychosocial needs of tuberculosis patients in Burkina Faso - What strategies to adopt?
Drabo, Koiné Maxime
Résumé exécutif Introduction. La prise en charge (PEC) des malades de tuberculose a été confiée à des institutions spécialisées et réduite aux seuls aspects biomédicaux du problème. En associant une revue de littérature sur les dimensions du problème posé par la tuberculose et un état des lieux sur la prise de charge de la tuberculose, les besoins non couverts par les centres de diagnostic et de traitement (CDTs) ont été identifiés dans trois districts sanitaires (DS) ruraux du Burkina ...
Full Text Available Des enquêtes entomologiques couplées à une analyse phytosociologique ont été menées dans la zone de Folonzo au sud du Burkina Faso sur la rivière Comoé. L’étude avait pour objectif de comparer l’abondance et la diversité des espèces de glossines dans une zone protégée et une zone non protégée, grâce à des transects perpendiculaires au cours d’eau. Des pièges ont été posés le long de ces transects depuis la rivière Comoé jusqu’à la savane en passant par la galerie forestière. Une analyse diachronique de la zone entre 1980 et 2008 a également été menée par comparaison d’images satellites Landsat et à partir de l’évolution des densités de tsé-tsé. Sur chacun des transects, une description de la flore a été faite, incluant toutes les espèces situées dans un rayon de 10 m autour de chaque piège. Il existe une très grande homogénéité floristique entre les transects, particulièrement pour la forêt-galerie, en revanche la savane montre une relative hétérogénéité. L’enquête entomologique révèle la présence de quatre espèces de glossines qui sont Glossina tachinoides (74 %, G. morsitans submorsitans (20 %, G. palpalis gambiensis (4 % et G. medicorum (2 %. Une différence nette s’observe entre la zone non protégée et la zone protégée, avec une densité moyenne de tsé-tsé quatre fois inférieure dans la première. Cette différence est particulièrement importante pour G. m. submorsitans, dont les densités sont divisées par neuf dans la zone non protégée. Cette régression s’explique par la diminution de la faune sauvage hors de la zone protégée, et ceci est extrapolable à l’ensemble du pays où cette espèce de glossine est en net recul. L’évolution du terroir de Folonzo montre une augmentation impressionnante des densités humaines et des surfaces cultivées, qui n’a pas (encore d’impact visible sur la composition floristique des lieux d’analyse, mais qui
Culture d'une légumineuse et d'une céréale dans le système zaï avec différents amendements organo-minéraux -productivité et impact sur les propriétés biologiques d'un sol ferrugineux dégradé dénudé en Région nord soudanienne au Burkina Faso
Full Text Available Legume and Cereal Cropping in Zaï System with Different Organo-mineral Amendments - Productivity and Impact on Biological Properties of Degraded Bare Alfisol in North Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso. Zaï is an agricultural practice that allows the cultivation of abandoned degraded soils. An experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of this practice on the production of sorghum and cowpea, as well as on the biological properties of soils. The experiment was set up according to a factorial experimental design in Fischer blocks. The crops were grown in the trial , received different types of organic (manure, compost and mineral (rock phosphate input. The results showed that the intake of simple manure and compost significantly increased the yield of the two crops. The addition of phosphate (2 t.ha-1 to compost (3 t.ha-1 and to manure (3 t.ha-1 increased the yields of cowpea and sorghum respectively by 70 to 80% and 88 to 160% compared to sole compost and manure applications. The biological activity of the soil was not influenced by the type of crop but rather by organo-mineral intakes. The combination of rock phosphate to manure had a particularly positive effect on soil biological activity. The natural phosphate intake associated with organic matter therefore appears essential to maintain crop production and soil properties.
Millenium Challenge Corporation — Impaq worked with the data collection firms NSCE-MCG-AC3E [the Group] to conduct traffic, household, and business surveys as part of the Roads Project evaluation....
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), World Resources Institute, International Food Policy Research Institute, Global Maritime Boundaries Database (GMBD),World Conservation Monitoring Centre(WCMC),The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems (ISME)
Yameogo, Jérôme T.; Hien, Mipro; Lykke, Anne Mette;
Dans la perspective de trouver des solutions pour remédier au problème de dégradation des ressources naturelles en milieu forestier, des techniques de conservation des eaux et des sols ont été appliquées dans la forêt classée de Kuinima, à l’Ouest du Burkina Faso. L’étude a consisté au suivi de l......’évolution de la strate herbacée sur des parcelles où ont été appliquées des techniques de traitement par du zaï forestier et des cordons pierreux. Sur ces parcelles, l’herbe a été récoltée sur des placettes de 1 m2 par la méthode de la récolte intégrale pour suivre l’évolution de la biomasse. Les placettes ont...
Benson, C. M.; Drdla, K.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Shettle, E. P.; Alfred, J.; Hoppel, K. W.
The Integrated Microphysics and Chemistry on Trajectories (IMPACT) model is used to study Polar stratospheric cloud formation and evolution in the Southern Polar vortex during the 1998-2003 winters. The model is applied to individual air parcels which are advected through the vortex on UKMO wind and temperature fields. The parcel temperature and pressure histories are used by IMPACT to calculate the formation and sedimentation of ice, NAT, SAT, and STS aerosols. Model results are validated by the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III solar occultation instrument. Comparisons of POAM data to the model results help to constrain the microphysical parameters influencing aerosol formation and growth. Measurements of the water vapor mixing ratio are of limited use in clarifying the model microphysics; however, POAM measurements of aerosol extinction prove to be valuable in differentiating model runs. Specifically, the relationship of aerosol extinction to temperature arises from the different temperatures at which the various particle types form and grow. Comparisons of IMPACT calculations of this relationship to POAM measurements constrain the initial fraction of nuclei available for heterogeneous NAT freezing to 0.02% of all aerosols. Constraints are also placed on the ice accommodation coefficient and the NAT-ice lattice compatibility factor. However, these two parameters have similar effects on the extinction-temperature relationship, and thus a range of values are permissible for each.
Drost, S.; Wijk, van J.; Vellema, S.
This case study found out how a public-private partnership in Burkina Faso helped female shea nut producers to link up with the cosmetic industry. Empirical data collected from October-December 2011 revealed that the shea value chain partnership between a international shea processing company, a dev
Full Text Available Effects of the Association of Compost and Mineral Fertilizer on the Productivity of Cotton and Maize Cropping System in Burkina Faso. To improve the productivity of a cotton - maize rotation using organic and mineral fertilization, a study was carried out in experimental station from 2008 to 2010. Five levels of compost (0, 2, 6, 9 and 12 t of dry matter ha1 combined to four rate of mineral fertilizer were compared in splitplot statistical design. The physical and chemical characteristics of soil, crop yields, as well as the mineral nutrition of maize and cotton plants were evaluated. The results show that the content of assimilable P and available K was significantly improved in amended soils by compost which had no significant effect on the carbon content. In amended soils, compost improved plants nutrition which was correct in nitrogen and potassium for cotton and deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus for maize. Compared to control soil, compost combined to mineral fertilizers increased significantly yields with a better efficacy for the recommended mineral manure. The application of 2 t ha1 of compost per year was as effective as high doses of compost in the second year, and more effective than the latter in the third year. An economy on the recommended dose of mineral fertilizer could be considered, with an annual input of 2 t ha1 of compost to the mineral fertilizers necessary to maintain the productivity of the cottoncereal cropping systems.
Rasmussen, Peter Have; Petersen, A.; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani
The occurrence of deoxynivalenol ( DON) in Danish wheat flour was studied during the period 1998 - 2003 by either capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection and liquid chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrophotometer. A total of 151 samples were collected from mills...... sample from the 2002 harvest, but none of the tested samples exceeded the maximum limit of 750 mu g kg(-1), which has been recently introduced by the European Commission for DON in flour used as raw materials in food products. Calculation of chronic or usual intake by a deterministic approach showed...
