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Sample records for buried tunnel junction

  1. Long wavelength electrically pumped GaSb-based buried tunnel junction VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Alexander; Arafin, Shamsul; Kashani-Shirazi, Kaveh; Amann, Markus-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Long wavelength lasers are attractive light sources for free-space communications, military countermeasures, medical applications and trace-gas sensing systems by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). As technically important gases, such as CO, CO2 or CH4, show strong absorption lines in a wavelength range from 2 to 3.5 μm, one is interested in the development of lasers emitting in that region. The (AlGaIn)(AsSb) material-system based on GaSb is the material of choice for devices in the near- to mid-infrared spectral region. In this paper, we present the device structure, design and results of an electrically-pumped GaSb-based VCSEL. The devices consist of an epitaxial GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), a GaInAsSb quantum well gain section, a dielectric top DBR and a buried tunnel junction (BTJ) for electrical as well as optical confinement. Continuous-wave (cw) single-mode emission has been achieved up to a record high ambient temperature of 90 ∘C. The wavelength is (electro-) thermally tunable from 2345 nm to 2365 nm. A maximum output power of 800 μW has been measured at 0 ∘C.

  2. Diffraction loss in long-wavelength buried tunnel junction VCSELs analyzed with a hybrid coupled-cavity transfer-matrix model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Jörgen; Gustavsson, Johan; Haglund, Asa; Larsson, Anders; Bachmann, Alexander; Kashani-Shirazi, Kaveh; Amann, Markus-Christian

    2008-12-08

    Intra-cavity diffraction in VCSELs is a loss mechanism that potentially can cause a significant decrease in efficiency and a rise in the threshold current, particularly in cavities with small lateral features with a high index contrast. One such VCSEL type is the 2.3 microm GaSb-based buried tunnel junction (BTJ) VCSEL studied in this work, where the BTJ induced topology of the top layers gives rise to excess loss through diffraction. Diffraction loss is difficult to measure, and also the numerical estimation must be done with care because of the non-axial propagation of the diffracted fields. We present a simulation method with spatially varying dimensionality, such that the field is three-dimensional (3D) in the entire cavity, whereas the material structure of the cavity is modelled in 3D near the BTJ and the layers with a varying topology, but elsewhere is assumed to be 1D like in a regular DBR structure. We find that the diffraction loss displays a non-monotonic behaviour as a function of the BTJ diameter, but as expected it rapidly increases below a certain diameter of the BTJ and may even become the dominant cause of loss in some device designs. We also show that the diffraction loss can be much reduced if the layers above the BTJ can be deposited such that the surface profile becomes smoother with increasing distance from the BTJ.

  3. Current noise in tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, 79104, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    We study current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a voltage source. The voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. We use circuit theory to relate the fluctuations of the current flowing in the leads of the junction with the voltage fluctuations generated by the environmental impedance and the fluctuations of the tunneling current. The spectrum of current fluctuations is found to consist of three parts: a term arising from the environmental Johnson-Nyquist noise, a term due to the shot noise of the tunneling current and a third term describing the cross-correlation between these two noise sources. Our phenomenological theory reproduces previous results based on the Hamiltonian model for the dynamical Coulomb blockade and provides a simple understanding of the current fluctuation spectrum in terms of circuit theory and properties of the average current. Specific results are given for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. All NbN tunnel junction fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, H. G.; Khanna, S. K.; Stern, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of SIS tunnel junctions based on NbN for mixer applications in the submillimeter range is reported. The unique technological challenges inherent in the development of all refractory-compound superconductor-based tunnel junctions are highlighted. Current deposition and fabrication techniques are discussed, and the current status of all-NbN tunnel junctions is reported.

  5. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc bias...

  6. Molecular series-tunneling junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M

    2015-05-13

    Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β.

  7. New thermoelectric effect in tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.D.; Tinkham, M.; Skocpol, W.J.

    1980-11-01

    A new type of thermoelectric current effect is derived for tunneling through oxide barriers between metals at different temperatures, for both superconducting and normal tunnel junctions. This effect was observed in both current and voltage measurements on Al-PbVb tunnel junctions in which one electrode was heated by laser irradiation. The existence of this thermoelectric effect may resolve long-standing discrepencies between experimental results and theoretical predictions for a series of point-contact experiments.

  8. delta-biased Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect...

  9. Tunnel junction 850-nm VCSEL for aperture uniformity and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, P. S.; Yan, J.; Wu, T. C.; Kyi, W.; Pao, J.; Riaziat, M.

    2017-02-01

    We are reporting the first successful fabrication of 850-nm buried tunnel junction (BTJ) VCSELs. Multiple parameters were considered for the design. First, n-type dopants other than silicon had to be considered for an abrupt junction. Second, proper layer thickness had to be chosen. Finally, compatibility with regrowth and processing had to be ensured. In this paper the successful fabrication and performance of 850-nm BTJ VCSELs with tunnel junctions comprised of GaAs and AlGaAs materials is demonstrated. Key achieved parameters include a significant improvement in the slope efficiency from approximately 0.45 W/A in an oxide-aperture VCSEL to over 0.6 W/A.

  10. Characterization of magnetic tunnel junction test pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Kjær, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter Folmer

    2015-01-01

    We show experimentally as well as theoretically that patterned magnetic tunnel junctions can be characterized using the current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method, and the key parameters, the resistance-area product (RA) and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), can be determined. The CIPT method...

  11. Time Dependent Tunneling in Laser Irradiated Scanning Tunneling Microscope Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookyung Hur

    A principal motivation for the studies reported in this thesis was to obtain a theoretical explanation for the experimental results obtained by Nguyen et al. (1989) to determine the traversal time of an electron tunneling through a quantum mechanical barrier in a laser irradiated STM junction. The work therefore focused on the calculation of tunneling in a time-dependent oscillating barrier, and more specifically on the inelastic contributions to the tunneling current. To do so the kinetic formalism for tunneling was modified and extended to calculate inelastic processes in an irradiated tunneling junction. Furthermore, there is significant absorption of power from the laser beam in the junction electrodes resulting in thermal effects which can influence the tunneling. Extensive analysis of the spatial and temporal temperature distributions was first done for a realistic model of the diode emitter and anode using the Green function method. Specifically we considered (i) thermal effects due to surface heating of the absorbed laser radiation, (ii) the thermoelectric emf produced in the junction due to differential heating, and (iii) resistive and Thomson heat produced in the junction by laser induced currents. Using first-order time-dependent perturbation theory we also (iv) calculated the inelastic tunneling current due to a time dependent oscillating barrier produced by the antenna geometry of the STM junction. Lastly, we (v) formulated photo-assisted tunneling due to the electron -photon interaction in the junction using the second-quantization formalism. Although quite significant results were obtained for the tunneling current density as a function of frequency, gap distance and other junction parameters which gave insights into important features of the Nguyen et al. experiment (and tunneling characteristics of an irradiated STM in general), no single expression was derived or calculated results obtained which explains or fits all their observed data, or

  12. Modelling of Dual-Junction Solar Cells including Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Amine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically stacked multijunction solar cells based on III–V semiconductors materials are the state-of-art of approach for high efficiency photovoltaic energy conversion, in particular for space applications. The individual subcells of the multi-junction structure are interconnected via tunnel diodes which must be optically transparent and connect the component cells with a minimum electrical resistance. The quality of these diodes determines the output performance of the solar cell. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the investigation of the tunnel electrical resistance of such a multi-junction cell through the analysis of the current-voltage (J-V characteristics under illumination. Our approach is based on an equivalent circuit model of a diode for each subcell. We examine the effect of tunnel resistance on the performance of a multi-junction cell using minimization of the least squares technique.

  13. Magnetic tunnel junctions with monolayer hexagonal boron nitride tunnel barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquemal-Banci, M.; Galceran, R.; Bouzehouane, K.; Anane, A.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.; Dlubak, B.; Seneor, P. [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Palaiseau 91767 (France); Caneva, S.; Martin, M.-B.; Weatherup, R. S.; Kidambi, P. R.; Robertson, J.; Hofmann, S. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21PZ (United Kingdom); Xavier, S. [Thales Research and Technology, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, Palaiseau 91767 (France)

    2016-03-07

    We report on the integration of atomically thin 2D insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) tunnel barriers into Co/h-BN/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The h-BN monolayer is directly grown by chemical vapor deposition on Fe. The Conductive Tip Atomic Force Microscopy (CT-AFM) measurements reveal the homogeneity of the tunnel behavior of our h-BN layers. As expected for tunneling, the resistance depends exponentially on the number of h-BN layers. The h-BN monolayer properties are also characterized through integration into complete MTJ devices. A Tunnel Magnetoresistance of up to 6% is observed for a MTJ based on a single atomically thin h-BN layer.

  14. Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate...

  15. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-07-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or {pi} coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, {pi}) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-{pi} Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-{pi} junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}. Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T {yields} 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  16. Tunnel junction based memristors as artificial synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andy; Niehörster, Stefan; Fabretti, Savio; Shepheard, Norman; Kuschel, Olga; Küpper, Karsten; Wollschläger, Joachim; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Chicca, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    We prepared magnesia, tantalum oxide, and barium titanate based tunnel junction structures and investigated their memristive properties. The low amplitudes of the resistance change in these types of junctions are the major obstacle for their use. Here, we increased the amplitude of the resistance change from 10% up to 100%. Utilizing the memristive properties, we looked into the use of the junction structures as artificial synapses. We observed analogs of long-term potentiation, long-term depression and spike-time dependent plasticity in these simple two terminal devices. Finally, we suggest a possible pathway of these devices toward their integration in neuromorphic systems for storing analog synaptic weights and supporting the implementation of biologically plausible learning mechanisms.

  17. Reinventing the PN Junction: Dimensionality Effects on Tunneling Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    state tunneling probability is 10-6. 2.3.2 Conclusion This device exploits a unique heterostructure and surface quantum well to create a new...pn junction describes tunneling [9] within a nanowire or carbon nanotube junction as schematically represented in Figure 6.3(a). Tunneling is...6.5 0D-1D JUNCTION A 0d to 1d junction represents tunneling from a quantum dot to a nanowire as shown in Figure 6.6(a). Our main goal in analyzing

  18. Superconducting Tunnel Junction Arrays for UV Photon Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative method is described for the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector arrays offering true "three dimensional" imaging throughout...

  19. Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in a double magnetic tunnel junction

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2011-08-09

    We present quasi-classical approach to calculate a spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in double magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJ) FML/I/FMW/I/FMR, where the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer FMW can be aligned parallel or antiparallel with respect to the fixed magnetizations of the left FML and right FMR ferromagnetic electrodes. The transmission coefficients for components of the spin-dependent current, and TMR are calculated as a function of the applied voltage. As a result, we found a high resonant TMR. Thus, DMTJ can serve as highly effective magnetic nanosensor for biological applications, or as magnetic memory cells by switching the magnetization of the inner ferromagnetic layer FMW.© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

  20. Tunable tunneling electroresistance in ferroelectric tunnel junctions by mechanical loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Biao; Zheng, Yue

    2011-03-22

    Combining nonequilibrium Green function's approach with density functional theory, effects of the applied mechanical loads on polarization, electrostatic potential, and tunneling conductance of a ferroelectric tunneling junction (FTJ) have been investigated. Using the first principle calculations, we show that compressive strains can induce and enhance the polarization in ferroelectric tunnel barriers, and practically achieve ferroelectricity in two unit cell thickness under a -2.2% compressive strain. More importantly, mechanical strains can significantly change the effective electrostatic potential in FTJ and thus control its tunneling conductance, which is defined as giant piezoelectric resistance (GPR) effect. Our calculations indicate that GPR effect is particularly significant near the paraelectric/ferroelectric phase transition, and increases exponentially with the barrier thickness. Furthermore, it is also found that defects of oxygen vacancies and nitrogen doping have little impact on GPR ratio of strained FTJ. Because of its high-sensitivity to external mechanical loads, FTJ with GPR effect should be adequate for applications in agile mechanical sensors, transducers, and other multifunctional devices.

  1. Parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in a Josephson tunnel junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Kofoed, Bent; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1975-01-01

    Experimental evidence for subharmonic parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in Josephson tunnel junctions is presented. The experiments described are performed by measuring the microwave power necessary to switch a Josephson−tunnel junction biased in the zero−voltage state to a finite−volt......−voltage state. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  2. Planar Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monacoa, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    demagnetization effects imposed by the tunnel barrier and electrodes geometry are important. Measurements of the junction critical current versus magnetic field in planar Nb-based high-quality junctions with different geometry, size, and critical current density show that it is advantageous to use a transverse......Traditionally, since the discovery of the Josephson effect in 1962, the magnetic diffraction pattern of planar Josephson tunnel junctions has been recorded with the field applied in the plane of the junction. Here we discuss the static junction properties in a transverse magnetic field where...

  3. Highly doped layer for tunnel junctions in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Christopher M.

    2017-08-01

    A highly doped layer for interconnecting tunnel junctions in multijunction solar cells is presented. The highly doped layer is a delta doped layer in one or both layers of a tunnel diode junction used to connect two or more p-on-n or n-on-p solar cells in a multijunction solar cell. A delta doped layer is made by interrupting the epitaxial growth of one of the layers of the tunnel diode, depositing a delta dopant at a concentration substantially greater than the concentration used in growing the layer of the tunnel diode, and then continuing to epitaxially grow the remaining tunnel diode.

  4. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in Co/AIOx/Al tunnel junctions with fcc Co (111) electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Kai; Tran, T. Lan Ahn; Brinks, Peter; Brinks, P.; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Bolhuis, Thijs; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; de Jong, Machiel Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) has been characterized in junctions comprised of face-centered cubic (fcc) Co (111) ferromagnetic electrodes grown epitaxially on sapphire substrates, amorphous AlOx tunnel barriers, and nonmagnetic Al counterelectrodes. Large TAMR ratios have been

  5. Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Marvin; Walowski, Jakob; Zbarsky, Vladyslav; Münzenberg, Markus; Schäfers, Markus; Ebke, Daniel; Reiss, Günter; Thomas, Andy; Peretzki, Patrick; Seibt, Michael; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Czerner, Michael; Bachmann, Michael; Heiliger, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Creating temperature gradients in magnetic nanostructures has resulted in a new research direction, that is, the combination of magneto- and thermoelectric effects. Here, we demonstrate the observation of one important effect of this class: the magneto-Seebeck effect. It is observed when a magnetic configuration changes the charge-based Seebeck coefficient. In particular, the Seebeck coefficient changes during the transition from a parallel to an antiparallel magnetic configuration in a tunnel junction. In this respect, it is the analogue to the tunnelling magnetoresistance. The Seebeck coefficients in parallel and antiparallel configurations are of the order of the voltages known from the charge-Seebeck effect. The size and sign of the effect can be controlled by the composition of the electrodes' atomic layers adjacent to the barrier and the temperature. The geometric centre of the electronic density of states relative to the Fermi level determines the size of the Seebeck effect. Experimentally, we realized 8.8% magneto-Seebeck effect, which results from a voltage change of about -8.7 μV K⁻¹ from the antiparallel to the parallel direction close to the predicted value of -12.1 μV K⁻¹. In contrast to the spin-Seebeck effect, it can be measured as a voltage change directly without conversion of a spin current.

  6. Tunnel Junction Development Using Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptak, Aaron J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simon, John D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schulte, Kevin L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-18

    We demonstrate for the first time III-V tunnel junctions grown using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) with peak tunneling currents >8 A/cm2, sufficient for operation of a multijunction device to several hundred suns of concentration. Multijunction solar cells rely on tunneling interconnects between subcells to enable series connection with minimal voltage loss, but tunnel junctions have never been shown using the HVPE growth method. HVPE has recently reemerged as a low-cost growth method for high-quality III-V materials and devices, including the growth of high-efficiency III-V solar cells. We previously showed single-junction GaAs solar cells with conversion efficiencies of ~24% with a path forward to equal or exceed the practical efficiency limits of crystalline Si. Moving to a multijunction device structure will allow for even higher efficiencies with minimal impact on cost, necessitating the development of tunnel interconnects. Here, we demonstrate the performance of both isolated HVPE-grown tunnel junctions, as well as single-junction GaAs solar cell structures with a tunnel junction incorporated into the contact region. We observe no degradation in device performance compared to a structure without the added junction.

  7. Robust spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed

    2017-04-18

    We theoretically study the current-induced spin torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions, composed of two semi-infinite antiferromagnetic layers separated by a tunnel barrier, in both clean and disordered regimes. We find that the torque enabling electrical manipulation of the Néel antiferromagnetic order parameter is out of plane, ∼n×p, while the torque competing with the antiferromagnetic exchange is in plane, ∼n×(p×n). Here, p and n are the Néel order parameter direction of the reference and free layers, respectively. Their bias dependence shows behavior similar to that in ferromagnetic tunnel junctions, the in-plane torque being mostly linear in bias, while the out-of-plane torque is quadratic. Most importantly, we find that the spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions is much more robust against disorder than that in antiferromagnetic metallic spin valves due to the tunneling nature of spin transport.

  8. Charge Transport in 2D DNA Tunnel Junction Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Minho

    2017-11-06

    Recently, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is studied for electronics due to its intrinsic benefits such as its natural plenitude, biodegradability, biofunctionality, and low-cost. However, its applications are limited to passive components because of inherent insulating properties. In this report, a metal-insulator-metal tunnel diode with Au/DNA/NiOx junctions is presented. Through the self-aligning process of DNA molecules, a 2D DNA nanosheet is synthesized and used as a tunneling barrier, and semitransparent conducting oxide (NiOx ) is applied as a top electrode for resolving metal penetration issues. This molecular device successfully operates as a nonresonant tunneling diode, and temperature-variable current-voltage analysis proves that Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is a dominant conduction mechanism at the junctions. DNA-based tunneling devices appear to be promising prototypes for nanoelectronics using biomolecules.

  9. InAs/Si Hetero-Junction Nanotube Tunnel Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Amir N.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-01-01

    Hetero-structure tunnel junctions in non-planar gate-all-around nanowire (GAA NW) tunnel FETs (TFETs) have shown significant enhancement in ?ON? state tunnel current over their all-silicon counterpart. Here we show the unique concept of nanotube TFET in a hetero-structure configuration that is capable of much higher drive current as opposed to that of GAA NW TFETs.Through the use of inner/outer core-shell gates, a single III-V hetero-structured nanotube TFET leverages physically larger tunnel...

  10. Atomically Thin Al2O3 Films for Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Jamie; Gong, Youpin; Gong, Ming; Su, Feifan; Xu, Huikai; Sakidja, Ridwan; Elliot, Alan; Lu, Rongtao; Zhao, Shiping; Han, Siyuan; Wu, Judy Z.

    2017-06-01

    Metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions are common throughout the microelectronics industry. The industry standard AlOx tunnel barrier, formed through oxygen diffusion into an Al wetting layer, is plagued by internal defects and pinholes which prevent the realization of atomically thin barriers demanded for enhanced quantum coherence. In this work, we employ in situ scanning tunneling spectroscopy along with molecular-dynamics simulations to understand and control the growth of atomically thin Al2O3 tunnel barriers using atomic-layer deposition. We find that a carefully tuned initial H2O pulse hydroxylated the Al surface and enabled the creation of an atomically thin Al2O3 tunnel barrier with a high-quality M -I interface and a significantly enhanced barrier height compared to thermal AlOx . These properties, corroborated by fabricated Josephson junctions, show that atomic-layer deposition Al2O3 is a dense, leak-free tunnel barrier with a low defect density which can be a key component for the next generation of metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions.

  11. High energy high resolution photoemission from Heusler compounds in half tunnelling-junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloskovskii, Andrei; Balke, Benjamin; Ouardi, Siham; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg - University, Mainz (Germany); Yamamoto, Masafumi [Graduate School of Informatic Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    This work reports on high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy from the valence band of buried Co{sub 2}MnSi thin films excited by photons of about 5.9 keV energy. The measurements were performed on Co{sub 2}MnSi thin films covered by MgO(z)/AlO{sub x}(1 nm) with different thickness z from 2 nm to 20 nm of the MgO interlayer. The film structure corresponds to half a tunnelling magnetoresistive (TMR) junction. It is shown that the high energy spectra reveal the bulk electronic structure of the Heusler compound close to the Fermi energy even through the MgO layer. The high resolution measurements of the valence band close to the Fermi energy indicate a very large electron mean free path of the electrons through the MgO layer. The spectra of the buried thin films agree well with previous measurements from bulk samples.

  12. A review on all-perovskite multiferroic tunnel junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuewei Yin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the basic concept was proposed only about 10 years ago, multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJs with a ferroelectric barrier sandwiched between two ferromagnetic electrodes have already drawn considerable interests, driven mainly by its potential applications in multi-level memories and electric field controlled spintronics. The purpose of this article is to review the recent progress of all-perovskite MFTJs. Starting from the key functional properties of the tunneling magnetoresistance, tunneling electroresistance, and tunneling electromagnetoresistance effects, we discuss the main origins of the tunneling electroresistance effect, recent progress in achieving multilevel resistance states in a single device, and the electrical control of spin polarization and transport through the ferroelectric polarization reversal of the tunneling barrier.

  13. Prism-coupled light emission from tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushioda, S.; Rutledge, J. E.; Pierce, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Completely p-polarized light emission has been observed from smooth Al-AlO(x)-Au tunnel junctions placed on a prism coupler. The angle and polarization dependence demonstrate unambiguously that the emitted light is radiated by the fast-mode surface plasmon polariton. The emission spectra suggest that the dominant process for the excitation of the fast mode is through conversion of the slow mode to the fast mode mediated by residual roughness on the junction surface.

  14. Study of the geometrical resonances of superconducting tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O. Hoffmann; Finnegan, T.F.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1973-01-01

    The resonant cavity structure of superconducting Sn-Sn-oxide-Sn tunnel junctions has been investigated via photon-assisted quasiparticle tunneling. We find that the temperature-dependent losses at 35 GHz are determined by the surface resistance of the Sn films for reduced temperatures between 0.5.......5 and 0.8. Our results are in very good agreement with the microscopic theory of Mattis and Bardeen for the surface resistance of Sn. ©1973 American Institute of Physics...

  15. Flexible MgO Barrier Magnetic Tunnel Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loong, Li Ming; Lee, Wonho; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Ping; Kawai, Hiroyo; Saeys, Mark; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2016-07-01

    Flexible MgO barrier magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices are fabricated using a transfer printing process. The flexible MTJ devices yield significantly enhanced tunneling magnetoresistance of ≈300% and improved abruptness of switching, as residual strain in the MTJ structure is released during the transfer process. This approach could be useful for flexible electronic systems that require high-performance memory components. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Fluxon propagation and Fiske steps in long Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erné, S. N.; Ferrigno, A.; Parmentier, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    ) model. Resonant propagating configurations corresponding to the first and third Fiske steps are found. The fundamental frequencies and power levels of the radiation emitted from one end when the junction is biased on the first and third Fiske steps and on the first zero-field step are comparable......The dynamical behavior of fluxons propagating in the presence of an applied magnetic field on an overlap-geometry Josephson tunnel junction of length 5λJ having a McCumber βc=5π is studied by numerical integration of the circuit equations of a 50-section lumped RSJ-type (resistive shunted junction...

  17. Superconductive tunnel junctions for X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, P. A. J.; van den Berg, M. L.; Bruijn, M. P.; Frericks, M.; Le Grand, J. B.; Gijsbertsen, J. G.; Houwman, E. P.; Flokstra, J.

    1992-10-01

    Superconductive tunnel junctions are under development as detectors for X-ray astronomy in the 0.5 - 10 keV energy range, because of their potentially high energy resolution in combination with high detection efficiency. Absorber-junction combinations offer the prospect of high energy resolution detectors with a high detection efficiency and a reasonable (about 1/sq cm) size. The proximity effect between the Nb absorber and the Al trapping layer plays a dominant role. A study of the proximity effect in Nb/Al/Al2O3/Al/Nb junctions with different Al-layer, the trapping layer, thicknesses is presented.

  18. A novel approach to modeling tunnel junction diodes using Silvaco Atlas software

    OpenAIRE

    Gelinas, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ability to model a tunnel junction device using the ATLAS device simulator by Silvaco International. The tunnel junction is a critical component of a multijunction solar cell. This thesis will concentrate on simulating the tunnel junction for application as part of a multijunction solar cell. It will try several methods, in ATLAS device simulator, to produce a model of the tunnel junction that can later be used while designing multijunction devices. These methods ...

  19. Multiple frequency generation by bunched solitons in Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Sørensen, O. H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1981-01-01

    A detailed numerical study of a long Josephson tunnel junction modeled by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation demonstrates the existence of a variety of bunched soliton configurations. Thus, on the third zero-field step of the V-I characteristic, two simultaneous adjacent frequencies are generated...

  20. Spin-transfer torque in spin filter tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian

    2014-12-08

    Spin-transfer torque in a class of magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations, referred to as spin filter tunnel junctions, is studied within the tight-binding model using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function technique within Keldysh formalism. These junctions consist of one ferromagnet (FM) adjacent to a magnetic insulator (MI) or two FM separated by a MI. We find that the presence of the magnetic insulator dramatically enhances the magnitude of the spin-torque components compared to conventional magnetic tunnel junctions. The fieldlike torque is driven by the spin-dependent reflection at the MI/FM interface, which results in a small reduction of its amplitude when an insulating spacer (S) is inserted to decouple MI and FM layers. Meanwhile, the dampinglike torque is dominated by the tunneling electrons that experience the lowest barrier height. We propose a device of the form FM/(S)/MI/(S)/FM that takes advantage of these characteristics and allows for tuning the spin-torque magnitudes over a wide range just by rotation of the magnetization of the insulating layer.

  1. Spin-transfer torque in magnetic tunnel junctions : Scattering theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, J.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Brataas, A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the bias-dependent spin-transfer torque in magnetic tunnel junctions in the Stoner model by scattering theory. We show that the in-plane (Slonczewski type) torque vanishes and subsequently reverses its direction when the bias voltage becomes larger or the barrier wider than material and

  2. Josephson tunnel junctions in a magnetic field gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the magnetic field dependence of the critical current of high-quality Nb-based planar Josephson tunnel junctions in the presence of a controllable nonuniform field distribution. We found skewed and slowly changing magnetic diffraction patterns quite dissimilar from the Fraunhofer-like...... be suppressed by an asymmetric magnetic field profile. © 2011 American Institute of Physics....

  3. Thermally induced dynamics in ultrathin magnetic tunnel junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogrodnik, P.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Xia, K.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the magnetization dynamics induced by thermally induced spin transfer torques in thin Fe|MgO|Fe tunnel junctions. The magnetization dynamics is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, including the thermal torques as computed from first principles. We show that the angular

  4. Time dependence of tunnel statistics and the energy resolution of superconducting tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeve, P.; Hartog, R. den; Kozorezov, A.; Martin, D.; van Dordrecht, A.; Wigmore, J. K.; Peacock, A.

    2002-11-01

    Multiple tunneling of quasiparticle charge carriers in a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) enhances the signal generated by a photon absorption event. It is also an additional source of noise, responsible for a substantial degradation of the energy resolution. Although tunneling is a binomial chance process, governed by a constant tunneling probability, the resulting cumulative statistics of tunnelled quasiparticles depend on time. In particular, the variance of the total number of tunneled quasiparticles reaches a minimum after a finite integration time, corresponding to a minimum in the spectral linewidth. Since the intrinsic energy resolution of the present generation of STJs is mainly limited by the scatter on the number of tunneled quasiparticles, the improvement of the tunnel noise can be experimentally tested by variation of the pulse integration time. An analytical theory is developed that describes the relation between the tunnel noise and the transfer function of the pulse integration hardware for an STJ characterized by a quasiparticle tunnel and loss time in each electrode. We present experiments that demonstrate that the noise contribution from multiple tunnelling is not constant during the time that the quasiparticles are present in the STJ, and that by proper filtering of the STJ pulses the tunnel noise can be optimized at a level which lies well below the canonical tunnel limit.

  5. InAs/Si Hetero-Junction Nanotube Tunnel Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2015-04-29

    Hetero-structure tunnel junctions in non-planar gate-all-around nanowire (GAA NW) tunnel FETs (TFETs) have shown significant enhancement in ‘ON’ state tunnel current over their all-silicon counterpart. Here we show the unique concept of nanotube TFET in a hetero-structure configuration that is capable of much higher drive current as opposed to that of GAA NW TFETs.Through the use of inner/outer core-shell gates, a single III-V hetero-structured nanotube TFET leverages physically larger tunneling area while achieving higher driver current (ION) and saving real estates by eliminating arraying requirement. Numerical simulations has shown that a 10 nm thin nanotube TFET with a 100 nm core gate has a 5×normalized output current compared to a 10 nm diameter GAA NW TFET.

  6. Silicon-germanium nanowire tunnel-FETs with homo- and heterostructure tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S.; Blaeser, S.; Knoll, L.; Trellenkamp, S.; Fox, A.; Schäfer, A.; Hartmann, J. M.; Zhao, Q. T.; Mantl, S.

    2014-08-01

    Experimental results on tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) based on strained SiGe on SOI nanowire arrays are presented. A heterostructure SiGe/Si TFET with a vertical tunnel junction consisting of an in situ doped SiGe source and a Si channel with a minimum inverse subthreshold slope of 90 mV/dec is demonstrated. An increase in tunneling area results in higher on-current. The in situ doped heterojunction TFET shows great improvement compared to a homojunction SiGe on SOI nanowire design with implanted junctions. Temperature dependent measurements and device simulations are performed in order to analyze the tunnel transport mechanism in the devices.

  7. Asymmetric voltage behavior of the tunnel magnetoresistance in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we study the value of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) as a function of the applied voltage in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJs) with the left and right ferromagnetic (FM) layers being pinned and numerically estimate the possible difference of the TMR curves for negative and positive voltages in the homojunctions (equal barriers and electrodes). DMTJs are modeled as two single barrier junctions connected in series with consecutive tunneling (CST). We investigated the asymmetric voltage behavior of the TMR for the CST in the range of a general theoretical model. Significant asymmetries of the experimental curves, which arise due to different annealing regimes, are mostly explained by different heights of the tunnel barriers and asymmetries of spin polarizations in magnetic layers. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  8. Normal-metal-superconductor tunnel junction as a Brownian refrigerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekola, J P; Hekking, F W J

    2007-05-25

    Thermal noise generated by a hot resistor (resistance R) can, under proper conditions, catalyze heat removal from a cold normal metal (N) in contact with a superconductor (S) via a tunnel barrier (I). Such a NIS junction is reminiscent of Maxwell's demon, rectifying the heat flow. Upon reversal of the temperature gradient between the resistor and the junction, the heat fluxes are reversed: this presents a regime which is not accessible in an ordinary voltage-biased NIS structure. We obtain analytical results for the cooling performance in an idealized high impedance environment and perform numerical calculations for general R. We conclude by assessing the experimental feasibility of the proposed effect.

  9. A Novel Approach to Modeling Tunnel Junction Diodes Using Silvaco Atlas Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    MODELING TUNNEL JUNCTION DIODES USING SILVACO ATLAS SOFTWARE by Robert Gelinas December 2005 Thesis Advisor: Sherif Michael Second...Junction Diodes using Silvaco Atlas Software 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert J Gelinas 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...ability to model a tunnel junction device using the ATLAS device simulator by Silvaco International. The tunnel junction is a critical component of a

  10. Simulation of Tunnel Junction in Cascade Solar Cell (GaAs/Ge) Using AMPS-1D

    OpenAIRE

    Benmoussa Dennai; H. Ben Slimane; A HELMAOUI

    2014-01-01

    The development of the tunnel junction interconnect was key the first two-terminal monolithic, multi-junction solar cell development. This paper describes simulation for the tunnel junction (GaAs) between top cell (GaAs) and bottom cell (Ge). This solar cell cascade was simulated when using one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D). In the simulation, the thickness of the tunnel junction layer was varied from 10 to 50 nm. By varyin...

  11. Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2012-08-09

    Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of spin diffusion is considered theoretically. Combining ballistic tunneling across the barrier and diffusive transport in the electrodes, we solve the spin dynamics equation in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque, as well as a nonconventional thickness dependence of both spin torque components.

  12. Engineering ferroelectric tunnel junctions through potential profile shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyn, S.; Garcia, V., E-mail: vincent.garcia@thalesgroup.com; Fusil, S.; Carrétéro, C.; Garcia, K.; Collin, S.; Deranlot, C.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, 1 Av. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau, France and Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Xavier, S. [Thales Research and Technology, 1 Av. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France)

    2015-06-01

    We explore the influence of the top electrode materials (W, Co, Ni, Ir) on the electronic band profile in ferroelectric tunnel junctions based on super-tetragonal BiFeO{sub 3}. Large variations of the transport properties are observed at room temperature. In particular, the analysis of current vs. voltage curves by a direct tunneling model indicates that the metal/ferroelectric interfacial barrier height increases with the top-electrode work function. While larger metal work functions result in larger OFF/ON ratios, they also produce a large internal electric field which results in large and potentially destructive switching voltages.

  13. Parallel Quantum Circuit in a Tunnel Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizy Namarvar, Omid; Dridi, Ghassen; Joachim, Christian; GNS theory Group Team

    In between 2 metallic nanopads, adding identical and independent electron transfer paths in parallel increases the electronic effective coupling between the 2 nanopads through the quantum circuit defined by those paths. Measuring this increase of effective coupling using the tunnelling current intensity can lead for example for 2 paths in parallel to the now standard G =G1 +G2 + 2√{G1 .G2 } conductance superposition law (1). This is only valid for the tunnelling regime (2). For large electronic coupling to the nanopads (or at resonance), G can saturate and even decay as a function of the number of parallel paths added in the quantum circuit (3). We provide here the explanation of this phenomenon: the measurement of the effective Rabi oscillation frequency using the current intensity is constrained by the normalization principle of quantum mechanics. This limits the quantum conductance G for example to go when there is only one channel per metallic nanopads. This ef fect has important consequences for the design of Boolean logic gates at the atomic scale using atomic scale or intramolecular circuits. References: This has the financial support by European PAMS project.

  14. Room Temperature Magnetic Barrier Layers in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Wong, F. J.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.

    2010-03-09

    We investigate the spin transport and interfacial magnetism of magnetic tunnel junctions with highly spin polarized LSMO and Fe3O4 electrodes and a ferrimagnetic NiFe2O4 (NFO) barrier layer. The spin dependent transport can be understood in terms of magnon-assisted spin dependent tunneling where the magnons are excited in the barrier layer itself. The NFO/Fe3O4 interface displays strong magnetic coupling, while the LSMO/NFO interface exhibits clear decoupling as determined by a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. This decoupling allows for distinct parallel and antiparallel electrode states in this all-magnetic trilayer. The spin transport of these devices, dominated by the NFO barrier layer magnetism, leads to a symmetric bias dependence of the junction magnetoresistance at all temperatures.

  15. Magnetoresistance of galfenol-based magnetic tunnel junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobaut, B., E-mail: benoit.gobaut@elettra.eu [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 Km 163.5, Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Vinai, G.; Castán-Guerrero, C.; Krizmancic, D.; Panaccione, G.; Torelli, P. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Rafaqat, H. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Roddaro, S. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza S. Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rossi, G. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, CNRS-UMR 7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 75005, Paris (France)

    2015-12-15

    The manipulation of ferromagnetic layer magnetization via electrical pulse is driving an intense research due to the important applications that this result will have on memory devices and sensors. In this study we realized a magnetotunnel junction in which one layer is made of Galfenol (Fe{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}) which possesses one of the highest magnetostrictive coefficient known. The multilayer stack has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy and e-beam evaporation. Optical lithography and physical etching have been combined to obtain 20x20 micron sized pillars. The obtained structures show tunneling conductivity across the junction and a tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect of up to 11.5% in amplitude.

  16. A Model for the Behavior of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Bryan John [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A magnetic tunnel junction is a device that changes its electrical resistance with a change in an applied magnetic field. A typical junction consists of two magnetic electrodes separated by a nonmagnetic insulating layer. The magnetizations of the two electrodes can have two possible extreme configurations, parallel and antiparallel. The antiparallel configuration is observed to have the higher measured resistance and the parallel configuration has the lower resistance. To switch between these two configurations a magnetic field is applied to the device which is primarily used to change the orientation of the magnetization of one electrode usually called the free layer, although with sufficient high magnetic field the orientation of the magnetizations of both of the electrodes can be changed. The most commonly used models for describing and explaining the electronic behavior of tunnel junctions are the Simmons model and the Brinkman model. However, both of these models were designed for simple, spin independent tunneling. The Simmons model does not address the issue of applied magnetic fields nor does it address the form of the electronic band structure in the metallic electrodes, including the important factor of spin polarization. The Brinkman model is similar, the main difference between the two models being the shape of the tunneling barrier potential between the two electrodes. Therefore, the research conducted in this thesis has developed a new theoretical model that addresses these important issues starting from basic principles. The main features of the new model include: the development of equations for true spin dependent tunneling through the insulating barrier, the differences in the orientations of the electrode magnetizations on either side of the barrier, and the effects of the density of states function on the behavior of the junction. The present work has explored densities of states that are more realistic than the simplified free electron density

  17. Tunnel magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic double-barrier planar junctions: coherent tunneling regime

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczynski, M

    2000-01-01

    Coherent tunneling in a double-barrier system consisting of two external ferromagnetic electrodes and a nonmagnetic central one is studied theoretically within the free-electron approximation. It is shown that the junction resistance depends on the relative orientation of magnetic moments of the ferromagnetic electrodes (so-called tunnel magnetoresistance). The magnetoresistance vs. thickness of the central electrode shows pronounced peaks related to the resonant tunneling through the whole system. Variation of the magnetoresistance with bias voltage is also studied. This variation is generally nonmonotonous.

  18. Control of buried junctions by light-beam-induced current mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyeaux, J.P.; Masri, K.; Gavand, M.; Mayet, L.; Montegu, B.; Laugier, A. (Lab. de Physique de la Matiere, Inst. National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, 69 - Villeurbanne (France))

    1990-01-01

    In semiconductor technology, structural defects and fabrication steps, which can induce other defects, are known to affect device performance lifetime and reliability greatly. Moreover, metallization plays a major role in the fabrication of devices. Of course, one or several junctions are present in the device and must be locally controlled. Consequently, the development of suitable semiconductor devices needs the use of non-destructive analytical techniques with good spatial resolution for the electrical characterization of the device performances. For this purpose, a high spatial resolution apparatus for precise analysis of local transport properties has been designed. The aim of this paper is to show the performance of the light-beam-induced current mapping for controlling various stages during the high efficiency multispectral tandem solar cell fabrication. In particular, a buried active junction was electrically imaged at 9 {mu}m below the surface of the device by this nondestructive method. (orig.).

  19. Scale invariance of a diode-like tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Hugo; Zanin, Danilo Andrea; de Pietro, Lorenzo Giuseppe; Michaels, Thomas; Thalmann, Peter; Ramsperger, Urs; Vindigni, Alessandro; Pescia, Danilo

    2013-03-01

    In Near Field-Emission SEM (NFESEM), electrostatic considerations favor a diode-like tunnel junction consisting of an atomic-sized source mounted at the apex of a thin wire placed at nanometric distances from a collector. The quantum mechanical tunnel process, instead, can provide a barrier toward miniaturization. In the first place, it deteriorates the generation of electrons by introducing non-linearities within the classically forbidden zone that exponentially increase with decreasing sizes. In addition, in the direct tunnelling regime, i.e. when the distance between emitter and collector d approaches the subnanometer range, a characteristic length appears, making the cross-over from the (almost) scale-invariant electric-field assisted regime to the essentially different STM-regime. We have observed that the experimental data relating the current I to the two experimental variables V (bias voltage between tip and collector) and d can be made (almost) collapse onto a ``scaling curve'' relating I to the single variable V .d-λ , λ being some exponent that depends solely on the geometry of the junction. This scaling property can be used to highlight non-linear aspects of the quantum mechanical tunnelling process.

  20. Advanced Metrology for Characterization of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel

    -plane tunneling (CIPT) for characterization of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), which constitutes the key component not only in MRAM but also the read-heads of modern hard disk drives. MTJs are described by their tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), which is the relative difference of the resistance area products (RA......) at two characteristic resistance levels (high and low) of the MTJ device. In the final memory application these resistance states correspond to a digital “1” or “0” stored. During CIPT measurements the tool will alter the state of the MTJ by application of an external magnetic field. With the CIPTech...... sources of error in single configuration micro four-point probe resistance measurements are in-line probe geometry errors and in-line static position errors. These errors were shown to be eliminated very effectively using dual-configuration measurements and position error correction algorithms...

  1. Coexistence of tunneling magnetoresistance and Josephson effects in SFIFS junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vávra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an integration of tunneling magnetoresistance and the Josephson effects within one tunneling junction. Several sets of Nb-Fe-Al-Al2O3-Fe-Nb wafers with varying Al and Fe layers thickness were prepared to systematically explore the competition of TMR and Josephson effects. A coexistence of the critical current IC(dFe and the tunneling magnetoresistance ratio T M R(dFe is observed for iron layer dFe thickness range 1.9 and 2.9 nm. Further optimization such as thinner Al2O3 layer leads to an enhancement of the critical current and thus to an extension of the coexistence regime up to dFe≃3.9 nm Fe.

  2. Highly strain-sensitive magnetostrictive tunnel magnetoresistance junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassolizadeh, Ali; Hayes, Patrick; Rott, Karsten; Reiss, Günter; Quandt, Eckhard; Meyners, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) junctions with CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB layers are promising for strain sensing applications due to their high TMR effect and magnetostrictive sense layer (CoFeB). TMR junctions available even in submicron dimensions can serve as strain sensors for microelectromechanical systems devices. Upon stress application, the magnetization configuration of such junctions changes due to the inverse magnetostriction effect resulting in strain-sensitive tunnel resistance. Here, strain sensitivity of round-shaped junctions with diameters of 11.3 μm, 19.2 μm, 30.5 μm, and 41.8 μm were investigated on macroscopic cantilevers using a four-point bending apparatus. This investigation mainly focuses on changes in hard-axis TMR loops caused by the stress-induced anisotropy. A macrospin model is proposed, supported by micromagnetic simulations, which describes the complete rotation of the sense layer magnetization within TMR loops of junctions, exposed to high stress. Below 0.2‰ tensile strain, a representative junction with 30.5 μm diameter exhibits a very large gauge factor of 2150. For such high gauge factor a bias field H = - 3.2 kA / m is applied in an angle equal to 3 π / 2 toward the pinned magnetization of the reference layer. The strain sensitivity strongly depends on the bias field. Applying stress along π / 4 against the induced magnetocrystalline anisotropy, both compressive and tensile strain can be identified by a unique sensor. More importantly, a configuration with a gauge factor of 400 at zero bias field is developed which results in a straightforward and compact measuring setup.

  3. Finite element simulation of shallow-buried and mining tunnelling in adjacent frame structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-lai Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By using three dimensional software MIDAS/GTS, the interactions among structures-soil-tunnel system is considered in this paper, and the working condition of shallow-buried underground excavation is simulated in the foundation of frame structures with the short-pile. The loadings and deformations of structures are studied before and after the tunnelling, and the influences of the following factors, including the horizontal position of tunnel and building, the height of building and the soil property, are analyzed. It is indicated that when the horizontal distance L equals zero (the distance between building axis to the tunnel axis, the building settlement increases gradually and shows a normal distribution during and after the tunnelling. Due to the small stiffness of frame structures with short-pile foundations, the building has large nonuniform settlement. When the distance of excavation is no less than 1.8 times of the thickness of overburden soil, the building settlement becomes stable, and the first principal stress P1 and maximum deformation rate E1 generally show a trend of decrease. With the increasing L, P1 and E1 will decrease accordingly, and the buildings tend to be inclined toward the tunnel. For a relatively larger distance, the building is nearly not affected.