Diagnostic moléculaire du Cytomégalovirus (CMV), de l’herpès virus humain de type 6 (HHV6) et d’Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) par PCR en temps réel chez les femmes enceintes VIH séropositives et séronégatives à Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Ouedraogo, Alice Rogomenoma; Kabre, Madeleine; Bisseye, Cyrille; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukèdè; Asshi, Maleki; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Diarra, Birama; Traore, Lassina; Djigma, Florencia Wendkuuni; Ouermi, Djénéba; Pietra, Virginio; Barro, Nicolas; Simpore, Jacques
Introduction Les herpès virus EBV, CMV et HHV-6 sont des virus qui évoluent sous le modèle pandémique et sont responsables d’infections congénitales pouvant provoquer des séquelles graves chez les nouveau-nés. L’objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les prévalences de CMV, EBV et HHV-6 chez les femmes enceintes VIH(+) et VIH(-) à Ouagadougou. Méthodes Dans cette étude 200 échantillons de plasma sanguin de femmes enceintes dont 100 femmes VIH(+) et 100 femmes VIH(-) ont été diagnostiqués par PCR multiplex en temps réel pour les trois infections (EBV, CMV et HHV-6). Résultats Sur l’ensemble des 200 échantillons analysés, 18 (9,0%) étaient positifs à au moins un des trois virus, 12 (6,0%) étaient positifs au EBV, 13 (6,5%) au CMV et 12 (6,0%) positifs au HHV-6. Parmi les 18 cas d’infections, nous avons trouvé 10 cas (55,6%) de coïnfections dont 90,0% (9/10) d’infection multiple EBV/CMV/HHV6 et 10,0% de coinfection EBV/HHV6. Le taux d’infection HHVs était plus élevé chez les femmes VIH(-) que celles VIH(+) (12,0% versus 6,0%). Parmi les VIH(+), la PCR a révélé 7,1% (soit 6/85) d’infection HHVs chez celles qui n’étaient pas sous ARV contre 0% chez celles sous ARV. Conclusion Les herpès virus sont fréquents chez les femmes enceintes au Burkina Faso et pourraient constituer une menace chez ces dernières à cause des complications et des risques d’infection pour le nouveau-né. PMID:27800078
Evaluation du traitement antirétroviral chez les femmes enceintes VIH-1 positif, sur la transmission de l'infection de la mère à l'enfant: cas du Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, au Burkina Faso
Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Compaore, Rebecca; Djigma, Florencia; Zagre, Nicaise; Assengone, Elsa; Traore, Lassina; Diarra, Birama; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouermi, Djeneba; Sagna, Tani; Karou, Simplice; Pietra, Virginio; Simpore, Jacques
Introduction L'infection au VIH chez les nouveau-nés par leur mère peut être réduite grâce à des programmes de prévention de transmission mère-enfant du VIH (PTME). L'objectif dans cette étude était d’évaluer le traitement antirétroviral chez les femmes enceintes VIH-1 positif sur la transmission mère-enfant de l'infection au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Méthodes Des échantillons de spot de sang total ont été collectés chez 160 enfants âgés de 6 semaines, nés de mères VIH-1 positif et chez 40 enfants âgés de 2 à 13 mois provenant d'orphelinats et dont les mères étaient inconnues. Ces échantillons ont été testés avec le kit Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative. Un questionnaire a permis de connaitre les âges et les fonctions des femmes enceintes. Résultats Les femmes enceintes avaient un âge moyen global de 29,50±5,19 ans. Au total, 50,5% (101/200) ont été mises sous combinaison AZT/3TC/NVP et 29,5% (59/200) étaient sous prophylaxie (AZT/3TC). Le taux de transmission verticale du VIH-1 était de 0,0% (0/160) (p < 0,001) chez les enfants dont les mères étaient sous combinaison AZT/3TC/NVP ou sous prophylaxie AZT/3TC et de 15,0% (6/40) chez les enfants orphelins qui n’étaient pas inclus dans le protocole de la PTME. Conclusion Selon les résultats, le protocole de la PTME est efficace et réduit très significativement le risque de transmission du VIH-1 de la mère à l'enfant. De plus, le dépistage par PCR, des enfants orphelins infectés verticalement par le VIH, permet leur prise en charge thérapeutique précoce. PMID:26301003
Bronquiectasias en adultos: Características clínicas Experiencia de 5 años 1998-2003 RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF BRONCHIECTASIS CHARACTERISTICS IN ADULTS AT A CHILEAN GENERAL HOSPITAL: A 5 YEARS EXPERIENCE (1998-2003)
Jaime Cereceda P.; Catalina Samso Z.; Alvaro Segura W.; Pamela Sanhueza O.
Para conocer las características actuales de las bronquiectasias en adultos en nuestro medio se revisan los 18 casos de esta patología comprobados por TAC helicoidal de tórax en el Hospital Regional de Concepción entre 1998-2003. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 44 ± 13,9 años; 10 hombres y 8 mujeres. Las etiologías más frecuentes de bronquiectasias fueron tuberculosis pulmonar (44,4%) y neumonía aguda (38,8%). Los síntomas más relevantes fueron tos crónica (88,8%), expectoración pers...
Bronquiectasias en adultos: Características clínicas Experiencia de 5 años 1998-2003 RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF BRONCHIECTASIS CHARACTERISTICS IN ADULTS AT A CHILEAN GENERAL HOSPITAL: A 5 YEARS EXPERIENCE (1998-2003
Jaime Cereceda P.
Full Text Available Para conocer las características actuales de las bronquiectasias en adultos en nuestro medio se revisan los 18 casos de esta patología comprobados por TAC helicoidal de tórax en el Hospital Regional de Concepción entre 1998-2003. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 44 ± 13,9 años; 10 hombres y 8 mujeres. Las etiologías más frecuentes de bronquiectasias fueron tuberculosis pulmonar (44,4% y neumonía aguda (38,8%. Los síntomas más relevantes fueron tos crónica (88,8%, expectoración persistente (77,7% y hemoptisis (44,8%. La espirometría reveló alteración ventilatoria obstructiva tanto en fumadores (VEF1/CVF = 58% como en no fumadores (VEF1/CVF = 68%. La bacteriología de expectoración detectó Hemophilus influenzae (16,6%, Neisseria catharralis (15%, Pseudomona aeruginosa (13%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (15,4% y Candida albicans (4%. La TAC de tórax demostró lesiones bilobares (72%, multilobares (16,6% y unilobares (11,1%. La realidad de las bronquiectasias en nuestro medio es que no difiere significativamente de lo descrito en la literaturaIn order to know the actual characteristics of bronchiectasis in an adult population, we reviewed 18 cases with this pathology confirmed by spiral CT at a general hospital (Hospital Regional de Concepción, Chile, between 1998-2003. Ten patients were males and 8 females, their mean age was 44 ± 13.9 years old. Most common etiologies of bronchiectasis were pulmonary tuberculosis (44.4% and acute pneumonia (38.8%; main sypmtoms were chronic cough (88.8%, persistent sputum (77.7% and hemoptysis (44.4%. Spirometry detected airway obstruction in smokers (FEV1/FVC = 58% and in non smokers (FEV1/FVC = 68%. Microbiological sputum exams showed Hemophilus influenzae (16.6%, Neisseria catharralis (15%, Pseudomona aeruginosa (13%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (15.4% and Candida albicans (4%. Spiral CT showed the following distribution of bronchiectasis: unilobular lesion 11.1%, bilobar 72% and
Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.
This paper has been written as a supporting paper to "A Bridge to the Future: Australia's National Strategy for Vocational Education and Training 1998-2003" (ED 420 764). Technology has an impact on industry in terms of the work done, how it is done, and how individuals live and do business. Globalization means that business--and the business of…
Alexander Flögel, Oliver
Full Text Available Las operadoras de telecomunicaciones son parte de un sistema económico que debe mantenerse en equilibrio para su desarrollo sustentable.
La evolución de la capitalización bursátil de las operadoras de telecomunicaciones durante el periodo 1998-2003 puede dividirse en tres etapas: Expansión; Reparación y Nuevo Equilibrio.
La primera etapa de expansión se caracteriza por un fuerte crecimiento orgánico e inorgánico de las compañías, donde generalmente este último crecimiento, dado principalmente por adquisiciones y fusiones, es financiado mediante aportaciones de capital de sus accionistas o emisiones de deuda. Este crecimiento alimenta a todo el sistema, incrementando de manera continuada su valor. Durante el año 2000 se produce el primer punto de inflexión profundo en esta tendencia alcista del valor de los activos debido a una ineficiencia del sistema económico donde se produce una transferencia desequilibrada de valor hacia uno de sus agentes: el gobierno.
La segunda etapa, que abarca el periodo 2000-2003, implica un proceso de reparación del sistema por parte de los operadores para revertir esta transferencia de valor. Este proceso de reparación afecta a todos los agentes en mayor o menor medida.
Durante el 2003 se ha producido un segundo punto de inflexión mas tenue y aun frágil donde un nuevo aparente equilibrio sienta las bases para una nueva etapa de crecimiento del valor global del sistema económico.
Gómez Gómez, Laura
El presente proyecto se divide en dos partes bien diferenciadas. En la primera parte se trata la sostenibilidad desde tres puntos de vista: arquitectónica (en la que se hace mayor hincapié en el proyecto), social y económica. Para su elaboración, ha sido imprescindible una investigación previa de diversos conceptos arquitectónicos, tales como: - Arquitectura ecológica: Trata de planificar, de forma anterior a la construcción, los procedimientos que se llevarán a cabo durante su...
Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Wicks, Zeno W.
We used seasonal ground total counts and remote sensing and GIS technology to relate elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) distribution at Nazinga Game Ranch to environmental and anthropogenic factors. Variables used in analyses were normalized difference vegetation index, elevation, stream density, density of poaching and human illegal activities, distance to dams, distance to rivers, distance to roads, and distance to poaching risk. Contrary to our expectation, road traffic did not disturb elephants. Strong negative relationships were documented between elephant abundance and stream density, distance to dams, and poaching density. Density of poaching and other human illegal activities explained 81%, vegetation greenness 6%, and stream density 3% of the variation in elephant density. Elephant distribution represented a survival strategy affected by poaching, food quality and abundance, and water availability.
Millenium Challenge Corporation — A quasi-experimental evaluation design was used to assess the impacts of the RLG Project. Program impacts will be estimated by comparing treatment group outcomes...
Benson, C. M.; Drdla, K.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Shettle, E. P.; Alfred, J.; Hoppel, K. W.
The Integrated Microphysics and Aerosol Chemistry on Trajectories (IMPACT) model is used to study polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and evolution in the Antarctic vortex. The model is applied to individual air parcel trajectories driven by UK Met Office (UKMO) wind and temperature fields. The IMPACT model calculates the parcel microphysics, including the formation and sedimentation of ice, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT), and supercooled ternary solution (STS) aerosols. Model results are validated by comparison with data obtained by the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III solar occultation instrument and are examined for 6 years of POAM data (1998-2003). Comparisons of POAM water vapor and aerosol extinction measurements to the model results help to constrain three microphysical parameters influencing the formation and growth of both type I and type II PSCs. Principally, measurements of aerosol extinction prove to be valuable in differentiating model runs; the relationship of aerosol extinction to temperature is determined by the various particle types as they form and grow. Comparison of IMPACT calculations of this relationship to POAM measurements suggests that the initial fraction of nuclei available for heterogeneous NAT freezing is approximately 0.02% of all aerosols. Constraints are also placed on the accommodation coefficient of ice and the NAT-ice lattice compatibility. However, these two parameters have similar effects on the extinction-temperature relationship, and thus a range of values are permissible for each.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In Thailand, several strains of C. jejuni have been isolated and identified as major diarrheal pathogens among adult travelers. To study the epidemiology of C. jejuni in adult travelers and U.S. military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand from 1998-2003, strains of C. jejuni were isolated and phenotypically identified, serotyped, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results A total of 312 C. jejuni isolates were obtained from travelers (n = 46 and U.S. military personnel (n = 266 in Thailand who were experiencing acute diarrhea. Nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance was observed in 94.9% and 93.0% of the isolates, respectively. From 2001-2003, resistance to tetracycline (81.9%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (57.9%, ampicillin (28.9%, kanamycin (5.9%, sulfisoxazole (3.9%, neomycin (2.0%, and streptomycin (0.7% was observed. Combined PFGE analysis showed considerable genetic diversity among the C. jejuni isolates; however, four PFGE clusters included isolates from the major Lior serotypes (HL: 36, HL: 11, HL: 5, and HL: 28. The PFGE analysis linked individual C. jejuni clones that were obtained at U.S. military exercises with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. Conclusions In summary, most human C. jejuni isolates from Thailand were multi-resistant to quinolones and tetracycline. PFGE detected spatial and temporal C. jejuni clonality responsible for the common sources of Campylobacter gastroenteritis.
IntroductionTraditional agricultural production systems in Sub-Saharan Africa were based on transfer of nutrients by grazing animals from rangeland to cropland, combined with fallowing. These systems are under increasing pressure as a result of rapid population increase. In most of the semi-arid and sub-humid zones, the area of rangeland, required to maintain cropland productivity, is not available anymore. The associated continuous decline in soil productivity induces risks of food shortage ...
Mazzucato, V.M.; Niemeijer, D.
Soil and water conservation is at the top of development agendas in Africa. Virtually every project related to agriculture or the environment has a soil and water conservation component to it and environmental protection plans are being drawn up by African governments in which soil and water conserv
Full Text Available Abstract Background Financial barriers are a recognized major bottleneck of access and use of health services. The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness of a community based health insurance (CBHI scheme on utilization of health services as well as on mortality and morbidity. Methods Data were collected from April to December 2007 from the Nouna’s Demographic Surveillance System on overall mortality, utilization of health services, household characteristics, distance to health facilities, membership in the Nouna CBHI. We analyzed differentials in overall mortality and selected maternal health process measures between members and non-members of the insurance scheme. Results After adjusting for covariates there was no significant difference in overall mortality between households who could not have been members (because their area was yet to be covered by the stepped-wedged scheme, non-members but whose households could have been members (areas covered but not enrolled, and members of the insurance scheme. The risk of overall mortality increased significantly with distance to health facility (35% more outside Nouna town and with education level (37% lower when at least primary school education achieved in households. Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference in overall mortality between members and non-members. The enrolment rates remain low, with selection bias. It is important that community based health insurances, exemptions fees policy and national health insurances be evaluated on prevention of deaths and severe morbidities instead of on drop-out rates, selection bias, adverse selection and catastrophic payments for health care only. Effective social protection will require national health insurance.
Mazza, Clelia; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo;
.3%) and 358 males (51.7%). Clinical and oral health related behaviours were collected. Results. 83.4% of the children were caries-free. Fluorosis was recorded in 41.3% of the sample, while only 37.9% of children showed healthy gingival condition. Toothbrushing was reported by 35.7% of children...
Sagna, Y; Ouédraogo, D-D; Dao, F; Diallo, O; Tiéno, H; Guira, O; Traoré, L O; Yanogo, A R D; Drabo, Y J
Deficiency rickets results from a deficiency of vitamin D that is responsible for deficient calcium absorption, leading to failure of bone mineralization and cartilage bone growth, especially in children. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl who shows signs of rickets. Her family history, which includes similar malformations in several family members, led us to suggest vitamin D-resistant rickets, but all laboratory tests and response to treatment indicated deficiency rickets. Prophylaxis, at least for some very poor people, should be proposed for certain populations at risk, even in tropical zones.
Simplice D Karou
Conclusions: The results reveal that many sexually active women are infected by one or more microbial pathogens, probably because of the lack of hygiene or the adoption of some risky behaviors, such as not using condoms or having multiple sexual partners. Efforts should be made to address these points in the country.
Sidibe, M.; Boly, H.; Lakouetené, T.; Leroy, P.; Bosma, R.H.
Peri-urban dairy cattle farms within 50 km of Bobo-Dioulasso were studied to assess herd type, disease incidence, management, feeding and breeding strategy. Out of 417 cattle farmers, 42% had dairy objectives and were studied. Among these peri-urban dairy farmers, 60% were settled, 36% semi-settled,
Traore, Ina Marie Angèle; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukèdè; Dembele, Adama; Djigma, Florencia W; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Traore, Germain; Bambara, Moussa; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne; Traore, Yves; Simpore, Jacques
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3 ± 8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181). The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%), HPV 52 (16.7%), HPV 18 (14.8%), and HPV 35 (13.0%). HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine. PMID:27525275
Chapter 2 situates the scene by presenting the historical background to the research area. First, a brief outline of the research village's history is provided. The main part of the chapter is devoted to the elaboration of case material relating to a number of conflicts over land, along the border b
Diongue, M; Ndiaye, P; Yameogo, I; Faye, B F; Dia, A Tal; Diousse, P
Malnutrition is an important indicator of development, and its consequences in children and adolescents produce a serious socioeconomic burden. Children living on the street are more vulnerable than others. Thus, our objective was to analyze the nutritional status of children living on the streets of Manga, through a cross-sectional and analytical study. The snowball technique was used for sampling. Data came from individual interviews, blood samples and medical examinations. Of the 237 children studied, 84.8% were boys; the overall mean age was 11.5 years, and 72.6% were adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years). Growth retardation (15.9%) predominated among the children aged 4 to 9 years, while a weight deficit (27.9%) was most common among those aged 10 to 17. Half of the children (50.2%) with blood tests (N = 119) had anemia. There was a link between anemia and underweight (p = 0.0145). Children who ate at least three times a day were 2.63 times less likely to be anemic (p<0.001). Factors associated with anemia (p<0.005) included survival activities. We frequently found nutritional deficits and anemia in these children. A targeted nutritional program would be a good entry point for their successful reintegration.. PMID:25466289
This study aims to offer evidence that urban sanitation in large West African cities faces specific issues linked to urban setting, housing development and urban environment, and to the development of water services. These issues are acutely perceived by urban households and largely shape their demand for sanitation, whereas the available supply offers unsatisfactory or unaffordable soluti...
Guira, O; Tiéno, H; Traoré, S; Diallo, I; Ouangré, E; Sagna, Y; Zabsonré, J; Yanogo, D; Traoré, S S; Drabo, Y J
The aim of the study was to describe the bacterial microflora of diabetic foot infection and to identify the factors which determine the bacterial spectrum in order to increase empiric antibiotic prescription in Ouagadougou. The study was a cross-sectional one, carried from July 1st, 2011 to June 30, 2012 in the departments of internal medicine and general and digestive surgery in Yalgado Ouédraogo teaching hospital. Samples for bacteriological tests consisted of aspiration of pus through the healthy skin, curettage and swab of the base of the ulceration or tissue biopsy from foot lesions. The bacteria's sensitivity to antibiotics has been tested by the qualitative method (Kirby-Bauer). The frequency of diabetic foot infection was 14.45% and the monthly incidence 5.33. The mean age of patients was 56 years and the sex ratio 1.37. Foot ulcerations were chronic in 33 (51.56%), necrotic in 51 (79.69%) and associated with osteitis in 40 (62.5%) patients. Infection was grade 3 in 70.3% cases. Thirty-nine patients had received antibiotics before hospital admission. Among the 71 samples, 62 (87.32%) cultures were positive: 53 (85.48%) monomicrobial and 9 (14.52%) bimicrobial. Aerobic Gram-positive cocci (76%) were the most frequent from ulcerations: Staphylococcus aureus (32.39%), Streptococcus sp (18.30%). Negative coagulase staphylococci have been found in 23.94% cases. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli have been isolated from 24% ulcerations. No factor was associated with the type of bacteria. Gram-positive pathogen cocci showed a high sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and oxacillin. No methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or extended-spectrum beta lactamase Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL) have been isolated. A better design is necessary to a clarification of bacterial flora in diabetic foot infections. Prevention of bacterial resistance is also needed.
Background: In several African cities the prevalence of unmarried cohabitation among youth has risen considerably. Because of its potentially negative implications for women and their children, in some countries cohabitation has even become a matter of heated public debate and policy concern. In contrast to industrialized countries, however, the choice between marriage and cohabitation in the region has attracted little attention. Objective: The purpose of the study is to explore the risin...
Le Sourou : un fleuve, une vallée, un projet d’aménagement hydro-agricole « modernisateur » qui en quarante ans est passé du paysannat à l’agrobusiness, de l’autosuffisance alimentaire en riz à la sécurité dans les cultures d’exportation sans jamais y réussir et sans être épargné par la crise issue de l’ajustement structurel et des libéralisations. De son côté, le projet survit : le retour en force de l’État, de nouveaux hectares en voie d’aménagement, la renaissance du blé, le lancement de l...