  4. FeGa/MgO/Fe/GaAs(001) magnetic tunnel junction: Growth and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobaut, B., E-mail: benoit.gobaut@elettra.eu [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14-km 163.5, Area Science Park, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Ciprian, R.; Salles, B.R.; Krizmancic, D. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14-km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Rossi, G. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14-km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Panaccione, G. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14-km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M. [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Torelli, P. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14-km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Research on spintronics and on multiferroics leads now to the possibility of combining the properties of these materials in order to develop new functional devices. Here we report the integration of a layer of magnetostrictive material into a magnetic tunnel junction. A FeGa/MgO/Fe heterostructure has been grown on a GaAs(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The comparison between magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements and hysteresis performed in total electron yield allowed distinguishing the ferromagnetic hysteresis loop of the FeGa top layer from that of the Fe buried layer, evidencing a different switching field of the two layers. This observation indicates an absence of magnetic coupling between the two ferromagnetic layers despite the thickness of the MgO barrier of only 2.5 nm. The in-plane magnetic anisotropy has also been investigated. Overall results show the good quality of the heterostructure and the general feasibility of such a device using magnetostrictive materials in magnetic tunnel junction.

  5. Magnetic tunnel junctions with Co:TiO2 magnetic semiconductor electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.J.; Abhishek Kumar, A.K.; Kumar, A.; Vera Marun, I.J.; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Jansen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Spin-polarized tunneling is investigated in magnetic tunnel junctions containing an ultrathin interfacial layer of Co:TiO2 magnetic semiconductor. The Co:TiO2 layers (0 to 1 nm thick) are inserted at the SrTiO3/Co interface in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/SrTiO3/Co tunnel junctions. For all junctions we find a

  6. Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in double-barrier planar magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, A. N.

    2011-08-24

    We present a theoretical approach to calculate the spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in a double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (DMTJ), in which the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer can be aligned parallel or antiparallel in relation to the fixed magnetizations of the left and right ferromagnetic electrodes. The electron transport through the DMTJ is considered as a three-dimensional problem, taking into account all transmitting electron trajectories as well as the spin-dependent momentum conservation law. The dependence of the transmission coefficient and spin-polarized currents on the applied voltage is derived as an exact solution to the quantum-mechanical problem for the spin-polarized transport. In the range of the developed physical model, the resonant tunneling, nonresonant tunneling, and enhanced spin filtering can be explained; the simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Radiation Detection Measurements with a New 'Buried Junction' Silicon Avalanche Photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, R; Rouleau, D; Dautet, H; McIntyre, R J; McSween, D; Webb, P

    1999-01-01

    An improved version of a recently developed 'Buried Junction' avalanche photodiode (APD), designed for use with scintillators, is described and characterized. This device, also called the 'Reverse APD', is designed to have a wide depletion layer and thus low capacitance, but to have high gain only for e-h pairs generated within the first few microns of the depletion layer. Thus it has high gain for light from scintillators emitting in the 400-600 nm range, with relatively low dark current noise and it is relatively insensitive to minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). An additional feature is that the metallurgical junction is at the back of the wafer, leaving the front surface free to be coupled to a scintillator without fear of junction contamination. The modifications made in this device, as compared with the earlier diode, have resulted in a lower excess noise factor, lower dark current, and much-reduced trapping. The electrical and optical characteristics of this device are described and measurements of ener...

  8. Encoding, training and retrieval in ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanni; Xia, Yidong; Xu, Bo; Yin, Jiang; Yuan, Guoliang; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) are quantum nanostructures that have great potential in the hardware basis for future neuromorphic applications. Among recently proposed possibilities, the artificial cognition has high hopes, where encoding, training, memory solidification and retrieval constitute a whole chain that is inseparable. However, it is yet envisioned but experimentally unconfirmed. The poor retention or short-term store of tunneling electroresistance, in particular the intermediate states, is still a key challenge in FTJs. Here we report the encoding, training and retrieval in BaTiO3 FTJs, emulating the key features of information processing in terms of cognitive neuroscience. This is implemented and exemplified through processing characters. Using training inputs that are validated by the evolution of both barrier profile and domain configuration, accurate recalling of encoded characters in the retrieval stage is demonstrated.

  9. Tunneling transport in d-wave superconductor-silicene junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajati, Y.; Vosoughi nia, S.; Rashedi, G.

    2017-02-01

    We theoretically study the tunneling conductance of a normal/d-wave superconductor silicene junction using Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) formalism. We discuss in detail how the conductances spectra are affected by inducing d-wave superconducting pairing symmetry in the buckled silicene. It is obtained that the amplitude of the spin/valley-dependent Andreev reflection and subgap conductance of the junction can be strongly modulated by the orientation angle of superconductive gap (β) and perpendicular electric field (EZ), suggesting that one may experimentally tune the transport properties of the junction through changing β and EZ. We demonstrate that the subgap conductance exhibits an oscillatory behavior as a function of the orientation angle of superconductive gap (β) with a period of π / 2 and by increasing the insulating gap of silicene, the charge conductance oscillations suppress. Remarkably, due to the buckled structure of silicene at the maximum orientation angle of the d-wave superconducting β = π / 4 , we found a very distinct behavior from the graphene-based NS junction where the charge conductance is insensitive to the bias energy. In addition, the Andreev reflection and subgap conductance can be switched on and off by applying electric field.

  10. Resonant tunneling in small current-biased Josephson Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, John Mark [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Effects of resonant tunneling between bound quantum states of a current-biased Josephson tunnel junction is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Several effects are predicted to arise from resonant tunneling, including a series of voltage peaks along the supercurrent branch of the current-voltage characteristic, and enhanced rate of escape from zero voltage state to voltage state at particular values of bias current. A model is developed to estimate magnitude and duration of voltage peaks, and to estimate enhancement of the escape rate, which appears as peaks in the rate as a function of bias current. An experimental investigation was carried out in an attempt to observe these predicted peaks in the escape rate distribution in a current-biased DC SQUID, which is shown to be dynamically equivalent to a Josephson junction with adjustable critical current. Electrical contact to each SQUID (fabricated from aluminium) was made through high resistance thin film leads located on the substrate. These resistors provided a high impedance at the plasma frequency which is for the isolation of the SQUID from its electromagnetic environment. Measurements were carried out on a dilution refrigerator at temperatures as low as 19 mK. No evidence was found for resonant tunneling; this is attributed to effective temperatures of hundreds of millikelvin. The behavior is well explained by a heating model where the high effective temperatures are generated by ohmic heating of the electron gas of the isolation resistors, which decouples from the phonon system (hot electron effect). The prospects for further theoretical and experimental research are discussed.

  11. NbN/MgO/NbN SIS tunnel junctions for submm wave mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. A.; Hunt, B. D.; Leduc, H. G.; Judas, A.; Mcgrath, W. R.; Cypher, S. R.; Khanna, S. K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report on the fabrication and testing of all-refractory NbN/MgO/NbN SIS (superconductor-insulator-superconductor) tunnel junctions for use as high-frequency mixers. Progress in the development of techniques for the fabrication of submicron-area tunnel junctions is described. Junction structures which have been investigated include mesa, crossline, and edge geometries. Using reactive sputtering techniques, NbN tunnel junctions with critical currents in excess of 104 A/sq cm have been fabricated with Vm values as high as 65 mV and areas down to 0.1 sq micron. Specific capacitance measurements on NbN/MgO/NbN mesa-type tunnel junctions give values in the range 60-90 fF/sq micron. These SIS tunnel junctions have been integrated with antennas and coupling structures for mixer tests in a waveguide receiver at 207 GHz. Preliminary mixer results are reported.

  12. Strain-enhanced tunneling magnetoresistance in MgO magnetic tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Loong, Li Ming; Qiu, Xuepeng; Neo, Zhi Peng; Deorani, Praveen; Wu, Yang; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Saeys, Mark; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2014-01-01

    While the effects of lattice mismatch-induced strain, mechanical strain, as well as the intrinsic strain of thin films are sometimes detrimental, resulting in mechanical deformation and failure, strain can also be usefully harnessed for applications such as data storage, transistors, solar cells, and strain gauges, among other things. Here, we demonstrate that quantum transport across magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) can be significantly affected by the introduction of controllable mechanical...

  13. High-temperature tunneling electroresistance in metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhongnan; Jin, Qiao; Zheng, Chunyan; Zhang, Yongcheng; Lu, Chaojing; Li, Qiang; Li, Shandong; Dai, Jiyan; Wen, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Recently, ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) have attracted great attention due to promising applications in non-volatile memories. In this study, we report high-temperature tunneling electroresistance (TER) of metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor FTJs. Hysteretic resistance-voltage loops are observed in the Pt/BaTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 tunnel junction from 300 to 513 K due to the modulation of interfacial Schottky barrier by polarization switching in the 4 u.c.-thick BaTiO3 barrier via a ferroelectric field effect. The Pt/BaTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 device exhibits a giant ROFF/RON resistance ratio of ˜3 × 105 at 383 K and maintains bipolar resistance switching up to 513 K, suggesting excellent thermal endurance of the FTJs. The temperature-dependent TER behaviors are discussed in terms of the decrease of polarization in the BaTiO3 barrier, and the associated junction barrier profiles are deduced by transport and capacitance analyses. In addition, by extrapolating the retention time at elevated temperature in an Arrhenius-type relation, activation energy of ˜0.93 eV and room-temperature retention time of ˜70 years can be extracted.

  14. Tsu-Esaki modeling of tunneling currents in ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Noora; van Dijken, Sebastiaan; Puska, Martti

    2017-12-01

    We model tunneling currents through step barrier structures representative of ferroelectric tunnel junctions wherein one of the electrodes contributes to the barrier potential profile or an extra layer is grown between the ferroelectric barrier and one of the electrodes. We study current density-voltage (J-V) and tunneling electroresistance (TER) curves using the Tsu-Esaki formula with numerically calculated transmission. This method is computationally robust, and the same results cannot be obtained with the standard methods usually applied for interpreting experimental I-V curves. Our results predict that the effect of resonant tunneling produces asymmetry in the J-V curves and negative differential resistance characteristics. We show that the asymmetry of the J-V curves can be tuned by adjusting the barrier heights and widths and that changing the extra barrier width affects the asymmetry the most. The barrier widths and the main barrier height affect the magnitude of the tunneling current the most. The change in the tilt of the main barrier is suggested to produce a significant TER of the order of 102. Our numerical method provides a systematic way to study trends in tunneling currents through step barrier structures across a wide range of barrier parameters and bias voltages, in contrast to the necessity of employing several different approximations when using analytical formulae. Therefore, our method provides the means for interpreting existing and future experiments and can be used as a tool for designing new devices with desired functionalities.

  15. Resonant electron tunnelling assisted by charged domain walls in multiferroic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Tornos, Javier; Hernandez-Martin, David; Beltran, Juan I.; Munuera, Carmen; Cabero, Mariona; Perez-Muñoz, Ana; Ricote, Jesus; Mompean, Federico; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Sefrioui, Zouhair; Leon, Carlos; Pennycook, Steve J.; Muñoz, Maria Carmen; Varela, Maria; Santamaria, Jacobo

    2017-07-01

    The peculiar features of domain walls observed in ferroelectrics make them promising active elements for next-generation non-volatile memories, logic gates and energy-harvesting devices. Although extensive research activity has been devoted recently to making full use of this technological potential, concrete realizations of working nanodevices exploiting these functional properties are yet to be demonstrated. Here, we fabricate a multiferroic tunnel junction based on ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 electrodes separated by an ultrathin ferroelectric BaTiO3 tunnel barrier, where a head-to-head domain wall is constrained. An electron gas stabilized by oxygen vacancies is confined within the domain wall, displaying discrete quantum-well energy levels. These states assist resonant electron tunnelling processes across the barrier, leading to strong quantum oscillations of the electrical conductance.

  16. Strain-enhanced tunneling magnetoresistance in MgO magnetic tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loong, Li Ming; Qiu, Xuepeng; Neo, Zhi Peng; Deorani, Praveen; Wu, Yang; Bhatia, Charanjit S; Saeys, Mark; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2014-09-30

    While the effects of lattice mismatch-induced strain, mechanical strain, as well as the intrinsic strain of thin films are sometimes detrimental, resulting in mechanical deformation and failure, strain can also be usefully harnessed for applications such as data storage, transistors, solar cells, and strain gauges, among other things. Here, we demonstrate that quantum transport across magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) can be significantly affected by the introduction of controllable mechanical strain, achieving an enhancement factor of ~2 in the experimental tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. We further correlate this strain-enhanced TMR with coherent spin tunneling through the MgO barrier. Moreover, the strain-enhanced TMR is analyzed using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) quantum transport calculations. Our results help elucidate the TMR mechanism at the atomic level and can provide a new way to enhance, as well as tune, the quantum properties in nanoscale materials and devices.

  17. Simultaneous quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling in BSCCO-2212 break junctions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozyuzer, L.

    1998-10-27

    Tunneling measurements are reported for superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) break junctions on underdoped, optimally-doped, and overdoped single crystals of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} (Bi-2212). The junction I-V characteristics exhibit well-defined quasiparticle current jumps at eV = 2A as well as hysteretic Josephson currents. The quasiparticle branch has been analyzed in the framework of d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} (d-wave) superconductivity and indicates that there is preferential tunneling along the lobe directions of the d-wave gap. For overdoped Bi-2212 with T{sub c} = 62 K, the Josephson current is measured as a function of junction resistance, R{sub n}, which varied by two orders of magnitude (1 k{Omega} to 100 k{Omega}). I{sub c}R{sub n} product is proportional to the 0.47 power of I{sub c} and displays a maximum of 7.0 mV. When the hole doping is decreased from overdoped (T{sub c} = 62 K) to the underdoped regime (T{sub c} = 70 K), the average I{sub c}R{sub n} product increases as does the quasiparticle gap. The maximum I{sub c}R{sub n} is {approximately} 40% of the {Delta}/e at each doping level, with a value as high as 25 mV in underdoped Bi-2212.

  18. Scaling Projections on Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debasis; Tulapurkar, Ashwin; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2018-02-01

    We investigate scaling of technologically relevant magnetic tunnel junction devices in the trilayer and pentalayer configurations by varying the cross-sectional area along the transverse direction using the non-equilibrium Green's function spin transport formalism. We study the geometry dependence by considering square and circular cross-sections. As the transverse dimension in each case reduces, we demonstrate that the transverse mode energy profile plays a major role in the resistance-area product. Both types of devices show constant tunnel magnetoresistance at larger cross-sectional areas but achieve ultra-high magnetoresistance at small cross-sectional areas, while maintaining low resistance-area products. We notice that although the critical switching voltage for switching the magnetization of the free layer nanomagnet in the trilayer case remains constant at larger areas, it needs more energy to switch at smaller areas. In the pentalayer case, we observe an oscillatory behavior at smaller areas as a result of double barrier tunneling. We also describe how switching characteristics of both kinds of devices are affected by the scaling.

  19. Quasiparticle-energy distributions in optically illuminated Al-PbBi superconducting tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.D.; Skocpol, W.J.; Tinkham, M.

    1980-05-01

    Nonequilibrium quasiparticle-energy distributions in weakly illuminated aluminum--aluminum-oxide--lead-bismuth tunnel junctions are obtained from current-voltage characteristics. A highly accurate method of unfolding I(V) to deduce f(E) is presented which is applicable for asymmetric-tunnel-junction analysis. Illumination from either side of the tunnel junction was performed, with differing resulting tunneling behavior. The unfolded results in both cases are in good agreement with a T* description of the nonequilibrium quasiparticle distribution on the aluminum side.

  20. Magnetic Tunnel Junction Mimics Stochastic Cortical Spiking Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Panda, Priyadarshini; Wijesinghe, Parami; Kim, Yusung; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    Brain-inspired computing architectures attempt to mimic the computations performed in the neurons and the synapses in the human brain in order to achieve its efficiency in learning and cognitive tasks. In this work, we demonstrate the mapping of the probabilistic spiking nature of pyramidal neurons in the cortex to the stochastic switching behavior of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction in presence of thermal noise. We present results to illustrate the efficiency of neuromorphic systems based on such probabilistic neurons for pattern recognition tasks in presence of lateral inhibition and homeostasis. Such stochastic MTJ neurons can also potentially provide a direct mapping to the probabilistic computing elements in Belief Networks for performing regenerative tasks.

  1. Supersymmetric phase transition in Josephson-tunnel-junction arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1988-08-31

    The fully frustrated XY model in two dimensions exhibits a vortex-unbinding as well as an Ising transition. If the Ising transition overlaps with the critical line that ends on the vortex transition: T/sub I/less than or equal toT/sub V/, then the model is equivalent, at the overlap temperature, to a free massless field theory of 1 boson and 1 Majorana fermion, which is a superconformal field theory, of central charge c=3/2. The model is experimentally realized in terms of an array of Josephson-tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field. The experiment reveals a phase transition consistent with T/sub I/=T/sub V/. Thus, at the critical temperature, the array provides a physical realization of a supersymmetric quantum field theory.

  2. Macroscopic quantum tunneling and quasiparticle-tunneling blockade effect in s-wave/d-wave hybrid junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawabata, S.; Kawabata, S.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Ariando, A.; Verwijs, C.J.M.; Verwijs, C.J.M.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Kirtley, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) and the influence of nodal quasiparticles and zero energy bound states (ZESs) on MQT in s-wave/d-wave hybrid Josephson junctions. In contrast to d-wave/d-wave junctions, the low-energy quasiparticle dissipation resulting from

  3. High tunneling magnetoresistance ratio in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions using Fe-based Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Pu; Lim, Sze-Ter; Han, Gu-Chang; Teo, Kie-Leong

    2015-12-01

    Heulser alloys Fe2Cr1-xCoxSi (FCCS) with different Co compositions x have been predicted to have high spin polarization. High perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) has been observed in ultra-thin FCCS films with magnetic anisotropy energy density up to 2.3 × 106 erg/cm3. The perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) using FCCS films with different Co compositions x as the bottom electrode have been fabricated and the post-annealing effects have been investigated in details. An attractive tunneling magnetoresistance ratio as high as 51.3% is achieved for p-MTJs using Fe2CrSi (FCS) as the bottom electrode. The thermal stability Δ can be as high as 70 for 40 nm dimension devices using FCS, which is high enough to endure a retention time of over 10 years. Therefore, Heusler alloy FCS is a promising PMA candidate for p-MTJ application.

  4. Tunneling conductance in a graphene-insulator-superconductor junction with Corbino disk structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosniye Khatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study tunneling conductance of a graphene based normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS junction with Corbino disk structure. Solving Dirac-Bogolioubov- De Gennes (DBdG equation in different regions of the junction and employing scattering approach we obtain normal and Andreev reflection coefficients of the junction. Using Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK formula we calculate tunneling conductance of the junction as a function of the barrier strength of insulating region. The obtained results show that tunneling conductance of the junction oscillates as a function of the barrier strength as in the planar structure case. The tunneling conductance shows maximums at resonances which have a pi/2  phase shift with respect to the planar structure.

  5. Thermopower in double planar tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic barriers and nonmagnetic electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczyński, M., E-mail: wilczyns@if.pw.edu.pl

    2017-01-01

    The Seebeck effect is investigated in double planar tunnel junctions consisting of nonmagnetic electrodes and the central layer separated by ferromagnetic barriers. Calculations are performed in the linear response theory using the free-electron model. The thermopower is analyzed as a function of the thickness of the central layer, temperature of the junctions and the relative orientation of magnetic moments of the barriers. It has been found that the thermopower can be significantly enhanced in the junction with special central layer thickness due to electron tunneling by resonant states. The thickness of the central layer for which the thermopower is enhanced depends not only on the temperature of the junction but also on the orientation of magnetic moments in the barriers. - Highlights: • Thermopower in the double planar junctions with magnetic barriers is analyzed. • Thermopower can be enhanced due to the resonant tunneling. • Thermopower depends on the magnetic configuration of the junction.

  6. Harmonic and reactive behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current in SIS junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we show theoretically and experimentally that the reactive quasiparticle tunnel current of the superconductor tunnel junction could be directly measured at specific bias voltages for the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current. We used the theory of quasiparticle tunneling to study the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of rf irradiation. The impact of the reactive current on the harmonic behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current was carefully studied by implementing a practical model with four parameters to model the dc I-V characteristics of the superconducting tunnel junction. The measured reactive current at the specific bias voltage is in good agreement with our theoretically calculated reactive current through the Kramers-Kronig transform. This study also shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the behavior of the predicted higher harmonics using the previously established theory of quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junctions by J.R. Tucker and M.J. Feldman and the measurements presented in this paper.

  7. Postannealing of magnetic tunnel junctions with ion-bombardment-modified exchange bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höink, V.; Sacher, M. D.; Schmalhorst, J.; Reiss, G.; Engel, D.; Junk, D.; Ehresmann, A.

    2005-04-01

    The influence of a postannealing procedure on the transport properties of magnetic tunnel junctions with ion-bombardment-manipulated exchange bias is investigated. The controlled manipulation of the direction of the exchange bias field in magnetic tunnel junctions by He ion bombardment usually is accompanied by a reduction of the tunneling magnetoresistance and an increase in the resistance. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to reduce these negative effects of the ion bombardment considerably by postannealing without a magnetic field. For optimized combinations of ion dose and postannealing temperature, the tunneling magnetoresistance recovers completely (>50% resistance change) while the exchange bias direction set by the ion bombardement is preserved.

  8. Tunnel magnetoresistance in epitaxially grown magnetic tunnel junctions using Heusler alloy electrode and MgO barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunegi, S.; Sakuraba, Y.; Oogane, M.; Telling, N. D.; Shelford, L. R.; Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; Hicken, R. J.; Takanashi, K.; Ando, Y.

    2009-07-01

    Epitaxially grown magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a stacking structure of Co{sub 2}MnSi/MgO/CoFe were fabricated. Their tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effects were investigated. The TMR ratio and tunnelling conductance characteristics of MTJs were considerably different between those with an MgO barrier prepared using sputtering (SP-MTJ) and those prepared using EB evaporation (EB-MTJ). The EB-MTJ exhibited a very large TMR ratio of 217% at room temperature and 753% at 2 K. The bias voltage dependence of the tunnelling conductance in the parallel magnetic configuration for the EB-MTJ suggests that the observed large TMR ratio at RT results from the coherent tunnelling process through the crystalline MgO barrier. The tunnelling conductance in the anti-parallel magnetic configuration suggests that the large temperature dependence of the TMR ratio results from the inelastic spin-flip tunnelling process.

  9. Output voltage calculations in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with asymmetric voltage behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2011-10-22

    In this paper we study the asymmetric voltage behavior (AVB) of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) for single and double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in range of a quasi-classical free electron model. Numerical calculations of the TMR-V curves, output voltages and I-V characteristics for negative and positive values of applied voltages were carried out using MTJs with CoFeB/MgO interfaces as an example. Asymmetry of the experimental TMR-V curves is explained by different values of the minority and majority Fermi wave vectors for the left and right sides of the tunnel barrier, which arises due to different annealing regimes. Electron tunneling in DMTJs was simulated in two ways: (i) Coherent tunneling, where the DMTJ is modeled as one tunnel system and (ii) consecutive tunneling, where the DMTJ is modeled by two single barrier junctions connected in series. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Time-resolved measurement of the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect in a single magnetic tunnel junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Alexander; Walter, Marvin; Roschewsky, Niklas; Eggebrecht, Tim; Drewello, Volker; Rott, Karsten; Münzenberg, Markus; Thomas, Andy; Reiss, Günter

    2013-06-01

    Recently, several groups have reported spin-dependent thermoelectric effects in magnetic tunnel junctions. In this paper, we present a setup for time-resolved measurements of thermovoltages and thermocurrents of a single micro- to nanometer-scaled tunnel junction. An electrically modulated diode laser is used to create a temperature gradient across the tunnel junction layer stack. This laser modulation technique enables the recording of time-dependent thermovoltage signals with a temporal resolution only limited by the preamplifier for the thermovoltage. So far, time-dependent thermovoltage could not be interpreted. Now, with the setup presented in this paper, it is possible to distinguish different Seebeck voltage contributions to the overall measured voltage signal in the μs time regime. A model circuit is developed that explains those voltage contributions on different sample types. Further, it will be shown that a voltage signal arising from the magnetic tunnel junction can only be observed when the laser spot is directly centered on top of the magnetic tunnel junction, which allows a lateral separation of the effects.

  11. Coexistance of Giant Tunneling Electroresistance and Magnetoresistance in an All-Oxide Composite Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    KAUST Repository

    Caffrey, Nuala Mai

    2012-11-30

    We propose, by performing advanced abinitio electron transport calculations, an all-oxide composite magnetic tunnel junction, within which both large tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and tunneling electroresistance (TER) effects can coexist. The TMR originates from the symmetry-driven spin filtering provided by an insulating BaTiO3 barrier to the electrons injected from the SrRuO3 electrodes. Following recent theoretical suggestions, the TER effect is achieved by intercalating a thin insulating layer, here SrTiO3, at one of the SrRuO3/BaTiO3 interfaces. As the complex band structure of SrTiO3 has the same symmetry as that of BaTiO3, the inclusion of such an intercalated layer does not negatively alter the TMR and in fact increases it. Crucially, the magnitude of the TER also scales with the thickness of the SrTiO3 layer. The SrTiO3 thickness becomes then a single control parameter for both the TMR and the TER effect. This protocol offers a practical way to the fabrication of four-state memory cells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  12. Electromotive force and huge magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nam Hai; Ohya, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masaaki; Barnes, Stewart E; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2009-03-26

    The electromotive force (e.m.f.) predicted by Faraday's law reflects the forces acting on the charge, -e, of an electron moving through a device or circuit, and is proportional to the time derivative of the magnetic field. This conventional e.m.f. is usually absent for stationary circuits and static magnetic fields. There are also forces that act on the spin of an electron; it has been recently predicted that, for circuits that are in part composed of ferromagnetic materials, there arises an e.m.f. of spin origin even for a static magnetic field. This e.m.f. can be attributed to a time-varying magnetization of the host material, such as the motion of magnetic domains in a static magnetic field, and reflects the conversion of magnetic to electrical energy. Here we show that such an e.m.f. can indeed be induced by a static magnetic field in magnetic tunnel junctions containing zinc-blende-structured MnAs quantum nanomagnets. The observed e.m.f. operates on a timescale of approximately 10(2)-10(3) seconds and results from the conversion of the magnetic energy of the superparamagnetic MnAs nanomagnets into electrical energy when these magnets undergo magnetic quantum tunnelling. As a consequence, a huge magnetoresistance of up to 100,000 per cent is observed for certain bias voltages. Our results strongly support the contention that, in magnetic nanostructures, Faraday's law of induction must be generalized to account for forces of purely spin origin. The huge magnetoresistance and e.m.f. may find potential applications in high sensitivity magnetic sensors, as well as in new active devices such as 'spin batteries'.

  13. Characterization of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions For Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Joshua Luchay

    This thesis details two experimental methods for quantifying magnetic tunnel junction behavior, namely write error rates and field modulated spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance. The former examines how reliably an applied spin-transfer torque can excite magnetization dynamics that lead to a reversal of magnetization direction while the latter studies steady state dynamics provided by an oscillating spin-transfer torque. These characterization techniques reveal write error rate behavior for a particular composition magnetic tunnel junction that qualitatively deviates from theoretical predictions. Possible origins of this phenomenon are also investigated with the field modulated spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance technique. By understanding the dynamics of magnetic moments predicted by theory, one can experimentally confirm or disprove these theories in order to accurately model and predict tunnel junction behavior. By having a better model for what factors are important in magnetization dynamics, one can optimize these factors in terms of improving magnetic tunnel junctions for their use as computer memory.

  14. Wide bandgap, strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions on InP substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, M. P.; Yakes, M. K.; González, M.; Bennett, M. F.; Schmieder, K. J.; Affouda, C. A.; Herrera, M.; Delgado, F. J.; Molina, S. I.; Walters, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the electrical performance of strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions with varying designs is presented. Strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions comprising compressively strained InAlAs wells and tensile-strained InAlAs barriers were grown on InP substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The use of InAlAs enables InP-based tunnel junction devices to be produced using wide bandgap layers, enabling high electrical performance with low absorption. The impact of well and barrier thickness on the electrical performance was investigated, in addition to the impact of Si and Be doping concentration. Finally, the impact of an InGaAs quantum well at the junction interface is presented, enabling a peak tunnel current density of 47.6 A/cm2 to be realized.

  15. Dynamic compact model of thermally assisted switching magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baraji, M.; Javerliac, V.; Guo, W.; Prenat, G.; Dieny, B.

    2009-12-01

    The general purpose of spin electronics is to take advantage of the electron's spin in addition to its electrical charge to build innovative electronic devices. These devices combine magnetic materials which are used as spin polarizer or analyzer together with semiconductors or insulators, resulting in innovative hybrid CMOS/magnetic (Complementary MOS) architectures. In particular, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) can be used for the design of magnetic random access memories [S. Tehrani, Proc. IEEE 91, 703 (2003)], magnetic field programmable gate arrays [Y. Guillement, International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing, 2008], low-power application specific integrated circuits [S. Matsunaga, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 091301 (2008)], and rf oscillators. The thermally assisted switching (TAS) technology requires heating the MTJ before writing it by means of an external field. It reduces the overall power consumption, solves the data writing selectivity issues, and improves the thermal stability of the written information for high density applications. The design of hybrid architectures requires a MTJ compact model, which can be used in standard electrical simulators of the industry. As a result, complete simulations of CMOS/MTJ hybrid circuits can be performed before experimental realization and testing. This article presents a highly accurate model of the MTJ based on the TAS technology. It is compatible with the Spectre electrical simulator of Cadence design suite.

  16. Switching Properties of sub-100 nm Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryputen, Larysa; Piotrowski, Stephan; Bapna, Mukund; Chien, Chia-Ling; Wang, Weigang; Majetich, Sara; Ross, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) have great potential for realizing high-density non-volatile memory and logic devices. It is critical to solve scalability problem to implement such devices, to achieve low resistance area and to reduce switching current density while maintaining thermal stability. We present our recent results on fabrication of high resolution Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB/Ta p-MTJ devices and characterization of their switching properties as well as topography and current mapping by using nanoscale Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy. Our patterning method is based on using hydrogen silsesquioxane resist mask combined with ion beam etching. It allows to fabricate p-MTJ devices down to 40 nm in diameter while maintaining the magnetic quality of the multilayers. Repeatable, consistent switching behaviour has been observed in the obtained p-MTJ devices of 500 nm down to 40 nm with 10 - 800 mV voltage applied. Switching field increased as device diameter decreased, from 580 Oe at 500 nm (MR = 10%) to 410 Oe at 80 nm (MR = 9%). We discuss the effect of device sizes on the switching properties. This work was supported in part by C-SPIN, one of the six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation Program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and in part through the National Science Foundation through NCN-Needs Program, Contract 12207020-EEC.

  17. Tunnel Junction with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy: Status and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxing Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ, which arises from emerging spintronics, has the potential to become the basic component of novel memory, logic circuits, and other applications. Particularly since the first demonstration of current induced magnetization switching in MTJ, spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM has sparked a huge interest thanks to its non-volatility, fast access speed, and infinite endurance. However, along with the advanced nodes scaling, MTJ with in-plane magnetic anisotropy suffers from modest thermal stability, high power consumption, and manufactural challenges. To address these concerns, focus of research has converted to the preferable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA based MTJ, whereas a number of conditions still have to be met before its practical application. This paper overviews the principles of PMA and STT, where relevant issues are preliminarily discussed. Centering on the interfacial PMA in CoFeB/MgO system, we present the fundamentals and latest progress in the engineering, material, and structural points of view. The last part illustrates potential investigations and applications with regard to MTJ with interfacial PMA.

  18. Polarization curling and flux closures in multiferroic tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jonathan J P; Apachitei, Geanina; Beanland, Richard; Alexe, Marin; Sanchez, Ana M

    2016-11-16

    Formation of domain walls in ferroelectrics is not energetically favourable in low-dimensional systems. Instead, vortex-type structures are formed that are driven by depolarization fields occurring in such systems. Consequently, polarization vortices have only been experimentally found in systems in which these fields are deliberately maximized, that is, in films between insulating layers. As such configurations are devoid of screening charges provided by metal electrodes, commonly used in electronic devices, it is wise to investigate if curling polarization structures are innate to ferroelectricity or induced by the absence of electrodes. Here we show that in unpoled Co/PbTiO3/(La,Sr)MnO3 ferroelectric tunnel junctions, the polarization in active PbTiO3 layers 9 unit cells thick forms Kittel-like domains, while at 6 unit cells there is a complex flux-closure curling behaviour resembling an incommensurate phase. Reducing the thickness to 3 unit cells, there is an almost complete loss of switchable polarization associated with an internal gradient.

  19. Fabrication of multiband MgB2 tunnel junctions for transport measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zalk, M.; Brinkman, Alexander; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Kim, T.H.; Moodera, J.S.; Rogalla, Horst

    2006-01-01

    The coexistence of multiple superconducting condensates in a material gives rise to intriguing phenomena, such as the possible presence of number-phase fluctuations. In this work, tunnel junctions were fabricated, aiming for the detection of such phenomena. Planar junctions with normal conducting

  20. SUBMM heterodyne mixing using NbCN/Nb SIS tunnel junctions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandeStadt, H; Mees, J; Barber, Z; Blamire, M; Dieleman, P; deGraauw, T

    We describe heterodyne mixing experiments with NbCN/Nb quasi-particle tunnel junctions at submillimeter wavelengths. In this wavelength range junctions with niobium nitride as superconducting material are promising because of the high gap voltage, about 5.7 mV, as compared to 3 mV for the more

  1. Comparison of the magneto-Peltier and magneto-Seebeck effects in magnetic tunnel junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, J.; Dejene, F. K.; Leutenantsmeyer, J. C.; Flipse, J.; Munzenberg, M.; van Wees, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding heat generation and transport processes in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is a significant step towards improving its application in current memory devices. Recent work has experimentally demonstrated the magneto-Seebeck effect in MTJs, where the Seebeck coefficient of the junction

  2. Theory of macroscopic quantum tunneling in Nb/Au/YBCO Josephson junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawabata, S.; Kawabata, S.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Ariando, A.; Verwijs, C.J.M.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in s-wave/d-wave (Nb/Au/YBCO) Josephson junctions, and the influence of the nodal-quasiparticle and the zero energy bound states (ZES) on MQT. In contrast to d-wave/d-wave junctions, low-energy quasiparticle excitations resulting

  3. Renormalization-group calculations of ground-state and transport properties of ultrasmall tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frota, H.O.; Flensberg, Karsten

    1992-01-01

    We have done a numerical renormalization-group calculation for a Hamiltonian modeling charging effect in ultrasmall tunnel junctions. We find that the conductance is enhanced by the quantum charge fluctuations allowing tunneling below the charging energy gap. However, in all cases the conductance...

  4. Optimized electrode configuration for current-in-plane characterization of magnetic tunnel junction stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Kjær, Daniel; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2017-01-01

    The current-in-plane tunneling technique (CIPT) has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction stacks suitable for magnetic random access memories (MRAM) for more than a decade. The MRAM development has now reached the maturity to make the transition from the R&D phase...

  5. Electrical properties of graphene tunnel junctions with high-κ metal-oxide barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Trainer, Daniel J.; Chen, Ke

    2017-04-01

    An insulating barrier is one of the key components in electronic devices that makes use of quantum tunneling principles. Many metal-oxides have been used as a good barrier material in a tunnel junction for their large band gap, stable chemical properties and superb properties for forming a thin and pin-hole-free insulating layer. The reduced dimensions of transistors have led to the need for alternative, high dielectric constant (high-κ) oxides to replace conventional silicon-based dielectrics to reduce the leaking current induced by electron tunneling. On the other hand, a tunnel junction with one or both electrodes made of graphene may lead to novel applications due to the massless Dirac fermions from the graphene. Here we have fabricated sandwich-type graphene tunnel junctions with high-κ metal-oxides as barriers, including Al2O3, HfO2, ZrO2, and TiO2. Tunneling properties are investigated by observing the temperature and time dependences of the tunneling spectra. Our results show the potential for applications of high-κ oxides in graphene tunnel junctions and bringing new opportunities for memory and logic electronic devices.

  6. Enhancement of tunneling magnetoresistance by inserting an amorphous nonmagnetic FeZr layer in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Kyung-In [Nano Device Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H. [Nano Device Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea University, Chochiwon 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, K.-H. [Nano Device Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Rhie, K. [Department of Physics, Korea University, Chochiwon 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: krhie@korea.ac.kr; Lee, B.C. [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-01

    An amorphous metallic FeZr layer is inserted inside the bottom magnetic layer in exchange-biased CoFe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). At room temperature, the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) increases from 25% to 36% before annealing, and from 45% to 52% after annealing. The junction resistance also increases with the FeZr thickness. The higher quality of the MTJ is attributed to the improved Al-oxide barrier due to the amorphousness of the FeZr layer.

  7. Magnetoresistance in Co/AlO sub x /Co tunnel junction arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Urech, M; Haviland, D B

    2002-01-01

    Lateral arrays of Co/AlO sub x /Co junctions with dimensions down to 60 nm and inter-junction separations approx 60-100 nm have been fabricated and analyzed for possible coherent tunneling effects. Extra attention is paid to avoid uncertainties due to inconsistencies in switching and/or resistance of successive barriers. We observe approx 10% magnetoresistance enhancement at moderate bias in double junctions that cannot be accounted for by a simple model of two resistsors in series.

  8. High tunneling magnetoresistance ratio in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions using Fe-based Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu-Pu, E-mail: Vicky-sg1015@hotmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*STAR (Singapore); Lim, Sze-Ter; Han, Gu-Chang, E-mail: HAN-Guchang@dsi.a-star.edu.sg [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*STAR (Singapore); Teo, Kie-Leong, E-mail: eleteokl@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-12-21

    Heulser alloys Fe{sub 2}Cr{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Si (FCCS) with different Co compositions x have been predicted to have high spin polarization. High perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) has been observed in ultra-thin FCCS films with magnetic anisotropy energy density up to 2.3 × 10{sup 6 }erg/cm{sup 3}. The perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) using FCCS films with different Co compositions x as the bottom electrode have been fabricated and the post-annealing effects have been investigated in details. An attractive tunneling magnetoresistance ratio as high as 51.3% is achieved for p-MTJs using Fe{sub 2}CrSi (FCS) as the bottom electrode. The thermal stability Δ can be as high as 70 for 40 nm dimension devices using FCS, which is high enough to endure a retention time of over 10 years. Therefore, Heusler alloy FCS is a promising PMA candidate for p-MTJ application.

  9. Low Leakage Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with a Single Crystal Al2O3 Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    three layers were grown in situ in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) system with a nominal base pressure of ~1×10-10 Torr. First, a 120~150 nm thick...current-voltage (I-V) curves of a typical single-crystal Al2O3 tunnel junction taken at ~80 mK . One way to quantify the junction quality is to define a...80 mK on an epi-Re/epi-Al2O3/poly-Al tunnel junction. (a) Linear vertical scale. (b) Logarithmic vertical scale: absolute value is used. This

  10. Measurements of tunneling barrier thicknesses for Nb/Al–AlO{sub x}/Nb tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Xinjie [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ying, Liliang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Hai [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Guofeng; Peng, Wei; Kong, Xiangyan; Xie, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Zhen, E-mail: zwang@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We estimate the average barrier height (Φ) of Nb/Al–AlO{sub x}/Nb tunnel junctions. • Dependence of the AlOx thickness (dAlOx) on O{sub 2} exposure was described. • The thicknesses of AlOx barriers were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). • X-ray Reflection (XRR) measurements and simulations were used to verify the AlOx thickness. - Abstract: The tunnel barrier thicknesses of Nb/Al–AlO{sub x}/Nb tunnel junctions were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Reflection (XRR). By investigating the barrier thickness dependence of current density J{sub c}, the barrier height for Nb/Al–AlO{sub x}/Nb junctions was calculated. Nb/Al–AlO{sub x}/Nb junctions with different J{sub c} were fabricated by controlling the O{sub 2} exposure in Al oxidation. The junctions show good tunneling properties with subgap leakage factor V{sub m} larger than 30 mV in the range of J{sub c} from tens of A/cm{sup 2} to several kA/cm{sup 2}. TEM images showed clear interface and indicated the AlO{sub x} thicknesses ranging from 0.8 nm to 1.9 nm, and the average barrier height was estimated to be 0.17 eV for Nb/Al–AlO{sub x}/Nb tunnel junctions.

  11. Inter-band phase fluctuations in macroscopic quantum tunneling of multi-gap superconducting Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Hidehiro, E-mail: hd-asai@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ota, Yukihiro [CCSE, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan); Kawabata, Shiro [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nori, Franco [CEMS, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We study MQT in Josephson junctions composed of multi-gap superconductors. • We derive a formula of the MQT escape rate for multiple phase differences. • We investigate the effect of inter-band phase fluctuation on MQT. • The MQT escape rate is significantly enhanced by the inter-band phase fluctuation. - Abstract: We theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a hetero Josephson junction formed by a conventional single-gap superconductor and a multi-gap superconductor. In such Josephson junctions, phase differences for each tunneling channel are defined, and the fluctuation of the relative phase differences appear which is referred to as Josephson–Leggett’s mode. We take into account the effect of the fluctuation in the tunneling process and calculate the MQT escape rate for various junction parameters. We show that the fluctuation of relative phase differences drastically enhances the escape rate.

  12. Sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions fabricated using molecular layer epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ohno and Yutaka Oyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the fundamental properties and applications of sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions. Heavily impurity-doped GaAs epitaxial layers were prepared using molecular layer epitaxy (MLE, in which intermittent injections of precursors in ultrahigh vacuum were applied, and sidewall tunnel junctions were fabricated using a combination of device mesa wet etching of the GaAs MLE layer and low-temperature area-selective regrowth. The fabricated tunnel junctions on the GaAs sidewall with normal mesa orientation showed a record peak current density of 35 000 A cm-2. They can potentially be used as terahertz devices such as a tunnel injection transit time effect diode or an ideal static induction transistor.

  13. Tunnel magnetoresistance in thermally robust Mo/CoFeB/MgO tunnel junction with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on tunnel magnetoresistance and electric-field effect in the Mo buffered and capped CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. A large tunnel magnetoresistance of 120% is achieved. Furthermore, this structure shows greatly improved thermal stability and stronger electric-field-induced modulation effect in comparison with the Ta/CoFeB/MgO-based MTJs. These results suggest that the Mo-based MTJs are more desirable for next generation spintronic devices.

  14. Adjustable tunneling barrier in bi-based high-Tc cross-whisker junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilaslan, O.; Simsek, Y.; Aksan, M. A.; Koval, Y.; Yakinci, M. E.; Müller, P.

    2015-02-01

    We present a study of cross-whisker junctions with electronically modified tunneling barriers. Cross-whisker junctions were successfully prepared by annealing two crossed Bi-based whisker bars at temperatures of around 840 °C. In addition to the artificially produced junction at the interface, intrinsic Josephson junctions in the respective bars of the cross were observed. The artificial junction exhibited reproducible and almost ideal junction characteristics. The tunneling barrier/interface properties were controlled by carrier injection in c-axis direction. Using this process, we were able to reduce the tunneling resistance from 408 Ω to 30 Ω. At the same time, the critical current did rise by a factor of 4. Subsequently, the critical current was doubled while the tunneling resistance stayed constant. We interpret this observation in terms of the counter-play between transparency of the barrier and the carrier concentration of the electrodes. In this sense, we can consider the current injection procedure as an electronic gluing process of the two cross-junction whisker bars.