Zohoncon, Theodora M.; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W.; Yonli, Albert T.; Compaore, Tegwinde R.; Sagna, Tani; Ouermi, Djeneba; Ouédraogo, Charlemagne M.R.; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiéma, Jean-Baptiste; Akpona, Simon A.; Simpore, Jacques
The development of cervical cancer is associated with high-risk Human papilloma viruses (HPV-HR). In sub-Saharan Africa cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death attributed to malignant tumors. This study aims to identify HPV genotypes within the 30′S and 50′S HPV families found in two previous studies from our laboratory, and to determine the prevalence of twelve HPV-HR genotypes in a population of women in Ouagadougou. The twelve HPV-HR genotypes were determined by real-time multiplex PCR, in 180 samples from the general population and among a group of HIV-1 infected women. The most common genotypes found were HPV-35 (29.4%) and HPV-31 (26.1%) of the 30′S family, and HPV-52 (29.4%) and HPV-58 (20.6%) of the 50′S family. Multiple infections of HPV-HR were observed in 78.03% of infected women. The frequencies of HPV genotypes from the 30′S and 50′S families were higher, while the genotypes HPV-16 and18 were lower among the women in our study. PMID:24106609
Karou, Simplice D; Djigma, Florencia; Sagna, Tani; Nadembega, Christelle; Zeba, Moctar; Kabre, Aboudoulaye; Anani, Kokou; Ouermi, Djeneba; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Pietra, Virginio; Pignatelli, Salvatore; Simpore, Jacques
Objective To assess the prevalence of bacterial strains and fungal strains infecting the vaginal tract and test their sensitivity to antibiotics in women attending Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou. Methods From January 2008 to December 2009, a total of 2 000 vaginal swabs were cultivated for bacterial and fungal identification and isolation. Furthermore, bacterial strains were tested for their susceptibility to several antibiotics used in routine in the centre. Results The results revealed that microbial isolation and identification was attempted for 1 536/2 000 sample, a positivity rate of 76.80%. Candida albicans (48.76%), followed by Escherichia coli (16.67%), Streptococcus agalactiae (8.14%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.55%) were the major agents of genital tract infections in patients. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum combined accounted for less than 7%. Trichomonas vaginalis was identified in 1.04% cases. The antimicrobial tests revealed that the microorganisms developed resistance to several antibiotics including beta lactams. However, antibiotics such as cefamenzol, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were still active on these bacteria. Conclusions The results reveal that many sexually active women are infected by one or more microbial pathogens, probably because of the lack of hygiene or the adoption of some risky behaviors, such as not using condoms or having multiple sexual partners. Efforts should be made to address these points in the country. PMID:23569916
Traore, Ina Marie Angèle; Dembele, Adama; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Traore, Germain; Bambara, Moussa; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne; Traore, Yves
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3 ± 8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181). The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%), HPV 52 (16.7%), HPV 18 (14.8%), and HPV 35 (13.0%). HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine. PMID:27525275
Guira, O; Tiéno, H; Sawadogo, S; Drabo, J Y
This article is a contribution to improve the management of serodiscordant couples in Ouagadougou. The aim of the study was to explore sexuality and the risk for sexual transmission of HIV among serodiscordant couples followed-up in CHU-YO. The study consisted of a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over 6 months, from 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2010. A total of 80 heterosexual serodiscordant couples participated. Women were infected with HIV in most cases (75%). The mean age was 37.5 years for HIV partners and 40 years for seronegatives. Men were significantly older than women (p = 0.01). The couples weremarried (83.7%) or cohabiting (16.3%). The average of serodiscordance duration was 4 years. Seventy-four couples (92.5%) engaged in sexual intercourses, mostly vaginal intercourses. Both partners were satisfied only in 9 couples (12.2%). Although most couples (97.5%) knew the use of condoms for HIV prevention, 59.5% did not use it consistently, particularly when women were the seropositive partners (p = 0.01). The lack of privacy (37.5%) and desire of childbearing (26.25%) were the main reasons for not consistently using condoms among couples. Sexual dysfunction was a concern with 97.5% of the couples. The decrease in libido was most common (37.2%). Sexual intercourses with an outside partner were reported in 20 couples (25%), mostly regarding men (p = 0.03). Specific management could improve the quality of sexual life for couples in the light of the difficulties they face and reduce the risk for HIV transmission to negative partners.
Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouédraogo, E.
Nutrient limitation is the main cause of per capita decline in crop production in the Sahel, where water shortage also limits an efficient use of available nutrients. Combining soil and water conservation measures with locally available nutrient inputs may optimize crop production and economic benef
The Sahelian zone of
Diarisso, Tidiane; Corbeels, Marc; Andrieu, Nadine; Djamen, Patrice; Douzet, Jean Marie; Tittonell, Pablo
Low crop yields in the savannah zones of West Africa are commonly attributed to rainfall deficits and poor soil fertility. In this study, an assessment was made on how the position of fields belonging to different farm types can explain soil variability and related crop yield gaps in two villages
Andrieu, N.; Pédelahore, P.; Howland, F.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.
Comment satisfaire la sécurité alimentaire tout en s'adaptant au changement climatique et en l'atténuant ? Quelles sont les principales menaces pesant sur les agricultures du Sud ? Comment les agriculteurs du Sud répondent-ils à ces menaces ? Quelles sont les propositions de la recherche agronomique
R. Zougmoré; Kaboré, D.; J. Lowenberg-DeBoer
Metadata only record A mathematical model is presented for computing the economically optimal spacing of conservation barriers or bunds. Crop yield is generally greatest immediately upslope of bunds. However, labor and availability of rocks or other materials limits the practicality of narrow bund spacings. The authors assumed a quadratic response of yield to distance from the bund and used sorghum yield data from test fields on a 1% slope to develop model coefficients. Three labor scenari...
Yaya Bocoum, Fadima; Koné, Eddine; Kouanda, Seni; Yaméogo, W Maurice E; Aristide Romaric BADO
Background The lack of motivation of health workers to practice in rural areas remains a crucial problem for decision-makers, as it deprives the majority of access to health care. To solve the problem, many countries have implemented health worker retention strategies. However, the development of such strategies requires an understanding of the preferences of health workers. The objective of the study was to identify a package for attracting and retaining health workers in underserved areas. ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. The situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal complications. The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of homebirths in the medical districts of Ouargaye and Diapaga. Methods A qualitative approach was used to gather information. This information was collected by using focus group discussions and individual interviews with 30 women. All the interviews were tape recorded and managed by using QSR NVIVO 2.0, qualitative data management software. Results The findings show that homebirths are frequent because of prohibitive distance to health facilities, fast labour and easy labour, financial constraints, lack of decision making power to reach health facilities. Conclusion The study echoes the need for policy makers to make health facilities easily available to rural inhabitants to forestall maternal and child deaths in the two districts.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from five species from Verbenaceae family and to quantify their polyphenols. Two methods i.e., FRAP and DPPH were used to estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the plants materials. Antibacterial activity was measured on serotyped bacteria (4 and pathogenic bacteria (13 using the solid agar dishes diffusion method. Polyphenolic quantification was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu, ammonium citrate iron and AlCl3 reagents, respectively. Fe (III to iron (II reducing activity show to be relate to tannins content and the radical scavenging activity by total phenolic and total flavonols. As a whole Duranta erecta L. gave a better antioxidant activity (FRAP: 15.03 mmol EAA/g and IC50: 7.88 mmol EAA/g. The best antimicrobial activity was obtained by Duranta erecta L. (22.33 mm at a concentration of 25 μg/mL. This result was obtained on Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus épidermidis. The results obtained in this study showed an interesting antioxidant activity of Duranta erecta L. This plant also presented the best antibacterial activity particularly on Staphylococcus épidermidis, among the five species of Verbenaceae family. Our findings could partially justify the traditional uses of these plants as indicated in the literature.
Kaboré, Aïssata; Cissé, Aissata; Yonaba, Caroline; Savadogo, Hamidou; Ouédraogo, Sylvie Armelle; Dao, Lassina; Kaboret, Sonia; Nagalo, Kisito; Koueta, Fla; Bandré, Emile; Yé, Diarra; Kam, Ludovic
L'ostéogenèse imparfaite (OI) regroupe un ensemble d'affections constitutionnelles de gravité variable dû à une anomalie de la production du collagène et de la matrice de l'os entraînant une fragilité osseuse. La présente étude rapporte quatre cas d'ostéogenèse imparfaite suivis aux Centres Hospitaliers Universitaires Charles de Gaulle et Yalgado Ouédraogo. Le but de ce travail était d'analyser les aspects cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs de la maladie. Cette étude souligne la nécessité...
Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou
). Clinical oral health data collected according to WHO methodology and criteria. RESULTS: At age 6, 38% of children had caries, with prevalence higher in urban than rural areas. At age 12, the mean DMFT was 0.7 with prevalence significantly higher among urban than rural children. Mean DMFT was 1.9 in 18-year......-olds and 6.3 in 35-44-year-olds and figures were higher for women than men. In adults, no differences in caries experience were found by location whereas the caries index was significantly affected by ethnic group and occupation. CPI score 2 (gingivitis and calculus) was dominant for all ages: 6 years (58...
Ouedraogo Herman; Assi Serge; Henry Marie-Claire; Fournet Florence; Baragatti Meili; Rogier Christophe; Salem Gérard
Abstract Background Despite low endemicity, malaria remains a major health problem in urban areas where a high proportion of fevers are presumptively treated using anti-malarial drugs. Low acquired malaria immunity, behaviour of city-dwellers, access to health care and preventive interventions, and heterogenic suitability of urban ecosystems for malaria transmission contribute to the complexity of the malaria epidemiology in urban areas. Methods The study was designed to identify the determin...
Traore, K.; Stroosnijder, L.
In West Africa, many people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Current interventions have low chances of succeeding. Therefore, a food chain approach including local practices is proposed. This article takes local ecological, cultural, and socio-economic aspects into account through a household
Delisle Hélène F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173. WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001 and vitamin A deficiency (p Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them.
Most households in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on wood as primary energy source. The availability of wood is decreasing and deforestation is a major ecological problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The scarcity of wood is demanding for a sustainable solution. The sun seems to provide a good alternative. Solar
Agbodji, Akoété Ega; Batana, Yélé Maweki; Ouedraogo, Dénis
The importance of gender equality is reflected not only in the Millennium Development Goals, but also in the World Bank's Gender Action Plan launched in 2007 as well as in other treaties and actions undertaken at regional and international levels. Unlike other work on gender and poverty, which is mostly based on monetary measurement, the present study makes use of a counting approach to ex...
Diongue, M; Ndiaye, P; Yameogo, I; Faye, B F; Dia, A Tal; Diousse, P
Malnutrition is an important indicator of development, and its consequences in children and adolescents produce a serious socioeconomic burden. Children living on the street are more vulnerable than others. Thus, our objective was to analyze the nutritional status of children living on the streets of Manga, through a cross-sectional and analytical study. The snowball technique was used for sampling. Data came from individual interviews, blood samples and medical examinations. Of the 237 children studied, 84.8% were boys; the overall mean age was 11.5 years, and 72.6% were adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years). Growth retardation (15.9%) predominated among the children aged 4 to 9 years, while a weight deficit (27.9%) was most common among those aged 10 to 17. Half of the children (50.2%) with blood tests (N = 119) had anemia. There was a link between anemia and underweight (p = 0.0145). Children who ate at least three times a day were 2.63 times less likely to be anemic (p<0.001). Factors associated with anemia (p<0.005) included survival activities. We frequently found nutritional deficits and anemia in these children. A targeted nutritional program would be a good entry point for their successful reintegration..
Ina Marie Angèle Traore
Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3±8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181. The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%, HPV 52 (16.7%, HPV 18 (14.8%, and HPV 35 (13.0%. HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine.
Lassen, Kristin Marie; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Lompo, Djingdia;
Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) is an important fruit tree in West African parklands, and its successful pollination is a requirement for fruit production. Size-based pollinator exclusion experiments combined with visual observations showed that presence of honey bees (Apis mellifera jemenitica......) was important for pollination and thereby the production of fruits and seeds. Smaller insects, mainly species of stingless bees (Hypotrigona spp. and Liotrigona cf. bottegoi) and solitary bees (Compsomelissa borneri) could partly compensate pollination in absence of honey bees, but fertilisation and fruit yield...... was reduced. A positive correlation between fertilisation percentage and number of honey bee colonies within radii of 900 and 1000 m was observed. The percentage of fertilisation and number of mature fruits per fascicle were higher in trees with colonies of stingless bees in the trunk when honey bees were...
Lassen, Kristin Marie; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Dupont, Yoko Luise;
Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) is an important fruit tree in West African parklands, and its successful pollination is a requirement for fruit production. Size-based pollinator exclusion experiments combined with visual observations showed that presence of honey bees (Apis mellifera jemenitica......) was important for pollination and thereby the production of fruits and seeds. Smaller insects, mainly species of stingless bees (Hypotrigona spp. and Liotrigona cf. bottegoi) and solitary bees (Compsomelissa borneri) could partly compensate pollination in absence of honey bees, but fertilisation and fruit yield...... was reduced. A positive correlation between fertilisation percentage and number of honey bee colonies within radii of 900 m and 1,000 m was observed. The percentage of fertilisation and number of mature fruits per fascicle were higher in trees with colonies of stingless bees in the trunk when honey bees were...
The negative degradation spiral that currently leads to deteriorating soil properties in African drylands is a serious problem that limits food production and threatensthe livelihoods of the people. Nutrient depletion and water and wind erosion are the main factors in soil degradation in Africa. Thi
Amante García, Beatriz; López Grimau, Víctor; Smith, Tarik
This study is on the reuse of the residue generated by a Moringa oleifera oil extraction plant. The residual oil cake produced during the process of oil extraction retains the positively charged protein of the M. oleifera seed, which is the active component in the process of attracting and capturing suspended particles in waters. Such coagulant flocculant properties give rise to the elimination of turbidity in the process of water purification. In the cases studied, it has been demonstrated t...
Simplice D Karou; Virginio Pietra; Salvatore Pignatelli; Jacques Simpore; Florencia Djigma; Tani Sagna; Christelle Nadembega; Moctar Zeba; Aboudoulaye Kabre; Kokou Anani; Djeneba Ouermi; Charlemagne Gnoula
Objective: To assess the prevalence of bacterial strains and fungal strains infecting the vaginal tract and test their sensitivity to antibiotics in women attending Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou. Methods: From January 2008 to December 2009, a total of 2000 vaginal swabs were cultivated for bacterial and fungal identification and isolation. Furthermore, bacterial strains were tested for their susceptibility to several antibiotics used in routine in the centre.Results:1536/2000 sample, a positivity rate of 76.80%. Candida albicans (48.76%), followed by Escherichiacoli The results revealed that microbial isolation and identification was attempted for (16.67%), Streptococcus agalactiae (8.14%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.55%) were the major agents of genital tract infections in patients. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum combined accounted for less than 7%. Trichomonas vaginalis was identified in 1.04% cases. The antimicrobial tests revealed that the microorganisms developed resistance to several antibiotics including beta lactams. However, antibiotics such as cefamenzol, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were still active on these bacteria. Conclusions: The results reveal that many sexually active women are infected by one or more microbial pathogens, probably because of the lack of hygiene or the adoption of some risky behaviors, such as not using condoms or having multiple sexual partners. Efforts should be made to address these points in the country.
Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.
All over the world meat plays an important role in the nutrition of people. Mostly it is considered to be a special source of strength and health. In many peoples' minds the consumption of animal products, such as muscle, fat, blood, inner organs and bones, is much more associated with vital strength than a vegetarian meal. A reason for this may be the inherent physical similarity between human being and animal, especially mammals. There are other ways of producing meat, such as hunting and f...
Zougmore, R.; Kabore, D.; Lowenberg-DeBoer, J.
Though construction methods vary widely, use of physical or biological barriers to conserve soil and water is common throughout the world. Rock or earthen bunds are common physical barriers. Strips of perennial grass, shrubs or trees serve as biological barriers. Often these barriers are arranged on
Conclusions: This study noted the emergence of species such as C. krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsiolosis, C. tropicalis, Candida nivariensis, Candida norvegensis, and others. It is an imperative to take into account the existence of these species in the therapeutic management of patients in Bobo-Dioulasso.
Full Text Available The quality and the representativeness of the first long-term Eddy Covariance measurements in the savanna zone of West Africa were investigated using the energy balance closure and the footprint analysis. The quality and representativeness of the first long-term Eddy Covariance measurements over the West African savanna were investigated using the energy balance closure and the footprint analysis. The analysis covered four contrasting periods such as the complete dry season (January to March 2004, the dry to wet transition period (April to May 2004, the rainy season (June to September 2004 and the wet to dry transition period (October to November 2004.
The results show that the overall energy balance closure can be considered as satisfactory over the whole dataset. The regression fit between (Rn−G and (H+λE was significant (P<0.05 with a coefficient of determination (r2 of 0.80 and a slope of 0.88, while the intercept was 25W/m2. The energy balance closure was affected by rain during the rainy season (r2=0.69, and by sampling problems during the transition periods (R2 were 0.80 and 0.86, respectively.
The footprint analysis shows that the fetch ranged between 20 m (daytime and 800 m (nighttime. This range showed that the fetch was adequate and fluxes sampled were representative, especially during the rainy season when the vegetal cover was dominated by crops and grasses with scale length of a few meters. During the dry season when the surface is free from crops and grasses, the measurements were also representative as about 60% of the trees around the station were contributing to the measured fluxes. However, during the transition periods some sampling problems appeared, less than 30% of the trees were contributing to the measured fluxes. The relevance of the dominant wind direction in the representativeness of the measurements was also discussed.
This Institutional Plan for Argonne National Laboratory contains central elements of Argonne`s strategic plan. Chapter II of this document discusses the Laboratory`s mission and core competencies. Chapter III presents the Science and Technology Strategic Plan, which summarizes key features of the external environment, presents Argonne`s vision, and describes how the Laboratory`s strategic goals and objectives map onto and support DOE`s four business lines. The balance of the chapter comprises the science and technology area plans, organized by the four DOE business lines. Chapter IV describes the Laboratory`s ten major initiatives, which cover a broad spectrum of science and technology. Our proposal for an Exotic Beam Facility aims at, among other things, increased understanding of the processes of nuclear synthesis during and shortly after the Big Bang. Our Advanced Transportation Technology initiative involves working with US industry to develop cost-effective technologies to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the emissions of transportation systems. The Laboratory`s plans for the future depend significantly on the success of its major initiatives. Chapter V presents our Operations and Infrastructure Strategic Plan. The main body of the chapter comprises strategic plans for human resources; environmental protection, safety, and health; site and facilities; and information management. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the business and management practices that Argonne is adopting to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of its operations. The structure and content of this document depart from those of the Institutional Plan in previous years. Emphasis here is on directions for the future; coverage of ongoing activities is less detailed. We hope that this streamlined plan is more direct and accessible.