  15. The importance of Fe surface states for spintronic devices based on magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantis, Athanasios N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In this article we give a review of our recent theoretical studies of the influence of Fe(001) surface (interface) states on spin-polarized electron transport across magnetic tunnel junctions with Fe electrodes. We show that minority-spin surface (interface) states are responsible for at least two effects which are important for spin electronics. First, they can produce a sizable tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions with a single Fe electrode. The effect is driven by a Rashba shift of the resonant surface band when the magnetization changes direction. This can introduce a new class of spintronic devices, namely, tunneling magnetoresistance junctions with a single ferromagnetic electrode. Second, in Fe/GaAs(001) magnetic tunnel junctions minority-spin interface states produce a strong dependence of the tunneling current spin polarization on applied electrical bias. A dramatic sign reversal within a voltage range of just a few tenths of an eV is predicted. This explains the observed sign reversal of spin polarization in recent experiments of electrical spin injection in Fe/GaAs(001) and related reversal of tunneling magnetoresistance through vertical Fe/GaAs/Fe trilayers.

  16. Elliptic annular Josephson tunnel junctions in an external magnetic field: the statics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Granata, Carmine; Vettoliere, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the static properties of one-dimensional planar Josephson tunnel junctions (JTJs) in the most general case of elliptic annuli. We have analyzed the dependence of the critical current in the presence of an external magnetic field applied either in the junction plane or in the ......We have investigated the static properties of one-dimensional planar Josephson tunnel junctions (JTJs) in the most general case of elliptic annuli. We have analyzed the dependence of the critical current in the presence of an external magnetic field applied either in the junction plane...... symmetric electrodes a transverse magnetic field is equivalent to an in-plane field applied in the direction of the current flow. Varying the ellipse eccentricity we reproduce all known results for linear and ring-shaped JTJs. Experimental data on high-quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb elliptic annular junctions...

  17. Four-state non-volatile memory in a multiferroic spin filter tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jieji; Li, Chen; Yuan, Zhoushen; Wang, Peng; Li, Aidong; Wu, Di

    2016-12-01

    We report a spin filter type multiferroic tunnel junction with a ferromagnetic/ferroelectric bilayer barrier. Memory functions of a spin filter magnetic tunnel junction and a ferroelectric tunnel junction are combined in this single device, producing four non-volatile resistive states that can be read out in a non-destructive manner. This concept is demonstrated in a LaNiO3/Pr0.8Ca0.2MnO3/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 all-oxide tunnel junction. The ferromagnetic insulator Pr0.8Ca0.2MnO3 serves as the spin filter and the ferromagnetic metal La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 is the spin analyzer. The ferroelectric polarization reversal in the BaTiO3 barrier switches the tunneling barrier height to produce a tunneling electroresistance. The ferroelectric switching also modulates the spin polarization and the spin filtering efficiency in Pr0.8Ca0.2MnO3.

  18. On the suppression of the sidelobes of the supercurrent in small Josephson tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwman, E. P.; Gijsbertsen, J. G.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.

    1991-11-01

    The critical currents of Nb/Al, Al-oxide, Al/Nb tunnel junctions of various shapes have been measured as a function of the applied magnetic field. For the square junction and for some special shapes like the diamond, “1 + cosine” and quartic junctions the Ic( B) pattern falls off theoretically as 1/ Bn, with n respectively equal to 1, 2, 3 and 4. In general the measurements are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. For the “1 + cosine” and quartic shapes we found a sidelobe suppression that is even larger than that obtained in theory. For the quartic junction the first sidelobe is only 0.3% of the zero-field current. An Ic( B) modulation with a small, only slowly decreasing amplitude is observed for the diamond, “1 + cosine”, and quartic junctions, that can be explained by rounding of the sharp edges of the junction shapes, due to the fabrication process.

  19. MgGa2O4 spinel barrier for magnetic tunnel junctions: Coherent tunneling and low barrier height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Kato, Yushi; Belmoubarik, Mohamed; Cheng, P.-H.; Daibou, Tadaomi; Shimomura, Naoharu; Kamiguchi, Yuuzo; Ito, Junichi; Yoda, Hiroaki; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Mitani, Seiji; Hono, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Epitaxial Fe/magnesium gallium spinel oxide (MgGa2O4)/Fe(001) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. A tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio up to 121% at room temperature (196% at 4 K) was observed, suggesting a TMR enhancement by the coherent tunneling effect in the MgGa2O4 barrier. The MgGa2O4 layer had a spinel structure and it showed good lattice matching with the Fe layers owing to slight tetragonal lattice distortion of MgGa2O4. Barrier thickness dependence of the tunneling resistance and current-voltage characteristics revealed that the height of the MgGa2O4 barrier is much lower than that of an MgAl2O4 barrier. This study demonstrates the potential of Ga-based spinel oxides for MTJ barriers having a large TMR ratio at a low resistance area product.

  20. Direct detection of the parametrically generated half-harmonic voltage in a Josephson tunnel junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1976-01-01

    The first direct observation of the parametrically generated half-harmonic voltage in a Josephson tunnel junction is reported. A microwave signal at f=17.25 GHz is applied to the junction dc current biased at zero voltage such that the Josephson plasma resonance fp=f/2. Under these conditions a l...... a large-amplitude microwave signal is emitted at fp provided the input power exceeds a threshold value. The results are compared to existing theory. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics.......The first direct observation of the parametrically generated half-harmonic voltage in a Josephson tunnel junction is reported. A microwave signal at f=17.25 GHz is applied to the junction dc current biased at zero voltage such that the Josephson plasma resonance fp=f/2. Under these conditions...

  1. Influence of noble-gas ion irradiation on alumina barrier of magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, M. D.; Sauerwald, J.; Schmalhorst, J.; Reiss, G.

    2005-11-01

    The transport properties of Co /Al2O3/Co magnetic tunnel junctions with ion-irradiated tunneling barrier are reported. The irradiation by He+ and Ar+ with energies ranging from 15to105eV takes place in situ after oxidation of the 1.4-nm-thick Al layer. For both ion species the area resistance of the junctions increases strongly with ion energy, simultaneously the tunneling magnetoresistance is reduced. But the energy dependence of both properties is different for He+ and Ar+ irradiations. Additionally the bias voltage dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance is deteriorated with increasing ion energy especially for Ar+ irradiation. These experimental results are discussed with respect to the energy-dependent penetration depth of He+ and Ar+ and their energy loss in the barrier.

  2. Intermolecular interaction effect on the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of bi-octane-monothiol junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jiancai; Zhao, Liyun; Zhang, Yujin; Ma, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of bi-octane-monothiol junctions is theoretically studied based on first-principles calculations. The results reveal that IETS is very sensitive to the vertical and lateral distance of the two molecules in the bimolecular junctions owing to the changes of interaction between the two molecules. It is further demonstrated that the transverse vibrational modes ν(C-H) around 0.38 V will be triggered when the two molecules are close to each other and open a new path for electron tunneling. Our theoretical results provide new insight into understanding the origin of the IETS peaks around 0.38 V.

  3. Fluctuation-dissipation relations of a tunnel junction driven by a quantum circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlavecchio, O; Altimiras, C; Souquet, J-R; Simon, P; Safi, I; Joyez, P; Vion, D; Roche, P; Esteve, D; Portier, F

    2015-03-27

    We derive fluctuation-dissipation relations for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator displaying strong quantum fluctuations. We find that the fluctuation-dissipation relations derived for classical external drives hold, provided the effect of the circuit's quantum fluctuations is incorporated into the modified nonlinear current voltage characteristics. We also demonstrate that all quantities measured under a time dependent bias can be reconstructed from their values measured under a dc bias using photoassisted tunneling relations. We confirm these predictions by implementing the circuit and measuring the dc current through the junction, its high frequency admittance, and its current noise at the frequency of the resonator.

  4. Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III–nitride light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Young, Erin C.

    2016-01-26

    In this work, we demonstrate highly doped GaN p–n tunnel junction (TJ) contacts on III–nitride heterostructures where the active region of the device and the top p-GaN layers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and highly doped n-GaN was grown by NH3 molecular beam epitaxy to form the TJ. The regrowth interface in these hybrid devices was found to have a high concentration of oxygen, which likely enhanced tunneling through the diode. For optimized regrowth, the best tunnel junction device had a total differential resistivity of 1.5 × 10−4 Ω cm2, including contact resistance. As a demonstration, a blue-light-emitting diode on a ($20\\\\bar{2}\\\\bar{1}$) GaN substrate with a hybrid tunnel junction and an n-GaN current spreading layer was fabricated and compared with a reference sample with a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer. The tunnel junction LED showed a lower forward operating voltage and a higher efficiency at a low current density than the TCO LED.

  5. Pronounced Effect of pn-Junction Dimensionality on Tunnel Switch Threshold Shape

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sapan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Designing tunneling junctions with abrupt on-off characteristics and high current densities is critical for many different devices including backward diodes and tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs). It is possible to get a sharp, high conductance on/off transition by exploiting the sharp step in the density of states at band edges. The nature of the density of states, is strongly dependent on quantum dimensionality. To know the current/voltage curve requires us to specify both the n-sid...

  6. Quantum-limited detection of millimeter waves using superconducting tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mears, C.A.

    1991-09-01

    The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction is highly nonlinear. Such a nonlinearity can be used to mix two millimeter wave signals to produce a signal at a much lower intermediate frequency. We have constructed several millimeter and sub-millimeter wave SIS mixers in order to study high frequency response of the quasiparticle tunneling current and the physics of high frequency mixing. We have made the first measurement of the out-of-phase tunneling currents in an SIS tunnel junction. We have developed a method that allows us to determine the parameters of the high frequency embedding circuit by studying the details of the pumped I-V curve. We have constructed a 80--110 GHz waveguide-based mixer test apparatus that allows us to accurately measure the gain and added noise of the SIS mixer under test. Using extremely high quality tunnel junctions, we have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 {plus minus} 0.36 quanta, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This measured performance is in excellent agreement with that predicted by Tucker's theory of quantum mixing. We have also studied quasioptically coupled millimeter- and submillimeter-wave mixers using several types of integrated tuning elements. 83 refs.

  7. Quantum-limited detection of millimeter waves using superconducting tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mears, Carl Atherton [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction is highly nonlinear. Such a nonlinearity can be used to mix two millimeter wave signals to produce a signal at a much lower intermediate frequency. We have constructed several millimeter and sub-millimeter wave SIS mixers in order to study high frequency response of the quasiparticle tunneling current and the physics of high frequency mixing. We have made the first measurement of the out-of-phase tunneling currents in an SIS tunnel junction. We have developed a method that allows us to determine the parameters of the high frequency embedding circuit by studying the details of the pumped I-V curve. We have constructed a 80--110 GHz waveguide-based mixer test apparatus that allows us to accurately measure the gain and added noise of the SIS mixer under test. Using extremely high quality tunnel junctions, we have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 ± 0.36 quanta, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This measured performance is in excellent agreement with that predicted by Tucker`s theory of quantum mixing. We have also studied quasioptically coupled millimeter- and submillimeter-wave mixers using several types of integrated tuning elements. 83 refs.

  8. On the suppression of the sidelobes of the supercurrent in small Josephson tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Houwman, Evert Pieter; Gijsbertsen, Hans; Gijsbertsen, J.G.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst

    1991-01-01

    The critical currents of Nb/Al, Al-oxide, Al/Nb tunnel junctions of various shapes have been measured as a function of the applied magnetic field. For the square junction and for some special shapes like the diamond, ¿1 + cosine¿ and quartic junctions the Ic(B) pattern falls off theoretically as 1/Bn, with n respectively equal to 1, 2, 3 and 4. In general the measurements are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. For the "1 + cosine" and quartic shapes we found a sidelobe suppre...

  9. Static properties of small Josephson tunnel junctions in an oblique magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed experimental investigation of the static properties of planar Josephson tunnel junctions in presence of a uniform external magnetic field applied in an arbitrary orientation with respect to the barrier plane. We considered annular junctions, as well as rectangular...... junctions (having both overlap and cross-type geometries) with different barrier aspect ratios. It is shown how most of the experimental findings in an oblique field can be reproduced invoking the superposition principle to combine the classical behavior of electrically small junctions in an in-plane field...... together with the small junction behavior in a transverse field that we recently published [R. Monaco , J. Appl. Phys. 104, 023906 (2008)]. We show that the presence of a transverse field may have important consequences, which could be either voluntarily exploited in applications or present an unwanted...

  10. Optically controlled electroresistance and electrically controlled photovoltage in ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Jin Hu, Wei

    2016-02-29

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) have recently attracted considerable interest as a promising candidate for applications in the next-generation non-volatile memory technology. In this work, using an ultrathin (3 nm) ferroelectric Sm0.1Bi0.9FeO3 layer as the tunnelling barrier and a semiconducting Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal as the bottom electrode, we achieve a tunnelling electroresistance as large as 105. Furthermore, the FTJ memory states could be modulated by light illumination, which is accompanied by a hysteretic photovoltaic effect. These complimentary effects are attributed to the bias- and light-induced modulation of the tunnel barrier, both in height and width, at the semiconductor/ferroelectric interface. Overall, the highly tunable tunnelling electroresistance and the correlated photovoltaic functionalities provide a new route for producing and non-destructively sensing multiple non-volatile electronic states in such FTJs.

  11. Magneto-Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyu Ning

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one invigorated filed of spin caloritronics combining with spin, charge and heat current, the magneto-Seebeck effect has been experimentally and theoretically studied in spin tunneling thin films and nanostructures. Here we analyze the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy (p-MTJs under various measurement temperatures. The large tunnel magneto-Seebeck (TMS ratio up to −838.8% for p-MTJs at 200 K is achieved, with Seebeck coefficient S in parallel and antiparallel states of 6.7 mV/K and 62.9 mV/K, respectively. The temperature dependence of the tunnel magneto-Seebeck can be attributed to the contributing transmission function and electron states at the interface between CoFeB electrode and MgO barrier.

  12. Optical modulation of nano-gap tunnelling junctions comprising self-assembled monolayers of hemicyanine dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourhossein, Parisa; Vijayaraghavan, Ratheesh K; Meskers, Stefan C J; Chiechi, Ryan C

    2016-01-01

    Light-driven conductance switching in molecular tunnelling junctions that relies on photoisomerization is constrained by the limitations of kinetic traps and either by the sterics of rearranging atoms in a densely packed monolayer or the small absorbance of individual molecules. Here we demonstrate

  13. Suppression of orange-peel coupling in magnetic tunnel junctions by preoxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelhoff, W. F.; McMichael, R. D.; Dennis, C. L.; Stiles, M. D.; Shapiro, A. J.; Maranville, B. B.; Powell, C. J.

    2006-04-01

    We have found that preoxidation of the bottom Co electrode in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) very effectively suppresses orange-peel coupling. The result is a free layer that is much softer. Work by others has demonstrated that preoxidation is compatible with high-quality MTJ fabrication.

  14. Pronounced Environmental Effects on Injection Currents in EGaln Tunneling Junctions Comprising Self-Assembled Monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlotti, Marco; Degen, Maarten; Zhang, Yanxi; Chiechi, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Large-area tunneling junctions using eutectic Ga-In (EGaIn) as a top contact have proven to be a robust, reproducible, and technologically relevant platform for molecular electronics. Thus far, the majority of studies have focused on saturated molecules with backbones consisting mainly of alkanes in

  15. Parametric amplification on rf-induced steps in a Josephson tunnel junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.H.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Mygind, Jesper

    1979-01-01

    Parametric effects including amplification in a singly degenerate mode have been observed in Josephson tunnel junctions at dc bias points on rf-induced steps. Net gain at 9 GHz was achieved with a bias on the fundamental 18-GHz step and subharmonic self-oscillations were seen on 18 and 70-GHz rf...

  16. Thermoelectricity and disorder of FeCo/MgO/FeCo magnetic tunnel junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.Z.; Xia, K.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2014-01-01

    We compute the thermoelectric transport parameterized by the Seebeck coefficient and thermal/electric conductance of random-alloy FeCo/MgO/FeCo(001) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) from first principles using a generalized Landauer-Büttiker formalism. The thermopower is found to be typically

  17. On-chip measurement of the Brownian relaxation frequency of magnetic beads using magnetic tunneling junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, M.; Sogne, E.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the detection of the Brownian relaxation frequency of 250 nm diameter magnetic beads using a lab-on-chip platform based on current lines for exciting the beads with alternating magnetic fields and highly sensitive magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors with a superparamagnetic free...

  18. Theory of macroscopic quantum tunnelling and dissipation in high-Tc Josephson junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawabata, S.; Kawabata, Shiro; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Asano, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yukio; Kato, Takeo; Kato, T.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated macroscopic quantum tunnelling (MQT) in in-plane high-Tc superconductor Josephson junctions and the influence of the nodal-quasiparticle and zero energy bound states (ZES) on MQT. We have shown that the presence of ZES at the interface between the insulator and the

  19. CMOS Interface Circuits for Spin Tunneling Junction Based Magnetic Random Access Memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saripalli, Ganesh [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Magneto resistive memories (MRAM) are non-volatile memories which use magnetic instead of electrical structures to store data. These memories, apart from being non-volatile, offer a possibility to achieve densities better than DRAMs and speeds faster than SRAMs. MRAMs could potentially replace all computer memory RAM technologies in use today, leading to future applications like instan-on computers and longer battery life for pervasive devices. Such rapid development was made possible due to the recent discovery of large magnetoresistance in Spin tunneling junction devices. Spin tunneling junctions (STJ) are composite structures consisting of a thin insulating layer sandwiched between two magnetic layers. This thesis research is targeted towards these spin tunneling junction based Magnetic memories. In any memory, some kind of an interface circuit is needed to read the logic states. In this thesis, four such circuits are proposed and designed for Magnetic memories (MRAM). These circuits interface to the Spin tunneling junctions and act as sense amplifiers to read their magnetic states. The physical structure and functional characteristics of these circuits are discussed in this thesis. Mismatch effects on the circuits and proper design techniques are also presented. To demonstrate the functionality of these interface structures, test circuits were designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35μ CMOS process. Also circuits to characterize the process mismatches were fabricated and tested. These results were then used in Matlab programs to aid in design process and to predict interface circuit's yields.

  20. X-ray response of tunnel junctions with a trapping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Grand, J. B.; Valko, P.; Bruijn, M. P.; Frericks, M. J.; Patel, S.; de Korte, P. A. J.; Gijsbertsen, J. G.; Houwman, E. P.; Flokstra, J.

    1994-02-01

    The use of trapping layers in superconductive tunnel junctions may drastically improve their functioning as X-ray detectors 1. Information about these trapping layers can be obtained from I/V-curves and X-ray spectra. The application of a magnetic field causes a substantial reduction of the bandgap in the trapping layer.

  1. Comprehensive geophysical prediction and treatment measures of karst caves in deep buried tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. C.; Zhou, Z. Q.; Ye, Z. H.; Li, L. P.; Zhang, Q. Q.; Xu, Z. H.

    2015-05-01

    While tunneling in karst terrains, engineers may encounter hazardous geotechnical structures such as faults, karst caves and collapse columns which may induce geohazards and seriously endanger the construction safety. Geological processes significantly affect the varieties and characteristics of karst caves, and therefore engineering geological and hydrogeological conditions of Shangjiawan Tunnel were analyzed firstly. In order to accurately predict the geometric characteristics of karst caves and their spatial relationship with the tunnel, the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Geological Drilling (Geo-D) were applied comprehensively in the present study. The Tunnel Seismic Prediction (TSP) system was also applied to forecast whether any karst cave existed in front of the tunnel face and the detection results generally agree well with the field investigation. Furthermore, the Beam-Slab method was carried out for the treatment of the karst cave which situated under the tunnel floor, while the Backfill method was applied for the karst cave which was exposed during the construction.

  2. NbN/MgO/NbN edge-geometry tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. D.; Leduc, H. G.; Cypher, S. R.; Stern, J. A.; Judas, A.

    1989-01-01

    The fabrication and low-frequency testing of the first edge-geometry NbN/MgO/NbN superconducting tunnel junctions are reported. The use of an edge geometry allows very small junction areas to be obtained, while the all-NbN electrodes permit operation at 8-10 K with a potential maximum operating frequency above 1 THz. Edge definition in the base NbN film was accomplished utilizing Ar ion milling with an Al2O3 milling mask, followed by a lower energy ion cleaning step. This process has produced all-refractory-material tunnel junctions with areas as small as 0.1 sq micron, resistance-area products less than 21 ohm sq micron, and subgap to normal state resistance ratios larger than 18.

  3. Interface structure and magnetism of magnetic tunnel junctions with a Co2 MnSi electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalhorst, J.; Kämmerer, S.; Sacher, M.; Reiss, G.; Hütten, A.; Scholl, A.

    2004-07-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions with a magnetically soft Heusler-alloy electrode ( Co2 MnSi/Al+oxidation+in situ annealing/ Co7 Fe3 / Mn83 Ir17 ) and a maximal tunnel magnetoresistance effect of 86% at 10 K/10 mV are investigated with respect to their structural and magnetic properties at the lower barrier interface by electron and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. A plasma-oxidation-induced Mn/Si segregation and oxide formation at the barrier interface is found, which results in a strongly increased area-resistance product of the junctions, because of an enlarged barrier thickness. For Co2 MnSi thickness equal to 8 nm or larger, ferromagnetic order of Mn and Co spins at the interface is induced by annealing; simultaneously, atomic ordering at the interface is observed. The influence of the structural and magnetic interface properties on the temperature-dependent transport properties of the junctions is discussed.

  4. Cooper pairs and quasi-particles tunneling in light-sensitive junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbio, L.; Camerlingo, C.; Cristiano, R.; Peluso, G.; Russo, M.

    1985-03-01

    Tunneling experiments have been performed on lead-cadmium sulphide-lead light-sensitive junctions. In the framework of an equivalent rectangular average barrier model and assuming an effective mass approximation, experimental current-voltage and conductance voltage characteristics have been employed to evaluate the tunneling barrier parameters in dark conditions and at increasing light exposure levels. A parabolic shape for the barrier has been assumed to give a qualitative account for the behavior of the junctions with the light exposure time. Measurements of the temperature dependence of the light-induced dc Josephson current also supports the deviation from the ''rectangular'' shape of the tunneling barrier at heavy illumination levels.

  5. Electrical control of memristance and magnetoresistance in oxide magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Electric-field control of magnetic and transport properties of magnetic tunnel junctions has promising applications in spintronics. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a reversible electrical manipulation of memristance, magnetoresistance, and exchange bias in Co/CoO–ZnO/Co magnetic tunnel junctions, which enables the realization of four nonvolatile resistance states. Moreover, greatly enhanced tunneling magnetoresistance of 68% was observed due to the enhanced spin polarization of the bottom Co/CoO interface. The ab initio calculations further indicate that the spin polarization of the Co/CoO interface is as high as 73% near the Fermi level and plenty of oxygen vacancies can induce metal–insulator transition of the CoO1−v layer. Thus, the electrical manipulation mechanism on the memristance, magnetoresistance and exchange bias can be attributed to the electric-field-driven migration of oxygen ions/vacancies between very thin CoO and ZnO layers.

  6. Voltage-controlled interlayer coupling in perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse-Illige, T.; Liu, Yaohua; Xu, M.; Reifsnyder Hickey, D.; Kundu, A.; Almasi, H.; Bi, Chong; Wang, X.; Freeland, J. W.; Keavney, D. J.; Sun, C. J.; Xu, Y. H.; Rosales, M.; Cheng, X. M.; Zhang, Shufeng; Mkhoyan, K. A.; Wang, W. G.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic interlayer coupling is one of the central phenomena in spintronics. It has been predicted that the sign of interlayer coupling can be manipulated by electric fields, instead of electric currents, thereby offering a promising low energy magnetization switching mechanism. Here we present the experimental demonstration of voltage-controlled interlayer coupling in a new perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction system with a GdOx tunnel barrier, where a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a sizable tunnelling magnetoresistance have been achieved at room temperature. Owing to the interfacial nature of the magnetism, the ability to move oxygen vacancies within the barrier, and a large proximity-induced magnetization of GdOx, both the magnitude and the sign of the interlayer coupling in these junctions can be directly controlled by voltage. These results pave a new path towards achieving energy-efficient magnetization switching by controlling interlayer coupling. PMID:28508882

  7. Dynamical image-charge effect in molecular tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chengjun; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    When an electron tunnels between two metal contacts it temporarily induces an image charge (IC) in the electrodes which acts back on the tunneling electron. It is usually assumed that the IC forms instantaneously such that a static model for the image potential applies. Here we investigate how...... the finite IC formation time affects charge transport through a molecule suspended between two electrodes. For a single-level model, an analytical treatment shows that the conductance is suppressed by a factor Z(2), where Z is the quasiparticle renormalization factor, compared to the static IC approximation...... that the dynamical corrections can reduce the conductance by more than a factor of two when compared to static GW or density functional theory where the molecular energy levels have been shifted to match the exact quasiparticle levels....

  8. Radio-frequency shot-noise measurement in a magnetic tunnel junction with a MgO barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Mushtaq; Park, Junghwan; Song, Woon; Chong, Yonuk [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeonsub; Min, Byoungchul; Shin, Kyungho [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sangwan [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Zheong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    We measured the noise power of a magnetic tunnel junction in the frequency range of 710 {approx} 1200 MHz. A low-noise cryogenic HEMT amplifier was used to measure the small noise signal at a high frequency with wide bandwidth. The MgO-barrier tunnel junction showed large tunnel magnetoresistance ratio of 215% at low temperature, which indicates electronic transport through the tunnel barrier without any significant spin-flip scattering. In the bias-dependent noise measurement, however, the zero-bias shot noise was enhanced compared to the value expected from a perfect tunnel barrier or the value observed from a good Al-AlO{sub x}-Al tunnel junction. We assume that this enhanced noise comes from inelastic tunneling processes through the barrier, which may be related to the observed zero-bias anomaly in the differential resistance of the tunnel junctions. We present a simple phenomenological model for how the inelastic scattering process can enhance the zero-bias noise in a tunnel junction.

  9. Line shapes in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of single-molecule junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierott, S.; Néel, N.; Kröger, J.

    2017-11-01

    Spectroscopic line-shape analyses for single-C60 vibrational modes are presented for two kinds of scanning tunneling microscope experiments. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is performed for C60 molecules with different adsorption geometries on Pb(111). Depending on the C60 adsorption site and rotational orientation, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital exhibits varying degrees of overlap with C60 vibrational energies. Concomitantly, the line shapes of vibrational modes are affected according to expectations for on-resonance inelastic electron tunneling. Inelastic electron transport is further studied for decreasing tip-C60 distances covering tunneling and contact ranges. Line-shape changes signaling a conductance increase rather than the expected decrease upon exciting vibrational quanta are observed. A phenomenological approach is suggested to understand the dissimilar behavior of the junction conductance in the different electron transport ranges.

  10. Voltage-driven versus current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunneling junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2011-10-01

    Nonequilibrium spin transport in a magnetic tunnel junction comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is studied theoretically. The interfacial SOI generates a spin torque of the form T=T∥ M×(z× M)+T⊥ z× M, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. For thick and large tunnel barriers, the torque reduces to the perpendicular component T⊥, which can be electrically tuned by applying a voltage across the insulator. In the limit of thin and low tunnel barriers, the in-plane torque T∥ emerges, proportional to the tunneling current density. Experimental implications on magnetic devices are discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Fabrication of TiN/AlN/TiN tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Takeru; Naruse, Masato; Myoren, Hiroaki; Taino, Tohru, E-mail: taino@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We have fabricated TiN/AlN/TiN tunnel junctions with an epitaxial layer. • TiN and AlN films were deposited by dc and rf magnetron sputtering at ambient substrate temperatures. • The junctions have a V{sub g} = 1.1 mV, J{sub c} = 0.24 A/cm{sup 2}, R{sub sg}/R{sub n} of 7.2, and low subgap leakage current of 180 nA. - Abstract: We have fabricated TiN/AlN/TiN tunnel junctions with an epitaxial layer. The critical temperature of TiN can be changed in the range from 0.5 to 5.0 K. Therefore, it is easy to set 5.0 K as the target critical temperature. When a Superconducting Tunnel Junction (STJ) is operated as a photon detector, it is necessary to cool it to within 0.1 K of the critical temperature in consideration of the noise of the thermally stimulated currents. Because 0.3 K was desirable, as for the manufacture of general purpose photon detectors, the critical temperature 5.0 K. TiN and AlN films were deposited by dc and rf magnetron sputtering in a load-lock sputtering system at ambient substrate temperatures. The junctions have a gap voltage of V{sub g} = 1.1 mV, and critical current density of J{sub c} = 0.24 A/cm{sup 2}, and R{sub sg}/R{sub n} of 7.2, and low subgap leakage current (I{sub sub}@ 500 µV = 180 nA). We report our experiment system, the manufacture method and the junction properties in this paper.

  12. A scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with continuous bias modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Edward; Yin, Xing; Waldeck, David H; Wierzbinski, Emil

    2015-09-28

    Single molecule conductance measurements on 1,8-octanedithiol were performed using the scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with an externally controlled modulation of the bias voltage. Application of an AC voltage is shown to improve the signal to noise ratio of low current (low conductance) measurements as compared to the DC bias method. The experimental results show that the current response of the molecule(s) trapped in the junction and the solvent media to the bias modulation can be qualitatively different. A model RC circuit which accommodates both the molecule and the solvent is proposed to analyze the data and extract a conductance for the molecule.

  13. Development of a dark matter detector using series arrays of superconducting tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, E.; Angrave, L.; Booth, N. E.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Giles, T. J.; Höss, C.; Houwman, E. P.; van den Putte, M. J. J.; Salmon, G. L.; Wänninger, S.

    1996-02-01

    We are developing a dark matter detector for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) using Series Arrays of Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (SASTJs) to read out phonon signals from absorber crystals. We discuss the factors which have determined the choice of our detector scheme. As an improvement over previously produced SASTJs using a shadow mask technique, a new fabrication process of high-quality Al/Al-oxide/Al junctions and SASTJs is being developed using photolithography to define the structures. The processing and the electrical characterisation of the first devices produced in this way are described

  14. Quasiparticle trapping, excitation, and tunneling times in Josephson junctions with spatially inhomogeneous electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwman, E. P.; Golubov, A. A.; Gijsbertsen, J. G.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.; Le Grand, J. B.; Bruijn, M. P.; de Korte, P. A. J.

    1993-11-01

    On the basis of a microscopic model of the proximity effect in an SS'-sandwich we have calculated effective trapping, excitation, and tunneling rates of the reduced gap region in an SS'IS″S junction as a function of temperature, voltage over the junction and strength of the proximity effect. We developed a simple model to describe the effect of magnetic fields on the gap of the superconductor, and calculated the trapping rate as function of the field. The experimentally determined gap reduction and quasiparticle loss times as function of the field were described in terms of this model.

  15. Development of a dark matter detector using series arrays of superconducting tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, E. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Nucl. and Astrophys. Lab.; Angrave, L. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Nucl. and Astrophys. Lab.; Booth, N.E. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Nucl. and Astrophys. Lab.; Gaitskell, R.J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Nucl. and Astrophys. Lab.; Giles, T.J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Nucl. and Astrophys. Lab.; Hoess, C. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Nucl. and Astrophys. Lab.; Houwman, E.P. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Nucl. and Astrophys. Lab.; Putte, M.J.J. van den [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Nucl. and Astrophys. Lab.; Salmon, G.L. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Nucl. and Astrophys. Lab.; Waenninger, S. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Nucl. and Astrophys. Lab.

    1996-02-11

    We are developing a dark matter detector for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) using Series Arrays of Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (SASTJs) to read out phonon signals from absorber crystals. We discuss the factors which have determined the choice of our detector scheme. As an improvement over previously produced SASTJs using a shadow mask technique, a new fabrication process of high-quality Al/Al-oxide/Al junctions and SASTJs is being developed using photolithography to define the structures. The processing and the electrical characterisation of the first devices produced in this way are described (orig.).

  16. Anisotropic Magnetoresistance and Anisotropic Tunneling Magnetoresistance due to Quantum Interference in Ferromagnetic Metal Break Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotin, Kirill; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Ralph, D

    2006-01-01

    We measure the low-temperature resistance of permalloy break junctions as a function of contact size and the magnetic field angle in applied fields large enough to saturate the magnetization. For both nanometer-scale metallic contacts and tunneling devices we observe large changes in resistance...... with the angle, as large as 25% in the tunneling regime. The pattern of magnetoresistance is sensitive to changes in bias on a scale of a few mV. We interpret the effect as a consequence of conductance fluctuations due to quantum interference....

  17. A new spin-functional MOSFET based on magnetic tunnel junction technology: pseudo-spin-MOSFET

    OpenAIRE

    Shuto, Yusuke; Nakane, Ryosho; Wang, Wenhong; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Shuu'ichirou; Tanaka, Masaaki; Inomata, Koichiro; Sugahara, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    We fabricated and characterized a new spin-functional MOSFET referred to as a pseudo-spin-MOSFET (PS-MOSFET). The PS-MOSFET is a circuit using an ordinary MOSFET and magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) for reproducing functions of spin-transistors. Device integration techniques for a bottom gate MOSFET using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate and for an MTJ with a full-Heusler alloy electrode and MgO tunnel barrier were developed. The fabricated PS-MOSFET exhibited high and low transconductanc...

  18. Multiband corrections for the semi-classical simulation of interband tunneling in GaAs tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, K.; Claveau, Y.; Hapiuk, D.; Fontaine, C.; Arnoult, A.; Taliercio, T.; Licitra, C.; Piquemal, F.; Bounouh, A.; Cavassilas, N.; Almuneau, G.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of multiband corrections on the current density in GaAs tunnel junctions (TJs) calculated with a refined yet simple semi-classical interband tunneling model (SCITM). The non-parabolicity of the considered bands and the spin-orbit effects are considered by using a recently revisited SCITM available in the literature. The model is confronted to experimental results from a series of molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs TJs and to numerical results obtained with a full quantum model based on the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism and a 6-band k.p Hamiltonian. We emphasize the importance of considering the non-parabolicity of the conduction band by two different measurements of the energy-dependent electron effective mass in N-doped GaAs. We also propose an innovative method to compute the non-uniform electric field in the TJ for the SCITM simulations, which is of prime importance for a successful operation of the model. We demonstrate that, when considering the multiband corrections and this new computation of the non-uniform electric field, the SCITM succeeds in predicting the electrical characteristics of GaAs TJs, and are also in agreement with the quantum model. Besides the fundamental study of the tunneling phenomenon in TJs, the main benefit of this SCITM is that it can be easily embedded into drift-diffusion software, which are the most widely-used simulation tools for electronic and opto-electronic devices such as multi-junction solar cells, tunnel field-effect transistors, or vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  19. Retraction: Graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites decorated with quantum tunneling junctions: preparation strategies, microstructures and formation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Anna

    2017-09-20

    Retraction of 'Graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites decorated with quantum tunneling junctions: preparation strategies, microstructures and formation mechanism' by Qingxiu Wang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 19351-19357.

  20. Spin-transfer torque in multiferroic tunnel junctions with composite dielectric/ferroelectric barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, Julian P.; Merodio, Pablo; Pollack, Cesar; Kalitsov, Alan; Chshiev, Mairbek; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2017-12-01

    Using model calculations, we demonstrate a very high level of control of the spin-transfer torque (STT) by electric field in multiferroic tunnel junctions with composite dielectric/ferroelectric barriers. We find that, for particular device parameters, toggling the polarization direction can switch the voltage-induced part of STT between a finite value and a value close to zero, i.e. quench and release the torque. Additionally, we demonstrate that under certain conditions the zero-voltage STT, i.e. the interlayer exchange coupling, can switch sign with polarization reversal, which is equivalent to reversing the magnetic ground state of the tunnel junction. This bias- and polarization-tunability of the STT could be exploited to engineer novel functionalities such as softening/hardening of the bit or increasing the signal-to-noise ratio in magnetic sensors, which can have important implications for magnetic random access memories or for combined memory and logic devices.

  1. X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism studies of annealed magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalhorst, J.; Sacher, M.; Thomas, A.; Brückl, H.; Reiss, G.; Starke, K.

    2005-06-01

    The magnetic and chemical interface properties of Mn -Ir/Co-Fe/Al+oxidation/Ni-Fe magnetic tunnel junctions are investigated for different barrier thickness, oxidation times, and annealing conditions by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. For underoxidized samples the formation of Co-Fe-Al alloy at the lower barrier interface during optimal annealing is observed. For optimally oxidized and overoxidized samples FeOx is formed during oxidation, which is reduced by Mn diffusing to the barrier during annealing. The reduction of FeOx is accompanied by an increase of the interfacial magnetic Fe moment, whereas the Co moments hardly change with the postannealing. Comparison of these results with transport properties of the junctions shows that their polycrystalline structure has to be taken into account to understand the annealing temperature and oxidation state dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance effect.

  2. Zurek-Kibble domain structures: The dynamics of spontaneous vortex formation in annular Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Rivers, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Phase transitions create a domain structure with defects, which has been argued by Zurek and Kibble (ZK) to depend in a characteristic way on the quench rate. We present an experiment to measure the ZK scaling exponent sigma. Using long symmetric Josephson tunnel junctions, for which the predicted...... index is sigma=0.25, we find sigma=0.27+/-0.05. Further, we agree with the ZK prediction for the overall normalization....

  3. Spin-dependent thermoelectric effects in superconductor-ferromagnet tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolenda, Stefan; Beckmann, Detlef [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Suergers, Christoph [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Recently, large thermoelectric effects were predicted to occur in superconductor-ferromagnet tunnel junctions with a spin-splitting of the density of states. We have reported on the observation of these effects in samples where the spin splitting was induced by an applied magnetic field. Here, we show results on samples where the spin splitting is enhanced by exchange coupling to the ferromagnetic insulator europium sulfide.

  4. X-band singly degenerate parametric amplification in a Josephson tunnel junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary measurements on a (quasi-) degenerate parametric amplifier using a single Josephson tunnel junction as the active element is reported. The pump frequency is at 18 GHz and the signal and idler frequencies are both at about 9 GHz. A power gain of 16 dB in a 4-MHz 3-dB bandwidth is achie...... is achieved at the top of the cryostat. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  5. Molecule Induced Strong Exchange Coupling between Ferromagnetic Electrodes of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Pawan

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer edge molecular spintronics device (MEMSD) approach can produce novel logic and memory units for the computers. MEMSD are produced by bridging the molecular channels across the insulator, in the exposed edge region(s) of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The bridged molecular channels start serving as the dominant exchange coupling medium between the two ferromagnetic electrodes of a MTJ. Present study focus on the effect of molecule enhanced exchange coupling on the magnetic proper...

  6. 1.3 microm-wavelength phase-locked VCSEL arrays incorporating patterned tunnel junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Lukas; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Caliman, Andrei; Mereuta, Alexandru; Sirbu, Alexei; Kapon, Eli

    2009-05-11

    We report the fabrication and the performance of phase-locked VCSEL arrays emitting near 1310 nm wavelength. The arrays were fabricated using double wafer fusion by patterning a tunnel junction layer, which serves to define the individual single mode array elements. Phase-locking in both one-dimensional and two-dimensional array configurations was confirmed by means of far field and spectral measurements as well as theoretical modeling. CW output powers of more than 12 mW were achieved.

  7. Process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Daniel; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    A process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction for use in advanced magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells for high performance, non-volatile memory arrays. The process is based on pulsed laser processing for the fabrication of vertical polycrystalline silicon electronic device structures, in particular p-n junction diodes, on films of metals deposited onto low temperature-substrates such as ceramics, dielectrics, glass, or polymers. The process preserves underlayers and structures onto which the devices are typically deposited, such as silicon integrated circuits. The process involves the low temperature deposition of at least one layer of silicon, either in an amorphous or a polycrystalline phase on a metal layer. Dopants may be introduced in the silicon film during or after deposition. The film is then irradiated with short pulse laser energy that is efficiently absorbed in the silicon, which results in the crystallization of the film and simultaneously in the activation of the dopants via ultrafast melting and solidification. The silicon film can be patterned either before or after crystallization.

  8. An ARC less InGaP/GaAs DJ solar cell with hetero tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. S.; Nayak, P. P.; Mishra, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Multi junction solar cell has not achieved an optimum performance yet. To acquire more conversion efficiency research on multi junction solar cell are in progress. In this work we have proposed a dual junction solar cell with conversion efficiency of 43.603%. Mainly the focus is given on the tunnel diode, window layer and back surface field (BSF) layer of the cell, as all of them plays important role on the cell performance. Here we have designed a hetero InGaP/GaAs tunnel diode which makes tunnel diode more transparent to the bottom cell as well as reduces the recombination at the interfaces. The thickness of the window and BSF layer are optimized to achieve higher conversion efficiency. The simulation is carried out using Silvaco ATLAS TCAD under 1000 sun of AM1.5G spectrum. Different performance parameters of the cell like short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), external quantum efficiency (EQE), fill factor (FF), conversion efficiency (η), spectral response and photogeneration rate of the cell are examined and compared with previously reported literatures. For the proposed model a Voc of 2.7043 V, Jsc of 1898.52 mA/cm2, FF of 88.88% and η of 43.6% are obtained.

  9. Terahertz time domain interferometry of a SIS tunnel junction and a quantum point contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadi, Chandu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-09-01

    The author has applied the Terahertz Time Domain Interferometric (THz-TDI) technique to probe the ultrafast dynamic response of a Superconducting-Insulating-Superconducting (SIS) tunnel junction and a Quantum Point Contact (QPC). The THz-TDI technique involves monitoring changes in the dc current induced by interfering two picosecond electrical pulses on the junction as a function of time delay between them. Measurements of the response of the Nb/AlOxNb SIS tunnel junction from 75--200 GHz are in full agreement with the linear theory for photon-assisted tunneling. Likewise, measurements of the induced current in a QPC as a function of source-drain voltage, gate voltage, frequency, and magnetic field also show strong evidence for photon-assisted transport. These experiments together demonstrate the general applicability of the THz-TDI technique to the characterization of the dynamic response of any micron or nanometer scale device that exhibits a non-linear I-V characteristic.

  10. Tunneling conductance oscillations in spin-orbit coupled metal-insulator-superconductor junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapri, Priyadarshini; Basu, Saurabh

    2018-01-01

    The tunneling conductance for a device consisting of a metal-insulator-superconductor (MIS) junction is studied in presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) via an extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. We find that the tunneling conductance as a function of an effective barrier potential that defines the insulating layer and lies intermediate to the metallic and superconducting electrodes, displays an oscillatory behavior. The tunneling conductance shows high sensitivity to the RSOC for certain ranges of this potential, while it is insensitive to the RSOC for others. Additionally, when the period of oscillations is an odd multiple of a certain value of the effective potential, the conductance spectrum as a function of the biasing energy demonstrates a contrasting trend with RSOC, compared to when it is not an odd multiple. The explanations for the observation can be found in terms of a competition between the normal and Andreev reflections. Similar oscillatory behavior of the conductance spectrum is also seen for other superconducting pairing symmetries, thereby emphasizing that the insulating layer plays a decisive role in the conductance oscillations of a MIS junction. For a tunable Rashba coupling, the current flowing through the junction can be controlled with precision.