During the DOE Onsite Review in August 1996, Sandia`s Executive Vice President formally proposed combining Sandia`s Institutional Plan and Operating Plan, and their associated processes. The Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs subsequently approved a pilot plan to do so. This pilot plan is intended to comply with one of our new strategic objectives (see section 3.7), which entails creating an infrastructure that is a competitive advantage for our strategic missions. Therefore, Sandia`s planning organization integrated the information in the two plans and collected the data with a unified call. These data can not be combined in multiple ways, depending on customer requirements. Recently, executive management revamped Sandia`s Strategic Plan by creating eight new strategic objectives: four primary whats and four supporting hows. The new strategic objectives are set forth in chapters 3 through 5 of this document. The four primary objectives cover nuclear weapons responsibilities, nonproliferation and materials control, energy and critical infrastructures, and emerging national security threats. The major programmatic initiatives in chapter 7 are grouped accordingly. However, the programmatic descriptions in chapter 6 and the associated funding tables in chapter 9 continue to be presented by DOE Budget and Reporting Code, as in previous Sandia institutional plans. As an aid to the reader, the four primary strategic objectives in chapter 3 are cross-referenced to the program information in chapter 6.
SUMMARY The contrasted global population growth with the multiplication of the constraints to developing new irrigation systems puts a special challenge upon human crop production systems that needs to be taken up. The populations in many countries in Asia, Middle East and Africa are expected to double in the coming 50 years. The experience of the green revolution in Asia – during which 70% of food production increase was provided by irrigated agriculture – shows that there is not...
Mamoudou, Savadogo; Lassina, Dao; Fla, Koueta
Nous rapportons deux cas d'infection à Pseudomonas aeruginosa: un cas de méningite et un cas d'infection urinaire. Les auteurs rappellent qu’à côté des étiologies classiques des méningites et des infections urinaires, des germes résistants comme Pseudomonas aeruginosa peuvent être responsables d'infections à localisation méningées et urinaires et dont il faut connaître pour une bonne prise en charge. Le traitement de ces infections requiert un antibiogramme au regard de la grande capacité de résistance de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en milieu hospitalier. La limitation des gestes invasifs et l'application rigoureuse des mesures de prévention des infections en milieu hospitalier contribueront à lutter efficacement contre ces infections en milieu de soins. PMID:26491521
Varenne, B; Fournet, F; Cadot, E;
Background Dental caries is the most common multifactorial disease in children and has substantial negative impact on daily life. In sub-Saharan Africa, few data are available on the relationship between dental caries and the social and family environment of children. The objectives of the presen...
Poda, Jean-Noël; Sondo, Blaise; Parent, Gérard
Dams generally are a favourable biotope for the molluscs acting as intermediary hosts to schistosomiasis. The importance of the schistosomiasis endemic which follows depends on the interactions taking place between the parasites and their definitive (humans) and intermediary hosts. A preliminary sound knowledge of the prevailing epidemiological situations is therefore necessary to define an efficient programme to fight these infections. The extension of schistosomiasis following the installation of water resource facilities is significative of the part played by these hosts. In the hydroagricultural complex of Sourou, the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis increased from 19% in 1954 to more than 70% in 1998-1999 in Guiédougou, the most ancient site. As to digestive schistosomiasis, almost unheard of until 1987, its prevalence ranged from 8% to 69% in 1998 in the villages located alongside the areas thus equipped. In the Kou Valley, the prevalence went up from 14% in 1957 to 80% in 1974 for urinary schistosomiasis and from 1.3% to 45% for intestinal schistosomiasis. The same tendencies are likely to appear in the hydraulic installations of Bagré, Ziga, and Kompienga. Dams thus constitute amplifying factors for the proliferation of species and for parasite-host interactions. All the actors (developers, populations and scientists) are faced with the challenge of finding a mean to control the development of schistosomiasis infections which are likely to seriously lessen the benefits expected from these hydraulic installations.
Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dakouré-Kissou, Aimée; Poda, Gandaaza Euthyme Armel; Koueta, Fla; Yé-Ouattara, Diarra; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata
The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics and outcome of children with septicemia at the Charles de Gaulle University Pediatric Hospital of Ouagadougou to help improve probabilistic antibiotic therapy in this type of infection. This retrospective descriptive study covered all the children from 0 to 15 years old seen over a period of 7 years in any hospital department with suspected bacteriemia and for whom the bacteriology laboratory performed a blood culture. During the study period, the laboratory received 842 requests for blood cultures and found 154 (18.3%) of them to be positive. Files for 81 of the 154 patients could be found and examined. The distribution according to age showed septicemia was most frequent among those aged 6-15 years (61.7% of the cases). Microbial identification showed the dominant species to be Salmonella enterica (serovars paratyphi and typhi) (58%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (12.3%). The salmonella isolates had a high rate of resistance to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole. Staphylococci were always sensitive to the antibiotics with which they were tested, although to a lesser extent for penicillin G. All patients routinely received antibiotic treatment, and 81.5% (n=66) were cured (5 children died and 10 left the hospital against medical advice). This study shows that the bacterial epidemiology of septicemia in our setting is dominated by salmonella. Trends in bacterial resistance to antibiotics showed that common antibiotics such as amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole are no longer acceptable as probabilist therapy here. They should be replaced in this type of infection by injectable third generation cephalosporin alone or combined with aminoglycosides.
Mouline, Karine; Mamai, W.; Agnew, P.; Tchonfienet, M.; Brengues, Cécile; Dabiré, R.; Robert, Vincent; Simard, Frédéric
In West Africa, M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) Giles, frequently occur together, although with different population bionomics. The S form typically breeds in rain-dependant water collections and is present during the rainy season only whereas the M form can thrive all year long in areas with permanent breeding opportunities. In the present study, we explored physiological and developmental trade-offs at play in laboratory colonies and field pop...
Mamoudou, Savadogo; Boushab, Boushab Mohamed
Dengue is a re-emerging arboviral disease in tropical countries. Haemorrhagic form may be associated with circulatory failure and produce hypovolemic shock, which is often fatal. We report a series of three cases of hemorrhagic dengue observed at the Infectious Diseases Department CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Ouagadougou, in order to describe its epidemiological, clinical, and evolutive characteristics. Our study included young females who had an onset age of between 35 years and 45 years, residing in the city of Ouagadougou. Despite multiple concentrated platelets transfusions and symptomatic treatment, we mourned a death. The development of antivirals and of new vaccines is a silver lining to prevent dengue lethality. PMID:27303584
Full Text Available Background: One promising way to improve the motivation of healthcare providers and the quality of healthcare services is performance-based incentives (PBIs also referred as performance-based financing. Our study aims to explore healthcare providers’ preferences for an incentive scheme based on local resources, which aimed at improving the quality of maternal and child health care in the Nouna Health District. Design: A qualitative and quantitative survey was carried out in 2010 involving 94 healthcare providers within 34 health facilities. In addition, in-depth interviews involving a total of 33 key informants were conducted at health facility levels. Results: Overall, 85% of health workers were in favour of an incentive scheme based on the health district's own financial resources (95% CI: [71.91; 88.08]. Most health workers (95 and 96% expressed a preference for financial incentives (95% CI: [66.64; 85.36] and team-based incentives (95% CI: [67.78; 86.22], respectively. The suggested performance indicators were those linked to antenatal care services, prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission, neonatal care, and immunization. Conclusions: The early involvement of health workers and other stakeholders in designing an incentive scheme proved to be valuable. It ensured their effective participation in the process and overall acceptance of the scheme at the end. This study is an important contribution towards the designing of effective PBI schemes.
Blomstedt, Yulia; Souares, Aurélia; Niamba, Louis; Sie, Ali; Weinehall, Lars; Sauerborn, Rainer
Background: National surveys in low-income countries increasingly rely on self-reported measures of health. The ease, speed, and economy of collecting self-reports of health make such collection attractive for rapid appraisals. However, the interpretation of these measures is complicated since different cultures understand and respond to the same question in different ways.Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to develop a culturally sensitive tool to study the self-reported health (SRH)...
Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous acetone extracts from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav; and Sida Alba L. in Swiss mice, with an aim to provide a scientific basis for the traditional use of these plants in the treatment of inflammation disorders. In anti-inflammatory activity, the carrageenan-induced paw edema and oil croton-induced ear edema in Swiss mice. As for analgesic effects, acetic acid writhing and formalin test methods were used in mice. About anti-inflammatory potential, the extracts at doses of 100; 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight produced significant comparatively to the control groups (p<0.05; p<0.01 and p<0.001 and we noticed a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. The dose-dependent inhibition of edema was observed at 1; 2 and 3 h. However, extracts showed dose-dependent inhibition of croton oil induced ear oedema, at doses of 200; 300 and 500 µg/ear. As for analgesic activity, extracts produced significant analgesic effects in acetic acid writhing and formalin test method (p<0.05; p<0.01 and p<0.001 compared to the control groups and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. The present study concludes that Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. and Sida Alba L. have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.