  11. On the suppression of the sidelobes of the supercurrent in small Josephson tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houwman, E.P.; Gijsbertsen, J.G.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H. (Univ. of Twente, Faculty of Applied Physics, Enschede (Netherlands))

    1991-11-20

    The critical currents of Nb/Al, Al-oxide, Al/Nb tunnel junctions of various shapes have been measured as a function of the applied magnetic field. For the square junction and for some special shapes like the diamond, '1+cosine' and quartic junctions the I{sub c}(B) pattern falls off theoretically as 1/B{sup n}, with n respectively equal to 1, 2, 3 and 4. In general the measurements are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. For the '1+cosine' and quartic shapes we found a sidelobe suppression that is even larger than that obtained in theory. For the quartic junction the first sidelobe is only 0.3% of the zero-field current. An I{sub c}(B) modulation with a small, only slowly decreasing amplitude is observed for the diamond, '1+cosine', and quartic junctions, that can be explained by rounding of the sharp edges of the junction shapes, due to the fabrication process. (orig.).

  12. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of difurylethene-based photochromic single-molecule junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsang; Bahoosh, Safa G; Sysoiev, Dmytro; Huhn, Thomas; Pauly, Fabian; Scheer, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Diarylethene-derived molecules alter their electronic structure upon transformation between the open and closed forms of the diarylethene core, when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. This transformation results in a significant variation of electrical conductance and vibrational properties of corresponding molecular junctions. We report here a combined experimental and theoretical analysis of charge transport through diarylethene-derived single-molecule devices, which are created using the mechanically controlled break-junction technique. Inelastic electron tunneling (IET) spectroscopy measurements performed at 4.2 K are compared with first-principles calculations in the two distinct forms of diarylethenes connected to gold electrodes. The combined approach clearly demonstrates that the IET spectra of single-molecule junctions show specific vibrational features that can be used to identify different isomeric molecular states by transport experiments.

  13. Characterization of different types of Nb-AlO sub x based Josephson tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelerhof, D.J.; Houwman, E.P.; Fransen, P.B.M.; Veldhuis, D.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H. (Univ. of Twente, Faculty of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (NL))

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on three types of Josephson tunnel junctions, standard Nb/Al,AlO{sub x}/Nb, symmetric Nb/Al,AlO{sub x}/Al/Nb, and Nb/Al,AlO{sub x}/AlO{sub x}/Nb containing a double oxide layer investigated by means of temperature dependent I-V measurements, conductance-voltage measurements, noise analysis, and Auger Electron Spectroscopy scanning across the edge of a sputtered crater profile. In standard junctions frequently small leakage currents have been observed as well as resistance fluctuations, leading to telegraph noise. Both effects can be related to the direct contact between the AlO{sub x} and the Nb counter electrode. In none of the symmetric junctions leakage currents larger than 0.01% of the theoretical maximum critical current have been observed.

  14. Quantum critical points in tunneling junction of topological superconductor and topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zheng-Wei, E-mail: zuozw@163.com [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Kang, Da-wei [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Wang, Zhao-Wu [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Liben [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

    2016-08-26

    The tunneling junction between one-dimensional topological superconductor and integer (fractional) topological insulator (TI), realized via point contact, is investigated theoretically with bosonization technology and renormalization group methods. For the integer TI case, in a finite range of edge interaction parameter, there is a non-trivial stable fixed point which corresponds to the physical picture that the edge of TI breaks up into two sections at the junction, with one side coupling strongly to the Majorana fermion and exhibiting perfect Andreev reflection, while the other side decouples, exhibiting perfect normal reflection at low energies. This fixed point can be used as a signature of the Majorana fermion and tested by nowadays experiment techniques. For the fractional TI case, the universal low-energy transport properties are described by perfect normal reflection, perfect Andreev reflection, or perfect insulating fixed points dependent on the filling fraction and edge interaction parameter of fractional TI. - Highlights: • Tunneling junctions between topological superconductor and topological insulator are investigated. • There is a non-trivial stable fixed point in integer topological insulator case at low energies. • The edge of topological insulator breaks up into two sections at the junction. • One side couples strongly to the Majorana fermion and exhibits perfect Andreev reflection. • The other side decouples and exhibits perfect normal reflection.

  15. Antenna-coupled photon emission from hexagonal boron nitride tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzefall, M.; Bharadwaj, P.; Jain, A.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Novotny, L.

    2015-12-01

    The ultrafast conversion of electrical signals to optical signals at the nanoscale is of fundamental interest for data processing, telecommunication and optical interconnects. However, the modulation bandwidths of semiconductor light-emitting diodes are limited by the spontaneous recombination rate of electron-hole pairs, and the footprint of electrically driven ultrafast lasers is too large for practical on-chip integration. A metal-insulator-metal tunnel junction approaches the ultimate size limit of electronic devices and its operating speed is fundamentally limited only by the tunnelling time. Here, we study the conversion of electrons (localized in vertical gold-hexagonal boron nitride-gold tunnel junctions) to free-space photons, mediated by resonant slot antennas. Optical antennas efficiently bridge the size mismatch between nanoscale volumes and far-field radiation and strongly enhance the electron-photon conversion efficiency. We achieve polarized, directional and resonantly enhanced light emission from inelastic electron tunnelling and establish a novel platform for studying the interaction of electrons with strongly localized electromagnetic fields.

  16. Investigation of ramped voltage stress to screen defective magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chulmin; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Mitani, Seiji; Song, Yunheub

    2018-01-01

    A ramped voltage stress (RVS) method to screen defective magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is investigated in order to improve screen accuracy and shorten test time. Approximately 1500 MTJs with 1.25 nm thick tunnel barriers were fabricated for this evaluation, and normal MTJs show a 189% tunnel magnetoresistance ratio, a 365 Ω μm2 resistance-area product, and a 1.8 V breakdown voltage, which is enough for applying reliable screen tests. We successfully classified MTJs as normal MTJs having good characteristics or defective MTJs having insufficient endurance and showing resistance degradation after only short-term cycling. Using the RVS screen test with low ramp speed, it is demonstrated that remarkable screening performance and little dependence on temperature are obtained for short test time.

  17. Temperature and bias-voltage dependence of atomic-layer-deposited HfO{sub 2}-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabretti, Savio, E-mail: fabretti@physik.uni-bielefeld.de [Thin Films and Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Zierold, Robert; Nielsch, Kornelius [Institute of Applied Physics, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany); Voigt, Carmen; Ronning, Carsten [Institute for Solid State Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Peretzki, Patrick; Seibt, Michael [4. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August University Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Thomas, Andy [Thin Films and Physics of Nanostructures, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany, and Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Staudingerweg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-09-29

    Magnetic tunnel junctions with HfO{sub 2} tunnel barriers were prepared through a combination of magnetron sputtering and atomic layer deposition. We investigated the tunneling transport behavior, including the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio and the current-voltage characteristics between room temperature and 2 K. Here, we achieved a tunneling magneto resistance ratio of 10.3% at room temperature and 19.3% at 2 K. Furthermore, we studied the bias-voltage and temperature dependencies and compared the results with those of commonly used alumina- and magnesia-based magnetic tunnel junctions. We observed a polycrystalline/amorphous electrode-barrier system via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Valley and spin resonant tunneling current in ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic silicene junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Hajati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the transport properties in a ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic (FNF silicene junction in which an electrostatic gate potential, U, is attached to the nonmagnetic region. We show that the electrostatic gate potential U is a useful probe to control the band structure, quasi-bound states in the nonmagnetic barrier as well as the transport properties of the FNF silicene junction. In particular, by introducing the electrostatic gate potential, both the spin and valley conductances of the junction show an oscillatory behavior. The amplitude and frequency of such oscillations can be controlled by U. As an important result, we found that by increasing U, the second characteristic of the Klein tunneling is satisfied as a result of the quasiparticles chirality which can penetrate through a potential barrier. Moreover, it is found that for special values of U, the junction shows a gap in the spin and valley-resolve conductance and the amplitude of this gap is only controlled by the on-site potential difference, Δz. Our findings of high controllability of the spin and valley transport in such a FNF silicene junction may improve the performance of nano-electronics and spintronics devices.

  19. Metamorphic Ga0.76In0.24As/GaAs0.75Sb0.25 tunnel junctions grown on GaAs substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, I.; Geisz, J. F.; France, R. M.; Kang, J.; Wei, S.-H.; Ochoa, M.; Friedman, D. J.

    2014-08-01

    Lattice-matched and pseudomorphic tunnel junctions have been developed in the past for application in a variety of semiconductor devices, including heterojunction bipolar transistors, vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers, and multijunction solar cells. However, metamorphic tunnel junctions have received little attention. In 4-junction Ga0.51In0.49P/GaAs/Ga0.76In0.24As/Ga0.47In0.53As inverted-metamorphic solar cells (4J-IMM), a metamorphic tunnel junction is required to series connect the 3rd and 4th junctions. We present a tunnel junction based on a metamorphic Ga0.76In0.24As/GaAs0.75Sb0.25 structure for this purpose. This tunnel junction is grown on a metamorphic Ga0.76In0.24As template on a GaAs substrate. The band offsets in the resulting type-II heterojunction are calculated using the first-principles density functional method to estimate the tunneling barrier height and assess the performance of this tunnel junction against other material systems and compositions. The effect of the metamorphic growth on the performance of the tunnel junctions is analyzed using a set of metamorphic templates with varied surface roughness and threading dislocation density. Although the metamorphic template does influence the tunnel junction performance, all tunnel junctions measured have a peak current density over 200 A/cm2. The tunnel junction on the best template has a peak current density over 1500 A/cm2 and a voltage drop at 15 A/cm2 (corresponding to operation at 1000 suns) lower than 10 mV, which results in a nearly lossless series connection of the 4th junction in the 4J-IMM structure.

  20. Dynamic strain-induced giant electroresistance and erasing effect in ultrathin ferroelectric tunnel-junction memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hei-Man; Xi, Zhongnan; Chen, Xinxin; Wen, Zheng; Wu, Ge; Dai, Ji-Yan

    2017-06-01

    Strain engineering plays a critical role in ferroelectric memories. In this work, we demonstrate dynamic strain modulation on tunneling electroresistance in a four-unit-cell ultrathin BaTi O3 metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor tunnel junction by applying mechanical stress to the device. With an extra compressive strain induced by mechanical stress, which is dynamically applied beyond the lattice mismatch between the BaTi O3 layer and the Nb :SrTi O3 substrate, the ON/OFF current ratio increases significantly up to a record high value of 107, whereas a mechanical erasing effect can be observed when a tensile stress is applied. This dynamic strain engineering gives rise to an efficient modulation of ON/OFF ratio due to the variation of BaTi O3 polarization. This result sheds light on the mechanism of electroresistance in the ferroelectric tunnel junctions by providing direct evidence for polarization-induced resistive switching, and also provides another stimulus for memory state operation.

  1. Bias-independent spin signals in a tunnel-junction-based non-local spin valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Zou, Han; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Ji, Yi

    2009-03-01

    A pure spin current can be generated in the non-magnetic component of a non-local spin valve (NLSV). It has been demonstrated recently that the pure spin current can be used for spin transfer torque and spin-Hall effects. A high spin current density is desirable for realizing these effects, and therefore a large d.c. bias current will be applied. It is essential to maintain high degree of spin polarization at a high bias current. It has been previously reported that the spin polarization decreases drastically in a tunnel-junction-based CoFe/Al/NiFe NLSV. The goal of this study is to investigate the dependence of spin signals upon a d.c. bias current in tunnel-junction-based Co/Cu/Co NLSV's. Submicron Co/Cu/Co NLSV's are fabricated by e-beam lithography combined with angle deposition. A layer of 2 nm Al2O3 is deposited at the Co/Cu interface to form a tunnel barrier. A spin signal > 1mφ is observed at room temperature (RT). A d.c. current up to 1.0mA is applied at both 4.2 K and RT. No change of spin signal is observed for an injection current density > 10^6 A/cm^2.

  2. Study of buried junction and uniformity effects in CdTe/CdS solar cells using a combined OBIC and EQE apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, J.D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.d.major@durham.ac.uk; Durose, K. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-02

    A study of junction position and uniformity in CdTe/CdS solar cells is reported in which the influence of excluding oxygen from the CdS layers was investigated. The samples were characterised with an optical beam induced current instrument capable of mapping the cell response in the range 400-900 {mu}m at a resolution of 12.5 {mu}m - either as a map or a quantum efficiency spectrum. For oxygen-free CdS, the junctions were always buried in the CdTe - at a depth presumed to be controlled by the chloride treatment. If CdS:O is used then shallow junctions result, indicating that such layers have a role in doping the devices. The wavelength dependence of the spatial uniformity of the cell's responses is also discussed.

  3. Conductance studies on different types of Nb/Al, AlO x,(/A1)/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelerhof, D. J.; Houwman, E. P.; Veldhuis, D.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.

    1990-08-01

    The conductance-voltage characteristics of different types of Josephson tunnel junctions have been measured at 4.2 K: symmetric Nb/Al, AlO x/Al/Nb, asymmetric Nb/Al, AlO x/Nb and Nb/Al/AlO x-/AlO x/Nb, containing a double oxidation layer. The symmetric junctions can be described very well by a trapezoidal potential barrier model. The asymmetric junctions show less agreement with theory. In these junctions resistance switching occurs, possibly due to charge trapping. The resistance is lower than in symmetric junctions. The conductance measurements on double oxidation layer junctions show, that this type of junction has an inhomogeneous oxide layer.

  4. Impact of current paths on measurement of tunneling magnetoresistance and spin torque critical current densities in GaMnAs-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hamida, Aymen Ben; Bergmann, Florian; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans Werner

    2012-01-01

    GaMnAs-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices are characterized by in-plane and perpendicular-toplane magnetotransport at low temperatures. Perpendicular-to-plane transport reveals the typical tunneling magnetotransport (TMR) signal. Interestingly, a similar TMR signature is observed in the in-plane transport signal. Here, low-ohmic shunting of the MTJ by the top contact results in significant perpendicular-to-plane current paths. This effect allows the determination of TMR ratios of MT...

  5. Advanced electron microscopy of novel ferromagnetic materials and ferromagnet/oxide interfaces in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fengyuan

    We have studied novel ferromagnetic (FM) materials and FM electrode/tunnel barrier interfaces in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) by advanced electron microscopy including scanning transmission electron microscopy (HRSTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). MTJs are one of the prototypical spintronic devices, with applications in magnetic random access memory, sensors and read heads. The performance of MTJs depends on several factors, including the FM electrodes and the FM/tunnel barrier interfaces. Therefore, to realize the high performance of MTJs, we first need high quality ferromagnetic electrodes with high spin polarization. High-quality Fe3O4 and Fe4N electrodes with theoretically predicted -100% spin polarization were fabricated by various methods and investigated by HRSTEM and STEM EELS. The Fe3O4 and Fe4N thin films have low defect density and good crystallinity, but when integrated as electrodes in a MTJ, problems emerged. In a Fe4N/AlOx/Fe MTJ, the magnetoresistance was negative, but relatively small, due to a defective Fe 3O4 reaction layer formed at the Fe4N/tunnel barrier interface revealed by HRSTEM and EELS. The interfacial reaction layer was thin and discontinuous which made direct imaging difficult. Therefore, STEM EELS was used to map out the reaction layer. A Fe3O4 reaction layer was also found in a nominally symmetric CoFe/AlOx/CoFe MTJs after annealing, which also exhibited inverse TMR and a non-symmetric bias dependence. We also investigated the MTJs with the Heusler alloy Co2MnSi as one or both electrode and crystalline MgO as the tunnel barrier, which exhibit quite high TMR due to coherent tunneling. We showed that the Co2MnSi/MgO interface in these junctions is dominated by a configuration of a pure Mn plane bonded across the interface to O. This was the first observation of that interface termination. HRSTEM images also show that the fraction of MnMn/O interface termination increases with increasing Mn concentration in the CMS

  6. Current-driven thermo-magnetic switching in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, A. F.; Polishchuk, D. M.; Pashchenko, V. A.; Tovstolytkin, A. I.; Korenivski, V.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate switching of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) driven by the thermal effect of the transport current through the junctions. The switching occurs in a specially designed composite free layer, which acts as one of the MTJ electrodes, and is due to a current-driven ferro-to-paramagnetic Curie transition with the associated exchange decoupling within the free layer leading to magnetic reversal. We simulate the current and heat propagation through the device and show how heat focusing can be used to improve the power efficiency. The Curie-switch MTJ demonstrated in this work has the advantage of being highly tunable in terms of its operating temperature range, conveniently to or just above room temperature, which can be of technological significance and competitive with the known switching methods using spin-transfer torques.

  7. Observation of thermally driven field-like spin torque in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Arnab, E-mail: arnabbose@ee.iitb.ac.in; Jain, Sourabh; Asam, Nagarjuna; Bhuktare, Swapnil; Singh, Hanuman; Tulapurkar, Ashwin A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Shukla, Amit Kumar; Konishi, Katsunori; Lam, Duc Duong; Fujii, Yuya; Miwa, Shinji; Suzuki, Yoshishige [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2016-07-18

    We report the thermally driven giant field-like spin-torque in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on application of heat current from top to bottom. The field-like term is detected by the shift of the magneto-resistance hysteresis loop applying temperature gradient. We observed that the field-like term depends on the magnetic symmetry of the MTJ. In asymmetric structures, with different ferromagnetic materials for free and fixed layers, the field-like term is greatly enhanced. Our results show that a pure spin current density of the order of 10{sup 9 }A/m{sup 2} can be produced by creating a 120 mK temperature difference across 0.9 nm thick MgO tunnelling barrier. Our results will be useful for writing MTJ and domain wall-based memories using thermally driven spin torque.

  8. Degradation of magnetic tunnel junctions with thin AlOx barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Mihara, Yoshinari Kamakura, Masato Morifuji and Kenji Taniguchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs with AlOx barrier was experimentally investigated. Constant voltage stress (CVS measurement was carried out to monitor the time evolution of the conductance and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR of MTJs. The gradual increase of the stress-induced leakage current (SILC was observed prior to the breakdown, following a power law function of stress time with an exponent of about 0.2–0.4, which is similar to the case of the ultrathin gate oxide films in MOSFETs. The measured TMR for SILC suggests that the spin-dependent current component would be involved in the early stage of degradation, while spin-independent conduction becomes dominant before the breakdown resulting in a decrease of TMR.

  9. Investigating the quasiparticle dynamics operating in the electrodes of superconducting tunnel junctions using nanosecond phonon pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, A

    2000-01-01

    this thesis data from phonon experiments are used to directly determine values for the parameters of an STJ such as the quasiparticle loss and tunnel rates in its electrodes. It is also shown how the input energy, in the form of phonons capable of breaking Cooper pairs, and the corresponding charge output from the device can be determined. These values are then compared with those obtained from x-ray absorption data. This thesis is concerned with the use of nanosecond phonon pulses to study quasiparticle behaviour in the electrodes of high-quality niobium superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs). This work is part of a collaboration with the Astrophysics Research and Development Division of the European Space Agency (ESA) at ESTEC. STJs are being widely investigated as photon detectors over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. They potentially offer excellent energy resolution, time response and photon counting capabilities. The primary aim of this research was to use phonon pulses to investigate qua...

  10. Molecular-Beam Epitaxially Grown MgB2 Thin Films and Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Laloë

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of its superconducting properties in 2001, magnesium diboride has generated terrific scientific and engineering research interest around the world. With a of 39 K and two superconducting gaps, MgB2 has great promise from the fundamental point of view, as well as immediate applications. Several techniques for thin film deposition and heterojunction formation have been established, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Here, we will present a brief overview of research based on MgB2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy coevaporation of Mg and B. The films are smooth and highly crystalline, and the technique allows for virtually any heterostructure to be formed, including all-MgB2 tunnel junctions. Such devices have been characterized, with both quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling reported. MgB2 remains a material of great potential for a multitude of further characterization and exploration research projects and applications.

  11. All-Optical Switching of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with Single Subpicosecond Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Yang; He, Li; Wang, Jian-Ping; Li, Mo

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is one of the most important building blocks of spintronic logic and memory components for beyond-CMOS computation and communication. Although switching of MTJs without magnetic field has been achieved by charge and spin current injection, the operation speed is limited fundamentally by the spin-precession time to many picoseconds. We report the demonstration of ultrafast all-optical switching of an MTJ using single subpicosecond infrared laser pulses. This optically switchable MTJ uses ferrimagnetic Gd(Fe,Co) as the free layer and its switching is read out by measuring its tunneling magnetoresistance with a Δ R /R ratio of 0.6%. A switching repetition rate at MHz has been demonstrated, but the fundamental upper limit should be higher than tens of GHz rate. This result represents an important step toward integrated optospintronic devices that combines spintronics and photonics technologies to enable ultrafast conversion between fundamental information carriers of electron spins and photons.

  12. Multiferroic tunnel junctions and ferroelectric control of magnetic state at interface (invited)

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Y. W.

    2015-03-03

    As semiconductor devices reach ever smaller dimensions, the challenge of power dissipation and quantum effect place a serious limit on the future device scaling. Recently, a multiferroic tunnel junction (MFTJ) with a ferroelectric barrier sandwiched between two ferromagnetic electrodes has drawn enormous interest due to its potential applications not only in multi-level data storage but also in electric field controlled spintronics and nanoferronics. Here, we present our investigations on four-level resistance states, giant tunneling electroresistance (TER) due to interfacial magnetoelectric coupling, and ferroelectric control of spin polarized tunneling in MFTJs. Coexistence of large tunneling magnetoresistance and TER has been observed in manganite/(Ba, Sr)TiO3/manganite MFTJs at low temperatures and room temperature four-resistance state devices were also obtained. To enhance the TER for potential logic operation with a magnetic memory, La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/BaTiO3/La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 /La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 MFTJs were designed by utilizing a bilayer tunneling barrier in which BaTiO3 is ferroelectric and La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 is close to ferromagnetic metal to antiferromagnetic insulator phase transition. The phase transition occurs when the ferroelectric polarization is reversed, resulting in an increase of TER by two orders of magnitude. Tunneling magnetoresistance can also be controlled by the ferroelectric polarization reversal, indicating strong magnetoelectric coupling at the interface.

  13. HfO2 and SiO2 as barriers in magnetic tunneling junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Gokaran; Archer, Thomas; Sanvito, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    SiO2 and HfO2 are both high-k, wide-gap semiconductors, currently used in the microelectronic industry as gate barriers. Here we investigate whether the same materials can be employed to make magnetic tunnel junctions, which in principle can be amenable for integration in conventional Si technology. By using a combination of density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's functions method for quantum transport we have studied the transport properties of Co [0001 ] /SiO2[001 ] /Co [0001 ] and Fe [001 ] /HfO2[001 ] /Fe [001 ] junctions. In both cases we found a quite large magnetoresistance, which is explained through the analysis of the real band structure of the magnets and the complex one of the insulator. We find that there is no symmetry spin filtering for the Co-based junction since the high transmission Δ2' band crosses the Fermi level, EF, for both spin directions. However, the fact that Co is a strong ferromagnet makes the orbital contribution to the two Δ2' spin subbands different, yielding magnetoresistance. In contrast for the Fe-based junction symmetry filtering is active for an energy window spanning between the Fermi level and 1 eV below EF, with Δ1 symmetry contributing to the transmission.

  14. Proximity effect in superconductor-insulator-superconductor Josephson tunnel junctions: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubov, A. A.; Houwman, E. P.; Gijsbertsen, J. G.; Krasnov, V. M.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.

    1995-01-01

    A microscopic model of the proximity effect in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SS'IS''S) Josephson tunnel junctions has been developed for the general case of the finite critical temperature of the S' (S'') metal, arbitrary SS' (SS'') boundary transparency and the strength of the proximity effect between S and S' (respectively S and S''). The metals are assumed to be in the dirty limit and the thickness of the proximity layer is assumed to be small compared to its coherence length. The electrical properties of the SS'IS''S junction are calculated as a function of the strength of the proximity effect, boundary transparency, critical temperature ratio, and temperature. The experimentally determined electrical characteristics of a series of Nb/Al1, Al oxide, Al2/Nb junctions with varying thickness d1 of the Al1 layer were interpreted with this model. The current-voltage characteristics and the temperature dependence of the critical current and sum-gap voltage could be described quantitatively well without any other correction than the non-BCS ratio Δ0/kBTc~=1.93 of Nb. Deviations from the model for the junctions with the largest d1 are attributed to the fact that the Nb and Al are not fully in the dirty limit and d1 is not small compared to the coherence length.

  15. Proximity effect in Nb/Al, AlOxide, Al/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwman, E. P.; Gijsbertsen, J. G.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.; Le Grand, J. B.; de Korte, P. A. J.; Golubov, A. A.

    1993-03-01

    Regions with reduced energy gap induced by the proximity effect give rise to quasi-particle loss in Josephson-junction X-ray detectors, but may also be used advantageously for quasi-particle collection. The influence of the thickness of the Al proximity layers in Nb/Al1,AlO(x),Al2/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions on the electrical characteristics has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically it is found that the strength of the proximity effect is mainly determined by the proximity parameters gammaM1 (gammaM2) of the electrodes. Good fits of the measured I-V curves with theory were obtained for junctions with thicknesses dA11 ranging from 4 to 25 nm and dA12 = 3 nm, with gammaM2 about 0.12 and gammaM1/gammaM2 = dA11/dA12. For all junctions the proximity knee remains more pronounced than predicted.

  16. Temperature dependence of microwave oscillations in magnetic tunnel junctions with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng; Feng, Jiafeng, E-mail: hxwei@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: jiafengfeng@iphy.ac.cn; Wei, Hongxiang, E-mail: hxwei@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: jiafengfeng@iphy.ac.cn; Han, Xiufeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Fang, Bin; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ruoshui Road 398, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-01-05

    We experimentally study the temperature dependence of the spin-transfer-torque-induced microwave oscillations in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer. We demonstrate that the oscillation frequency increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, which is mainly ascribed to the temperature dependence of both the saturation magnetization and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We also find that a strong temperature dependence of the output power while a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of spectral linewidth are maintained for a constant dc bias in measured temperature range. Possible mechanisms leading to the different dependences of oscillation frequency, output power, and linewidth are discussed.

  17. Probing flexible conformations in molecular junctions by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsen Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The probe of flexible molecular conformation is crucial for the electric application of molecular systems. We have developed a theoretical procedure to analyze the couplings of molecular local vibrations with the electron transportation process, which enables us to evaluate the structural fingerprints of some vibrational modes in the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS. Based on a model molecule of Bis-(4-mercaptophenyl-ether with a flexible center angle, we have revealed and validated a simple mathematical relationship between IETS signals and molecular angles. Our results might open a route to quantitatively measure key geometrical parameters of molecular junctions, which helps to achieve precise control of molecular devices.

  18. Effect of Magnon-induced dephasing on spin transfer torque in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouzi, Farzad; Nikolic, Branislav

    2013-03-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of Electron-Magnon interaction on the spin transfer torque in magnetic tunnel junctions. We use Keldysh Green's function method and consider self consistent Born approximation (SCBA) with finite biased voltage to perform the calculation. We show that in some cases, excitation of the Magnons in the ferromagnet (FM) can enhance the spin transfer torque which is in addition to the increase of the switching rate due to existence of magnons in LLG equation. F. M. and B. K. N. were supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46374.

  19. Static properties of small Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic field distribution in the barrier of small planar Josephson tunnel junctions is numerically simulated in the case when an external magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the barrier plane. The simulations allow for heuristic analytical solutions for the Josephson static phase...... profile from which the dependence of the maximum Josephson current on the applied field amplitude is derived. The most common geometrical configurations are considered and, when possible, the theoretical findings are compared with the experimental data. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...

  20. Observation of thermoelectric currents in high-field superconductor-ferromagnet tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolenda, Stefan; Wolf, Michael J.; Beckmann, Detlef [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We report on the experimental observation of thermoelectric currents in superconductor-ferromagnet tunnel junctions in high magnetic fields. The thermoelectric signals are due to a spin-dependent lifting of particle-hole symmetry, and are found to be in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions. The maximum Seebeck coefficient inferred from the data is about -100 μ V/K, much larger than commonly found in metalic structures. Our results directly give proof of the coupling of spin and heat transport in high-field superconductors.

  1. Failure Analysis in Magnetic Tunnel Junction Nanopillar with Interfacial Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic tunnel junction nanopillar with interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA-MTJ becomes a promising candidate to build up spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM for the next generation of non-volatile memory as it features low spin transfer switching current, fast speed, high scalability, and easy integration into conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS circuits. However, this device suffers from a number of failure issues, such as large process variation and tunneling barrier breakdown. The large process variation is an intrinsic issue for PMA-MTJ as it is based on the interfacial effects between ultra-thin films with few layers of atoms; the tunneling barrier breakdown is due to the requirement of an ultra-thin tunneling barrier (e.g., <1 nm to reduce the resistance area for the spin transfer torque switching in the nanopillar. These failure issues limit the research and development of STT-MRAM to widely achieve commercial products. In this paper, we give a full analysis of failure mechanisms for PMA-MTJ and present some eventual solutions from device fabrication to system level integration to optimize the failure issues.

  2. Symmetry dependent spin injection from Fe/MgO in single crystal based magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehn, Michel; Greullet, Fanny; Bernos, Julien; Tiusan, Coriolan; Bellouard, Christine; Montaigne, Francois; Lacour, Daniel; Alnot, Marc; Lu, Yuan; Lengaigne, Gwladys [LPM, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Halley, David; Weber, Wolfgang [IPCMS, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2009-07-01

    The transport in crystalline magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) attracted the interest of the international community after the theoretical predictions of Butler et al of giant tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effects. In these model systems the electrons are classified with respect to the symmetry of their associated electronic Bloch wave function. The large predicted TMR ratio is related to a symmetry dependent attenuation rate within the MgO single crystal barrier combined with a half metallic property of a specific symmetry in the Fe electrode. After a brief introduction to the physics of the transport in Fe/MgO/Fe MTJ, I show how to exploit the symmetry dependence of the tunnel conductivity to engineer novel MTJs functionalities. We demonstrate that, a suitably chosen Cr(001) epitaxial metallic spacer layer quenches the transmission of particular electronic states, therefore acting as an additional symmetry dependent tunnel barrier for electrons at the Fermi level. Moreover, we show that this ultrathin Cr metallic barrier can promote quantum well states in an adjacent Fe layer. These results confirm the transport mechanism proposed by Butler et al. Extension to other materials are also discussed.

  3. Fe concentration dependence of tunneling magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions using group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor GeFe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Kosuke; Wakabayashi, Yuki K.; Okamoto, Kohei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohya, Shinobu

    2017-10-01

    Group-IV-based ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge1-xFex (GeFe) is one of the most promising materials for spin injection/detection in Si and Ge. In this paper, we demonstrate a systematic study of tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) composed of Fe/MgO/Ge1-xFex with various Fe concentrations (x = 0.065, 0.105, 0.140, and 0.175). With increasing x, the TMR ratio increases up to 1.5% when x ≤ 0.105, and it decreases when x > 0.105. This is the first observation of the TMR ratio over 1% in MTJs containing a group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor. With increasing x, while the Curie temperature of GeFe increases, the MgO surface becomes rougher, which is thought to be the cause of the upper limit of the TMR ratio. The quality of the MgO layer on GeFe is an important factor for further improvement of TMR in Fe/MgO/GeFe MTJs.

  4. Fe concentration dependence of tunneling magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions using group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor GeFe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Takiguchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Group-IV-based ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge1−xFex (GeFe is one of the most promising materials for spin injection/detection in Si and Ge. In this paper, we demonstrate a systematic study of tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs composed of Fe/MgO/Ge1−xFex with various Fe concentrations (x = 0.065, 0.105, 0.140, and 0.175. With increasing x, the TMR ratio increases up to 1.5% when x≤ 0.105, and it decreases when x> 0.105. This is the first observation of the TMR ratio over 1% in MTJs containing a group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor. With increasing x, while the Curie temperature of GeFe increases, the MgO surface becomes rougher, which is thought to be the cause of the upper limit of the TMR ratio. The quality of the MgO layer on GeFe is an important factor for further improvement of TMR in Fe/MgO/GeFe MTJs.

  5. Tunnel magnetoresistance effect and interface study in magnetic tunnel junctions using epitaxial Fe2CrSi Heusler alloy electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Pu; Han, Gu-Chang; Lu, Hui; Qiu, Jinjun; Yap, Qi-Jia; Ji, Rong; Teo, Kie-Leong

    2013-07-01

    We report the studies of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) using epitaxially grown Fe2CrSi (FCS) as a bottom electrode. A tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of 2.5% was obtained for MTJ at room temperature. The low TMR ratio is attributed to the oxidation of FCS at the interface with MgO barrier. With the insertion of 0.3 nm Mg layer between the FCS and MgO barrier layers, the TMR ratio increases to 8.1%. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy results show that the FCS film is most likely terminated at Fe and Si atomic layers, which is found to be bonded to oxygen at the interface, while Cr remains at metallic state. Post-annealing effect shows that TMR first increases with annealing temperature (Ta) due to improvement in crystalline structure of MgO and top electrode and then decreases due to oxidation of the bottom electrode. The TMR finally disappears due to the depinning of top electrode induced by Mn diffusion at high Ta.

  6. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Fe{sub 3}Si/MgO/Fe{sub 3}Si(001) magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, L. L.; Liang, S. H.; Liu, D. P.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F., E-mail: xfhan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Jian [Department of Physics and the Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-04-28

    We present a theoretical study of the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and spin-polarized transport in Fe{sub 3}Si/MgO/Fe{sub 3}Si(001) magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). It is found that the spin-polarized conductance and bias-dependent TMR ratios are rather sensitive to the structure of Fe{sub 3}Si electrode. From the symmetry analysis of the band structures, we found that there is no spin-polarized Δ{sub 1} symmetry bands crossing the Fermi level for the cubic Fe{sub 3}Si. In contrast, the tetragonal Fe{sub 3}Si driven by in-plane strain reveals half-metal nature in terms of Δ{sub 1} state. The giant TMR ratios are predicted for both MTJs with cubic and tetragonal Fe{sub 3}Si electrodes under zero bias. However, the giant TMR ratio resulting from interface resonant transmission for the former decreases rapidly with the bias. For the latter, the giant TMR ratio can maintain up to larger bias due to coherent transmission through the majority-spin Δ{sub 1} channel.

  7. Quasiparticle lifetimes and tunneling times in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction with spatially inhomogeneous electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubov, A. A.; Houwman, E. P.; Gijsbertsen, J. G.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.; Le Grand, J. B.; de Korte, P. A. J.

    1994-05-01

    The low-energy quasiparticle scattering and recombination lifetimes for a proximity sandwich of two superconductors S and S' with different bulk energy gaps, are calculated as a function of the spatial coordinate and temperature. The spatial dependence of the order parameter and density of states are calculated on the basis of a microscopic model of the proximity effect, based on the Usadel equations, for dirty superconductors in thermal equilibrium. A zero boundary resistance between S and S' and a Boltzmann-like energy distribution of the excess quasiparticles are assumed. In the case of a small diffusion time constant an effective quasiparticle relaxation rate into and excitation rate out of the reduced gap region in the SS' sandwich are obtained as a function of (finite, but low) temperature and strength of the proximity effect, determined by the parameter γm, by averaging over the energies and positions of the quasiparticles. In the same way effective tunneling times for electrons and holes tunneling out of the trap in the SS' sandwich to the other electrode of an SS'IS''S junction are determined as a function of temperature, voltage, and γm.

  8. Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Alan J; Malek, Gary A; Lu, Rongtao; Han, Siyuan; Yu, Haifeng; Zhao, Shiping; Wu, Judy Z

    2014-07-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a promising technique for growing ultrathin, pristine dielectrics on metal substrates, which is essential to many electronic devices. Tunnel junctions are an excellent example which require a leak-free, ultrathin dielectric tunnel barrier of typical thickness around 1 nm between two metal electrodes. A challenge in the development of ultrathin dielectric tunnel barriers using ALD is controlling the nucleation of dielectrics on metals with minimal formation of native oxides at the metal surface for high-quality interfaces between the tunnel barrier and metal electrodes. This poses a critical need for integrating ALD with ultra-high vacuum (UHV) physical vapor deposition. In order to address these challenges, a viscous-flow ALD chamber was designed and interfaced to an UHV magnetron sputtering chamber via a load lock. A sample transportation system was implemented for in situ sample transfer between the ALD, load lock, and sputtering chambers. Using this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system, superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Nb-Al/Al2O2/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions were fabricated with tunnel barriers of thickness varied from sub-nm to ~1 nm. The suitability of using an Al wetting layer for initiation of the ALD Al2O3 tunnel barrier was investigated with ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and electrical transport measurements. With optimized processing conditions, leak-free SIS tunnel junctions were obtained, demonstrating the viability of this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system for the fabrication of tunnel junctions and devices comprised of metal-dielectric-metal multilayers.

  9. Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Alan J.; Malek, Gary A.; Lu, Rongtao; Han, Siyuan; Yu, Haifeng; Zhao, Shiping; Wu, Judy Z.

    2014-07-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a promising technique for growing ultrathin, pristine dielectrics on metal substrates, which is essential to many electronic devices. Tunnel junctions are an excellent example which require a leak-free, ultrathin dielectric tunnel barrier of typical thickness around 1 nm between two metal electrodes. A challenge in the development of ultrathin dielectric tunnel barriers using ALD is controlling the nucleation of dielectrics on metals with minimal formation of native oxides at the metal surface for high-quality interfaces between the tunnel barrier and metal electrodes. This poses a critical need for integrating ALD with ultra-high vacuum (UHV) physical vapor deposition. In order to address these challenges, a viscous-flow ALD chamber was designed and interfaced to an UHV magnetron sputtering chamber via a load lock. A sample transportation system was implemented for in situ sample transfer between the ALD, load lock, and sputtering chambers. Using this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system, superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Nb-Al/Al2O2/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions were fabricated with tunnel barriers of thickness varied from sub-nm to ˜1 nm. The suitability of using an Al wetting layer for initiation of the ALD Al2O3 tunnel barrier was investigated with ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and electrical transport measurements. With optimized processing conditions, leak-free SIS tunnel junctions were obtained, demonstrating the viability of this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system for the fabrication of tunnel junctions and devices comprised of metal-dielectric-metal multilayers.

  10. Fabrication of superconducting tunnel junctions with embedded coil for applying magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Kenji, E-mail: taino@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 225 Shimo-Ohkubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Aoyagi, Masahiro [AIST, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Naruse, Masato; Myoren, Hiroaki; Taino, Tohru [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 225 Shimo-Ohkubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We have proposed and demonstrated a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) with an embedded coil for applying a magnetic field. • We have demonstrated an STJ with a coil embedded in a substrate for applying magnetic a field (EMC-STJ). • In this EMC-STJ, the maximum current of the embedded coil was 28 mA, which corresponded to the magnetic field of 11.76 mT. • It was found that the embedded coil can apply a magnetic field to the STJ by supplying a current 12 times smaller than that when using the external coil. - Abstract: We have proposed and demonstrated a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) with an embedded coil for applying a magnetic field. The STJ was fabricated on the coil, which was embedded in a Si substrate. The coil in the Si substrate consists of superconducting microstrip lines and applies a magnetic field to the STJ to suppress the dc Josephson current. The embedded coil was designed with a line and space of 3 µm and a thickness of 120 nm. To planarize the coil, we employed chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) in our fabrication process. In this STJ, the maximum current of the embedded coil was 28 mA, which corresponded to the maximum magnetic field of 11.76 mT.

  11. Superluminescence from an optically pumped molecular tunneling junction by injection of plasmon induced hot electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Braun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate a bias-driven superluminescent point light-source based on an optically pumped molecular junction (gold substrate/self-assembled molecular monolayer/gold tip of a scanning tunneling microscope, operating at ambient conditions and providing almost three orders of magnitude higher electron-to-photon conversion efficiency than electroluminescence induced by inelastic tunneling without optical pumping. A positive, steadily increasing bias voltage induces a step-like rise of the Stokes shifted optical signal emitted from the junction. This emission is strongly attenuated by reversing the applied bias voltage. At high bias voltage, the emission intensity depends non-linearly on the optical pump power. The enhanced emission can be modelled by rate equations taking into account hole injection from the tip (anode into the highest occupied orbital of the closest substrate-bound molecule (lower level and radiative recombination with an electron from above the Fermi level (upper level, hence feeding photons back by stimulated emission resonant with the gap mode. The system reflects many essential features of a superluminescent light emitting diode.

  12. Strong quasiparticle trapping In A 6×6 array of vanadium-aluminum superconducting tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammertz, G.; Peacock, A.; Verhoeve, P.; Kozorezov, A.; den Hartog, R.; Rando, N.; Venn, R.

    2002-02-01

    A 6×6 array of symmetrical V/Al/AlOx/Al/V Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (STJs) was fabricated. The base electrode is a high quality epitaxial film with a residual resistance ratio (RRR) of ~30. The top film is polycrystalline with an RRR of ~10. The leakage currents of the 25×25 μm2 junctions are of the order of 0.5 pA/μm2 at a bias voltage of 100 μV, which corresponds to a dynamical resistance of ~3105 Ω. When the array was illuminated by 6 keV X-ray photons from a 55Fe radioactive source the single photon charge output was found to be low and strongly dependent on the temperature of the devices. This temperature dependence at X-ray energies can be explained by the existence of a very large number of quasiparticle (QP) traps in the Vanadium. QPs are confined in these traps, having a lower energy gap than the surrounding material, and are therefore not available for tunneling. The number of traps can be derived from the energy dependence of the responsivity of the devices (charge output per electron volt of photon input energy). .

  13. Superluminescence from an optically pumped molecular tunneling junction by injection of plasmon induced hot electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kai; Wang, Xiao; Kern, Andreas M; Adler, Hilmar; Peisert, Heiko; Chassé, Thomas; Zhang, Dai; Meixner, Alfred J

    2015-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate a bias-driven superluminescent point light-source based on an optically pumped molecular junction (gold substrate/self-assembled molecular monolayer/gold tip) of a scanning tunneling microscope, operating at ambient conditions and providing almost three orders of magnitude higher electron-to-photon conversion efficiency than electroluminescence induced by inelastic tunneling without optical pumping. A positive, steadily increasing bias voltage induces a step-like rise of the Stokes shifted optical signal emitted from the junction. This emission is strongly attenuated by reversing the applied bias voltage. At high bias voltage, the emission intensity depends non-linearly on the optical pump power. The enhanced emission can be modelled by rate equations taking into account hole injection from the tip (anode) into the highest occupied orbital of the closest substrate-bound molecule (lower level) and radiative recombination with an electron from above the Fermi level (upper level), hence feeding photons back by stimulated emission resonant with the gap mode. The system reflects many essential features of a superluminescent light emitting diode.

  14. Large magneto-Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with half-metallic Heusler electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Alexander; Martens, Ulrike; Sterwerf, Christian; Niesen, Alessia; Huebner, Torsten; von der Ehe, Marvin; Meinert, Markus; Kuschel, Timo; Thomas, Andy; Heiliger, Christian; Münzenberg, Markus; Reiss, Günter

    2017-11-20

    Spin caloritronics studies the interplay between charge-, heat- and spin-currents, which are initiated by temperature gradients in magnetic nanostructures. A plethora of new phenomena has been discovered that promises, e.g., to make wasted heat in electronic devices useable or to provide new read-out mechanisms for information. However, only few materials have been studied so far with Seebeck voltages of only some microvolt, which hampers applications. Here, we demonstrate that half-metallic Heusler compounds are hot candidates for enhancing spin-dependent thermoelectric effects. This becomes evident when considering the asymmetry of the spin-split density of electronic states around the Fermi level that determines the spin-dependent thermoelectric transport in magnetic tunnel junctions. We identify Co2FeAl and Co2FeSi Heusler compounds as ideal due to their energy gaps in the minority density of states, and demonstrate devices with substantially larger Seebeck voltages and tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect ratios than the commonly used Co-Fe-B-based junctions.

  15. Spin asymmetry calculations of the TMR-V curves in single and double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2011-10-01

    Spin-polarization asymmetry is the key parameter in asymmetric voltage behavior (AVB) of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in magnetic tunnel junctions. In this paper, we study the value of the TMR as a function of the applied voltage Va in the single as well as double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (SMTJ & DMTJ, which are constructed from CoFeB/MgO interfaces) and numerically estimate the possible difference of the TMR-V a curves for negative and positive voltages in the homojunctions. As a result, we found that AVB may help to determine the exact values of Fermi wave vectors for minority and majority conducting spin sub-bands. Moreover, significant asymmetry of the experimental TMR-Va curves, which arises due to different annealing regimes, is explained by different heights of the tunnel barriers and values of the spin asymmetry. The numerical TMR-V a data are in good agreement with experimental ones. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Electron tunneling through molecule-electrode contacts of single alkane molecular junctions: experimental determination and a practical barrier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Xu, Bingqian

    2016-04-14

    An advanced understanding of the molecule-electrode contact interfaces of single-molecule junctions is a necessity for real world application of future single-molecule devices. This study aims to elucidate the change in the contact tunnelling barrier induced by junction extension and how this change affects the resulting junction conductance. The contact barrier of Au-octanedithiol/octanediamine-Au junctions was studied under triangle (TRI) mechanical modulations using the modified scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) break junction technique. The experimental results reveal that as the junction separation extends, the contact barrier of octanedithiol follows a unique trend, a linear increase followed by a plateau in barrier height, which is in contrast to that of octanediamine, a nearly rectangle barrier. We propose a modified contact barrier model for the unique barrier shape of octanedithiol, based on which the calculation agrees well with the experimental data. This study shows unprecedented experimental features of the molecule-electrode contact barrier of single-molecule junctions and provides new insights into the nature of contact effect in determining electron transport through single-molecule junctions.

  17. Fabrication and properties of Nb/Al, Alox/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions with a double-oxide barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwman, E. P.; Veldhuis, D.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.

    1990-02-01

    High-quality Nb/Al, Alox/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions using double-oxide layers as barriers have been fabricated. The critical current density is controlled by the thickness of the second Al layer. This layer has to be oxidized completely through in order to obtain high-quality junctions. Typically, gap voltages of 2.8-3.0 mV and Vm up to 70 mV at 4.2 K were obtained.

  18. Electronic transport through EuO spin-filter tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Jutong, Nuttachai

    2012-11-12

    Epitaxial spin-filter tunnel junctions based on the ferromagnetic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) are investigated by means of density functional theory. In particular, we focus on the spin transport properties of Cu(100)/EuO(100)/Cu(100) junctions. The dependence of the transmission coefficient and the current-voltage curves on the interface spacing and EuO thickness is explained in terms of the EuO density of states and the complex band structure. Furthermore, we also discuss the relation between the spin transport properties and the Cu-EuO interface geometry. The level alignment of the junction is sensitively affected by the interface spacing, since this determines the charge transfer between EuO and the Cu electrodes. Our calculations indicate that EuO epitaxially grown on Cu can act as a perfect spin filter, with a spin polarization of the current close to 100%, and with both the Eu-5d conduction-band and the Eu-4f valence-band states contributing to the coherent transport. For epitaxial EuO on Cu, a symmetry filtering is observed, with the Δ1 states dominating the transmission. This leads to a transport gap larger than the fundamental EuO band gap. Importantly, the high spin polarization of the current is preserved up to large bias voltages.

  19. Theory of Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling in High-T_c c-Axis Josephson Junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, Takehito; Kato, Takeo; Tanaka, Yukio

    2007-01-01

    We study macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in c-axis twist Josephson junctions made of high-T_c superconductors in order to clarify the influence of the anisotropic order parameter symmetry (OPS) on MQT. The dependence of the MQT rate on the twist angle $\\gamma$ about the c-axis is calculated by using the functional integral and the bounce method. Due to the d-wave OPS, the $\\gamma$ dependence of standard deviation of the switching current distribution and the crossover temperature from thermal activation to MQT are found to be given by $\\cos2\\gamma$ and $\\sqrt{\\cos2\\gamma}$, respectively. We also show that a dissipative effect resulting from the nodal quasiparticle excitation on MQT is negligibly small, which is consistent with recent MQT experiments using Bi${}_2$Sr${}_2$CaCu${}_2$O${}_{8 + \\delta}$ intrinsic junctions. These results indicate that MQT in c-axis twist junctions becomes a useful experimental tool for testing the OPS of high-T_c materials at low temperature, and suggest high potential of suc...

  20. Polarity-tunable magnetic tunnel junctions based on ferromagnetism at oxide heterointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thach D.N.; Chang, Jung-Won; Lee, Kyujoon; Han, Seungju; Lee, Joon Sung; Kim, Young Heon; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Doh, Yong-Joo; Choi, Mahn-Soo; Song, Jonghyun; Kim, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    Complex oxide systems have attracted considerable attention because of their fascinating properties, including the magnetic ordering at the conducting interface between two band insulators, such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. However, the manipulation of the spin degree of freedom at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface has remained elusive. Here, we have fabricated hybrid magnetic tunnel junctions consisting of Co and LaAlO3/SrTiO3 ferromagnets with the insertion of a Ti layer in between, which clearly exhibit magnetic switching and the tunnelling magnetoresistance effect below 10 K. The magnitude and sign of the tunnelling magnetoresistance are strongly dependent on the direction of the rotational magnetic field parallel to the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 plane, which is attributed to a strong Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure. Our study provides a further support for the existence of the macroscopic ferromagnetism at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerfaces and opens a novel route to realize interfacial spintronics devices. PMID:26268611

  1. Application of a type of strain block FBG sensor for strain measurements of squeezing rock in a deep-buried tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guojun; Chen, Weizhong; Dai, Yonghao; Yang, Jianping; Tan, Xianjun; Tian, Hongming

    2017-11-01

    Tunneling in squeezing rock often encounters large deformation, which threatens the safety and stability of tunnel support during tunnel construction. In this work, to acquire a greater amount of strain sensor data to fully understand the stress/strain state of surrounding rock during tunnel excavation, a special type of strain block with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors has been introduced, which is characterized by three groups of FBG strain rosettes adhered to three adjacent surfaces of the block, respectively, and each strain rosette distributed in the form of a 0°-45°-90° arrangement. Applying this type of FBG strain block sensor to a deep-buried tunnel in squeezing rock, six strain components in one strain block (representative of strain state of a point in rock) could be obtained with the processing method. The monitoring results can reflect the effect of tunnel excavation due to abrupt changes of strain monitored in rock, and were verified as being in reasonable agreement with numerical simulation. Therefore, the strain block with FBG sensors can be applicable in measuring strains in squeezing rock.

  2. Spin tunneling magnetoresistance in NiFe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co junctions with reduced dimensions formed using photolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Applied Physics; Yaoi, T. [Sony Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Research Center; Miyazaki, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Applied Physics

    1997-02-01

    The spin tunneling magnetoresistive effect has been investigated for NiFe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co junctions with a small junction area down to 3.5 x 3.5 {mu}m{sup 2} fabricated using photolithography. About 75 of the prepared junctions exhibit the spin tunneling magnetoresistive effect, the maximum value being around 1 at room temperature. Negative interlayer exchange coupling (J<0) is found in these junctions. The strength of the coupling tends to increase with decreasing junction area. (orig.).

  3. Zurek–Kibble Symmetry Breaking Process in Superconducting Rings; Spontaneous Fluxon Formation in Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Morten; Monaco, Roberto; Dmitriev, P

    2007-01-01

    We report on new investigations of spontaneous symmetry breaking in non-adiabatic phase transitions. This Zurek-Kibble (ZK) process is mimicked in solid state systems by trapping of magnetic flux quanta, fluxons, in a long annular Josephson tunnel junction quenched through the normal...

  4. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson pi-junctions with insulating ferromagnets and its application to phase qubits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawabata, Shiro; Kawabata, S.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a current-biased π junction with a superconductor (S) and an insulating ferromagnet (IF). By using the functional integral method and the instanton approximation, the influence of the quasiparticle dissipation on MQT is found to be

  5. Bias dependence of the response of superconducting tunnel junctions used as photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Poelaert, A; Peacock, A; Kozorezov, A; Wigmore, J K

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, several research groups have developed superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) for photon detection in astronomy. Despite extensive studies, the behavior of multi-layered devices, subject to the superconducting proximity effect (proximized devices), has remained difficult to model. Recently, a new model has been presented, leading to a more realistic approach for the photon detection within an STJ. This model is based on the existence of local traps in the superconducting electrodes of the STJ. In this paper, we show that the new model is successful in predicting the bias dependence of the response of an STJ. The bias dependence also demonstrates that the quasiparticles, i.e. the charge carriers created as a result of the photon absorption process, cannot relax down to the superconducting energy gap. This result is important, since most theoretical developments to date (implicitly) assume that quasiparticle relax to the gap energy. crystal-structure; energy-levels; tantalum-; traps cooper-p...

  6. Perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction switching dynamic modes, extreme events, and performance scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Zihui; Hao, Xiaojie; Gan, Huadong; Xu, Pengfa; Jung, Dongha; Satoh, Kimihiro; Zhou, Yuchen; Zhang, Jing; Yen, Bing K.; Huai, Yiming

    2017-05-01

    The performance of the state-of-the-art perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction (pMTJ) device is fundamentally determined by the physics of material "extreme events." A dynamic mode approach is used to study "extreme events" of stochastic nonlinear magnetization switching, including magnetic interactions and non-uniform magnetization dynamics. Our theory and experiment show that the magnetization switching "extreme events" are well characterized by the dynamic modes of interacting magnetic systems. The dynamic modes provide a clear understanding of the physical processes of the magnetization switching "extreme events." We predict markedly different pMTJ scaling behaviors for spin transfer torque, spin-orbit-interaction torque, and thermal fluctuations at different operation speeds and bit error rate conditions. Understanding these scaling behaviors is critical for existing and emerging pMTJ device applications.

  7. Measurement of shot noise in magnetic tunnel junction and its utilization for accurate system calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, S.; Kubota, H.; Yakushiji, K.; Fukushima, A.; Yuasa, S.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a technique to calibrate the spin torque oscillator (STO) measurement system by utilizing the whiteness of shot noise. The raw shot noise spectrum in a magnetic tunnel junction based STO in the microwave frequency range is obtained by first subtracting the baseline noise, and then excluding the field dependent mag-noise components reflecting the thermally excited spin wave resonances. As the shot noise is guaranteed to be completely white, the total gain of the signal path should be proportional to the shot noise spectrum obtained by the above procedure, which allows for an accurate gain calibration of the system and a quantitative determination of each noise power. The power spectral density of the shot noise as a function of bias voltage obtained by this technique was compared with a theoretical calculation, which showed excellent agreement when the Fano factor was assumed to be 0.99.

  8. Straintronics-based magnetic tunneling junction: Dynamic and static behavior analysis and material investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barangi, Mahmood; Mazumder, Pinaki

    2014-04-01

    We theoretically study the dynamic and static effects of mechanical stress on a straintronics device that includes a piezoelectric film combined with a magnetic tunneling junction. The inverse magnetostriction effect is studied in detail by realizing the varying magnetic susceptibility of the nanomagnet under stress. A dynamic model is developed based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, which provides a platform to simulate the magnetization vector's behavior, critical flipping voltage, and delay properties. Furthermore, by converting the LLG equation into a 2nd order damping differential equation, we develop a proximate approach. This approach predicts the dynamic behavior of the magnetization vector and its dependency on material properties and applied voltage across the device without using sophisticated numerical calculations of the LLG model. Different dynamic and static material properties are observed by simulating five common magnetostrictive materials, including a newly discovered alloy, Galfenol.

  9. Nanosecond magnetization dynamics during spin Hall switching of in-plane magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, G. E.; Aradhya, S. V.; Shi, S.; Yandel, E. H.; Oh, J.; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2017-03-01

    We present a study of the magnetic dynamics associated with nanosecond scale magnetic switching driven by the spin Hall effect in 3-terminal nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with in-plane magnetization. Utilizing fast pulse measurements in a variety of material stacks and detailed micromagnetic simulations, we demonstrate that this unexpectedly fast and reliable magnetic reversal is facilitated by the self-generated Oersted field, and that the short-pulse energy efficiency can be substantially enhanced by spatial non-uniformity in the initial magnetization of the magnetic free layer. The sign of the Oersted field is essential for this enhancement—in simulations in which we artificially impose a field-like torque with a sign opposite to the effect of the Oersted field, the result is a much slower and stochastic switching process that is reminiscent of the so-called incubation delay in conventional 2-terminal spin-torque-switched MTJs.

  10. Detection of HIV-1 antigen based on magnetic tunnel junction sensor and magnetic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L; Zhou, Y; Pong, P W T

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it is evidenced that the individuals newly infected HIV are transmitting the virus prior to knowing their HIV status. Identifying individuals that are early in infection with HIV antibody negative (window period) remains problematic. In the newly infected individuals, HIV antigen p24 is usually present in their serum or plasma 7-10 days before the HIV antibody. After antibody production initiates, the p24 antigen is bound into immune complexes. That means the detectable p24 antigens in serum/plasma are short-lived, and their amount is in the pg/ml range. Thus, a rapid quantitative bio-detection system with high-sensitivity is required to achieve early disease diagnosis. Magnetoresistive (MR) biosensor with ultra-high sensitivity possesses great potential in this area. In this study, a p24 detection assay using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensor and 20-nm magnetic nanoparticles is reported.

  11. Power enhancement of angular polarizer spin torque oscillator in magnetic tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yisong; Zhao, Hui; Lyle, Andrew; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2011-04-01

    The power angular dependence for spin torque oscillators (STOs) is systematically investigated in magnetic tunnel junctions by varying the in-plane polarizer angle (IPPA) which refers to the angle between the free and fixed layer. The polarizer angle is adjusted by integrating a lithography process and a post-annealing process. An increase of power with increasing IPPA is experimentally demonstrated. STOs with a 30° and 60° IPPA show a 2-3 and 5-6 times higher efficiency in the power spectral density of the main peak than that with the traditional 0° IPPA, respectively. This increase of the power efficiency with IPPA for STOs can be explained by the power dependence on the precession angle at different IPPA.

  12. Tunneling Conductance in Ferromagnetic Metal/Normal Metal/Spin-Singlet -Wave Ferromagnetic Superconductor Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Emamipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of scattering theory, we study the tunneling conductance in a system including two junctions, ferromagnetic metal/normal metal/ferromagnetic superconductor, where ferromagnetic superconductor is in spin-singlet -wave pairing state. The non-magnetic normal metal is placed in the intermediate layer with the thickness ( which varies from 1 nm to 10000 nm. The interesting result which we have found is the existence of oscillations in conductance curves. The period of oscillations is independent of FS and FN exchange field while it depends on . The obtained results can serve as a useful tool to determine the kind of pairing symmetry in ferromagnetic superconductors.

  13. The need for control of magnetic parameters for energy efficient performance of magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, I. A. H.; Gale, E.; Alpha, C.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Optimizing energy performance of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJs) is the key for embedding Spin Transfer Torque-Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) in low power circuits. Due to the complex interdependencies of the parameters and variables of the device operating energy, it is important to analyse parameters with most effective control of MTJ power. The impact of threshold current density, Jco , on the energy and the impact of HK on Jco are studied analytically, following the expressions that stem from Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS-STT) model. In addition, the impact of other magnetic material parameters, such as Ms , and geometric parameters such as tfree and λ is discussed. Device modelling study was conducted to analyse the impact at the circuit level. Nano-magnetism simulation based on NMAGTM package was conducted to analyse the impact of controlling HK on the switching dynamics of the film.

  14. Interfacial spin-orbit splitting and current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2011-05-17

    Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is investigated theoretically. Due to the presence of interfacial SOI, a current-driven spin torque can be generated at the second order in SOI, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. This torque possesses two components, one in plane and one perpendicular to the plane of rotation, that can induce either current-driven magnetization switching from an in-plane to out-of-plane configuration or magnetization precessions, similar to spin transfer torque in spin valves. Consequently, it appears that it is possible to control the magnetization steady state and dynamics by either varying the bias voltage or electrically modifying the SOI at the interface.

  15. Mode-hopping mechanism generating colored noise in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Raghav [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 412 96 (Sweden); Heinonen, O. G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Åkerman, J. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 412 96 (Sweden); Materials Physics, School of ICT, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, Kista 164 40 (Sweden); Muduli, P. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 412 96 (Sweden)

    2014-09-29

    The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. We find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layer is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. These results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping, which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.

  16. Magnetic microstructure of candidates for epitaxial dual Heusler magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung IFF-9 and JARA-FIT, 52425 Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: a.kaiser@fz-juelich.de; Banerjee, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung IFF-9 and JARA-FIT, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Rata, A.D. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung, Dresden (Germany); Wiemann, C.; Cramm, S.; Schneider, C.M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung IFF-9 and JARA-FIT, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Heusler alloys are considered as interesting ferromagnetic electrode materials for magnetic tunnel junctions, because of their high spin polarization. We, therefore, investigated the micromagnetic properties in a prototypical thin film system comprising two different Heusler phases Co{sub 2}MnSi (CMS) and Co{sub 2}FeSi (CFS) separated by a MgO barrier. The magnetic microstructure was investigated by X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM). We find a strong influence of the Heusler phase formation process on the magnetic domain patterns. SiO{sub 2}/V/CMS/MgO/CFS and SiO{sub 2}/V/CFS/MgO/CMS trilayer structures exhibit a strikingly different magnetic behavior, which is due to pinhole coupling through the MgO barrier and a strong thickness dependence of the magnetic ordering in Co{sub 2}MnSi.

  17. The universal magnetic tunnel junction logic gates representing 16 binary Boolean logic operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junwoo; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun

    2015-05-01

    The novel devices are expected to shift the paradigm of a logic operation by their own nature, replacing the conventional devices. In this study, the nature of our fabricated magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) that responds to the two external inputs, magnetic field and voltage bias, demonstrated seven basic logic operations. The seven operations were obtained by the electric-field-assisted switching characteristics, where the surface magnetoelectric effect occurs due to a sufficiently thin free layer. The MTJ was transformed as a universal logic gate combined with three supplementary circuits: A multiplexer (MUX), a Wheatstone bridge, and a comparator. With these circuits, the universal logic gates demonstrated 16 binary Boolean logic operations in one logic stage. A possible further approach is parallel computations through a complimentary of MUX and comparator, capable of driving multiple logic gates. A reconfigurable property can also be realized when different logic operations are produced from different level of voltages applying to the same configuration of the logic gate.

  18. Electronic band alignment and electron transport in Cr/BaTiO{sub 3}/Pt ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenkevich, A. [NRNU ' Moscow Engineering Physics Institute,' 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Minnekaev, M.; Matveyev, Yu.; Lebedinskii, Yu. [NRNU ' Moscow Engineering Physics Institute,' 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bulakh, K.; Chouprik, A.; Baturin, A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Maksimova, K. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Thiess, S.; Drube, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-02-11

    Electroresistance in ferroelectric tunnel junctions is controlled by changes in the electrostatic potential profile across the junction upon polarization reversal of the ultrathin ferroelectric barrier layer. Here, hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy is used to reconstruct the electric potential barrier profile in as-grown Cr/BaTiO{sub 3}(001)/Pt(001) heterostructures. Transport properties of Cr/BaTiO{sub 3}/Pt junctions with a sub-{mu}m Cr top electrode are interpreted in terms of tunneling electroresistance with resistance changes of a factor of {approx}30 upon polarization reversal. By fitting the I-V characteristics with the model employing an experimentally determined electric potential barrier we derive the step height changes at the BaTiO{sub 3}/Pt (Cr/BaTiO{sub 3}) interface +0.42(-0.03) eV following downward to upward polarization reversal.

  19. Structure Controlled Long-Range Sequential Tunneling in Carbon-Based Molecular Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morteza Najarian, Amin; McCreery, Richard L

    2017-04-25

    Carbon-based molecular junctions consisting of aromatic oligomers between conducting sp(2) hybridized carbon electrodes exhibit structure-dependent current densities (J) when the molecular layer thickness (d) exceeds ∼5 nm. All four of the molecular structures examined exhibit an unusual, nonlinear ln J vs bias voltage (V) dependence which is not expected for conventional coherent tunneling or activated hopping mechanisms. All molecules exhibit a weak temperature dependence, with J increasing typically by a factor of 2 over the range of 200-440 K. Fluorene and anthraquinone show linear plots of ln J vs d with nearly identical J values for the range d = 3-10 nm, despite significant differences in their free-molecule orbital energy levels. The observed current densities for anthraquinone, fluorene, nitroazobenzene, and bis-thienyl benzene for d = 7-10 nm show no correlation with occupied (HOMO) or unoccupied (LUMO) molecular orbital energies, contrary to expectations for transport mechanisms based on the offset between orbital energies and the electrode Fermi level. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy of molecular layers bonded to carbon electrodes revealed internal energy levels of the chemisorbed films and also indicated limited delocalization in the film interior. The observed current densities correlate well with the observed UV-vis absorption maxima for the molecular layers, implying a transport mechanism determined by the HOMO-LUMO energy gap. We conclude that transport in carbon-based aromatic molecular junctions is consistent with multistep tunneling through a barrier defined by the HOMO-LUMO gap, and not by charge transport at the electrode interfaces. In effect, interfacial "injection" at the molecule/electrode interfaces is not rate limiting due to relatively strong electronic coupling, and transport is controlled by the "bulk" properties of the molecular layer interior.

  20. Soft errors in 10-nm-scale magnetic tunnel junctions exposed to high-energy heavy-ion radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Makino, Takahiro; Onoda, Shinobu; Ohshima, Takeshi; Ikeda, Shoji; Sato, Hideo; Inocencio Enobio, Eli Christopher; Endoh, Tetsuo; Ohno, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    The influences of various types of high-energy heavy-ion radiation on 10-nm-scale CoFeB-MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with a perpendicular easy axis have been investigated. In addition to possible latent damage, which has already been pointed out in previous studies, high-energy heavy-ion bombardments demonstrated that the magnetic tunnel junctions may exhibit clear flips between their high- and low-resistance states designed for a digital bit 1 or 0. It was also demonstrated that flipped magnetic tunnel junctions still may provide proper memory functions such as read, write, and hold capabilities. These two findings proved that high-energy heavy ions can produce recoverable bit flips in magnetic tunnel junctions, i.e., soft errors. Data analyses suggested that the resistance flips stem from magnetization reversals of the ferromagnetic layers and that each of them is caused by a single strike of heavy ions. It was concurrently found that an ion strike does not always result in a flip, suggesting a stochastic process behind the flip. Experimental data also showed that the flip phenomenon is dependent on the device and heavy-ion characteristics. Among them, the diameter of the device and the linear energy transfer of the heavy ions were revealed as the key parameters. From their dependences, the physical mechanism behind the flip was discussed. It is likely that a 10-nm-scale ferromagnetic disk loses its magnetization due to a local temperature increase induced by a single strike of heavy ions; this demagnetization is followed by a cooling period associated with a possible stochastic recovery process. On the basis of this hypothesis, a simple analytical model was developed, and it was found that the model accounts for the results reasonably well. This model also predicted that magnetic tunnel junctions provide sufficiently high soft-error reliability for use in space, highlighting their advantage over their counterpart conventional semiconductor memories.

  1. Reactively sputtered MgAl2O4 barrier layers for Heusler tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, K.; Fukatani, N.; Mari, K.; Fujita, H.; Miyawaki, T.; Ueda, K.; Asano, H.

    2013-08-01

    Epitaxial MgAl2O4 thin films were deposited on a lattice-matched Heusler alloy, Fe2CrSi, by reactive magnetron sputtering of an MgAl2 target in an Ar+O2 atmosphere. Epitaxial Fe2CrSi/MgAl2O4 junctions were obtained by inserting an ultrathin MgAl2 interlayer, which worked as a protective layer for oxidization at the surface of the Fe2CrSi. The growth of MgAl2O4 was found to be very sensitive to the MgAl2 thickness and the oxygen partial pressure during the deposition of MgAl2O4. Both epitaxial growth and characteristics of the efficient tunneling barrier were obtained in an Fe2CrSi/MgAl2O4 (3 nm)/CoFe tunneling device for MgAl2O4 thin films grown by reactive sputtering. The present epitaxial MgAl2O4 barrier deposited by reactive sputtering is expected to realize high performance spintronic devices.

  2. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction with a strained Mn-based nanolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K. Z.; Ranjbar, R.; Okabayashi, J.; Miura, Y.; Sugihara, A.; Tsuchiura, H.; Mizukami, S.

    2016-07-01

    A magnetic tunnel junction with a perpendicular magnetic easy-axis (p-MTJ) is a key device for spintronic non-volatile magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM). Co-Fe-B alloy-based p-MTJs are being developed, although they have a large magnetisation and medium perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), which make it difficult to apply them to a future dense MRAM. Here, we demonstrate a p-MTJ with an epitaxially strained MnGa nanolayer grown on a unique CoGa buffer material, which exhibits a large PMA of more than 5 Merg/cm3 and magnetisation below 500 emu/cm3 these properties are sufficient for application to advanced MRAM. Although the experimental tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio is still low, first principles calculations confirm that the strain-induced crystal lattice distortion modifies the band dispersion along the tetragonal c-axis into the fully spin-polarised state; thus, a huge TMR effect can be generated in this p-MTJ.

  3. Analytical description of ballistic spin currents and torques in magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Chshiev, M.

    2015-09-21

    In this work we demonstrate explicit analytical expressions for both charge and spin currents which constitute the 2×2 spinor in magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations under applied voltage. The calculations have been performed within the free electron model in the framework of the Keldysh formalism and WKB approximation. We demonstrate that spin/charge currents and spin transfer torques are all explicitly expressed through only three irreducible quantities, without further approximations. The conditions and mechanisms of deviation from the conventional sine angular dependence of both spin currents and torques are shown and discussed. It is shown in the thick barrier approximation that all tunneling transport quantities can be expressed in an extremely simplified form via Slonczewski spin polarizations and our effective spin averaged interfacial transmission probabilities and effective out-of-plane polarizations at both interfaces. It is proven that the latter plays a key role in the emergence of perpendicular spin torque as well as in the angular dependence character of all spin and charge transport considered. It is demonstrated directly also that for any applied voltage, the parallel component of spin current at the FM/I interface is expressed via collinear longitudinal spin current components. Finally, spin transfer torque behavior is analyzed in a view of transverse characteristic length scales for spin transport.

  4. 2D-MTJs: introducing 2D materials in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquemal-Banci, Maëlis; Galceran, Regina; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Godel, Florian; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Petroff, Frederic; Dlubak, Bruno; Seneor, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    This review focuses on the recent experimental integration of 2D materials, mostly graphene but also h-BN and dichalochogenides, such as MoS2 and WS2, in magnetic tunnel junctions. The main remarkable characteristic of 2D materials is the ability to gain high homogeneous atomic control over their thickness, as this is barely achievable with the usual 3D materials deposited through conventional physical vapour deposition (PVD) growth techniques. This could become a critical asset for spintronics with regard to the fabrication of spin valves, where ultra-thin layers with extreme control are targeted, especially for spin-polarized electron tunnelling. A complete overview of the state of the art is presented, and the different integrative pathways of 2D materials with ferromagnets are addressed, including the exfoliation of 2D flakes from crystals, the wet transfer steps of large scale layers, and direct chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growths catalysed on ferromagnetic electrodes. Interestingly, these recent experiments have already highlighted some novel properties that emanate from 2D-based heterostructures, such as passivation against oxidation diffusion and augmented spin filtering at the interface. Many perspectives are thus being opened up in the exploration of the vast amount of 2D material families and their association in heterostructures, targeting specific spin device properties.

  5. Influence of spin-orbit interaction within the insulating barrier on the electron transport in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedyayev, A.; Ryzhanova, N.; Strelkov, N.; Titova, M.; Chshiev, M.; Rodmacq, B.; Auffret, S.; Cuchet, L.; Nistor, L.; Dieny, B.

    2017-02-01

    We present a theory of the anisotropy of tunneling magnetoresistance (ATMR) phenomenon in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) attributed to Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the insulating barrier. ATMR represents the difference of tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) amplitude measured with in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic configurations. It is demonstrated that within the spin-polarized free-electron model the change of conductance associated with the ATMR is exactly twice the change of conductance measured at full saturation (i.e., in parallel configuration of magnetizations) between in-plane and out-of-plane configuration, i.e., the tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR). Both ATMR and TAMR are closely related to the TMR amplitude and spin-orbit constant. The predicted ATMR phenomenon is confirmed experimentally, showing a few percent value in the case of the widely studied CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB based MTJ.

  6. Epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si substrates with TiN buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Makise, Kazumasa; Terai, Hirotaka [Advanced ICT Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (Japan); Zhang, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Zhen, E-mail: zwang@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Tech University, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2016-06-15

    We have developed epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si (100) substrates with a TiN buffer layer. A 50-nm-thick (200)-oriented TiN thin film was introduced as the buffer layer for epitaxial growth of NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers on Si substrates. The fabricated NbN/AlN/NbN junctions demonstrated excellent tunneling properties with a high gap voltage of 5.5 mV, a large I{sub c}R{sub N} product of 3.8 mV, a sharp quasiparticle current rise with a ΔV{sub g} of 0.4 mV, and a small subgap leakage current. The junction quality factor R{sub sg}/R{sub N} was about 23 for the junction with a J{sub c} of 47 A/cm{sup 2} and was about 6 for the junction with a J{sub c} of 3.0 kA/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers were grown epitaxially on the (200)-orientated TiN buffer layer and had a highly crystalline structure with the (200) orientation.

  7. Epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si substrates with TiN buffer layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si (100 substrates with a TiN buffer layer. A 50-nm-thick (200-oriented TiN thin film was introduced as the buffer layer for epitaxial growth of NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers on Si substrates. The fabricated NbN/AlN/NbN junctions demonstrated excellent tunneling properties with a high gap voltage of 5.5 mV, a large IcRN product of 3.8 mV, a sharp quasiparticle current rise with a ΔVg of 0.4 mV, and a small subgap leakage current. The junction quality factor Rsg/RN was about 23 for the junction with a Jc of 47 A/cm2 and was about 6 for the junction with a Jc of 3.0 kA/cm2. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers were grown epitaxially on the (200-orientated TiN buffer layer and had a highly crystalline structure with the (200 orientation.

  8. Fabrication and properties of Nb/Al, Al sub ox /Nb Josephson tunnel junctions with a double-oxide barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houwman, E.P.; Veldhuis, D.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H. (University of Twente, Faculty of Applied Physics, P.O.B. 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands (NL))

    1990-02-15

    High-quality Nb/Al, Al{sub ox}/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions using double-oxide layers as barriers have been fabricated. The critical current density is controlled by the thickness of the second Al layer. This layer has to be oxidized completely through in order to obtain high-quality junctions. Typically, gap voltages of 2.8--3.0 mV and {ital V}{sub {ital m}} up to 70 mV at 4.2 K were obtained.

  9. Perpendicularly magnetized ferrimagnetic [Mn50Ga50/Co2FeAl] superlattice and the utilization in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. L. Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ferrimagnetic superlattice (SL [MnGa/Co2FeAl]n exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy opened a new method for spintronics materials used in magnetic random access memory, because of the high anisotropy, small damping constant and tunable magnetization. In this work, we fabricated SLs with different MnGa composition and studied the MnGa composition dependence of the structure and magnetic properties of the SLs. Furthermore, we fabricated fully perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with SLs as both top and bottom electrodes. A clear tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR effect with TMR ratio of 1.3% at room temperature was observed.

  10. Piezo-tunnel effect in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, R.; Puyoo, E.; Malhaire, C.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the electrical transport in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions under mechanical stress is investigated in the perspective to use them as strain sensors. The metal/insulator/metal junctions are elaborated with a low temperature process (≤200 °C) fully compatible with CMOS back-end-of-line. The conduction mechanism in the structure is found to be Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, and efforts are made to extract the relevant physical parameters. Gauge factors up to -32.5 were found in the fabricated devices under tensile stress. Finally, theoretical mechanical considerations give strong evidence that strain sensitivity in Al/Al2O3/Al structures originates not only from geometrical deformations but also from the variation of interface barrier height and/or effective electronic mass in the tunneling oxide layer.

  11. Interfacial Nb-substitution induced anomalous enhancement of polarization and conductivity in BaTiO3 ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using density functional theory (DFT method combined with non-equilibrium Green’s function approach, we systematically investigated the structural, ferroelectric and electronic transport properties of Pt/BaTiO3/Pt ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJ with the interface atomic layers doped by charge neutral NbTi substitution. It is found that interfacial NbTi substitution will produce several anomalous effects such as the vanishing of ferroelectric critical thickness and the decrease of junction resistance against tunneling current. Consequently, the thickness of the ferroelectric thin film (FTF in the FTJ can be reduced, and both the electroresistance effect and sensitivity to external bias of the FTJ are enhanced. Our calculations indicate that the enhancements of conductivity and ferroelectric distortion can coexist in FTJs, which should be important for applications of functional electronic devices based on FTJs.

  12. High spin injection polarization at an elevated dc bias in tunnel-junction-based lateral spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. J.; Zou, H.; Ocola, L. E.; Ji, Y.

    2009-07-01

    Submicron metallic lateral spin valves are fabricated with AlOx tunnel junctions as spin injection and detection barriers. The spin polarization is estimated to be ˜20%, determined by both Hanle effect and variations of device dimensions. The polarization is maintained at a large dc injection current density >2×106 A/cm2. Both the spin polarization and spin diffusion length are weakly temperature dependent.

  13. State diagram of a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction driven by spin transfer torque: A power dissipation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavanant, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Petit-Watelot, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Kent, A.D. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Mangin, S., E-mail: stephane.mangin@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France)

    2017-04-15

    The state diagram of a magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicularly magnetized electrodes in the presence of spin-transfer torques is computed in a macrospin approximation using a power dissipation model. Starting from the macrospin's energy we determine the stability of energy extremum in terms of power received and dissipated, allowing the consideration of non-conservative torques associated with spin transfer and damping. The results are shown to be in agreement with those obtained by direct integration of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation. However, the power dissipation model approach is faster and shows the reason certain magnetic states are stable, such as states that are energy maxima but are stabilized by spin transfer torque. Breaking the axial system, such as by a tilted applied field or tilted anisotropy, is shown to dramatically affect the state diagrams. Finally, the influence of a higher order uniaxial anisotropy that can stabilize a canted magnetization state is considered and the results are compared to experimental data. - Highlights: • Methods to compute state Diagram (Voltage Versus Field) for perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions. • Comparison between the conventional LLG model and a model based on Power dissipation to study magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junction.

  14. A New Circuit Model for Spin-Torque Oscillator Including Perpendicular Torque of Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyein Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-torque oscillator (STO is a promising new technology for the future RF oscillators, which is based on the spin-transfer torque (STT effect in magnetic multilayered nanostructure. It is expected to provide a larger tunability, smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher level of integration than the semiconductor-based oscillators. In our previous work, a circuit-level model of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR STO was proposed. In this paper, we present a physics-based circuit-level model of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ-based STO. MTJ-STO model includes the effect of perpendicular torque that has been ignored in the GMR-STO model. The variations of three major characteristics, generation frequency, mean oscillation power, and generation linewidth of an MTJ-STO with respect to the amount of perpendicular torque, are investigated, and the results are applied to our model. The operation of the model was verified by HSPICE simulation, and the results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results also prove that a full circuit-level simulation with MJT-STO devices can be made with our proposed model.

  15. High Performance MgO-barrier Magnetic Tunnel Junctions for Flexible and Wearable Spintronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Yang; Lau, Yong-Chang; Coey, J. M. D.; Li, Mo; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) using MgO barrier is one of most important building blocks for spintronic devices and has been widely utilized as miniaturized magentic sensors. It could play an important role in wearable medical devices if they can be fabricated on flexible substrates. The required stringent fabrication processes to obtain high quality MgO-barrier MTJs, however, limit its integration with flexible electronics devices. In this work, we have developed a method to fabricate high-performance MgO-barrier MTJs directly onto ultrathin flexible silicon membrane with a thickness of 14 μm and then transfer-and-bond to plastic substrates. Remarkably, such flexible MTJs are fully functional, exhibiting a TMR ratio as high as 190% under bending radii as small as 5 mm. The devices‘ robustness is manifested by its retained excellent performance and unaltered TMR ratio after over 1000 bending cycles. The demonstrated flexible MgO-barrier MTJs opens the door to integrating high-performance spintronic devices in flexible and wearable electronics devices for a plethora of biomedical sensing applications. PMID:28150807

  16. A Survey on the Modeling of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions for Circuit Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyein Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-transfer torque-based magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM is a promising candidate for universal memory that may replace traditional memory forms. It is expected to provide high-speed operation, scalability, low-power dissipation, and high endurance. MRAM switching technology has evolved from the field-induced magnetic switching (FIMS technique to the spin-transfer torque (STT switching technique. Additionally, material technology that induces perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA facilitates low-power operation through the reduction of the switching current density. In this paper, the modeling of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs is reviewed. Modeling methods and models of MTJ characteristics are classified into two groups, macromodels and behavioral models, and the most important characteristics of MTJs, the voltage-dependent MTJ resistance and the switching behavior, are compared. To represent the voltage dependency of MTJ resistance, some models are based on physical mechanisms, such as Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation or voltage-dependent conductance. Some behavioral models are constructed by adding fitting parameters or introducing new physical parameters to represent the complex switching behavior of an MTJ over a wide range of input current conditions. Other models that are not based on physical mechanisms are implemented by simply fitting to experimental data.

  17. Current control of time-averaged magnetization in superparamagnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Majetich, Sara A.

    2017-12-01

    This work investigates spin transfer torque control of time-averaged magnetization in a small 20 nm × 60 nm nanomagnet with a low thermal stability factor, Δ ˜ 11. Here, the nanomagnet is a part of a magnetic tunnel junction and fluctuates between parallel and anti-parallel magnetization states with respect to the magnetization of the reference layer generating a telegraph signal in the current versus time measurements. The response of the nanomagnet to an external field is first analyzed to characterize the magnetic properties. We then show that the time-averaged magnetization in the telegraph signal can be fully controlled between +1 and -1 by voltage over a small range of 0.25 V. NIST Statistical Test Suite analysis is performed for testing true randomness of the telegraph signal that the device generates when operated at near critical current values for spin transfer torque. Utilizing the probabilistic nature of the telegraph signal generated at two different voltages, a prototype demonstration is shown for multiplication of two numbers using an artificial AND logic gate.

  18. Tunneling magnetoresistance based on a Cr/graphene/Cr magnetotunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Gui-Ping; Zhang, Pei-Ran; Jiao, Na; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2015-11-01

    Using the density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s function method, we studied the finite-bias quantum transport in a Cr/graphene/Cr magnetotunnel junction (MTJ) constructed by a single graphene layer sandwiched between two semi-infinite Cr(111) electrodes. We found that the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio in this MTJ reached 108%, which is close to that of a perfect spin filter. Under an external positive bias, we found that the TMR ratio remained constant at 65%, in contrast to MgO-based MTJs, the TMR ratios of which decrease with increasing bias. These results indicate that the Cr/graphene/Cr MTJ is a promising candidate for spintronics applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10874143, 10974166, and 11574260), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-10-0169), the National Innovation Foundation for Graduate, China (Grant No. 201310530003), and the Computational Support from Shanghai Super-computer Center, China.

  19. Tunnel junction sensors for HCI-surface measurements at low kinetic energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, J. M.; Lake, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, we have developed and deployed the capability to make and use tunnel junctions sensors (TJS) as extremely sensitive tools for the measurement of surface nanofeatures created by particle-surface interactions. The focus of our interest has been highly charged ion (HCI) produced nanofeatures, which we are able to produce in situ due to a direct vacuum connection to the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT). Using these sensors, we make systematic studies of the role of the charge state on the size of features created by HCIs and connect those measurements to the stopping power. Recently we have begun to study reduced velocities at a fixed charge state for which little previous theoretical or experimental work has been done. Due to many technical improvements that have been made to our methods, we offer a contemporary summary of the TJS fabrication and HCI irradiation method. Further, we present early experimental results showing increased surface damage when Xe41+ is extracted at ≈4.6 kV in comparison with ≈8.1 kV.

  20. Physical limitations to efficient high-speed spin-torque switching in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, R.; Rippard, W. H.; Russek, S. E.; Kos, A. B.

    2011-02-01

    We have investigated the physical limitations to efficient high-speed spin-torque switching by means of write error rates both experimentally as well as through macrospin simulations. The spin-torque-induced write operations were performed on in-plane MgO magnetic tunnel junctions. The write error rates were determined from up to 106 switching events as a function of pulse amplitude and duration (5 to 100 ns) for devices with different thermal stability factors. Both experiments and simulations show qualitatively similar results. In particular, the write error rates as a function of pulse voltage amplitude increase at higher rates for pulse durations below ≈50 ns. Simulations show that the write error rates can be reduced only to some extent by the use of materials with perpendicular anisotropy and reduced damping, whereas noncollinear orientation of the spin current polarization and the magnetic easy axis increases the write error rates. The cause for the write error rates is related to the underlying physics of spin-torque switching and the occurrence of the stagnation point on the magnetization switching trajectory where the spin-torque disappears and the device loses the energy needed to switch. The stagnation point can be accessed either during the initial magnetization distribution or by thermal diffusion during the switching process.

  1. Stability phase diagram of a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction in noncollinear geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, N.; Timopheev, A.; Sousa, R. C.; Chshiev, M.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Dieny, B.

    2017-05-01

    Experimental measurements performed on MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions show a strong dependence of the stability voltage-field diagrams as a function of the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the plane of the sample. When the magnetic field is applied in-plane, systematic nonlinear phase boundaries are observed for various lateral sizes. The simulation results based on the phenomenological Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation including the in-plane and out-of-plane spin transfer torques are consistent with the measurements if a second-order anisotropy contribution is considered. Furthermore, performing the stability analysis in linear approximation allowed us to analytically extract the critical switching voltage at zero temperature in the presence of an in-plane field. This study indicates that in the noncollinear geometry investigations are suitable to detect the presence of the second-order term in the anisotropy. Such higher order anisotropy term can yield an easy-cone anisotropy which reduces the thermal stability factor but allows for more reproducible spin transfer torque switching due to a reduced stochasticity of the switching. As a result, the energy per write event decreases much faster than the thermal stability factor as the second-order anisotropy becomes more negative. Easy-cone anisotropy can be useful for fast-switching spin transfer torque magnetic random access memories provided the thermal stability can be maintained above the required value for a given memory specification.

  2. 600 GHz resonant mode in a parallel array of Josephson tunnel junctions connected by superconducting microstrip lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper

    1994-01-01

    The high frequency properties of the one-dimensional transmission line consisting of a parallel array of resistively shunted Josephson tunnel junctions have been studied in the limit of relatively low damping where this nonlinear system exhibits new and interesting phenomena. Here we report...... on experimental and numerical investigations of a resonant step observed at a voltage corresponding to 600 GHz in the dc current-voltage characteristic of a parallel array of 20 identical small NbAl2O3Nb Josephson junctions interconnected by short sections of superconducting microstrip line. The junctions...... are mutually phase locked due to collective interaction with the line sections excited close to the half wavelength resonance. The phase locking range can be adjusted by means of an external dc magnetic field and the step size varies periodically with the magnetic field. The largest step corresponds...