W. F. Kagamèbga
Full Text Available Land degradation is a major problem in the Sahelian countries. Erosion control through establishment of vegetation cover is at important strategy to reverse the trend. Our research objective was to analyse the effects of three restoration techniques on Jatropha curcas L. seedlings growth and survivorship. We are conducted two separate field trials, involving the sowing and planting of J. curcas, in which several different soil restoration techniques were applied. The trial was monitored using a randomized block study design over a period of two years. The design included ten different treatments, six in the sowing trial and four in the planting trial, each with three replicates. In the first experiment, growth rate was found to be significantly higher in the Sub-Soiling treatment, that received additional organic matter than other treatments. However, overall survival rate was low (18%. In the second experiment, the Half-moon treatment yielded a significantly higher growth both in height (df = 3, F = 56.74, p < 0.05 and diameter (df = 3, F = 31.76, p < 0.05 and survival rate compared to those of the other treatments (df = 3, F = 50.4, p < 0.05. In conclusion, planting seedlings produced a greater survival rate than sowing seeds. Among the soil restoration and water conservation techniques tested in this study, the Half-moon technique was found to be the most effective. This is recommended to be used for improving the revegetation of J. curcas in the future.
François Wenemi Kagambèga
Full Text Available Land degradation is a major problem in the Sahelian countries. Erosion control through establishment of vegetation cover is at important strategy to reverse the trend. Our research objective was to analyse the e-ffects of three restoration techniques on Jatropha curcas L. seedlings growth and survivorship. Were conducted two separate field trials, involving the sowing and planting of J. curcas, in which several different soil restoration techniques were applied. The trial was monitored using a ran-domized block study design over a period of two years. The design included ten different treatments, six in the sowing trial and four in the planting trial, each with three replicates. In the first experiment, growth rate was found to be significantly higher in the Sub-Soiling treatment, that received additional organic matter than other treatments. However, overall survival rate was low (18%. In the second experiment, the Half-moon treatment yielded a significantly higher growth both in height (df = 3, F = 56.74, p < 0.05 and diameter (df = 3, F = 31.76, p < 0.05 and survival rate compared to those of the other treatments (df = 3, F = 50.4, p < 0.05. In conclusion, planting seedlings produced a greater survival rate than sowing seeds. Among tested the soil restoration and water conservation techniques the Half-moon technique was found as the most effective. This is recommended to be used for improving the revegetation of J. curcas in the future.
François Wenemi Kagambèga; Adjima Thiombiano; Salifou Traoré; Robert Zougmoré; Joseph Issaka Boussim
Land degradation is a major problem in the Sahelian countries. Erosion control through establishment of vegetation cover is at important strategy to reverse the trend. Our research objective was to analyse the e-ffects of three restoration techniques on Jatropha curcas L. seedlings growth and survivorship. Were conducted two separate field trials, involving the sowing and planting of J. curcas, in which several different soil restoration techniques were applied. The trial was monitored using ...
The contrasted global population growth with the multiplication of the constraints to developing new irrigation systems puts a special challenge upon human crop production systems that needs to be taken up. Th
Sustainability Weeks 2009 Opening Symposium "International Symposium on Sustainable Development -Recommendations for Tackling the 5 Challenges of Global Sustainability-". Session 2, Toward the Expansion of an Integrated Water Management System. 2 November 2009. Sapporo, Japan.
Pouliot, Mariève; Elias, Marlène
of locality of residence, defined as place of residence along the rural–urban continuum, on shea butter processing and income. We demonstrate that, among members of a shea butter producer Union, women living in urban areas produce significantly larger quantities of shea butter for sale to the Union and earn...... superior revenues from these sales than their rural counterparts. We relate these urban–rural discrepancies to the physical and socio-economic conditions that characterise life in different localities and propose policy recommendations based on our findings....
Sondo, Paul; Derra, Karim; Diallo Nakanabo, Seydou; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Kazienga, Adama; Zampa, Odile; Valéa, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert; Tinto, Halidou
The adoption of Artemisinin based combination therapies (ACT) constitutes a basic strategy for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, since cases of ACT resistance have been reported in South-East Asia, the need to understand P. falciparum resistance mechanism to ACT has become a global research goal. The selective pressure of ACT and the possibility that some specific Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles are associated with treatment failures was assessed in a clinical trial comparing ASAQ to AL in Nanoro. Dried blood spots collected on Day 0 and on the day of recurrent parasitaemia during the 28-day follow-up were analyzed using the restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Pfcrt (codon76) and Pfmdr1 (codons 86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246) genes. Multivariate analysis of the relationship between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles and treatment outcome was performed. AL and ASAQ exerted opposite trends in selecting Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1-N86Y alleles, raising the potential beneficial effect of using diverse ACT at the same time as first line treatments to reduce the selective pressure by each treatment regimen. No clear association between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles carried at baseline and treatment failure was observed.
Full Text Available The adoption of Artemisinin based combination therapies (ACT constitutes a basic strategy for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, since cases of ACT resistance have been reported in South-East Asia, the need to understand P. falciparum resistance mechanism to ACT has become a global research goal. The selective pressure of ACT and the possibility that some specific Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles are associated with treatment failures was assessed in a clinical trial comparing ASAQ to AL in Nanoro. Dried blood spots collected on Day 0 and on the day of recurrent parasitaemia during the 28-day follow-up were analyzed using the restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Pfcrt (codon76 and Pfmdr1 (codons 86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246 genes. Multivariate analysis of the relationship between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles and treatment outcome was performed. AL and ASAQ exerted opposite trends in selecting Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1-N86Y alleles, raising the potential beneficial effect of using diverse ACT at the same time as first line treatments to reduce the selective pressure by each treatment regimen. No clear association between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles carried at baseline and treatment failure was observed.
Bouba Djourdebbé, Franklin; Dos Santos, Stéphanie; Legrand, Thomas K; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi
Using data on 825 under-5 children from the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System collected in 2010, this article examines the effects of aspects of the immediate environment on childhood fever. Logit regression models were estimated to assess the effects of the quality of the local environment on the probability that a child is reported to have had a fever in the two weeks preceding the survey, after controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic variables. While the estimated impact of some environmental factors persisted in the full models, the effects of variables such as access to water and type of household waste management decreased in the presence of demographic, socioeconomic and neighbourhood factors. The management of waste water was found to significantly affect the occurrence of childhood fever. Overall, the results of the study call for more efforts to promote access to tap water to households at prices that are affordable for the local population, where the threats to child health appears to be greatest.
One of the biggest upcoming challenges to the international community is the problem of a changing climate. The earth’s surface temperature is rising and associated impacts on physical and biological systems are increasingly being observed. Science tells us that climate change will bring about gradual changes, such as sea level rise, and shifts of climate zones due to increased temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns. A changing climate affects the entire world but will strike hard...
Zida, Z.; Ouedraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.
Unsustainable crop and soil management practices are major causes of soil degradation and declining soil biodiversity in West Africa. Identifying soil management practices that favor macrofauna abundance is highly desirable for long-term soil health. This study investigates the effects of long-term
Nagalo, Kisito; Badiel, Roger; Kouéta, Fla; Tall, François Housséini; Yé, Diarra
Le syndrome des brides amniotiques est une embryo-foetopathie rare, d’étiopathogénie encore inconnue, caractérisé par des malformations crânio-faciales, thoraco-abdominales, des membres et des extrémités. Afin de discuter des difficultés diagnostiques et thérapeutiques du syndrome des brides amniotiques, nous rapportons cinq cas de ce syndrome. Ces cas représentaient autant de phénotypes de la maladie mais avec quelques singularités. Les deux premiers étaient des cas de maladie des brides amn...
Sondo, Paul; Derra, Karim; Diallo Nakanabo, Seydou; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Kazienga, Adama; Zampa, Odile; Valéa, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert; Tinto, Halidou
The adoption of Artemisinin based combination therapies (ACT) constitutes a basic strategy for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, since cases of ACT resistance have been reported in South-East Asia, the need to understand P. falciparum resistance mechanism to ACT has become a global research goal. The selective pressure of ACT and the possibility that some specific Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles are associated with treatment failures was assessed in a clinical trial comparing ASAQ to AL in Nanoro. Dried blood spots collected on Day 0 and on the day of recurrent parasitaemia during the 28-day follow-up were analyzed using the restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Pfcrt (codon76) and Pfmdr1 (codons 86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246) genes. Multivariate analysis of the relationship between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles and treatment outcome was performed. AL and ASAQ exerted opposite trends in selecting Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1-N86Y alleles, raising the potential beneficial effect of using diverse ACT at the same time as first line treatments to reduce the selective pressure by each treatment regimen. No clear association between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles carried at baseline and treatment failure was observed. PMID:27031231
Storeng, K. T.; Murray, S. F.; Akoum, M. S.; Ouattara, Fatoumata; Filippi, V.
Averting women's pregnancy-related death is today recognised as an international health and development priority. Maternal survival is, in this sense, a success story. There is, however, little research into what happens to the women who survive the severe obstetric complications that are the main causes of maternal mortality. This paper examines findings from repeated in-depth interviews with 64 women who survived a clinically defined 'near-miss.' These interviews were conducted as part of a...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of four plants used in traditional medicine. Hydroethanolic extract, hydroacetonic extract and aqueous extract of Mitragyna inermis (Willd. O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae, Combretum sericeum G. Don (Combretaceae, Alternanthera pungens H.B. and K (Amaranthaceae and Ampelocissus grantii (Baker Planch (Vitaceae have been tested in vitro against chloroquine-resistant strain (K1 and chloroquine-sensitve strain (3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum using pLDH assay. Aqueous extracts exhibited the best results against K1 with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 0.54±0.18, 1.72±0.99, 1.54±0.04 μg/mL for respectively, M. inermis leaves, C. sericeum leaves and whole plant of A. pungens. Hydroethanolic extract from the leaves of M. inermis gave also IC50 value of 0.87±0.10 μg/mL with 3D7. Extracts showed antiplasmodial activity against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strains. Our study justifies the use of these plants in traditional medicine and leads to further investigations.