  3. Dependency of Tunneling-Magnetoresistance Ratio on Nanoscale Spacer Thickness and Material for Double MgO Based Perpendicular-Magnetic-Tunneling-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Du-Yeong; Hong, Song-Hwa; Lee, Seung-Eun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2016-01-01

    It was found that in double MgO based perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction spin-valves ex-situ annealed at 400 °C, the tunneling magnetoresistance ratio was extremely sensitive to the material and thickness of the nanoscale spacer: it peaked at a specific thickness (0.40~0.53 nm), and the TMR ratio for W spacers (~134%) was higher than that for Ta spacers (~98%). This dependency on the spacer material and thickness was associated with the (100) body-centered-cubic crystallinity of the MgO layers: the strain enhanced diffusion length in the MgO layers of W atoms (~1.40 nm) was much shorter than that of Ta atoms (~2.85 nm) and the shorter diffusion length led to the MgO layers having better (100) body-centered-cubic crystallinity. PMID:27929031

  4. Dependency of Tunneling-Magnetoresistance Ratio on Nanoscale Spacer Thickness and Material for Double MgO Based Perpendicular-Magnetic-Tunneling-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Du-Yeong; Hong, Song-Hwa; Lee, Seung-Eun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2016-12-01

    It was found that in double MgO based perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction spin-valves ex-situ annealed at 400 °C, the tunneling magnetoresistance ratio was extremely sensitive to the material and thickness of the nanoscale spacer: it peaked at a specific thickness (0.40~0.53 nm), and the TMR ratio for W spacers (~134%) was higher than that for Ta spacers (~98%). This dependency on the spacer material and thickness was associated with the (100) body-centered-cubic crystallinity of the MgO layers: the strain enhanced diffusion length in the MgO layers of W atoms (~1.40 nm) was much shorter than that of Ta atoms (~2.85 nm) and the shorter diffusion length led to the MgO layers having better (100) body-centered-cubic crystallinity.

  5. Design, fabrication, and performance analysis of GaN vertical electron transistors with a buried p/n junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeluri, Ramya, E-mail: ramyay@ece.ucsb.edu; Lu, Jing; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Hurni, Christophe A.; Browne, David A.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Chowdhury, Srabanti [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The Current Aperture Vertical Electron Transistor (CAVET) combines the high conductivity of the two dimensional electron gas channel at the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction with better field distribution offered by a vertical design. In this work, CAVETs with buried, conductive p-GaN layers as the current blocking layer are reported. The p-GaN layer was regrown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and the subsequent channel regrowth was done by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy to maintain the p-GaN conductivity. Transistors with high ON current (10.9 kA/cm{sup 2}) and low ON-resistance (0.4 mΩ cm{sup 2}) are demonstrated. Non-planar selective area regrowth is identified as the limiting factor to transistor breakdown, using planar and non-planar n/p/n structures. Planar n/p/n structures recorded an estimated electric field of 3.1 MV/cm, while non-planar structures showed a much lower breakdown voltage. Lowering the p-GaN regrowth temperature improved breakdown in the non-planar n/p/n structure. Combining high breakdown voltage with high current will enable GaN vertical transistors with high power densities.

  6. Exchange bias effect in martensitic epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films applied to pin CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, N.; Boehnke, A.; Behler, A.; Weise, B.; Waske, A.; Hütten, A.

    2015-05-01

    The exchange bias effect is commonly used to shift the coercive field of a ferromagnet. This technique is crucial for the use of magnetic tunnel junctions as logic or memory devices. Therefore, an independent switching of the two ferromagnetic electrodes is necessary to guarantee a reliable readout. Here, we demonstrate that the intrinsic exchange bias effect of Ni-Mn-Sn can be used to apply a unidirectional anisotropy to magnetic tunnel junctions. For this, we use epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn films as pinning layers for microfabricated CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions. We compare the exchange bias field ( HEB ) measured after field cooling in -10 kOe external field by magnetization measurements with HEB obtained from tunnel magnetoresistance measurements. Consistent for both methods, we find an exchange bias of about HEB=130 Oe at 10 K, which decreases with increasing temperature and vanishes above 70 K.

  7. Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles using Superconducting Tunnel Junction Cryodetection Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Logan D.; Wang, Zongyu; Yan, Jiajun; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Bier, Mark E.

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles coated with either n-octylamine (OA) or α-amino poly(styrene- co-acrylonitrile) (PSAN) ligands (L) have been analyzed using laser desorption/ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) cryodetection mass spectrometry. STJ cryodetection has the advantage of high m/ z detection and allows for the determination of average molecular weights and dispersities for 500-600 kDa ZnO-L nanoparticles. The ability to detect the relative energies deposited into the STJs has allowed for investigation of ZnO-L metastable fragmentation. ZnO-L precursor ions gain enough internal energy during the MALDI process to undergo metastable fragmentation in the flight tube. These fragments produced a lower energy peak, which was assigned as ligand-stripped ZnO cores whereas the individual ligands were at too low of an energy to be observed. From these STJ energy resolved peaks, the average weight percentage of inorganic material making up the nanoparticle was determined, where ZnO-OA and ZnO-PSAN nanoparticles are comprised of 62% and 68% wt ZnO, respectively. In one example, grafting densities were calculated based on the metastable fragmentation of ligands from the core to be 16 and 1.1 nm-2 for ZnO-OA and ZnO-PSAN, respectively, and compared with values determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Development of superconducting tunnel junction as photon counting detector in astronomy; Developpement de jonctions supraconductrices a effet tunnel pour le comptage de photons en astronomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorel, C

    2004-12-15

    This work describes the development of S/Al-AlOx-Al/S Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (STJ) to count photons for astronomical applications in the near-infrared. The incoming light energy is converted into excited charges in a superconducting layer (S, either Nb or Ta) with a population proportional to the deposited energy. The photon energy can thus be evaluated by integrating the tunnel current induced in a voltage biased junction at a very low temperature (100 mK). The performance of STJ for light detection is discussed in the first chapter and compared with the best performances obtained with other techniques based on either superconductors. At the beginning of the thesis, a previous manufacturing process made it possible to obtain good quality Nb based junctions and preliminary results for photon counting. The objective of the thesis was to replace Nb as absorber with Ta, an intrinsically more sensitive material, and secondly to develop a new and more efficient manufacturing process. We first focused on the optimization of the Tantalum thin film quality. Structural analysis showed that these films can be grown epitaxially by magnetron sputtering onto an R-plane sapphire substrate heated to 600 Celsius degrees and covered by a thin Nb buffer layer. Electrical transport measurement from room to low temperatures gave excellent Relative Resistive Ratios of about 50 corresponding to mean free path of the order of 100 nm. Then, we conceived an original manufacturing process batch on 3 inch diameter sapphire substrate with five mask levels. These masks made it possible to produce single pixel STJ of different sizes (from 25*25 to 50*50 square microns) and shapes. We also produced multiple junctions onto a common absorber as well as 9-pixel arrays. Thanks to the development of this process we obtained a very large percentage of quality junctions (>90%) with excellent measured normal resistances of a few micro-ohm cm{sup 2} and low leakage currents of the order of one

  9. X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism studies of Co2FeAl in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebke, D.; Kugler, Z.; Thomas, P.; Schebaum, O.; Schafers, M.; Nissen, D.; Schmalhorst, J.; Hutten, A.; Arenholz, E.; Thomas, A.

    2010-01-11

    The bulk magnetic moment and the element specific magnetic moment of Co{sub 2}FeAl thin films were examined as a function of annealing temperature by alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)/X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), respectively. A high magnetic moment can be achieved for all annealing temperatures and the predicted bulk and interface magnetic moment of about 5 {tilde A}{sub B} are reached via heating. We will also present tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) values of up to 153% at room temperature and 260% at 13 K for MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with Co{sub 2}FeAl and Co-Fe electrodes.

  10. Theoretical investigation of GaAsBi/GaAsN tunneling field-effect transistors with type-II staggered tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibo; Liu, Yan; Han, Genquan; Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    We investigate GaAsBi/GaAsN system for the design of type-II staggered hetero tunneling field-effect transistor (hetero-TFET). Strain-symmetrized GaAsBi/GaAsN with effective lattice match to GaAs exhibits a type-II band lineup, and the effective bandgap EG,eff at interface is significantly reduced with the incorporation of Bi and N elements. The band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) rate and drive current of GaAsBi/GaAsN hetero-TFETs are boosted due to the utilizing of the type-II staggered tunneling junction with the reduced EG,eff. Numerical simulation shows that the drive current and subthreshold swing (SS) characteristics of GaAsBi/GaAsN hetero-TFETs are remarkably improved by increasing Bi and N compositions. The dilute content GaAs0.85Bi0.15/GaAs0.92N0.08 staggered hetero-nTFET achieves 7.8 and 550 times higher ION compared to InAs and In0.53Ga0.47As homo-TFETs, respectively, at the supply voltage of 0.3 V. GaAsBi/GaAsN heterostructure is a potential candidate for high performance TFET.

  11. Hard layer demagnetization by soft layer cycling in a MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warin, P., E-mail: patrick.warin@cea.f [CEA, INAC, SP2M, NM, UMR-E 9002, 17 rue des martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, SP2M, UMR-E 9002, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Tran Thi, T.N.; Person, P. de; Jamet, M.; Beigne, C.; Samson, Y. [CEA, INAC, SP2M, NM, UMR-E 9002, 17 rue des martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, SP2M, UMR-E 9002, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2011-01-15

    We report here that in perpendicular tunnel junction the hard layer demagnetizes when the soft layer is cycled. This happens faster when the cycling field is closer to the reversal field of the hard layer. Magnetic force microscopy imaging done at different stages of the cycle after several loops show compact demagnetized areas surrounded by large saturated zones in the hard layer. A mechanism based on interlayer magnetostatic coupling induced by the stray field created by domain wall in the soft layer is presented.

  12. Solar energy conversion through the interaction of plasmons with tunnel junctions. Part A: Solar cell analysis. Part B: Photoconductor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, P. E.; Schwartz, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A solar cell utilizing guided optical waves and tunnel junctions was analyzed to determine its feasibility. From this analysis, it appears that the limits imposed upon conventional multiple cell systems also limit this solar cell. Due to this limitation, it appears that the relative simplicity of the conventional multiple cell systems over the solar cell make the conventional multiple cell systems the more promising candidate for improvement. It was discovered that some superlattice structures studied could be incorporated into an infrared photodetector. This photoconductor appears to be promising as a high speed, sensitive (high D sup star sub BLIP) detector in the wavelength range from 15 to over 100 micrometers.

  13. Zero-field spin transfer oscillators based on magnetic tunnel junction having perpendicular polarizer and planar free layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally studied spin-transfer-torque induced magnetization oscillations in an asymmetric MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction device consisting of an in-plane magnetized free layer and an out-of-plane magnetized polarizer. A steady auto-oscillation was achieved at zero magnetic field and room temperature, with an oscillation frequency that was strongly dependent on bias currents, with a large frequency tunability of 1.39 GHz/mA. Our results suggest that this new structure has a high potential for new microwave device designs.

  14. Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions with BaO and MgO/BaO barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rogge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We succeed to integrate BaO as a tunneling barrier into Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs. By means of Auger electron spectroscopy it could be proven that the applied annealing temperatures during BaO deposition and afterwards do not cause any diffusion of Ba neither into the lower Heusler compound lead nor into the upper Fe counter electrode. Nevertheless, a negative tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR ratio of -10% is found for Co2FeAl (24 nm / BaO (5 nm / Fe (7 nm MTJs, which can be attributed to the preparation procedure and can be explained by the formation of Co- and Fe-oxides at the interfaces between the Heusler and the crystalline BaO barrier by comparing with theory. Although an amorphous structure of the BaO barrier seems to be confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, it cannot entirely be ruled out that this is an artifact of TEM sample preparation due to the sensitivity of BaO to moisture. By replacing the BaO tunneling barrier with an MgO/BaO double layer barrier, the electric stability could effectively be increased by a factor of five. The resulting TMR effect is found to be about +20% at room temperature, although a fully antiparallel state has not been realized.

  15. Evidence of two-electron tunneling interference in Nb/InAs junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Badolato, Antonio; Giazotto, Francesco; Lazzarino, Marco; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Beltram, Fabio; Lucheroni, Carlo; Fazio, Rosario

    2000-01-01

    The impact of junction transparency in driving phase-coherent charge transfer across diffusive semiconductor-superconductor junctions is demonstrated. We present conductivity data for a set of Nb-InAs junctions differing only in interface transparency. Our experimental findings are analyzed within the quasi-classical Green-function approach and unambiguously show the physical processes giving rise to the observed excess zero-bias conductivity.

  16. Impact of lattice strain on the tunnel magnetoresistance in Fe/insulator/Fe and Fe/insulator/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2013-08-19

    The objective of this work is to describe the tunnel electron current in single-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions within an approach that goes beyond the single-band transport model. We propose a ballistic multichannel electron transport model that can explain the influence of in-plane lattice strain on the tunnel magnetoresistance as well as the asymmetric voltage behavior. We consider as an example single-crystal magnetic Fe(110) electrodes for Fe/insulator/Fe and Fe/insulator/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 tunnel junctions, where the electronic band structures of Fe and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 are derived by ab initio calculations.

  17. Graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites decorated with quantum tunneling junctions: preparation strategies, microstructures and formation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingxiu; Wu, Xianzheng; Wang, Lijun; Chen, Zhiwen; Wang, Shilong

    2014-09-28

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) and graphene are versatile materials that are vitally important for creating new functional and smart materials. A facile, simple and efficient ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal synthesis approach has been developed to prepare graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites (GSNCs), including three samples with graphene/Sn weight ratios = 1 : 2 (GSNC-2), 1 : 1 (GSNC-1), and graphene oxide/Sn weight ratio = 1 : 1 (GOSNC-1). Low-magnification electron microscopy analysis indicated that graphene was exfoliated and adorned with SnO2 nanoparticles, which were dispersed uniformly on both the sides of the graphene nanosheets. High-magnification electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites presented network tunneling frameworks, which were decorated with the SnO2 quantum tunneling junctions. The size distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles was estimated to range from 3 to 5.5 nm. Comparing GSNC-2, GSNC-1, and GOSNC-1, GOSNC-1 was found to exhibit a significantly better the homogeneous distribution and a considerably smaller size distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles, which indicated that it was better to use graphene oxide as a supporting material and SnCl4·5H2O as a precursor to synthesize hybrid graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites. Experimental results suggest that the graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites with interesting SnO2 quantum tunneling junctions may be a promising material to facilitate the improvement of the future design of micro/nanodevices.

  18. Current induced light emission and light induced current in molecular tunneling junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Galperin, Michael; Nitzan, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of metal-molecule-metal junctions with light is considered within a simple generic model. We show, for the first time, that light induced current in unbiased junctions can take place when the bridging molecule is characterized by a strong charge-transfer transition. The same model shows current induced light emission under potential bias that exceeds the molecular excitation energy. Results based on realistic estimates of molecular-lead coupling and molecule-radiation field in...

  19. Magneto-Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ning, Keyu; Liu, Houfang; Ju, Zhenyi; Fang, Chi; Wan, Caihua; Cheng, Jinglei; Liu, Xiao; Li, Linsen; Feng, Jiafeng; Wei, Hongxiang; Han, Xiufeng; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-01-01

    As one invigorated filed of spin caloritronics combining with spin, charge and heat current, the magneto-Seebeck effect has been experimentally and theoretically studied in spin tunneling thin films and nanostructures...

  20. Suppression of in-plane tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance effect in Co2MnSi/MgO/n-GaAs and CoFe/MgO/n-GaAs junctions by inserting a MgO barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Akiho, Takafumi; Uemura, Tetsuya; Harada, Masanobu; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MgO tunnel barriers on both junction resistance and tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) characteristics of Co2MnSi(CMS)/MgO/n-GaAs junctions and Co50Fe50(CoFe)/MgO/n-GaAs junctions were investigated. The resistance-area (RA) product of the CMS/MgO/n-GaAs junctions showed an exponential dependence on MgO thickness (t_[MgO]), indicating that the MgO layer acts as a tunneling barrier. The RA product of CMS/MgO/n-GaAs with t_[MgO] < 1 nm was smaller than that of the samp...

  1. Zurek-Kibble mechanism for the spontaneous vortex formation in Nb-Al/Al-ox/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions: New theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Aarøe, Morten

    2006-01-01

    New scaling behavior has been both predicted and observed in the spontaneous production of fluxons in quenched Nb-Al/Al-ox/Nb annular Josephson tunnel junctions (JTJs) as a function of the quench time, tau(Q). The probability f(1) to trap a single defect during the normal-metal-superconductor pha...

  2. X-ray response of tunnel junctions with a trapping layer. [Nb/Al/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/Al/Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grand, J.B. le (Space Research Organization Netherlands (SRON), Utrecht (Netherlands)); Valko, P. (Space Research Organization Netherlands (SRON), Utrecht (Netherlands)); Bruijn, M.P. (Space Research Organization Netherlands (SRON), Utrecht (Netherlands)); Frericks, M.J. (Space Research Organization Netherlands (SRON), Utrecht (Netherlands)); Patel, S. (Space Research Organization Netherlands (SRON), Utrecht (Netherlands)); Korte, P.A.J. de (Space Research Organization Netherlands (SRON), Utrecht (Netherlands)); Gijsbertsen, J.G. (Low Temperature Group, Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)); Houwman, E.P. (Low Temperature Group, Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)); Flokstra, J. (Low Temperature Group, Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))

    1994-02-01

    The use of trapping layers in superconductive tunnel junctions may drastically improve their functioning as X-ray detectors. Information about these trapping layers can be obtained from I/V-curves and X-ray spectra. The application of a magnetic field causes a substantial reduction of the bandgap in the trapping layer. (orig.)

  3. Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, David

    2017-12-13

    Micro-light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) with tunnel junction (TJ) contacts were grown entirely by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A LED structure was grown, treated with UV ozone and hydrofluoric acid, and reloaded into the reactor for TJ regrowth. The silicon doping level of the n++-GaN TJ was varied to examine its effect on voltage. µLEDs from 2.5 × 10−5 to 0.01 mm2 in area were processed, and the voltage penalty of the TJ for the smallest µLED at 20 A/cm2 was 0.60 V relative to that for a standard LED with indium tin oxide. The peak external quantum efficiency of the TJ LED was 34%.

  4. Compensation of orange-peel coupling effect in magnetic tunnel junction free layer via shape engineering for nanomagnet logic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faisal A.; Sankar, Vijay K.; Li, Peng; Csaba, Gyorgy; Chen, Eugene; Bernstein, Gary H.

    2014-05-01

    We show that by avoiding fringing fields from synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) structures and by engineering the shape of free layers, one can compensate the parasitic bias fields and have an unbiased magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) free layer as an output for nanomagnet logic. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurements are used to investigate the switching behavior of nanoscale free layers of a PtMn/CoFe/Ru/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB in-plane MTJ structure. The CoFe/Ru/CoFeB SAF structure of the measured MTJ stack is implemented in a shared configuration to eliminate fringing fields. In the absence of fringing fields, we experimentally observe a ferromagnetic "orange-peel" coupling field of 21 Oe between the nanoscale free layers and shared fixed layer. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to optimize the amount of slant on the edge of the free layer that compensates the 21 Oe bias field.

  5. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) with Double Tunnel Junction Contact and Quantum Dot Barrier Infrared Detector (QD-BIRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.-Y; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Keo, Sam A.; Nguyen, Jean; Hoglund, Linda; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Hill, Cory J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice based complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) has already demonstrated very good performance in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. In this work, we describe results on a modified CBIRD device that incorporates a double tunnel junction contact designed for robust device and focal plane array processing. The new device also exhibited reduced turn-on voltage. We also report results on the quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD). By incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the InAsSb absorber of the standard nBn detector structure, the QD-BIRD extend the detector cutoff wavelength from approximately 4.2 micrometers to 6 micrometers, allowing the coverage of the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The device has been observed to show infrared response at 225 K.

  6. Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, David; Mughal, Asad J.; Wong, Matthew S.; Alhassan, Abdullah I.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2018-01-01

    Micro-light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) with tunnel junction (TJ) contacts were grown entirely by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A LED structure was grown, treated with UV ozone and hydrofluoric acid, and reloaded into the reactor for TJ regrowth. The silicon doping level of the n++-GaN TJ was varied to examine its effect on voltage. µLEDs from 2.5 × 10‑5 to 0.01 mm2 in area were processed, and the voltage penalty of the TJ for the smallest µLED at 20 A/cm2 was 0.60 V relative to that for a standard LED with indium tin oxide. The peak external quantum efficiency of the TJ LED was 34%.

  7. Tunneling nanotubes (TNT) mediate long-range gap junctional communication: Implications for HIV cell to cell spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafo, George; Prevedel, Lisa; Eugenin, Eliseo

    2017-11-30

    Cell-to-cell communication is essen for the development of multicellular systems and is coordinated by soluble factors, exosomes, gap junction (GJ) channels, and the recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). We and others have demonstrated that TNT-like structures are mostly present during pathogenic conditions, including HIV infection. However, the nature, function, and communication properties of TNTs are still poorly understood. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that TNTs induced by HIV infection have functional GJs at the ends of their membrane extensions and that TNTs mediate long-range GJ communication during HIV infection. Blocking or reducing GJ communication during HIV infection resulted in aberrant TNT cell-to-cell contact, compromising HIV spread and replication. Thus, TNTs and associated GJs are required for the efficient cell-to-cell communication and viral spread. Our data indicate that targeting TNTs/GJs may provide new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of HIV.

  8. Investigation of high-resolution superconducting tunnel junction detectors for low-energy X-ray fluorescence analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Beckhoff, B; Ulm, G

    2003-01-01

    The energy resolution of conventional semiconductor detectors is insufficient for simultaneously separating the leading fluorescence lines of low Z and medium Z materials in the soft X-ray regime. It is therefore important to investigate alternative detection instruments offering higher energy resolution and evaluate their applicability to soft X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. In this paper, various results of the characterization and evaluation of a cryogenic superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector, which was provided to the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, are given with respect to both detector response functions and XRF. For this investigation, monochromatized undulator radiation of high spectral purity, available to the PTB X-ray radiometry laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II, was employed, by which it was possible to record the STJ response functions at various photon energies of interest ranging from 180 to 1600 eV. By scan...

  9. Investigation of the Mn{sub 3−δ}Ga/MgO interface for magnetic tunneling junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ViolBarbosa, C. E., E-mail: carlos.barbosa@cpfs.mpg.de; Ouardi, S.; Fecher, G. H.; Felser, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Nöthnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Kubota, T.; Mizukami, S.; Miyazaki, T. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Kozina, X.; Ikenaga, E. [JASRI, SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    The Mn{sub 3}Ga Heusler compound and related alloys are the most promising materials for the realization of spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive memories. Mn–Ga films exhibits perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and high spin polarization and can be used to improve the performance of MgO-based magneto tunneling junctions. The interface between Mn–Ga and MgO films were chemically characterized by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experiment indicated the formation of Ga-O bonds at the interface and evidenced changes in the local environment of Mn atoms in the proximity of the MgO film. We show that the deposition of few monoatomic layers of Mg on top of Mn–Ga film, before the MgO deposition, strongly suppresses the oxidation of gallium.

  10. Experimental Observation of Non-'S-Wave' Superconducting Behavior in Bulk Superconducting Tunneling Junctions of Yba2Cu3O7-δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Jose Guerra

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of non-s-wave superconductivity from normal tunneling experiments in bulk tunneling junctions of YBa2Cu3O7-δ is presented. The I-V and dI/dV characteristics of bulk superconducting tunneling junctions of YBa2Cu3O7-δ have been measured at 77.0K and clear deviation from s-wave superconducting behavior has been observed. The result agrees with d-wave symmetry, and interpreting the data in this way, the magnitude of the superconducting energy gap, 2Δ, is found to be (0.038 ± 0.002 eV. Comparing this energy gap with Tc (2Δ/kB Tc = 5.735, indicates that these high-Tc superconductors are strongly correlated materials, which in contrast with BCS-superconductors are believed to be weakly correlated.

  11. Simulations of fine structures on the zero field steps of Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuermann, M.; Chi, C. C.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1986-01-01

    are generated by the interaction of the bias current with the fluxon at the junction edges. On the first zero field step, the voltages of successive fine structures are given by Vn=[h-bar]/2e(2omegap/n), where n is an even integer. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  12. Self-field effects in window-type Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Koshelets, Valery P; Mukhortova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The properties of Josephson devices are strongly affected by geometrical effects such as those associated with the magnetic field induced by the bias current. The generally adopted analysis of Owen and Scalapino (1967 Phys. Rev. 164, 538) for the critical current, Ic, of an in-line Josephson tunnel...

  13. From tunneling to contact: Inelastic signals in an atomic gold junction from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas; Lorente, N.; Paulsson, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of electron conductance in the presence of inelastic effects is studied as an atomic gold contact is formed evolving from a low-conductance regime (tunneling) to a high-conductance regime (contact). In order to characterize each regime, we perform density-functional theory (DFT...

  14. Light emission and finite-frequency shot noise in molecular junctions: from tunneling to contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Brandbyge, Mads

    2013-01-01

    that this is consistent with the established theory in the tunneling regime, by writing the finite-frequency shot noise as a sum of inelastic transitions between different electronic states. Based on this, we develop a practical scheme to perform calculations on realistic structures using nonequilibrium Green's functions....... The photon emission yields obtained reproduce the essential feature of the experiments....

  15. Planar heterostructures of single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides: Composite structures, Schottky junctions, tunneling barriers, and half metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Mehmet; Kılıç, ćetin; Ciraci, S.

    2017-02-01

    Planar composite structures formed from the stripes of transition metal dichalcogenides joined commensurately along their zigzag or armchair edges can attain different states in a two-dimensional (2D), single-layer, such as a half metal, 2D or one-dimensional (1D) nonmagnetic metal and semiconductor. Widening of stripes induces metal-insulator transition through the confinements of electronic states to adjacent stripes, that results in the metal-semiconductor junction with a well-defined band lineup. Linear bending of the band edges of the semiconductor to form a Schottky barrier at the boundary between the metal and semiconductor is revealed. Unexpectedly, strictly 1D metallic states develop in a 2D system along the boundaries between stripes, which pins the Fermi level. Through the δ doping of a narrow metallic stripe one attains a nanowire in the 2D semiconducting sheet or narrow band semiconductor. A diverse combination of constituent stripes in either periodically repeating or finite-size heterostructures can acquire critical fundamental features and offer device capacities, such as Schottky junctions, nanocapacitors, resonant tunneling double barriers, and spin valves. These predictions are obtained from first-principles calculations performed in the framework of density functional theory.

  16. Tunneling conductance in gapped graphene-based normal metal-insulator-superconductor junctions: Case of massive Dirac electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudarzi, H., E-mail: h.goudarzi@urmia.ac.i [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, P.O. Box 165, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sedghi, H.; Khezerlou, M.; Mabhouti, Kh. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, P.O. Box 165, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-01

    We study the quantum transport property in a gapped graphene-based normal metal-insulator-superconductor junctions (NG/IG/SG), in the limit of a thin barrier. The charged fermions in NG/IG/SG structure are treated as massive relativistic particles. Based on Andreev and normal reflections in normal-superconductor graphene-based junction and BTK formalism, the tunneling conductance's in terms of some different electrostatic superconductor, U{sub 0} and barrier, V{sub 0} potential are obtained. Using the experimental based values of the Fermi energy in the NG and SG (E{sub FN} and E{sub FN} + U{sub 0}, respectively), energy gap in graphene (2mv{sub F}{sup 2}) and superconducting order parameter, {Delta}, it is shown that the conductance spectra of such system represent a new behavior, i.e. if we take |E{sub FN}-mv{sub F}{sup 2}|{yields}0, it becomes as a step function of V{sub 0}. This behavior of charge transportation can be considered as a nano switch.

  17. Asymmetric angular dependence of spin-transfer torques in CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ling, E-mail: lingtang@zjut.edu.cn; Xu, Zhi-Jun, E-mail: xzj@zjut.edu.cn; Zuo, Xian-Jun; Yang, Ze-Jin, E-mail: zejinyang@zjut.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, College of Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); Gao, Qing-He [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China, Information Engineering College, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang 110847 (China); Linghu, Rong-Feng, E-mail: linghu@gznu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics Sciences, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018 (China); Guo, Yun-Dong, E-mail: g308yd@126.com [College of Engineering and Technology, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang 641112 (China)

    2016-04-28

    Using a first-principles noncollinear wave-function-matching method, we studied the spin-transfer torques (STTs) in CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe(001) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), where three different types of B-doped MgO in the spacer are considered, including B atoms replacing Mg atoms (Mg{sub 3}BO{sub 4}), B atoms replacing O atoms (Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 3}), and B atoms occupying interstitial positions (Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 4}) in MgO. A strong asymmetric angular dependence of STT can be obtained both in ballistic CoFe/Mg{sub 3}BO{sub 4} and CoFe/Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 4} based MTJs, whereas a nearly symmetric STT curve is observed in the junctions based on CoFe/Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 3}. Furthermore, the asymmetry of the angular dependence of STT can be suppressed significantly by the disorder of B distribution. Such skewness of STTs in the CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe MTJs could be attributed to the interfacial resonance states induced by the B diffusion into MgO spacer.

  18. Non-equilibrium quantum transport of spin-polarized electrons and back action on molecular magnet tunnel-junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the non-equilibrium quantum transport through a single-molecule magnet embedded in a tunnel junction with ferromagnetic electrodes, which generate spin-polarized electrons. The lead magnetization direction is non-collinear with the uniaxial anisotropy easy-axis of molecule-magnet. Based on the Pauli rate-equation approach we demonstrate the magnetization reversion of molecule-magnet induced by the back action of spin-polarized current in the sequential tunnel regime. The asymptotic magnetization of molecular magnet and spin-polarization of transport current are obtained as functions of time by means of time-dependent solution of the rate equation. It is found that the antiparallel configuration of the ferromagnetic electrodes and molecular anisotropy easy-axis is an effective structure to reverse both the magnetization of molecule-magnet and spin-polarization of the transport current. Particularly the non-collinear angle dependence provides useful knowledge for the quantum manipulation of molecule-magnet and spin polarized electron-transport.

  19. Non-equilibrium quantum transport of spin-polarized electrons and back action on molecular magnet tunnel-junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Yao, Hui; Nie, Yi-Hang; Liang, J.-Q.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the non-equilibrium quantum transport through a single-molecule magnet embedded in a tunnel junction with ferromagnetic electrodes, which generate spin-polarized electrons. The lead magnetization direction is non-collinear with the uniaxial anisotropy easy-axis of molecule-magnet. Based on the Pauli rate-equation approach we demonstrate the magnetization reversion of molecule-magnet induced by the back action of spin-polarized current in the sequential tunnel regime. The asymptotic magnetization of molecular magnet and spin-polarization of transport current are obtained as functions of time by means of time-dependent solution of the rate equation. It is found that the antiparallel configuration of the ferromagnetic electrodes and molecular anisotropy easy-axis is an effective structure to reverse both the magnetization of molecule-magnet and spin-polarization of the transport current. Particularly the non-collinear angle dependence provides useful knowledge for the quantum manipulation of molecule-magnet and spin polarized electron-transport.

  20. Field detection in MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with superparamagnetic free layer and magnetic flux concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J. M.; Freitas, P. P.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) were deposited with CoFeB free layer thickness ranging from 1.3 to 3 nm. The samples were processed with areas of 10, 100, and 1000 μm2, presented RA products of ˜10 kΩ μm2, and tunneling magnetoresistance ratio values varying from ˜10% (t =1.3 nm) to ˜210% (t =3 nm). All the samples with t Noise measurements made in samples with superparamagnetic free layer showed negligible magnetic noise in the sensitive region. The sensitivity loss caused by the reduced free layer thickness was partially recovered using magnetic flux concentrators (MFCs). The MFC had a maximum gain of ˜3, a limited value to ensure a uniform gain for the MTJs with larger area (up to 1000 μm2). The MFC's influence on the sensor's noise behavior appears to increase with the sensor area, for both white noise background and frequency dependent noise.

  1. Stochastic macromodel of magnetic tunnel junction resistance variation and critical current dependence on resistance variation for SPICE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Juntae; Song, Yunheub

    2017-04-01

    The resistance distribution of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) shows nonuniformity according to various MTJ parameters. Moreover, this resistance variation leads to write-current density variation, which can cause serious problems when designing peripheral circuits for spin transfer torque magnetoresistance random access memory (STT-MRAM) and commercializing gigabit STT-MRAM. Therefore, a macromodel of MTJ including resistance, tunneling magnetoresistance ratio (TMR), and critical current variations is required for circuit designers to design MRAM peripheral circuits, that can overcome the various effects of the variations, such as write failure and read failure, and realize STT-MRAM. In this study, we investigated a stochastic behavior macromodel of the write current dependence on the MTJ resistance variation. The proposed model can possibly be used to analyze the write current density in relation to the resistance and TMR variations of MTJ with various parameter variations. It can be very helpful for designing STT-MRAM circuits and simulating the operation of STT-MRAM devices considering MTJ variations.

  2. Tunnel magnetoresistance effect in magnetic tunnel junctions using Fermi-level-tuned epitaxial Fe2Cr1-xCoxSi Heusler alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Pu; Han, Gu-Chang; Lu, Hui; Qiu, Jinjun; Yap, Qi-Jia; Teo, Kie-Leong

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports a systematic investigation on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe2Cr1-xCoxSi Heusler alloys with various compositions of x by co-sputtering Fe2CrSi and Fe2CoSi targets and their applications in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Fe2Cr1-xCoxSi films of high crystalline quality have been epitaxially grown on MgO substrate using Cr as a buffer layer. The L21 phase can be obtained at x = 0.3 and 0.5, while B2 phase for the rest compositions. A tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of 19.3% at room temperature is achieved for MTJs using Fe2Cr0.3Co0.7Si as the bottom electrode with 350 °C post-annealing. This suggests that the Fermi level in Fe2Cr1-xCoxSi has been successfully tuned close to the center of band gap of minority spin with x = 0.7 and therefore better thermal stability and higher spin polarization are achieved in Fe2Cr0.3Co0.7Si. The post-annealing effect for MTJs is also studied in details. The removal of the oxidized Fe2Cr0.3Co0.7Si at the interface with MgO barrier is found to be the key to improve the TMR ratio. When the thickness of the inserted Mg layer increases from 0.3 to 0.4 nm, the TMR ratio is greatly enhanced from 19.3% to 28%.

  3. Tunneling conductance in graphene-based normal metal-insulator-superconductor junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Chunxu, E-mail: chunxu_bai@yahoo.c [Department of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Yang Yanling [Department of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China)

    2010-01-25

    Based on the transfer-matrix method, we have investigated the coherent quantum transport in a graphene-based normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NG/IG/SG) junctions, in the limit of a thin barrier. It is found that the conductance spectra of such system, in contrast to a pi periodic oscillatory behavior is shown for aligned Fermi surfaces of the normal and superconducting regions, exhibit a new pi/2 periodic oscillatory behavior as a function of barrier strength (chi) for a large Fermi surface mismatch.

  4. Ion beam smoothing with low-energy argon ions and reduction of Néel “orange peel” coupling in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P. A.; Roos, B. F. P.; Demokritov, S. O.; Hillebrands, B.

    2005-04-01

    The influence of low-energy argon bombardment with an ion energy of 30-70 eV and normal incidence on the morphology of a 15-nm-thick Ni 81Fe 19 film on SiO 2 has been studied at room temperature. Scanning tunneling microscope measurements show a reduction of the root-mean-square roughness of over 40%. For magnetic tunnel junctions prepared by involving ion-beam smoothing process, the Néel coupling is substantially reduced and measured by magneto-optic Kerr magnetometry.

  5. Infrared detection with high-Tc bolometers and response of Nb tunnel junctions to picosecond voltage pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, Simon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Oxide superconductors with high critical temperature Tc make sensitive thermometers for several types of infrared bolometers. The authors built composite bolometers with YBa2Cu3O7-δ thermometers on sapphire substrates which have higher sensitivity than competing thermal detectors which operate at temperatures above 77 K. A 1 x 1 mm bolometer with gold black serving as the radiation absorber has useful sensitivity for wavelengths 20--100 μm. A 3 x 3 mm bolometer with a bismuth film as the absorber operates from 20--100 μm. High-Tc bolometers which are fabricated with micromachining techniques on membranes of Si or Si3N4 have potential application to large-format arrays which are used for infrared imaging. A nonisothermal high-Tc bolometer can be fabricated on a membrane of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which is in thermal contact with the heat sink along the perimeter of the membrane. A thermal analysis indicates that the YSZ membrane bolometer can have improved sensitivity compared to the sapphire bolometer for spectrometer applications. The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junction is highly nonlinear in the applied voltage. The authors have made the first measurement of the linear response of the quasiparticle current in a Nb/AlOx/Nb junction over a broad bandwidth from 75--200 GHz. Nonlinear measurements made with these pulses may provide information about the quasiparticle lifetime. Preliminary data from such measurements are presented.

  6. Modulations of interlayer exchange coupling through ultrathin MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions: First-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizhuo; Xia, Ke; Min, Tai; Ke, Youqi

    2017-07-01

    Ultrathin MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) features high electron/heat current density, presenting important applications in spintronics. Here, we report a first-principles study of the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) through ultrathin MgO-based MTJs. We investigate the effects of different modulations on the IEC, including temperature, different interfacial disorders, and the type and thickness of the ferromagnetic (FM) materials. It is found that the interfacial disorders, such as oxygen vacancies, boron and carbon impurities, can significantly influence the magnitude and sign of the IEC. The presence of interfacial disorders enhances the anti-FM coupling contribution and reduces the FM coupling contribution to the total IEC, and can thus change the total IEC from FM to Anti-FM in the ultrathin MTJ. We also find that FM materials have important effects on IEC: the IEC with CoFe alloy exhibits much weaker dependence on the interfacial disorders and temperature than that with the Fe. Our first-principles results provide a good explanation for the serious inconsistency between previous experimental measurements. Moreover, by studying the junction structure Vacuum/FM1/MgO/FM2 (FM1, FM2=Fe, CoFe), we find that the ultrathin FM1 layers can dramatically enhance the FM IEC and the IEC enhancement significantly depends on the combination of FM1-FM2. We show that the enhanced FM IEC with ultrathin FM1 can be sustained with a considerable amount of surface roughness in FM1 and interfacial disorder.

  7. A comprehensive picture in the view of atomic scale on piezoelectricity of ZnO tunnel junctions: The first principles simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genghong Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectricity is closely related with the performance and application of piezoelectric devices. It is a crucial issue to understand its detailed fundamental for designing functional devices with more peculiar performances. Basing on the first principles simulations, the ZnO piezoelectric tunnel junction is taken as an example to systematically investigate its piezoelectricity (including the piezopotential energy, piezoelectric field, piezoelectric polarization and piezocharge and explore their correlation. The comprehensive picture of the piezoelectricity in the ZnO tunnel junction is revealed at atomic scale and it is verified to be the intrinsic characteristic of ZnO barrier, independent of its terminated surface but dependent on its c axis orientation and the applied strain. In the case of the ZnO c axis pointing from right to left, an in-plane compressive strain will induce piezocharges (and a piezopotential energy drop with positive and negative signs (negative and positive signs emerging respectively at the left and right terminated surfaces of the ZnO barrier. Meanwhile a piezoelectric polarization (and a piezoelectric field pointing from right to left (from left to right are also induced throughout the ZnO barrier. All these piezoelectric physical quantities would reverse when the applied strain switches from compressive to tensile. This study provides an atomic level insight into the fundamental behavior of the piezoelectricity of the piezoelectric tunnel junction and should have very useful information for future designs of piezoelectric devices.

  8. An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, S M; Zhao, S; Wu, Y; Ra, Y-H; Liu, X; Vanka, S; Mi, Z

    2017-02-08

    To date, semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in the deep ultraviolet (UV) spectral range exhibit very low efficiency due to the presence of large densities of defects and extremely inefficient p-type conduction of conventional AlGaN quantum well heterostructures. We have demonstrated that such critical issues can be potentially addressed by using nearly defect-free AlGaN tunnel junction core-shell nanowire heterostructures. The core-shell nanowire arrays exhibit high photoluminescence efficiency (∼80%) in the UV-C band at room temperature. With the incorporation of an epitaxial Al tunnel junction, the p-(Al)GaN contact-free nanowire deep UV LEDs showed nearly one order of magnitude reduction in the device resistance, compared to the conventional nanowire p-i-n device. The unpackaged Al tunnel junction deep UV LEDs exhibit an output power >8 mW and a peak external quantum efficiency ∼0.4%, which are nearly one to two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported AlGaN nanowire devices. Detailed studies further suggest that the maximum achievable efficiency is limited by electron overflow and poor light extraction efficiency due to the TM polarized emission.

  9. Radio-frequency tunnel-junction shot noise thermometry and its application to the study of thermal properties at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Hwan; Ha, Dong-Gwang; Song, Woon; Chong, Yonuk

    2013-03-01

    We developed a radio-frequency broadband measurement setup for shot noise thermometry in the temperature range from 0.1 K to 300 K. The noise power from a metallic tunnel junction was measured at 1 GHz with a bandwidth of 400 MHz. Very small noise signal from the tunnel junction was amplified by a cryogenic HEMT amplifier. The signal was then amplified by a room temperature amplifiers followed by a diode detector that converts the noise power into voltage output. Broadband measurement technique enables a fast measurement of RF signal. The shot noise thermometer directly measures the electron temperature and our measurement uncertainty is less than 3% in the sub-Kelvin range. Because of the small size of the tunnel junction, local measurement of the temperature on a device is possible. Since we measure the electron temperature directly, we can apply this technique to the study of thermal properties at low temperature.We suggest a method of measuring electron temperature before and after a thermal process in a chip at low temperature, which will help understanding of the thermal properties of electron-phonon system at low temperature.

  10. Atomic-Scale Structure and Local Chemistry of CoFeB-MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongchang; Saito, Mitsuhiro; McKenna, Keith P; Fukami, Shunsuke; Sato, Hideo; Ikeda, Shoji; Ohno, Hideo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-03-09

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) constitute a promising building block for future nonvolatile memories and logic circuits. Despite their pivotal role, spatially resolving and chemically identifying each individual stacking layer remains challenging due to spatially localized features that complicate characterizations limiting understanding of the physics of MTJs. Here, we combine advanced electron microscopy, spectroscopy, and first-principles calculations to obtain a direct structural and chemical imaging of the atomically confined layers in a CoFeB-MgO MTJ, and clarify atom diffusion and interface structures in the MTJ following annealing. The combined techniques demonstrate that B diffuses out of CoFeB electrodes into Ta interstitial sites rather than MgO after annealing, and CoFe bonds atomically to MgO grains with an epitaxial orientation relationship by forming Fe(Co)-O bonds, yet without incorporation of CoFe in MgO. These findings afford a comprehensive perspective on structure and chemistry of MTJs, helping to develop high-performance spintronic devices by atomistic design.

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Electronics for Large Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detector Arrays for Synchrotron Soft X-ray Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, William K

    2009-03-06

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors offer a an approach to detecting soft x-rays with energy resolutions 4-5 times better and at rates 10 faster than traditions semiconductor detectors. To make such detectors feasible, however, then need to be deployed in large arrays of order 1000 detectors, which in turn implies that their processing electronics must be compact, fully computer controlled, and low cost per channel while still delivering ultra-low noise performance so as to not degrade the STJ's performance. We report on our progress in designing a compact, low cost preamplifier intended for this application. In particular, we were able to produce a prototype preamplifier of 2 sq-cm area and a parts cost of less than $30 that matched the energy resolution of the best conventional system to date and demonstrated its ability to acquire an STJ I-V curve under computer control, the critical step for determining and setting the detectors' operating points under software control.

  12. Investigation on etch characteristics of nanometer-sized magnetic tunnel junction stacks using a HBr/Ar plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ho; Xiao, Yu Bin; Kong, Seon Mi; Chung, Chee Won

    2011-07-01

    The etch characteristics of CoFeB magnetic films and magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) stacks masked with Ti films were investigated using an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in a HBr/Ar gas mix. The etch rate, etch selectivity, and etch profile of the CoFeB films were obtained as a function of the HBr concentration. As the HBr gas was added to Ar, the etch rate of the CoFeB films, and the etch selectivity to the Ti hard mask, gradually decreased, but the etch profile of the CoFeB films was improved. The effects of the HBr concentration and etch parameters on the etch profile of the MTJ stacks with a nanometer-sized 70 x 100 nm2 pattern were explored. At 10% HBr concentration, low ICP RF power, and low DC-bias voltage, better etch profiles of the MTJ stacks were obtained without redeposition. It was confirmed that the protective layer containing hydrogen, and the surface bombardment of the Ar ions, played a key role in obtaining a steep sidewall angle in the etch profile. Fine-pattern transfer of the MTJ stacks with a high degree of anisotropy was achieved using a HBr/Ar gas chemistry.

  13. Bias-voltage dependence of perpendicular spin-transfer torque in asymmetric MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Se Chung

    2009-10-25

    Spin-transfer torque (STT) allows the electrical control of magnetic states in nanostructures. The STT in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is of particular importance owing to its potential for device applications. It has been demonstrated that the MTJ has a sizable perpendicular STT (, field-like torque), which substantially affects STT-driven magnetization dynamics. In contrast to symmetric MTJs where the bias dependence of is quadratic, it is theoretically predicted that the symmetry breaking of the system causes an extra linear bias dependence. Here, we report experimental results that are consistent with the predicted linear bias dependence in asymmetric MTJs. The linear contribution is quite significant and its sign changes from positive to negative as the asymmetry is modified. This result opens a way to design the bias dependence of the field-like term, which is useful for device applications by allowing, in particular, the suppression of the abnormal switching-back phenomena. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrical spin injection into GaAs based light emitting diodes using perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction-type spin injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, B. S. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Barate, P.; Renucci, P.; Marie, X. [Université de Toulouse, INSA-CNRS-UPS, LPCNO, 135 avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Frougier, J.; Jaffrès, H.; George, J.-M. [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Xu, B.; Wang, Z. G. [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Djeffal, A.; Petit-Watelot, S.; Mangin, S.; Lu, Y., E-mail: yuan.lu@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Han, X. F. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-04-11

    Remanent electrical spin injection into an InGaAs/GaAs based quantum well light emitting diode is realized by using a perpendicularly magnetized MgO/CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB/MgO spin injector. We demonstrate that the Ta interlayer plays an important role to establish the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the thickness of Ta interlayer determines the type of exchange coupling between the two adjacent CoFeB layers. They are ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically coupled for a Ta thickness of 0.5 nm or 0.75 nm, respectively. A circular polarized electroluminescence (P{sub c}) of about 10% is obtained at low temperature and at zero magnetic field. The direction of the electrically injected spins is determined only by the orientation of the magnetization of the bottom CoFeB layer which is adjacent to the MgO/GaAs interface. This work proves the critical role of the bottom CoFeB/MgO interface on the spin-injection and paves the way for the electrical control of spin injection via magnetic tunnel junction-type spin injector.

  15. Theory of large tunneling magnetoresistance in a gapped graphene-based ferromagnetic superconductor F/(FS) junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soodchomshom, Bumned [ThEP Center, Commission of Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Department of Science and Mathematics (Physics), Faculty of Science and Technology, Pathumwan Institute of Technology, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Tang, I-Ming [ThEP Center, Commission of Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Hoonsawat, Rassmidara, E-mail: scrhs@mahidol.ac.t [ThEP Center, Commission of Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Mahidol University International College, Salaya Campus, Nakorn Pathom, 73170 (Thailand)

    2010-04-01

    Coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in a gapped graphene-based system (FS) is theoretically investigated. The center-of-mass momentum, P, of a Cooper pair in FS is found to be Papprox2E{sub ex}/(hv{sub F}sq root(1-(m/E{sub FS}){sup 2})), where m, E{sub ex}, E{sub FS} are the rest mass energy of the Dirac electron, exchange energy and the Fermi energy in the superconductor FS, respectively. It is unlike the nature in a conventional FFLO state where Papprox2E{sub ex}/hv{sub F}. This work studies the magneto effect on the transport property of a F/(FS) junction where F is a ferromagnetic gapless graphene. In this work, FS is achieved by depositing a conventional ferromagnetic s-wave superconductor on the top of gapped graphene sheet. The Zeeman splitting in FS induces spin-dependent Andreev resonance. The conductances effected by both spin-dependent specular Andreev reflections and spin-dependent Andreev resonances are investigated. The interplay between the spin-dependent specular Andreev reflection in the F region and the spin-dependent Andreev resonance in the FS region causes a very large tunneling magnetoresistance |TMR| approx 3000% for m -> E{sub FS}, possibly valuable in the graphene-based spintronic devices. This is because of the coexistence of the superconductivity and ferromagnetism in FS and the relativistic nature of electrons in graphene.

  16. Alternating-Current InGaN/GaN Tunnel Junction Nanowire White-Light Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, S M; Ra, Y-H; Nguyen, H P T; Djavid, M; Mi, Z

    2015-10-14

    The current LED lighting technology relies on the use of a driver to convert alternating current (AC) to low-voltage direct current (DC) power, a resistive p-GaN contact layer to inject positive charge carriers (holes) for blue light emission, and rare-earth doped phosphors to down-convert blue photons into green/red light, which have been identified as some of the major factors limiting the device efficiency, light quality, and cost. Here, we show that multiple-active region phosphor-free InGaN nanowire white LEDs connected through a polarization engineered tunnel junction can fundamentally address the afore-described challenges. Such a p-GaN contact-free LED offers the benefit of carrier regeneration, leading to enhanced light intensity and reduced efficiency droop. Moreover, through the monolithic integration of p-GaN up and p-GaN down nanowire LED structures on the same substrate, we have demonstrated, for the first time, AC operated LEDs on a Si platform, which can operate efficiently in both polarities (positive and negative) of applied voltage.

  17. Hard X-ray Standing-Wave Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of Cobalt-Iron-Boron/Magnesium Oxide Magnetic Tunnel Junction Multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Albert Anthony

    As one key aspect of the area of spin-based electronics or spintronics, the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) holds special promise for magnetic memory, and possibly also logic devices. In an MTJ, two ferromagnetic layers are separated by a very thin nonmagnetic insulating layer and the key effect is based on the spin-dependent tunneling of electrons through the insulating layer and is called tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR). Resistance is lower when the two ferromagnetic layers are oriented parallel to one another, and higher when they are anti-parallel. Recent work reveals that MTJs with a Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB/Ta structure show three optimal characteristics: 1) high thermal stability on the nanoscale, 2) a high TMR ratio, and 3) low switching current for current-induced switching of magnetization across the interface. Studies suggest that B diffusion from the initially amorphous CoFeB layer into the MgO causes CoFeB crystallization such that TMR-increasing perpendicular anisotropy (PMA) arises at the MgO/CoFeB interface. Furthermore, the TMR ratio is likewise regulated by B diffusion into the Ta layer. Scientists are currently exploring the structure/properties relationships of these buried interfaces in magnetic nanostructures. One effective method for probing the composition, structure, and properties of buried layers is the newly-developed technique of standing-wave, hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy or SW-HAXPES. In this method, a standing wave is generated by Bragg reflection from a synthetic multilayer mirror upon which the sample is deposited. This standing wave can be scanned vertically through the sample by varying the incidence angle around the Bragg angle, giving a rocking curve (RC) scan. Using SW-HAXPES, we studied the B distribution in a Ta/Co0.2Fe0.6B0.2/MgO sample. We obtained hard x-ray standing-wave data, as well as conventional variable takeoff angle XPS (angle-resolved XPS or ARXPS) data at SPring-8 in Japan, as well as complimentary soft x

  18. Nonlinear thermoelectric effects in high-field superconductor-ferromagnet tunnel junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kolenda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermoelectric effects result from the coupling of charge and heat transport and can be used for thermometry, cooling and harvesting of thermal energy. The microscopic origin of thermoelectric effects is a broken electron–hole symmetry, which is usually quite small in metal structures. In addition, thermoelectric effects decrease towards low temperatures, which usually makes them vanishingly small in metal nanostructures in the sub-Kelvin regime.Results: We report on a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of thermoelectric effects in superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures. We investigate the dependence of thermoelectric currents on the thermal excitation, as well as on the presence of a dc bias voltage across the junction.Conclusion: Large thermoelectric effects are observed in superconductor/ferromagnet and superconductor/normal-metal hybrid structures. The spin-independent signals observed under finite voltage bias are shown to be reciprocal to the physics of superconductor/normal-metal microrefrigerators. The spin-dependent thermoelectric signals in the linear regime are due to the coupling of spin and heat transport, and can be used to design more efficient refrigerators.

  19. Nonlinear thermoelectric effects in high-field superconductor-ferromagnet tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenda, Stefan; Machon, Peter; Beckmann, Detlef; Belzig, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thermoelectric effects result from the coupling of charge and heat transport and can be used for thermometry, cooling and harvesting of thermal energy. The microscopic origin of thermoelectric effects is a broken electron-hole symmetry, which is usually quite small in metal structures. In addition, thermoelectric effects decrease towards low temperatures, which usually makes them vanishingly small in metal nanostructures in the sub-Kelvin regime. Results: We report on a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of thermoelectric effects in superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures. We investigate the dependence of thermoelectric currents on the thermal excitation, as well as on the presence of a dc bias voltage across the junction. Conclusion: Large thermoelectric effects are observed in superconductor/ferromagnet and superconductor/normal-metal hybrid structures. The spin-independent signals observed under finite voltage bias are shown to be reciprocal to the physics of superconductor/normal-metal microrefrigerators. The spin-dependent thermoelectric signals in the linear regime are due to the coupling of spin and heat transport, and can be used to design more efficient refrigerators.

  20. Tight binding calculation of tunneling conductance of a metal/ferromagnetic junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantayod, Aek

    2017-11-01

    A tight binding approximation was used to describe the electronic properties of a metal/ ferromagnetic junction in a one-dimensional system. The appropriate boundary conditions were calculated to describe the quality of the interface, the non-spin-flip and spin-flip scattering potential. The BTK model was used to compute the reflection and transmission probabilities, and the Landauer formulation was used to calculate the conductance spectrum. It was found that the conductance spectrum changes slope at the bias voltage that reached the bottom of the minority band and the top of the majority band of the ferromagnetic. The conductance spectrum was suppressed for all energies when either the non-spin-flip or spin-flip scattering at the interface increased. However, the conductance spectrum can be enhanced when the interface was taken into account for the appropriate value of the spin-flip and non-spin-flip scattering. In addition, the conductance can be increased by increasing the next-nearest neighbor hopping energy in the ferromagnetic material.

  1. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co{sub X}Pd{sub 100−X} alloys for magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, B.D.; Natarajarathinam, A.; Tadisina, Z.R. [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Chen, P.J.; Shull, R.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Gupta, S., E-mail: Sgupta@eng.ua.edu [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • CoPd alloy perpendicular anisotropy dependent on composition and thickness. • CIPT results show that TMR tracks with PMA of CoPd. • Potential replacement for Co/Pd multilayers. - Abstract: CoFeB/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJ’s) with high anisotropy and low damping are critical for spin-torque transfer random access memory (STT-RAM). Most schemes of making the pinned CoFeB fully perpendicular require ferrimagnets with high damping constants, a high temperature-grown L1{sub 0} alloy, or an overly complex multilayered synthetic antiferromagnet (SyAF). We report a compositional study of perpendicular Co{sub x}Pd alloy-pinned Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}/MgO based MTJ stacks, grown at moderate temperatures in a planetary deposition system. The perpendicular anisotropy of the Co{sub x}Pd alloy films can be tuned based on the layer thickness and composition. The films were characterized by alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) measurements have also been performed on the compositionally varied Co{sub x}Pd MTJ stacks. The Co{sub x}Pd alloy becomes fully perpendicular at approximately x = 30% (atomic fraction) Co. Full-film MTJ stacks of Si/SiO{sub 2}/MgO (13)/Co{sub X}Pd{sub 100−x} (50)/Ta (0.3)/CoFeB (1)/MgO (1.6)/CoFeB (1)/Ta (5)/Ru (10), with the numbers enclosed in parentheses being the layer thicknesses in nm, were sputtered onto thermally oxidized silicon substrates and in-situ lamp annealed at 400 °C for 5 min. CIPT measurements indicate that the highest TMR is observed for the CoPd composition with the highest perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  2. Superconducting tunnel junctions on MgB{sub 2} using MgO and CaF{sub 2} as a barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakoda, Masahito, E-mail: sakoda@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Aibara, Masato; Mede, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Motoyuki; Naito, Michio [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We have revised the manuscript according to reviewer's comments. The details are in “Response to Reviewers”. • Superconducting junctions with MgO and CaF{sub 2} barrier were fabricated in order to improve the quality of junctions. • In SIN junctions with MgO barrier, clear superconducting gap was observed. (). • In SIS junctions with CaF2 barrier, Josephson current was observed over 30 K. (). • The compatibility of each barrier material at the upper and lower interfaces was clarified. (). - Abstract: We report the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junctions, both of superconductor–insulator-normal metal (SIN) and superconductor–insulator-superconductor (SIS), on MgB{sub 2} using MgO and CaF{sub 2} as a barrier. The SIN junctions fabricated using an MgO barrier showed excellent quasi-particle characteristics, including a large superconducting gap (Δ) of 2.5–3 meV and a low zero-bias conductance. We have also fabricated SIS junctions with an MgO barrier, but the quasi-particle characteristics of the SIS junctions are not as good as those of the SIN junctions, namely a reduced superconducting gap and a high zero-bias conductance. It appears that top MgB{sub 2} electrodes do not grow well on an MgO barrier, which is also suggested from in-situ RHEED observation. The SIN junctions fabricated using a CaF{sub 2} barrier showed less sharp quasi-particle characteristics than using an MgO barrier. However, the SIS junctions using a CaF{sub 2} barrier showed a fairly large I{sub c}R{sub N} value at 4.2 K over 1 mV and also exhibited finite Josephson current up to almost the film's T{sub c} (∼30 K). The RHEED observation revealed that top MgB{sub 2} electrodes grow well on a CaF{sub 2} barrier.

  3. Addressing the challenges of using ferromagnetic electrodes in the magnetic tunnel junction-based molecular spintronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Friebe, Edward; Baker, Collin

    2015-11-01

    Addressing the challenges of using high-Curie temperature ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes is critical for molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) research. Two FM electrodes simultaneously chemically bonded with a thiol-functionalized molecule can produce novel MSDs to exploring new quantum mechanical phenomenon and computer technologies. For developing a commercially viable MSD, it is crucial to developing a device fabrication scheme that carefully considers FM electrodes' susceptibility to oxidation, chemical etching, and stress-induced deformations during fabrication and usage. This paper studies NiFe, an alloy extensively used in present-day memory devices and high-temperature engineering applications, as a candidate FM electrode for the fabrication of MSDs. Our spectroscopic reflectance studies show that NiFe oxidized aggressively after heating beyond 90 °C. The NiFe surfaces, aged for several months or heated for several minutes below 90 °C, exhibited remarkable electrochemical activity and were found suitable for chemical bonding with the thiol-functionalized molecular device elements. NiFe also demonstrated excellent etching resistance against commonly used solvents and lithography related chemicals. Additionally, NiFe mitigated the adverse effects of mechanical stress by subsiding the stress-induced deformities. A magnetic tunnel junction-based MSD approach was designed by carefully considering the merits and limitations of NiFe. The device fabrication protocol considers the safe temperature limit to avoiding irreversible surface oxidation, the effect of mechanical stresses, surface roughness, and chemical etching. This paper provides foundational experimental insights in realizing a versatile MSD allowing a wide range of transport and magnetic studies.

  4. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm

  5. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Shen, C.; Margalith, T.; Ng, T. K.; DenBaars, S. P.; Ooi, B. S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with IIInitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 μm aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of ~550 μW with a threshold current density of ~3.5 kA/cm2, while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of ~80 μW and threshold current densities of ~7 kA/cm2.

  6. Magnetic tunneling junctions with the Heusler compound Co{sub 2}Cr{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca Parra, A.

    2007-07-20

    Materials with large spin polarization are required for applications in spintronics devices. For this reason, major research efforts are directed to study the properties of compounds which are expected to be half metals, i.e. materials with 100% spin polarization. Half metals are expected to have a gap in the density of states at the Fermi energy for one spin band while the other spin band is metallic leading to a completely spin polarized current. The ferromagnetic full Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}Cr{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}Al (CCFA) has attracted great interest in the field of spintronics. The high Tc (800 K) and the expected half metallicity make CCFA a good candidate for applications in spintronic devices such as magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs). This thesis presents the results of the study of the electronic and structural properties of CCFA thin films. The films were implemented in magnetic tunneling junctions and the tunneling magnetoresistance effect (TMR) was investigated. The main objectives were the measurement of the spin polarisation of the CCFA alloy and to obtain information about its electronic structure. The influence of the deposition conditions on the thin film properties and on the surface crystalline order and their respective influence on the TMR ratio was investigated. Epitaxial CCFA thin films with two alternative growth orientations were deposited on different substrates and buffer layers. An annealing step was used to improve the crystalline properties of the thin films. In the tunneling junctions, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used as a barrier material and Co was chosen as counter electrode. The multilayer systems were patterned in Mesa structures using lithographic techniques. In the framework of the Julliere model, a maximum spin polarisation of 54% at 4K was measured in tunneling junctions with epitaxial CCFA electrodes. A strong influence of the annealing temperature on the TMR ratio was determined. The increase of the TMR ratio could be correlated

  7. Spin valve-like magnetic tunnel diode exhibiting giant positive junction magnetoresistance at low temperature in Co2MnSi/SiO2/p-Si heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Nilay; Kar, Uddipta; Nath, T. K.

    2018-02-01

    The rectifying magnetic tunnel diode has been fabricated by growing Co2MnSi (CMS) Heusler alloy film carefully on a properly cleaned p-Si (100) substrate with the help of electron beam physical vapor deposition technique and its structural, electrical and magnetic properties have been experimentally investigated in details. The electronic- and magneto-transport properties at various isothermal conditions have been studied in the temperature regime of 78-300 K. The current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics of the junction show an excellent rectifying magnetic tunnel diode-like behavior throughout that temperature regime. The current ( I) across the junction has been found to decrease with the application of a magnetic field parallel to the plane of the CMS film clearly indicating positive junction magnetoresistance (JMR) of the heterostructure. When forward dc bias is applied to the heterostructure, the I- V characteristics are highly influenced on turning on the field B = 0.5 T at 78 K, and the forward current reduces abruptly (99.2% current reduction at 3 V) which is nearly equal to the order of the magnitude of the current observed in the reverse bias. Hence, our Co2MnSi/SiO2/p-Si heterostructure can perform in off ( I off)/on ( I on) states with the application of non-zero/zero magnetic field like a spin valve at low temperature (78 K).

  8. A magnetic tunnel junction with an L2{sub 1}-ordered Co{sub 2}FeSi electrode formed by all room-temperature fabrication processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Yuichi; Yamada, Shinya; Maeda, Yuya [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Miyao, Masanobu [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Hamaya, Kohei, E-mail: hamaya@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-04-30

    We explore magnetic tunnel junctions consisting of Co{sub 60}Fe{sub 40}/AlO{sub x}/Co{sub 2}FeSi trilayers on Si(111) by room-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Even for the all room-temperature fabrication processes, the Co{sub 2}FeSi layer includes L2{sub 1}-ordered structures. We demonstrate reproducible tunneling magnetoresistance ratios of ∼ 44% and ∼ 28% at 30 K and 300 K, respectively. Assuming the same room-temperature spin polarization (P) of CoFe alloys, P for Co{sub 2}FeSi grown at room temperature is larger than that for D0{sub 3}-Fe{sub 3}Si grown at 130 °C. - Highlights: • Room-temperature fabrication processes of magnetic tunnel junctions were developed. • Room-temperature grown Co{sub 2}FeSi film formed an L2{sub 1}-ordered structure. • Spin polarization for the L2{sub 1}-Co{sub 2}FeSi was higher than 130 °C-grown D0{sub 3}-Fe{sub 3}Si.

  9. In-situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements of relaxation in Fe/MgO/Fe epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions during annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, D.S. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Ali, M.; Hickey, B.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 1JT (United Kingdom); Tanner, B.K., E-mail: b.k.tanner@dur.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    The relaxation of Fe/MgO/Fe tunnel junctions grown epitaxially on (001) MgO substrates has been measured by in-situ grazing incidence in-plane X-ray diffraction during the thermal annealing cycle. We find that the Fe layers are fully relaxed and that there are no irreversible changes during annealing. The MgO tunnel barrier is initially strained towards the Fe but on annealing, relaxes and expands towards the bulk MgO value. The strain dispersion is reduced in the MgO by about 40% above 480 K post-annealing. There is no significant change in the “twist” mosaic. Our results indicate that the final annealing stage of device fabrication, crucial to attainment of high TMR, induces substantial strain relaxation at the MgO barrier/lower Fe electrode interface. - Highlights: • Lattice relaxation of Fe/MgO/Fe epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions measured. • In-plane lattice parameter of Fe equal to bulk value; totally relaxed. • MgO barrier initially strained towards the Fe but relaxes on annealing. • Reduction in strain dispersion in the MgO barrier by 40% above about 470 K. • No change in the in-plane “twist” mosaic throughout the annealing cycle.

  10. Transport properties of magnetic tunnel junctions with Co2MnSi electrode: influence of temperature-dependent interface magnetization and electronic band structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalhorst, Jan; Thomas, Andy; Schebaum, Oliver; Ebke, Daniel; Sacher, Marc; Huetten, Andreas; Reiss, Guenter [Thin Films and Nano Structures, Department of Physics, Bielefeld University (Germany); Turchanin, Andrej; Goelzhaeuser, Armin [Department of Physics, Bielefeld University (Germany); Arenholz, Elke [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The investigation of the temperature-dependent magnetic and chemical properties of the Co{sub 2}MnSi/Al-O interface in Co{sub 2}MnSi/Al-O/Co-Fe MTJs showed, that with increasing degree of disorder, interfacial magnetic moments are reduced and their temperature dependences are more pronounced. Magnon excitation is stronger at the Co{sub 2}MnSi/Al-O interface compared with Co-Fe-B based tunnel junctions and bulk Co{sub 2}MnSi. We suggest, that mainly this contributes to the larger bias voltage and temperature dependence of the TMR in the Co{sub 2}MnSi based junctions by means of enhanced magnon-assisted tunneling. Furthermore, several fingerprints of the ideal Co2MnSi bandstructure of atomically ordered Co{sub 2}MnSi films are revealed by the XAS-, XMCD- and XPS-investigations in accordance with SPR-KKR calculations. Finally, we suggest that the observed inversion of the TMR effect occuring when electrons are tunneling from the Co-Fe into the atomically ordered Co{sub 2}MnSi electrode is the most striking bandstructure effect.

  11. Preparation and characterization of a ferrimagnetic amorphous alloy of GdCo entering the design of magnetic tunnel junctions: ionizing radiations hardness of magnetic tunnel junctions; preparation et caracterisation d'un alliage amorphe ferrimagnetique de GdCo entrant dans la conception de jonctions tunnel magnetiques. Resistance des jonctions tunnel magnetiques aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conraux, Y

    2005-10-15

    The magnetic random access memories (MRAM) are on the way to supplant the other forms of random access memories using the states of electric charge, and this thanks to their many technical advantages: not-volatility, speed, low consumption power, robustness. Also, the MRAM are alleged insensitive with the ionizing radiations, which was not checked in experiments until now. The current architecture of the MRAM is based on the use of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ). These MRAM can present an important disadvantage, because they are likely of present errors of addressing, in particular when integration (density of memory cells) is increasingly thorough. The work undertaken during this thesis relates to these two points: - to check the functional reliability of the MRAM containing JTM exposed to high energy ionizing radiations; - to study a ferrimagnetic amorphous alloy, GdCo, likely to enter the composition of JTM and allowing to free from the possible errors of addressing by a process of thermal inhibition of the memory cells. This work of thesis showed that the MRAM containing JTM preserve their functional properties fully when they are subjected to intense ionizing radiations, and that GdCo is a very interesting material from the point of view of the solid state physics and magnetism, that its physical properties are very promising as for its applications, and that its integration in a JTM still claims technological developments. (author)

  12. Large-Scale Experimental and Numerical Study of Blast Acceleration Created by Close-In Buried Explosion on Underground Tunnel Lining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Soheyli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing demands for structures in water transportation tunnels, underground installations, subsurface dams, and subterranean channels, there is limited field knowledge about the dynamic behavior of these structures in the face of near-fault earthquakes or impulse excitations. This study conducted a large-scale test on underground tunnel excited by two close-in subsurface explosions. The horizontal and vertical acceleration were recorded on the vertical wall of the tunnel and the free field data including the acceleration on the ground surface at 11-meter distance from the tunnel. The frequency domain analysis of recorded results determined the frequency 961 Hz and 968 Hz for 1.69 kg and 2.76 kg equivalent T.N.T., respectively. Then, finite element analysis results were compared with the test data. The comparisons demonstrated a good correlation and satisfied the field data. Finally, based on numerical modeling, a parametric study was applied to determine the effects of shear wave velocity distance of the crater with respect to the tunnel on impulse response of the tunnel.

  13. Plastic Zone Analysis of Deep-Buried, Noncircular Tunnel and Application on the High-Speed Railway in the Karst Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the conformal mapping function provided by Verruijt, the outland of a noncircular tunnel can be mapped to a circular unit in the complex plane and then spread the analytic function into a Laurent series. The stress unified solution of oval and horseshoe cross section can be determined using Muskhelishvili’s complex variables function method. Subsequently, the solution can be taken into the Griffith strength failure criterion and determine the scale and shape of plastic zone in the tunnel surrounding rock. Aiming at the critical safety thickness between a concealed cave and tunnel in the karst area and determining whether the plastic zone of tunnel surrounding rock is connected with the plastic zone of cave as a judgment standard, the model of critical safety thickness among the concealed caves and tunnels is established. The numerical model is established in comparison with the computing method of rock plate critical safety thickness in actual engineering based on the Doumo tunnel engineering of Shanghai-Kunming (Guizhou segment high-speed railway. The following conclusions can be drawn: the analytical approximation method has less indexes, and the output of this method is approximately close to actual engineering and numerical analysis, in which it is reliable and rational.

  14. Enhancement of thermovoltage and tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect in CoFeB-based magnetic tunnel junctions by variation of the MgAl2O4 and MgO barrier thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Torsten; Martens, Ulrike; Walowski, Jakob; Boehnke, Alexander; Krieft, Jan; Heiliger, Christian; Thomas, Andy; Reiss, Günter; Kuschel, Timo; Münzenberg, Markus

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the barrier thickness of Co40Fe40B20 -based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) on the laser-induced tunnel magneto-Seebeck (TMS) effect. Varying the barrier thickness from 1 to 3 nm, we find a distinct maximum in the TMS effect for a 2.6-nm barrier thickness. This maximum is measured independently for two barrier materials, namely, MgAl2O4 (MAO) and MgO. Additionally, samples with a MAO barrier exhibit a high thermovoltage of more than 350 μ V in comparison to 90 μ V for the MTJs with a MgO barrier when heated with the maximum laser power of 150 mW. Our results allow for the fabrication of improved stacks when dealing with temperature differences across MTJs for future applications in spin caloritronics, the emerging research field that combines spintronics and thermoelectrics.

  15. Electrical-field and spin-transfer torque effects in CoFeB/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Chikako, E-mail: cyoshida@jp.fujitsu.com; Noshiro, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Sugii, Toshihiro [Fujitsu limited, 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-0197 (Japan); Furuya, Atsushi; Ataka, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Uehara, Yuji [Fujitsu limited, 4-1-1 Kamikodanaka, Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 211-8588 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The electric-field (E) dependence of the magnetoresistance (RH) loops for top-pinned perpendicular CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in the presence of a spin-transfer torque (STT)-current was measured. The E effects were distinguished from the STT-current effects using a micromagnetic simulation. The coercive field (H{sub c}) decreased and the RH loop shifted as both the positive and negative bias E increased owing to the STT current. Furthermore, E-assisted switching for an MTJ with a diameter of 20 nm, which exhibited a nearly coherent magnetization reversal, was demonstrated using micromagnetic simulation.

  16. Time-domain analysis of spin-torque induced switching paths in nanoscale CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heindl, R., E-mail: ranko.heindl@sjsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95112 (United States); Rippard, W. H.; Russek, S. E.; Pufall, M. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-12-28

    We performed thousands of single-shot, real-time measurements of spin-transfer-torque induced switching in nanoscale CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions having in-plane magnetizations. Our investigation discovered a variety of switching paths occurring in consecutive, nominally identical switching trials of a single device. By mapping the voltage as a function of time to an effective magnetization angle, we determined that reversal of a single device occurs via a variety of thermally activated paths. Our results show a complex switching behavior that has not been captured by previous observations and cannot be fully explained within the simple macrospin model.

  17. Voltage-Assisted Magnetic Switching in MgO/CoFeB-Based Magnetic Tunnel Junctions by Way of Interface Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jungho; Hong, Jongill

    2017-12-06

    Engineering of interfacial structures has become important more than ever before to find new scientific observations and to create novel applications. Here, we show that the interface reconstructed by atomic layer-thick Mg insertion substantially improved the magneto-electrical properties of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions essential for modern spintronic applications. The 0.2-0.4 nm-thick Mg inserted between the MgO tunnel barrier and CoFeB ferromagnet restructured the interface in such ways as to protect the CoFeB from overoxidation, to strengthen the texture, to make the interfacial roughness smooth, and to relax the mechanical stress. Observed were great increases in the perpendicular magnetic moment and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the CoFeB by 2.1 and 1.8 times, respectively, which can be ascribed to the optimum interfacial condition because of the least possible chemical damage. The strong enhancement of (010) in-plane and (001) out-of-plane texture and of interfacial roughness led to a significant increase in the tunnel magnetoresistance by 4.4 times from 13.2 to 57.6% by the insertion. Most importantly, such optimum chemical and physical structures at the interface could modulate the perpendicular magnetic properties by an electric field. The electric field-controlled magnetic anisotropy coefficients became symmetrically bipolar to the electric field and were increased over 100 fJ/V·m, which is 6 times larger than one found before the Mg insertion. As a result, we could successfully demonstrate the voltage-induced magnetization switching of the perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with the help of an external magnetic field. Our findings will ignite further study on the new way of electrical control over magnetic switching and provide an essential ingredient to realize electric field-driven energy-effective magneto-electronic devices.

  18. Effect of MgO Underlying Layer on the Growth of GaOx Tunnel Barrier in Epitaxial Fe/GaOx/(MgO)/Fe Magnetic Tunnel Junction Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayananellore, Sai Krishna; Doko, Naoki; Matsuo, Norihiro; Saito, Hidekazu; Yuasa, Shinji

    2017-10-23

    We investigated the effect of a thin MgO underlying layer (~3 monoatomic layers) on the growth of GaOx tunnel barrier in Fe/GaOx/(MgO)/Fe(001) magnetic tunnel junctions. To obtain a single-crystalline barrier, an in situ annealing was conducted with the temperature being raised up to 500 °C under an O₂ atmosphere. This annealing was performed after the deposition of the GaOx on the Fe(001) bottom electrode with or without the MgO(001) underlying layer. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns after the annealing indicated the formation of a single-crystalline layer regardless of with or without the MgO layer. Ex situ structural studies such as transmission electron microscopy revealed that the GaOx grown on the MgO underlying layer has a cubic MgAl₂O₄-type spinel structure with a (001) orientation. When without MgO layer, however, a Ga-Fe-O ternary compound having the same crystal structure and orientation as the crystalline GaOx was observed. The results indicate that the MgO underlying layer effectively prevents the Fe bottom electrode from oxidation during the annealing process. Tunneling magneto-resistance effect was observed only for the sample with the MgO underlying layer, suggesting that Ga-Fe-O layer is not an effective tunnel-barrier.

  19. Effect of MgO Underlying Layer on the Growth of GaOx Tunnel Barrier in Epitaxial Fe/GaOx/(MgO/Fe Magnetic Tunnel Junction Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Krishna Narayananellore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of a thin MgO underlying layer (~3 monoatomic layers on the growth of GaOx tunnel barrier in Fe/GaOx/(MgO/Fe(001 magnetic tunnel junctions. To obtain a single-crystalline barrier, an in situ annealing was conducted with the temperature being raised up to 500 °C under an O2 atmosphere. This annealing was performed after the deposition of the GaOx on the Fe(001 bottom electrode with or without the MgO(001 underlying layer. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns after the annealing indicated the formation of a single-crystalline layer regardless of with or without the MgO layer. Ex situ structural studies such as transmission electron microscopy revealed that the GaOx grown on the MgO underlying layer has a cubic MgAl2O4-type spinel structure with a (001 orientation. When without MgO layer, however, a Ga-Fe-O ternary compound having the same crystal structure and orientation as the crystalline GaOx was observed. The results indicate that the MgO underlying layer effectively prevents the Fe bottom electrode from oxidation during the annealing process. Tunneling magneto-resistance effect was observed only for the sample with the MgO underlying layer, suggesting that Ga-Fe-O layer is not an effective tunnel-barrier.

  20. Theoretical calculation of performance enhancement in lattice-matched SiGeSn/GeSn p-channel tunneling field-effect transistor with type-II staggered tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Han, Genquan; Wang, Yibo; Peng, Yue; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hu, Shengdong; Hao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a lattice-matched SiGeSn/GeSn heterostructure p-channel tunneling field-effect transistor (hetero-PTFET) with a type-II staggered tunneling junction (TJ) is investigated theoretically. Lattice matching and type-II band alignment at the Γ-point is obtained at the SiGeSn/GeSn interface by tuning Sn and Si compositions. A steeper subthreshold swing (SS) and a higher on state current (I ON) are demonstrated in SiGeSn/GeSn hetero-PTFET than in GeSn homo-PTFET. Si0.31Ge0.49Sn0.20/Ge0.88Sn0.12 hetero-PTFET achieves a 2.3-fold higher I ON than Ge0.88Sn0.12 homo-PTFET at V DD of 0.3 V. Hetero-PTFET achieves a more abrupt hole profile and a higher carrier density near TJ than the homo-PTFET, which contributes to the significantly enhanced band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) rate and tunneling current in hetero-PTFET.

  1. Effective description of tunneling in a time-dependent potential with applications to voltage switching in Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    variable: the phase change across a Josephson junction. The Josephson junction phase variable behaves as the position coordinate of a particle moving in a tilted washboard potential, and our general solution to the motion in such a potential with a time-dependent tilt reproduces a number of features...

  2. Effect of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions with semiconductor interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lian; Zhu, Lin; Zhou, Xun; Li, Ling; Xie, Zheng-Wei

    2010-05-01

    Based on a mode match transfer matrix method and the quantum coherent transport theory of Mireles and Kirczenow, we investigate the coherent electron tunneling in FM/S1/I/S2/FM (FM represents the ferromagnetic metal layer, S1 and S2 represents the different semiconductor layer, respectively, I represents the insulator layer.) system. The effects of the thickness of the semiconductor layers and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin-dependent tunneling transmission coefficient and the properties of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) are studied. It is found that the variations of tunneling transmission coefficients and the tunnel magnetoresistance TMR with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the thickness of semiconductor layer, show typical resonant properties and the TMR can be enhanced and its sign can switch from positive to negative by increasing the ratio of Rashba spin-orbit coupling strength between two semiconductor layers.

  3. Respective influence of in-plane and out-of-plane spin-transfer torques in magnetization switching of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timopheev, A. A.; Sousa, R.; Chshiev, M.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Dieny, B.

    2015-09-01

    The relative contributions of in-plane (damping-like) and out-of-plane (field-like) spin-transfer torques (STT) in the magnetization switching of out-of-plane magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions (pMTJ) has been theoretically analyzed using the transformed Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation with the STT terms. It is demonstrated that in a pMTJ structure obeying macrospin dynamics, the out-of-plane torque influences the precession frequency, but it does not contribute significantly to the STT switching process (in particular to the switching time and switching current density), which is mostly determined by the in-plane STT contribution. This conclusion is confirmed by finite temperature and finite writing pulse macrospin simulations of the current field switching diagrams. It contrasts with the case of STT switching in in-plane magnetized magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) in which the field-like term also influences the switching critical current. This theoretical analysis was successfully applied to the interpretation of voltage field STT switching diagrams experimentally measured on pMTJ pillars 36 nm in diameter, which exhibit macrospin behavior. The physical nonequivalence of Landau and Gilbert dissipation terms in the presence of STT-induced dynamics is also discussed.

  4. Chemical and magnetic interface properties of tunnel junctions with Co{sub 2}MnSi/Co{sub 2}FeSi multilayer electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebke, Daniel; Schmalhorst, Jan; Sacher, Marc; Liu, Ning-Ning; Thomas, Andy; Huetten, Andreas; Reiss, Guenter [Thin Films and Nanostructures, Department of Physics, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Arenholz, Elke [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Transport as well as chemical and magnetic interface properties of two kinds of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with Co{sub 2}FeSi electrode, Al-O barrier and Co-Fe counter electrode are investigated. For junctions with Co{sub 2}FeSi single layer electrode a tunnel magnetoresistance of up to 52% is found for an optimal Al thickness of 1.5 nm, whereas the room temperature bulk magnetization of the Co{sub 2}FeSi film reaches only 75% of the expected value. By using a [Co{sub 2}MnSi/Co{sub 2}FeSi] multilayer electrode the magnetoresistance can be increased to 114% and the full bulk magnetization is reached. For Al thickness smaller than 1nm the TMR of both kinds of MTJs decreases rapidly to zero. On the other hand for 2 to 3 nm thick Al the TMR decreases only slowly. The Al thickness dependence of the TMR is directly correlated to the element-specific magnetic moments of Fe and Co at the Co{sub 2}FeSi/AlO interface for all Al thickness. Especially, for optimal Al thickness and annealing, the interfacial Fe moment of the single layer electrode is about 20% smaller than for the multilayer electrode indicating smaller atomic disorder at the barrier interface for the latter MTJ.

  5. Bifurcations of the Creation of Low-Temperature Maxima of the Tunneling Conductance of a "Dirty" N-I-N Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpichenkov, V. Ya.; Kirpichenkova, N. V.; Lozin, O. I.; Pukhlova, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    The representation of the tunneling conductance G(T) of the "dirty" (with low concentrations of the same nonmagnetic impurities in the I layer) N-I-N junction (where N is a normal metal and I is an insulator) in the form of a sum of conductances of random quantum jumpers penetrating the disordered I layer is obtained in the low-temperature region. It is shown that the axis of the parameter δ = |ɛ0 - ɛF| giving the deviation of the energy of ɛ0 the quasi-local electron state on the impurity in the I layer from the Fermi energy of ɛF the dirty N-I-N junction contains a series of bifurcation points, at the transition through each of which (in the direction of the increase in δ) the number of maxima on the temperature dependence G(T) increases by unity; i.e., a new maximum is "born" on the curve G(T). Numerical estimates are given for the characteristic parameters of dirty N-I-N junctions indicating the possibility of the experimental observation of at least the first of these maxima.

  6. In silico simulations of tunneling barrier measurements for molecular orbital-mediated junctions: A molecular orbital theory approach to scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terryn, Raymond J.; Sriraman, Krishnan; Olson, Joel A., E-mail: jolson@fit.edu; Baum, J. Clayton, E-mail: cbaum@fit.edu [Department of Chemistry, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, Florida 32901 (United States); Novak, Mark J. [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 501 E. Saint Joseph Street, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A new simulator for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is presented based on the linear combination of atomic orbitals molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) approximation for the effective tunneling Hamiltonian, which leads to the convolution integral when applied to the tip interaction with the sample. This approach intrinsically includes the structure of the STM tip. Through this mechanical emulation and the tip-inclusive convolution model, dI/dz images for molecular orbitals (which are closely associated with apparent barrier height, ϕ{sub ap}) are reported for the first time. For molecular adsorbates whose experimental topographic images correspond well to isolated-molecule quantum chemistry calculations, the simulator makes accurate predictions, as illustrated by various cases. Distortions in these images due to the tip are shown to be in accord with those observed experimentally and predicted by other ab initio considerations of tip structure. Simulations of the tunneling current dI/dz images are in strong agreement with experiment. The theoretical framework provides a solid foundation which may be applied to LCAO cluster models of adsorbate–substrate systems, and is extendable to emulate several aspects of functional STM operation.

  7. Magnetic stability under magnetic cycling of MgO-based magnetic tunneling junctions with an exchange-biased synthetic antiferromagnetic pinned layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Hao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the magnetic stability and endurance of MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs with an exchange-biased synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF pinned layer. When a uniaxially cycling switching field is applied along the easy axis of the free magnetic layer, the magnetoresistance varies only by 1.7% logarithmically with the number of cycles, while no such change appears in the case of a rotating field. This observation is consistent with the effect of the formation and motion of domain walls in the free layer, which create significant stray fields within the pinned hard layer. Unlike in previous studies, the decay we observed only occurs during the first few starting cycles (<20, at which point there is no further variance in all performance parameters up to 107 cycles. Exchange-biased SAF structure is ideally suited for solid-state magnetic sensors and magnetic memory devices.

  8. Temperature dependence of spin-torque driven ferromagnetic resonance in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction with a perpendicularly free layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Feng, Jiafeng; Guo, Peng; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F.; Fang, B.; Zeng, Z. M.

    2017-12-01

    We report the temperature dependence of the spin-torque (ST) driven ferromagnetic resonance in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) nanopillars with a perpendicularly free layer and an in-plane reference layer. From the evolution of the resonance frequency with magnetic field, we clearly identify the free-layer resonance mode and reference-layer mode. For the reference layer, we demonstrate a monotonic increase in resonance frequency and the effective damping with decreasing temperature, which suggests the saturated magnetization of the reference layer is dominant. However, for the free layer, the frequency and damping exhibit almost no change with temperature, indicating that the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy plays an important role in magnetization dynamics of the free layer.

  9. 3D nanoSQUID based on tunnel nano-junctions with an energy sensitivity of 1.3 h at 4.2 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, M.; Vettoliere, A.; Zakosarenko, V.; De Leo, N.; Fretto, M.; Stolz, R.; Granata, C.

    2017-07-01

    We report the performance of a reliable three-dimensional nanometer-sized Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID). The use of superconductor-isolator-superconductor Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions together with small SQUID loop dimensions permits a high modulation depth of the SQUID's critical current and thus leads to very low intrinsic flux noise of the device. In particular, we present electrical characterization including detailed noise investigations. At 4.2 K, two-stage noise measurements with a SQUID as a low noise preamplifier result in a white flux noise of 51 nΦ0/Hz1/2, which is equivalent to an energy resolution of 1.3 h, with h being Planck's constant. Simulation of spin sensitivities results in about 1 μB/Hz1/2 for an electron spin positioned directly above the SQUID ring.