Ki-Zerbo, G A; Guigma, Y
Noma (Cancrum oris) is a gangrenous stomatitis arising from a periodontal infection and leading to severe soft tissue and bone destruction. The pathology involves numerous factors including local thrombosis, vascularitis, necrotizing gingivitis, immunodeficiency, gram negative and anaerobic infection. It is usually a disease of infants and malnourished children in tropical areas often occurring after a debilitating disease like measles. Recently, cases have been reported in adults especially elderly patients or during immunodeficiency states. Reconstructive surgery is often necessary to deal with destruction and sequel but is rarely accessible in developing countries. We report one case of noma (cancrum oris) in an HIV seropositive patient at the National Hospital in Bobo-Dioulasso. The noma was inaugural of AIDS in a 40 years old labourer coming back from Ivory Coast and no major opportunistic infection was associated. The course was fulminant leading to extensive facial gangrene with recurrent bacterial infections. The disease was fatal in this depressive, malnourished and diarrhoeic patient despite local surgical treatment, prolonged antibiotherapy and supportive care. Pathogenic mechanisms, management and preventive issues are discussed.
Konsem, T; Millogo, M; Gare, J; Ouedraogo, D; Ouoba, K
Cancrum oris is a gangrenous stomatitis arising from a periodontal infection and leading to severe soft tissue and bone destruction. The pathology involves numerous factors including local thrombosis, vascularitis, necrotizing gingivitis, immunodeficiency, Gram negative and anaerobic infection. It is usually a disease of infants and malnourished children in tropical areas often occurring after a debilitating disease like measles . Burkitt lymphoma is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma first described by Burkitt in 1958 in African children from areas holoendemic for malaria. It is the first cancer of African child . The association between Burkitt lymphoma and cancrum oris is non common. We report in the present study three cases of this association at the Academic Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo of Ouagadougou. This association poses a problem of late diagnosis with difficulties in therapeutic management.
Full Text Available Many studies have shown that pesticides use have some effect on soil biology. However little information is available concerning the effect of pesticides on soil enzyme activities in semi arid zone of Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three pesticides usually used (endosulfan, deltamethrin and profenofos, on soil Fluorescein Diacetate (FDA and dehydrogenase activities from cultivated and fallow plot. Enzyme activities were followed in 5 days incubated soil, containing 200 mg/kg of each pesticide. The results showed that endosulfan, deltamethrin and profenofos significantly decreased soil dehydrogenase activity (p0.005. These results clearly show the impacts of these pesticides on soils enzyme activites.
Coulibaly, Sheick O; Kayentao, Kassoum; Taylor, Steve;
Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is widely used for the control of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. The emergence of resistance to SP is a concern requiring monitoring the effectiveness of SP for IPTp.......Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is widely used for the control of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. The emergence of resistance to SP is a concern requiring monitoring the effectiveness of SP for IPTp....
Bouché, Philippe; Lejeune, Philippe; Bailly, Vincent; Muyle, Margaux; Zinque, Marie-Hélène; Mercier, Alizé; Cornélis, Daniel; Lungren, Clark; Portier, Bruno; Marchal, Antoine; Renault, Florent; Yaméogo, Dieudonné; Kafando, Pierre; Sawadogo, Prosper; Vermeulen, Cédric
Established in the early 1970 as a participatory wildlife production area, the Nazinga Game Ranch turned into an island of conservation surrounded by cultivation. We asked ourselves how long-term ungulate trends are affected in a context of continuous human pressure. To find out, we compiled and analysed the data of yearly line-transect counts of mammals carried out since 1985. Results showed that large species such as the elephant (Loxodonta africana) and large antelopes increased or showed stable populations. In contrast, medium and small ungulates showed continuously decreasing trends. During the same period, rainfall, water availability from artificial water points and the crop encroaching outside Nazinga Game Ranch increased. After an initial significant reduction, illegal human signs increased. However, we showed that human signs were positively correlated with the abundance of large ungulates but negatively correlated with the abundance of medium and small ones. In conclusion, this study showed that some isolated mammal populations could be restored and maintained in the long term, in spite of being surrounded by highly cultivated areas. PMID:27350287
Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Fournet, Florence;
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the availability and accessibility of oral health services are seriously constrained and the provision of essential oral care is limited. Reports from the region show a very low utilization of oral health care services, and visits to dental-care facilities...... an oral health problem during the past 12 months; a high proportion (62%) reported pain or acute discomfort affecting daily life. In response to symptoms, only 28% used oral health facilities, 48% used self-medication and 24% sought no treatment at all. Multivariate analyses revealed that several socio-economic...
Serme, A K; Ilboudo, P D; Samandoulgou, A; Simpore, J; Bougouma, A; Sombie, A R
The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among pregnant women and the rate of mother-child transmission. Over one month (April 26 to May 25, 2002) blood samples of 200 pregnant women who gave birth at the maternity of the university hospital and Gounguin center medical of Ouagadougou were tested for anti-HVC antibodies (Ac HCV) and anti HIV antibodies (Ac HIV). Infants born to mother tested positive for Ac HCV and their mother were tested for HCV-RNA. The prevalence of HCV (positive Ac HCV and HCV-RNA) was 2% in pregnant women (4/200). One case of mother-child transmission was found. The virus transmitted was 2a (A/C) genotype. The mother had a high titre of HCV-ARN, was co-infected by HIV and had had history of blood transfusion, excision and tattoo of the gums. PMID:16821441
Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino
The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon...... electron microscopy, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and biological assays. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was detected in 36% of tomato samples and in 8% of paprika samples using indicator Nicotiana tabacum cultivars Xanthinc and White Burley. Some 43% of cowpea samples were infected with Cowpea....... The results imply that resources must be invested in improving the quality of seed from the smallholder sector. National and international germplasm collection centres should be equipped with capacity to test for seed-borne viruses so as to minimize the movement of infected germplasm in breeding materials...
...: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger..., Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger,...
Papps, Kerry L.
A number of authors have documented an increase in earnings or income inequality in New Zealand during the late 1980s and early 1990s, a period of major economic reform, however no study has evaluated changes in inequality during the post-reform era. This paper applies a recently-developed method for decomposing changes in inequality to New Zealand income and earnings data and extends it to analyse changes in inequality between men and women. Across the total working-age population, income in...
W.R. Compaoré; P.A. Nikièma; H.I.N. Bassolé; A. Savadogo; J. Mouecoucou; D.J. Hounhouigan and S.A. Traoré
This study aimed to identify the nutrient composition and antioxidant properties of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa. Crude proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, crude fibers, ashes and mineral elements were determined. Total phenols, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins of seeds and pulps were reported. The seeds of Moringa oleifera are particularly rich in proteins (35.37±0.07 g/100 g), lipids (43.56±0.03 g/100 g), and minerals (Mg2+ and Zn2+). Pulps of Ada...
Haddad, Slim; Bicaba, Abel; Feletto, Marta; Fournier, Pierre; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria
Background Data aggregation in national information systems begins at the district level. Decentralization has given districts a lead role in health planning and management, therefore validity of administrative-based estimates at that level is important to improve the performance of immunization information systems. Objective To assess the validity of administrative-based immunization estimates and their usability for planning and monitoring activities at district level. Methods DTP3 and meas...
Full Text Available Arab and Islamic culture is made available to students in several venues. In the Soaw district, there are, on the one hand, the Coranic school which was introduced back in the 16th century by Yarse Muslims, and, on the other hand, the medersa which was founded as late as 2001. Both systems teach Arab and Islamic culture. The difference between the two, however, is that the objective of the former is not to teach Arabic, but to transmit religious knowledge; it does not help learners to find jobs after the completion of their studies. The medersa, on the other hand, teaches how to read and write Arabic with a view to engage in a professional activity. In other words, the Coranic school teaches only religion, and Arabic is translated into and explained in the vernacular teaching language. The medersa teaches religion, Arabic, French and a number of scientific disciplines, which are explained either in Arabic or in French.
Østergaard, Lise Rosendal
focus groups with women from village (6) and town (5) were conducted (48 participants). Guided by an analytic focus on strategies and tactics and drawing on recent discussions on the notion of ‘biomedical security’, the article explores what tactics women employ in their efforts to maximize...... consultations, minimizing the waiting time at the maternity unit and using traditional medicines. In this way, women strive to achieve biomedical security for themselves and their child and to preserve their social reputation. The study reveals difficulty in the collaboration and communication between health......Improving the use of public maternal health facilities to prevent maternal death is a priority in developing countries. Accumulating evidence suggests that a key factor in choosing a facility-based delivery is the collaboration and the communication between healthcare providers and women...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient immune status is thought to affect the efficacy of anti-malarial chemotherapy. This is a subject of some importance, since evidence of immunity-related interactions may influence our use of chemotherapy in populations with drug resistance, as well as assessment of the value of suboptimal vaccines. The study aim was to investigate relationship between antibodies and anti-malarial drug treatment outcomes. Methods Some 248 children aged 0.5 and 15 years were recruited prior to the high malaria transmission season. Venous blood (5 ml was obtained from each child to measure antibody levels to selected malaria antigens, using ELISA. Blood smears were also performed to assess drug efficacy and malaria infection prevalence. Children were actively followed up to record clinical malaria cases. Results IgG levels to MSP3 were always higher in the successfully treated group than in the group with treatment failure. The same observation was made for GLURP but the reverse observation was noticed for MSP1-19. Cytophilic and non-cytophilic antibodies were significantly associated with protection against all three antigens, except for IgG4 to MSP1-19 and GLURP. Conclusion Acquired anti-malarial antibodies may play an important role in the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in younger children more susceptible to the disease.