  10. Optimization of the buffer surface of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB-based magnetic tunnel junctions by ion beam milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L.; Ventura, J.; Ferreira, R.; Freitas, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Due to their high tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratios at room temperature, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a crystalline MgO insulating barrier and CoFeB ferromagnetic (FM) layers are the best candidates for novel magnetic memory applications. To overcome impedance matching problems in electronic circuits, the MgO barrier must have an ultra-low thickness (∼1 nm). Therefore, it is mandatory to optimize the MTJ fabrication process, in order to prevent relevant defects in the MgO barrier that could affect the magnetic and electrical MTJ properties. Here, a smoothing process aiming to decrease the roughness of the buffer surface before the deposition of the full MTJ stack is proposed. An ion beam milling process was used to etch the surface of an MTJ buffer structure with a Ru top layer. The morphologic results prove an effective decrease of the Ru surface roughness with the etching time. The electrical and magnetic results obtained for MTJs with smoothed buffer structures show a direct influence of the buffer roughness and coupling field on the improvement of the TMR ratio.

  11. Investigation on the formation process of single-crystalline GaO x barrier in Fe/GaO x /MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, N. S.; Doko, N.; Matsuo, N.; Saito, H.; Yuasa, S.

    2017-11-01

    We have grown Fe(0 0 1)/GaO x (0 0 1)/MgO(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with or without in situ annealing after the deposition of GaO x layer and performed structural characterizations by focusing on the formation process of the single-crystalline GaO x . It was found that, even without the in situ annealing, the as-grown GaO x grown on the MgO was mostly single-crystalline except near the surface region (amorphous). The crystallization temperature of the amorphous region was reduced from 500 °C down to 250 °C by depositing the Fe upper electrode (poly-crystalline). It was clarified that the crystallization of the amorphous region near the Fe/GaO x interface caused the realignments of the crystal grains in the poly-crystalline Fe upper electrode, and, as a result, the fully epitaxial Fe/GaO x /MgO/Fe structure is eventually formed. All the MTJs showed high tunneling magnetoresistance ratios (about 100%) at room temperature, which was almost independent of the formation temperature of the single-crystalline GaO x .

  12. Giant voltage manipulation of MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions via localized anisotropic strain: A potential pathway to ultra-energy-efficient memory technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengyang; Jamali, Mahdi; D'Souza, Noel; Zhang, Delin; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Voltage control of magnetization via strain in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive systems is a promising mechanism to implement energy-efficient straintronic memory devices. Here, we demonstrate giant voltage manipulation of MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on a Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 piezoelectric substrate with (001) orientation. It is found that the magnetic easy axis, switching field, and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of the MTJ can be efficiently controlled by strain from the underlying piezoelectric layer upon the application of a gate voltage. Repeatable voltage controlled MTJ toggling between high/low-resistance states is demonstrated. More importantly, instead of relying on the intrinsic anisotropy of the piezoelectric substrate to generate the required strain, we utilize anisotropic strain produced using a local gating scheme, which is scalable and amenable to practical memory applications. Additionally, the adoption of crystalline MgO-based MTJ on piezoelectric layer lends itself to high TMR in the strain-mediated MRAM devices.

  13. Magnetic and electric control of spin- and valley-polarized transport across tunnel junctions on monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M.; Krstajić, P. M.; Vasilopoulos, P.

    2017-06-01

    The recent experimental realization of high-quality WSe2 leads to the possibility of an efficient manipulation of its spin and valley degrees of freedom. Its electronic properties comprise a huge spin-orbit coupling, a direct band gap, and a strong anisotropic lifting of the degeneracy of the valley degree of freedom in a magnetic field. We evaluate its band structure and study ballistic electron transport through single and double junctions (or barriers) on monolayer WSe2 in the presence of spin Ms and valley Mv Zeeman fields and of an electric potential U . The conductance versus the field Ms or Mv decreases in a fluctuating manner. For a single junction, the spin Ps and valley Pv polarizations rise with M =Mv=2 Ms , reach a value of more than 55 % , and become perfect above U ≈45 meV while for a double junction this change can occur for U ≥50 meV and M ≥5 meV. In certain regions of the (M ,U ) plane Pv becomes perfect. The conductance gc, its spin-up and spin-down components, and both polarizations oscillate with the barrier width d . The ability to isolate various carrier degrees of freedom in WSe2 may render it a promising candidate for new spintronic and valleytronic devices.

  14. TMR- and TAMR-effects of (Ga,Mn)As and GaAs tunnel junctions; TMR- und TAMR-Effekt an (Ga,Mn)As und GaAs Tunnelstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmeier, Eva

    2009-07-30

    This thesis is concerned with the experimental investigation of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and tunnel anistropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) in GaAs and (Ga,Mn)As tunnel junction. A special emphasis was put on the study of the newly discovered TAMR effect, which consists in the variation of the TMR with the magnetization's angle. The tunnel junctions were fabricated by means of optical lithography and wet chemical etching. The dependence of the TAMR effect on the layer system, the barrier thickness, the bias voltage, the temperature and the applied magnetic field magnitude was subsequently examined. The conducted measurements on (Ga,Mn)As junctions showed a TMR effect as well as various anisotropic effects which are in good agreement with the experimental reports published so far. The observed dependences of the TAMR effect on the aforementioned parameters were discussed within the framework of two distinct preexisting theoretical models and the experimental data could be explained by the superimposition of two effects stemming in one case from the spin orbit coupling in the (Ga,Mn)As layer and in the other from the concurrent action of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction within the barrier. (orig.)

  15. Exploring the Tilt-Angle Dependence of electron tunneling across Molecular junction of Self-Assembled Alkanethiols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas; Munuera, C.; Ocal, C.

    2009-01-01

    by contacting the molecular layers with the tip of a conductive force microscope. Measurements done under low-load conditions permit us to obtain reliable tilt-angle and molecular length dependencies of the low-bias conductance through the alkanethiol layers. The observed dependence on tilt-angle is stronger...... for the longer molecular chains. Our calculations confirm the observed trends and explain them as a result of two mechanisms, namely, a previously proposed intermolecular tunneling enhancement as well as a hitherto overlooked tilt-dependent molecular gate effect....

  16. Process-induced damage and its recovery for a CoFeB-MgO magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular magnetic easy axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Keizo; Honjo, Hiroaki; Fukami, Shunsuke; Sato, Hideo; Mizunuma, Kotaro; Tokutome, Keiichi; Murahata, Michio; Ikeda, Shoji; Miura, Sadahiko; Kasai, Naoki; Ohno, Hideo

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the effect of process-induced damage (PID) caused by reactive ion etching using methanol (Me-OH) gas on the magnetic properties of the CoFeB free layer in a magnetic tunnel junction with a perpendicular easy axis (p-MTJ), and on the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of CoFeB-MgO p-MTJs. The dot pattern of the MTJ stack with size varied from 65 to 430 nm etched by the Me-OH plasma showed a smaller coercivity (Hc) than that fabricated by Ar ion milling. The increase in Hc was observed in the dot pattern of large size (430 nm) upon increasing He/H2 plasma treatment temperature after the Me-OH etching. A possible origin of the increase in Hc is the increase in nucleation field after He/H2 treatment. This suggests that Hc of the large dot pattern has the potential to be an index for detecting PID during the MTJ fabrication process. The TMR ratio of CoFeB-MgO p-MTJ deteriorated after the Me-OH plasma etching. This PID was considered to be due to oxidation from the pattern edge of the CoFeB free layer of the MTJ. The recovery process by the He/H2 plasma treatment was examined just after the Me-OH etching to reduce the oxidized part. The median TMR ratio of 102%, which is 5% higher than that of the sample without the He/H2 treatment, was observed after applying this reductive treatment at 180 °C. In addition, the recovery process had scalability with MTJ size, as the effect was observed more clearly in the MTJ smaller than 97 nm.

  17. Tunnel magnetoresistance effect in magnetic tunnel junctions using Fermi-level-tuned epitaxial Fe{sub 2}Cr{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Si Heusler alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu-Pu, E-mail: wangyupu@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Han, Gu-Chang; Qiu, Jinjun; Yap, Qi-Jia [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Lu, Hui; Teo, Kie-Leong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2014-05-07

    This paper reports a systematic investigation on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}Cr{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Si Heusler alloys with various compositions of x by co-sputtering Fe{sub 2}CrSi and Fe{sub 2}CoSi targets and their applications in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Fe{sub 2}Cr{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Si films of high crystalline quality have been epitaxially grown on MgO substrate using Cr as a buffer layer. The L2{sub 1} phase can be obtained at x = 0.3 and 0.5, while B2 phase for the rest compositions. A tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of 19.3% at room temperature is achieved for MTJs using Fe{sub 2}Cr{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.7}Si as the bottom electrode with 350 °C post-annealing. This suggests that the Fermi level in Fe{sub 2}Cr{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Si has been successfully tuned close to the center of band gap of minority spin with x = 0.7 and therefore better thermal stability and higher spin polarization are achieved in Fe{sub 2}Cr{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.7}Si. The post-annealing effect for MTJs is also studied in details. The removal of the oxidized Fe{sub 2}Cr{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.7}Si at the interface with MgO barrier is found to be the key to improve the TMR ratio. When the thickness of the inserted Mg layer increases from 0.3 to 0.4 nm, the TMR ratio is greatly enhanced from 19.3% to 28%.

  18. Effects of impurity and composition profiles on electrical characteristics of GaAsSb/InGaAs hetero-junction vertical tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotow, Takahiro; Mitsuhara, Manabu; Hoshi, Takuya; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2017-11-01

    We fabricated and characterized GaAs0.51Sb0.49/In0.53Ga0.47As hetero-junction vertical tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) on InP substrates in order to examine the effects of the structural characteristics of GaAsSb/InGaAs hetero-structures on the electrical properties of the TFETs. The operation of the fabricated GaAs0.51Sb0.49/In0.53Ga0.47As TFET was confirmed with the ION/IOFF ratio of ˜102 over VG swing of 1.25 V at 297 K. This ION/IOFF ratio was improved up to ˜104 at 20 K, thanks to the suppression of the leakage current in the source junction. The secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses for the present hetero-structures have revealed that the concentration of the p-type dopant (Be) atoms, doped in the GaAsSb source regions, decreases in the InGaAs channel regions at an inverse slope of ˜11 nm/dec. Also, the scanning transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has shown that group III and V compositions change abruptly in a region within 10 nm from the interface between the Be-doped GaAsSb source and the undoped InGaAs channel. We performed the 2-dimensional device simulation based on the device structure and the experimentally obtained composition and impurity profiles, and we found that the composition profile had little effect on the S.S. values. The device simulation also revealed that both the optimization of the concentration and the profile of the p-type doping of GaAsSb, and thinning of the effective oxide thickness (EOT) of the gate stacks could effectively improve the inherent S.S. values of the present GaAs0.51Sb0.49/In0.53Ga0.47As hetero-junction vertical TFETs. When 1.0 nm EOT and NA = 1 × 1020 cm-3 are used under the present impurity abruptness, S.S. < 40 mV/dec. can be achieved for the vertical GaAsSb/InGaAs TFETs, which is promising for an ultralow power switching device.

  19. Magnetic Tunnel Junction Based Long-Term Short-Term Stochastic Synapse for a Spiking Neural Network with On-Chip STDP Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Gopalakrishnan; Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-07-13

    Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have emerged as a powerful neuromorphic computing paradigm to carry out classification and recognition tasks. Nevertheless, the general purpose computing platforms and the custom hardware architectures implemented using standard CMOS technology, have been unable to rival the power efficiency of the human brain. Hence, there is a need for novel nanoelectronic devices that can efficiently model the neurons and synapses constituting an SNN. In this work, we propose a heterostructure composed of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) and a heavy metal as a stochastic binary synapse. Synaptic plasticity is achieved by the stochastic switching of the MTJ conductance states, based on the temporal correlation between the spiking activities of the interconnecting neurons. Additionally, we present a significance driven long-term short-term stochastic synapse comprising two unique binary synaptic elements, in order to improve the synaptic learning efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed synaptic configurations and the stochastic learning algorithm on an SNN trained to classify handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset, using a device to system-level simulation framework. The power efficiency of the proposed neuromorphic system stems from the ultra-low programming energy of the spintronic synapses.

  20. Design of high-throughput and low-power true random number generator utilizing perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochul Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A true random number generator based on perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction devices (MRNG is presented. Unlike MTJs used in memory applications where a stable bit is needed to store information, in this work, the MTJ is intentionally designed with small perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA. This allows one to take advantage of the thermally activated fluctuations of its free layer as a stochastic noise source. Furthermore, we take advantage of the voltage dependence of anisotropy to temporarily change the MTJ state into an unstable state when a voltage is applied. Since the MTJ has two energetically stable states, the final state is randomly chosen by thermal fluctuation. The voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA effect is used to generate the metastable state of the MTJ by lowering its energy barrier. The proposed MRNG achieves a high throughput (32 Gbps by implementing a 64×64 MTJ array into CMOS circuits and executing operations in a parallel manner. Furthermore, the circuit consumes very low energy to generate a random bit (31.5 fJ/bit due to the high energy efficiency of the voltage-controlled MTJ switching.

  1. Linear and non-linear dynamics of the free and reference layers in a sub-40 nm magnetic tunnel junction: a micromagnetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauselli, Maurizio; Stankiewicz, Andrzej A.; Carlotti, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    Micromagnetic simulations are exploited to analyse the spectrum of dynamical spin eigenmodes in a rectangular MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), with sub-40 nm lateral size, as those exploited in current read heads. It is found that, in spite of the reduced lateral dimensions of this structure, there are several eigenmodes in the range between 0 and 20 GHz, whose frequency and spatial character are markedly dependent on the non-uniformity of the internal field, as well as on the characteristics of the external bias field that is provided by an integrated permanent magnet. The frequency evolution of the modes with the intensity of an additional external field is such that it exists a range of values where the two main eigenmodes of the stack get very close to each other and interchange their preferential localization in the free and reference layers. If one moves from analysis of the small-amplitude magnetization precession to larger amplitude dynamics (precession angles exceeding a few degrees, as it occurs in current MTJ sensors), significant non-linear effects appear in the spectra, such as second harmonics and extra-peaks due to mode mixing. In addition, a sizeable low-frequency tail, that can negatively impact the signal-to-noise ratio of read heads and MTJ sensors, is found in the sub GHz range. These results suggest that a detailed understanding of the dynamical properties of these devices is crucial in order to tailor and optimize their performance.

  2. Testing epitaxial Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}Ge(001) electrodes in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neggache, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre lès Nancy (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL-CNRS, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hauet, T.; Petit-Watelot, S.; Boulet, P.; Andrieu, S., E-mail: stephane.andrieu@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre lès Nancy (France); Bertran, F.; Le Fèvre, P.; Ohresser, P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL-CNRS, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Devolder, T. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS, UMR 8622, 91405 Orsay (France); Mewes, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy/Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Maat, S.; Childress, J. R. [San Jose Research Center, HGST, a Western Digital company, San Jose, California 95135 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    The ability of the full Heusler alloy Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}Ge(001) (CFG) to be a Half-Metallic Magnetic (HMM) material is investigated. Epitaxial CFG(001) layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The results obtained using electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism are consistent with the full Heusler structure. The pseudo-gap in the minority spin density of state typical in HMM is examined using spin-resolved photoemission. Interestingly, the spin polarization found to be negative at E{sub F} in equimolar CoFe(001) is observed to shift to positive values when inserting Ge in CoFe. However, no pseudo-gap is found at the Fermi level, even if moderate magnetization and low Gilbert damping are observed as expected in HMM materials. Magneto-transport properties in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions using CFG electrodes are investigated via spin and symmetry resolved photoemission.

  3. Picosecond electric field pulse induced coherent magnetic switching in MgO/FePt/Pt(001)-based tunnel junctions: a multiscale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanjiao; Xiao, Dun; Liu, Yaowen; Gong, S. J.; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Combined methods of first-principles calculations and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) macrospin simulations are performed to investigate the coherent magnetization switching in the MgO/FePt/Pt(001)-based magnetic tunnel junctions triggered by short pulses of electric field through the control of magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) electrically. First-principles calculations indicate that the MAE of MgO/FePt/Pt(001) film varies linearly with the change of the electric field, whereas the LLG simulations show that the change in MAE by electric field pulses could induce the in-plane magnetization reversal of the free layer by tuning the pulse parameters. We find that there exist a critical pulse width τmin to switch the in-plane magnetization, and this τmin deceases with the increasing pulse amplitude E0. Besides, the magnetization orientation cannot be switched when the pulse width exceeds a critical value τmax, and τmax increases asymptotically with E0. In addition, there exist some irregular switching areas at short pulse width due to the high precessional frequency under small initial angle. Finally, a successive magnetization switching can be achieved by a series of electric field pulses. PMID:24844293

  4. Design of high-throughput and low-power true random number generator utilizing perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hochul; Ebrahimi, Farbod; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2017-05-01

    A true random number generator based on perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction devices (MRNG) is presented. Unlike MTJs used in memory applications where a stable bit is needed to store information, in this work, the MTJ is intentionally designed with small perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). This allows one to take advantage of the thermally activated fluctuations of its free layer as a stochastic noise source. Furthermore, we take advantage of the voltage dependence of anisotropy to temporarily change the MTJ state into an unstable state when a voltage is applied. Since the MTJ has two energetically stable states, the final state is randomly chosen by thermal fluctuation. The voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect is used to generate the metastable state of the MTJ by lowering its energy barrier. The proposed MRNG achieves a high throughput (32 Gbps) by implementing a 64 ×64 MTJ array into CMOS circuits and executing operations in a parallel manner. Furthermore, the circuit consumes very low energy to generate a random bit (31.5 fJ/bit) due to the high energy efficiency of the voltage-controlled MTJ switching.

  5. Magnetic Tunnel Junction Based Long-Term Short-Term Stochastic Synapse for a Spiking Neural Network with On-Chip STDP Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Gopalakrishnan; Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have emerged as a powerful neuromorphic computing paradigm to carry out classification and recognition tasks. Nevertheless, the general purpose computing platforms and the custom hardware architectures implemented using standard CMOS technology, have been unable to rival the power efficiency of the human brain. Hence, there is a need for novel nanoelectronic devices that can efficiently model the neurons and synapses constituting an SNN. In this work, we propose a heterostructure composed of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) and a heavy metal as a stochastic binary synapse. Synaptic plasticity is achieved by the stochastic switching of the MTJ conductance states, based on the temporal correlation between the spiking activities of the interconnecting neurons. Additionally, we present a significance driven long-term short-term stochastic synapse comprising two unique binary synaptic elements, in order to improve the synaptic learning efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed synaptic configurations and the stochastic learning algorithm on an SNN trained to classify handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset, using a device to system-level simulation framework. The power efficiency of the proposed neuromorphic system stems from the ultra-low programming energy of the spintronic synapses.

  6. Tandem Solar Cells from Solution-Processed CdTe and PbS Quantum Dots Using a ZnTe-ZnO Tunnel Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Ryan W; Pach, Gregory F; Kurley, J Matthew; France, Ryan M; Reese, Matthew O; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; MacLeod, Bradley A; Talapin, Dmitri V; Beard, Matthew C; Luther, Joseph M

    2017-02-08

    We developed a monolithic CdTe-PbS tandem solar cell architecture in which both the CdTe and PbS absorber layers are solution-processed from nanocrystal inks. Due to their tunable nature, PbS quantum dots (QDs), with a controllable band gap between 0.4 and ∼1.6 eV, are a promising candidate for a bottom absorber layer in tandem photovoltaics. In the detailed balance limit, the ideal configuration of a CdTe (Eg = 1.5 eV)-PbS tandem structure assumes infinite thickness of the absorber layers and requires the PbS band gap to be 0.75 eV to theoretically achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 45%. However, modeling shows that by allowing the thickness of the CdTe layer to vary, a tandem with efficiency over 40% is achievable using bottom cell band gaps ranging from 0.68 and 1.16 eV. In a first step toward developing this technology, we explore CdTe-PbS tandem devices by developing a ZnTe-ZnO tunnel junction, which appropriately combines the two subcells in series. We examine the basic characteristics of the solar cells as a function of layer thickness and bottom-cell band gap and demonstrate open-circuit voltages in excess of 1.1 V with matched short circuit current density of 10 mA/cm(2) in prototype devices.

  7. Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Margalith, T.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-08-01

    We report on a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a III-nitride tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contact. The violet nonpolar VCSEL employing the TJ is compared to an equivalent VCSEL with a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contact. The TJ VCSEL shows a threshold current density (Jth) of ˜3.5 kA/cm2, compared to the ITO VCSEL Jth of 8 kA/cm2. The differential efficiency of the TJ VCSEL is also observed to be significantly higher than that of the ITO VCSEL, reaching a peak power of ˜550 μW, compared to ˜80 μW for the ITO VCSEL. Both VCSELs display filamentary lasing in the current aperture, which we believe to be predominantly a result of local variations in contact resistance, which may induce local variations in refractive index and free carrier absorption. Beyond the analyses of the lasing characteristics, we discuss the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth of the TJ, as well as its unexpected performance based on band-diagram simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the intrinsic advantages of using a TJ intracavity contact in a VCSEL using a 1D mode profile analysis to approximate the threshold modal gain and general loss contributions in the TJ and ITO VCSEL.

  8. Sign change in the tunnel magnetoresistance of Fe3O4/MgO/Co-Fe-B magnetic tunnel junctions depending on the annealing temperature and the interface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marnitz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite (Fe3O4 is an eligible candidate for magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs since it shows a high spin polarization at the Fermi level as well as a high Curie temperature of 585°C. In this study, Fe3O4/MgO/Co-Fe-B MTJs were manufactured. A sign change in the TMR is observed after annealing the MTJs at temperatures between 200°C and 280°C. Our findings suggest an Mg interdiffusion from the MgO barrier into the Fe3O4 as the reason for the change of the TMR. Additionally, different treatments of the magnetite interface (argon bombardment, annealing at 200°C in oxygen atmosphere during the preparation of the MTJs have been studied regarding their effect on the performance of the MTJs. A maximum TMR of up to -12% could be observed using both argon bombardment and annealing in oxygen atmosphere, despite exposing the magnetite surface to atmospheric conditions before the deposition of the MgO barrier.

  9. Sign change in the tunnel magnetoresistance of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MgO/Co-Fe-B magnetic tunnel junctions depending on the annealing temperature and the interface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, L., E-mail: lmarnitz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de; Rott, K.; Niehörster, S.; Klewe, C.; Meier, D.; Fabretti, S.; Thomas, A.; Reiss, G.; Kuschel, T. [Center for Spinelectronic Materials and Devices, Physics Department, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstraße 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Witziok, M.; Krampf, A.; Kuschel, O.; Schemme, T.; Kuepper, K.; Wollschläger, J. [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Osnabrück, Barbarastraße 7, 49069 Osnabrück (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) is an eligible candidate for magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) since it shows a high spin polarization at the Fermi level as well as a high Curie temperature of 585°C. In this study, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MgO/Co-Fe-B MTJs were manufactured. A sign change in the TMR is observed after annealing the MTJs at temperatures between 200°C and 280°C. Our findings suggest an Mg interdiffusion from the MgO barrier into the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as the reason for the change of the TMR. Additionally, different treatments of the magnetite interface (argon bombardment, annealing at 200°C in oxygen atmosphere) during the preparation of the MTJs have been studied regarding their effect on the performance of the MTJs. A maximum TMR of up to -12% could be observed using both argon bombardment and annealing in oxygen atmosphere, despite exposing the magnetite surface to atmospheric conditions before the deposition of the MgO barrier.

  10. Thick CoFeB with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Naik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of an ultra-thin Ta insertion in the CoFeB (CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB free layer (FL on magnetic and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR properties of a CoFeB-MgO system with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA. It is found that the critical thickness (tc to sustain PMA is doubled (tc = 2.6 nm in Ta-inserted CoFeB FL as compared to single CoFeB layer (tc = 1.3 nm. While the effective magnetic anisotropy is found to increase with Ta insertion, the saturation magnetization showed a slight reduction. As the CoFeB thickness increasing, the thermal stability of Ta inserted structure is significantly increased by a factor of 2.5 for total CoFeB thickness less than 2 nm. We have observed a reasonable value of TMR for a much thicker CoFeB FL (thickness = 2-2.6 nm with Ta insertion, and without significant increment in resistance-area product. Our results reveal that an ultra-thin Ta insertion in CoFeB might pay the way towards developing the high-density memory devices with enhanced thermal stability.

  11. Nonequilibrium green function approach to elastic and inelastic spin-charge transport in topological insulator-based heterostructures and magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouzi, Farzad

    Current and future technological needs increasingly motivate the intensive scientific research of the properties of materials at the nano-scale. One of the most important domains in this respect at present concerns nano-electronics and its diverse applications. The great interest in this domain arises from the potential reduction of the size of the circuit components, maintaining their quality and functionality, and aiming at greater efficiency, economy, and storage characteristics for the corresponding physical devices. The aim of this thesis is to present a contribution to the analysis of the electronic charge and spin transport phenomena that occur at the quantum level in nano-structures. This thesis spans the areas of quantum transport theory through time-dependent systems, electron-boson interacting systems and systems of interest to spintronics. A common thread in the thesis is to develop the theoretical foundations and computational algorithms to numerically simulate such systems. In order to optimize the numerical calculations I resort to different techniques (such as graph theory in finding inverse of a sparse matrix, adaptive grids for integrations and programming languages (e.g., MATLAB and C++) and distributed computing tools (MPI, CUDA). Outline of the Thesis: After giving an introduction to the topics covered in this thesis in Chapter 1, I present the theoretical foundations to the field of non-equilibrium quantum statistics in Chapter 2. The applications of this formalism and the results are covered in the subsequent chapters as follows: Spin and charge quantum pumping in time-dependent systems: Covered in Chapters 3, 4 and 5, this topics was initially motivated by experiments on measuring voltage signal from a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) exposed to a microwave radiation in ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) condition. In Chapter 3 we found a possible explanation for the finite voltage signal measured from a tunnel junction consisting of only a single

  12. Development FD-SOI MOSFET Amplifiers for Integrated Read-Out Circuit of Superconducting-Tunnel-Junction Single-Photon-Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, Kenji; et al.

    2015-07-27

    We proposed a new high-resolution single-photon infrared spectrometer for search for radiative decay of cosmic neutrino background (CνB). The superconducting-tunnel-junctions(STJs) are used as a single-photon counting device. Each STJ consists of Nb/Al/AlxOy/Al/Nb layers, and their thicknesses are optimized for the operation temperature at 370 mK cooled by a 3He sorption refrigerator. Our STJs achieved the leak current 250 pA, and the measured data implies that a smaller area STJ fulfills our requirement. FD-SOI MOSFETs are employed to amplify the STJ signal current in order to increase signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). FD-SOI MOSFETs can be operated at cryogenic temperature of 370 mK, which reduces the noise of the signal amplification system. FD-SOI MOSFET characteristics are measured at cryogenic temperature. The Id-Vgs curve shows a sharper turn on with a higher threshold voltage and the Id-Vds curve shows a nonlinear shape in linear region at cryogenic temperature. Taking into account these effects, FD-SOI MOSFETs are available for read-out circuit of STJ detectors. The bias voltage for STJ detectors is 0.4 mV, and it must be well stabilized to deliver high performance. We proposed an FD-SOI MOSFET-based charge integrated amplifier design as a read-out circuit of STJ detectors. The requirements for an operational amplifier used in the amplifier is estimated using SPICE simulation. The op-amp is required to have a fast response (GBW ≥ 100 MHz), and it must have low power dissipation as compared to the cooling power of refrigerator.

  13. Replacing Ag(TS)SCH(2)-R with Ag(TS)O(2)C-R in EGaIn-based tunneling junctions does not significantly change rates of charge transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kung-Ching; Yoon, Hyo Jae; Bowers, Carleen M; Simeone, Felice C; Whitesides, George M

    2014-04-07

    This paper compares rates of charge transport by tunneling across junctions with the structures Ag(TS) X(CH2 )2n CH3  //Ga2 O3  /EGaIn (n=1-8 and X= SCH2  and O2 C); here Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver, and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium. Its objective was to compare the tunneling decay coefficient (β, Å(-1) ) and the injection current (J0 , A cm(-2) ) of the junctions comprising SAMs of n-alkanethiolates and n-alkanoates. Replacing Ag(TS) SCH2 -R with Ag(TS) O2 C-R (R=alkyl chains) had no significant influence on J0 (ca. 3×10(3)  A cm(-2) ) or β (0.75-0.79 Å(-1) )-an indication that such changes (both structural and electronic) in the Ag(TS) XR interface do not influence the rate of charge transport. A comparison of junctions comprising oligo(phenylene)carboxylates and n-alkanoates showed, as expected, that β for aliphatic (0.79 Å(-1) ) and aromatic (0.60 Å(-1) ) SAMs differed significantly. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Buried penis: classification surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Ahmed T

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe morphological classification of congenital buried penis (BP) and present a versatile surgical approach for correction. Sixty-one patients referred with BP were classified into 3 grades according to morphological findings: Grade 1-29 patients with Longer Inner Prepuce (LIP) only, Grade II-20 patients who presented with LIP associated with indrawn penis that required division of the fundiform and suspensory ligaments, and Grade III-12 patients who had in addition to the above, excess supra-pubic fat. A ventral midline penile incision extending from the tip of prepuce down to the penoscrotal junction was used in all patients. The operation was tailored according to the BP Grade. All patients underwent circumcision. Mean follow up was 3 years (range 1 to 10). All 61 patients had an abnormally long inner prepuce (LIP). Forty-seven patients had a short penile shaft. Early improvement was noted in all cases. Satisfactory results were achieved in all 29 patients in grade I and in 27 patients in grades II and III. Five children (Grades II and III) required further surgery (9%). Congenital buried penis is a spectrum characterized by LIP and may include in addition; short penile shaft, abnormal attachment of fundiform, and suspensory ligaments and excess supra-pubic fat. Congenital Mega Prepuce (CMP) is a variant of Grade I BP, with LIP characterized by intermittent ballooning of the genital area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Epitaxial growth of Sr(x)TiO(y) and fabrication of EuBa2Cu3O(7-delta)/Sr(x)TiO(y)/Pb tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikami, Osamu; Asahi, Masayoshi

    1991-03-01

    Thin films deposited from an SrTiO3 (STO) target using rf magnetron sputtering were examined. The Sr(1.6)TiO(y) films with perovskitelike structure grew epitaxially at substrate temperatures above 500 C. The trilayered films of EuBa2Cu3O7(EBCO)/STO/EBCO were desposited epitaxially on STO(110) substrated, but partial polycrystal growth in the EBCO film of the third layer was observed. In view of this result, EBCO(110)/STO(110)/Pb tunnel junctions were produced on STO(110) substrates. The I-V characteristics of junctions with an Rnn of 10 ohms showed a gap opening at a bias voltage of about 10 mV, a clear gap structure at 2.5 mV, and Rj/Rnn = 12.4 below 2.5 mV. The low-energy gap below 2.5 mV was caused by the deterioration of the EBCO base electrodes due to the junction fabrication process. The large Rj/Rnn suggests that an STO epitaxial ultrathin film can be a good low-leakage barrier. On the other hand, lower resistance junctions showed the development of a supercurrent at zero bias.

  16. Spin injection into silicon in three-terminal vertical and four-terminal lateral devices with Fe/Mg/MgO/Si tunnel junctions having an ultrathin Mg insertion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shoichi; Nakane, Ryosho; Hada, Takato; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that the spin injection/extraction efficiency is enhanced by an ultrathin Mg insertion layer (⩽2 nm) in Fe /Mg /MgO /n+-Si tunnel junctions. In diode-type vertical three-terminal devices fabricated on a Si substrate, we observe the narrower three-terminal Hanle (N-3TH) signals indicating true spin injection into Si and estimate the spin polarization in Si to be 16% when the thickness of the Mg insertion layer is 1 nm, whereas no N-3TH signal is observed without the Mg insertion. This means that the spin injection/extraction efficiency is enhanced by suppressing the formation of a magnetically dead layer at the Fe/MgO interface. We also observe clear spin transport signals, such as nonlocal Hanle signals and spin-valve signals, in a lateral four-terminal device with the same Fe /Mg /MgO /n+-Si tunnel junctions fabricated on a Si-on-insulator substrate. It is found that both the intensity and linewidth of the spin signals are affected by the geometrical effects (device geometry and size). We have derived analytical functions taking into account the device structures, including channel thickness and electrode size, and estimated important parameters: spin lifetime and spin polarization. Our analytical functions explain the experimental results very well. Our study shows the importance of suppressing a magnetically dead layer and provides a unified understanding of spin injection/detection signals in different device geometries.

  17. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta|Co40Fe40B20|MgAl2O4 structures and perpendicular CoFeB|MgAl2O4|CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, B. S.

    2014-09-08

    Magnetic properties of Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB) thin films sandwiched between Ta and MgAl2O4layers have been systematically studied. For as-grown state, Ta/CoFeB/MgAl2O4structures exhibit good perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with interface anisotropy Ki=1.22erg/cm2, which further increases to 1.30erg/cm2after annealing, while MgAl2O4/CoFeB/Ta multilayer shows in-plane magnetic anisotropy and must be annealed in order to achieve PMA. For bottom CoFeB layer, the thickness window for PMA is from 0.6 to 1.0nm, while that for top CoFeB layer is between 0.8 and 1.4nm. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with a core structure of CoFeB/MgAl2O4/CoFeB have also been fabricated and tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of about 36% at room temperature and 63% at low temperature have been obtained. The intrinsic excitations in the p-MTJs have been identified by inelastic electron-tunneling spectroscopy.

  18. Josephson super-current in graphene-superconductor junction

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvestani, E.; Jafari, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Within the tunneling Hamiltonian formulation for the eight-component spinors,the Josephson critical super-current has been calculated in a planar superconductor-normal graphene-superconductor junction. Coupling between superconductor regions and graphene is taken into account by a tunneling Hamiltonian which contains two types of tunneling, intra-valley and inter-valley tunneling. Within the present tunneling approach, we find that the contributions of two kinds of tunneling to the critical s...

  19. Tunneling spectroscopy on grain boundary junctions in electron-doped high-temperature superconductors; Tunnelspektroskopie an Korngrenzenkontakten aus elektronendotierten Hochtemperatur-Supraleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, B.

    2007-12-07

    Some methods are developed anf presented, by means of which from experimental tunnel spectra, especially on symmetric SIS contacts, informations about the properties of electrodes and tunnel barriers can be obtained. Especially a procedure for the numerical unfolding of symmetric SIS spectra is proposed. Furthermore a series of models is summarized, which can explain the linear background conductivity observed in many spectra on high-temperature superconductors. The results of resistance measurements on film bridges are presented. Especially different methods for the determination of H{sub c2}(T) respectively H{sub c2}(0) are presented and applied to the experimental data. Finally the results of the tunnel-spectroscopy measurements are shown.

  20. Atomic structure and electronic properties of MgO grain boundaries in tunnelling magnetoresistive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jonathan J.; Saito, Mitsuhiro; Fukami, Shunsuke; Sato, Hideo; Ikeda, Shoji; Ohno, Hideo; Ikuhara, Yuichi; McKenna, Keith P.

    2017-04-01

    Polycrystalline metal oxides find diverse applications in areas such as nanoelectronics, photovoltaics and catalysis. Although grain boundary defects are ubiquitous their structure and electronic properties are very poorly understood since it is extremely challenging to probe the structure of buried interfaces directly. In this paper we combine novel plan-view high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and first principles calculations to provide atomic level understanding of the structure and properties of grain boundaries in the barrier layer of a magnetic tunnel junction. We show that the highly [001] textured MgO films contain numerous tilt grain boundaries. First principles calculations reveal how these grain boundaries are associated with locally reduced band gaps (by up to 3 eV). Using a simple model we show how shunting a proportion of the tunnelling current through grain boundaries imposes limits on the maximum magnetoresistance that can be achieved in devices.

  1. Origin of variation of shift field via annealing at 400°C in a perpendicular-anisotropy magnetic tunnel junction with [Co/Pt]-multilayers based synthetic ferrimagnetic reference layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Honjo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated properties of perpendicular-anisotropy magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs with [Co/Pt]-multilayer based synthetic ferrimagnetic reference (SyF layer at elevated annealing temperature Ta from 350°C to 400°C. Shift field HS defined as center field of minor resistance versus magnetic field curve of the MTJs increased with increase of Ta from 350°C to 400°C. The variation of HS is attributed to the variation of saturation magnetic moment in the SyF reference layer. Cross sectional energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that Fe element of CoFeB in the reference layer diffuses to Co/Pt multilayers in the SyF reference layer.

  2. Characterization of the insulator barrier and the superconducting transition temperature in GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}/BaTiO{sub 3} bilayers for application in tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, H., E-mail: henrynavarro@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Sirena, M.; Haberkorn, N. [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo and CNEA, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Yang, Ilkyu [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeehoon [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); CALDES, Institute for Basic Science, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-28

    The optimization of the superconducting properties in a bottom electrode and the quality of an insulator barrier are the first steps in the development of superconductor/insulator/superconductor tunnel junctions. Here, we study the quality of a BaTiO{sub 3} tunnel barrier deposited on a 16 nm thick GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} thin film by using conductive atomic force microscopy. We find that the tunnel current is systematically reduced (for equal applied voltage) by increasing the BaTiO{sub 3} barrier thickness between 1.6 and 4 nm. The BaTiO{sub 3} layers present an energy barrier of ≈1.2 eV and an attenuation length of 0.35–0.5 nm (depending on the applied voltage). The GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} electrode is totally covered by a BaTiO{sub 3} thickness above 3 nm. The presence of ferroelectricity was verified by piezoresponse force microscopy for a 4 nm thick BaTiO{sub 3} top layer. The superconducting transition temperature of the bilayers is systematically suppressed by increasing the BaTiO{sub 3} thickness. This fact can be associated with stress at the interface and a reduction of the orthorhombicity of the GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}. The reduction in the orthorhombicity is expected by considering the interface mismatch and it can also be affected by reduced oxygen stoichiometry (poor oxygen diffusion across the BaTiO{sub 3} barrier)

  3. Long-term reliable physically unclonable function based on oxide tunnel barrier breakdown on two-transistors two-magnetic-tunnel-junctions cell-based embedded spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Satoshi; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Noguchi, Hiroki; Ikegami, Kazutaka; Abe, Keiko; Fujita, Shinobu

    2017-04-01

    Among the diverse applications of spintronics, security for internet-of-things (IoT) devices is one of the most important. A physically unclonable function (PUF) with a spin device (spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory, STT-MRAM) is presented. Oxide tunnel barrier breakdown is used to realize long-term stability for PUFs. A secure PUF has been confirmed by evaluating the Hamming distance of a 32-bit STT-MRAM-PUF fabricated using 65 nm CMOS technology.

  4. Microwave dependence of subharmonic gap structure in superconducting junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O. Hoffman; Kofoed, Bent; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1974-01-01

    Experiments on both point-contact junctions (Nb-Nb) and on small area thin-film tunnel junctions (Sn-O-Sn) show that applied 4-mm radiation produces satellites associated with "subharmonic" gap structure as well as the familiar microwave-assisted tunneling structure associated with the supercondu...

  5. A superconducting tunnel junction receiver for submillimeter astronomy, and analysis of observations of post-AGB star molecular envelopes. [AGB (asymptotic giant branch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaminet, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    A heterodyne receiver designed for astronomical use between 450 and 520 GHz has been constructed. Very low capacitance (C [approximately] 5-10 fF) Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) junctions have been fabricated as the detectors; these junctions lie on the edges of niobium thin films and form Nb-Al-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Al-Nb sandwiches. The double sideband (DSB) receiver noise temperature is between 400 K and 800 K throughout the 70 GHz band. In addition, detailed modelling and analysis of astronomical observations of two post-AGB (Asymptotic Giant Branch) stars was performed. The observations were made with an SIS receiver designed for 345 GHz. CO observations and modelling of the young planetary nebula NGC 7027 provided the best determination yet of its AGB mass loss rate, the first direct evidence for bipolarity in its AGB mass loss, evidence for close hydrodynamic coupling between the planetary nebula and the relic AGB wind, and evidence for evolution in the metallicity of the stellar wind. Observations of the proto-planetary nebula CRL 2688 found evidence for spatially extended fast wind emission with a non-bipolar morphology, and evidence for evolution is elemental abundances in the stellar wind.

  6. Bottom-up and top-down fabrication of nanowire-based electronic devices: In situ doping of vapor liquid solid grown silicon nanowires and etch-dependent leakage current in InGaAs tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Meng-Wei

    Semiconductor nanowires are important components in future nanoelectronic and optoelectronic device applications. These nanowires can be fabricated using either bottom-up or top-down methods. While bottom-up techniques can achieve higher aspect ratio at reduced dimension without having surface and sub-surface damage, uniform doping distributions with abrupt junction profiles are less challenging for top-down methods. In this dissertation, nanowires fabricated by both methods were systematically investigated to understand: (1) the in situ incorporation of boron (B) dopants in Si nanowires grown by the bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique, and (2) the impact of plasma-induced etch damage on InGaAs p +-i-n+ nanowire junctions for tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) applications. In Chapter 2 and 3, the in situ incorporation of B in Si nanowires grown using silane (SiH4) or silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) as the Si precursor and trimethylboron (TMB) as the p-type dopant source is investigated by I-V measurements of individual nanowires. The results from measurements using a global-back-gated test structure reveal nonuniform B doping profiles on nanowires grown from SiH4, which is due to simultaneous incorporation of B from nanowire surface and the catalyst during VLS growth. In contrast, a uniform B doping profile in both the axial and radial directions is achieved for TMBdoped Si nanowires grown using SiCl4 at high substrate temperatures. In Chapter 4, the I-V characteristics of wet- and dry-etched InGaAs p+-i-n+ junctions with different mesa geometries, orientations, and perimeter-to-area ratios are compared to evaluate the impact of the dry etch process on the junction leakage current properties. Different post-dry etch treatments, including wet etching and thermal annealing, are performed and the effectiveness of each is assessed by temperaturedependent I-V measurements. As compared to wet-etched control devices, dry-etched junctions have a significantly

  7. Polarization-enhanced InGaN/GaN-based hybrid tunnel junction contacts to GaN p–n diodes and InGaN LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad J.

    2017-11-27

    Improved turn-on voltages and reduced series resistances were realized by depositing highly Si-doped n-type GaN using molecular beam epitaxy on polarization-enhanced p-type InGaN contact layers grown using metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. We compared the effects of different Si doping concentrations and the addition of p-type InGaN on the forward voltages of p–n diodes and light-emitting diodes, and found that increasing the Si concentrations from 1.9 × 1020 to 4.6 × 1020 cm−3 and including a highly doped p-type InGaN at the junction both contributed to reductions in the depletion width, the series resistance of 4.2 × 10−3–3.4 × 10−3 Ωcenterdotcm2, and the turn-on voltages of the diodes.

  8. Theory of the magnon-mediated tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flebus, Benedetta; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Duine, Rembert A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2017-09-01

    The tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect is the dependence of the thermopower of magnetic tunnel junctions on the magnetic configuration. It is conventionally interpreted in terms of a thermoelectric generalization of the tunnel magnetoresistance. Here, we investigate the heat-driven electron transport in these junctions associated with electron-magnon scattering, using stochastic Landau-Lifshitz phenomenology and quantum kinetic theory. Our findings challenge the widely accepted single-electron picture of the tunneling thermopower in magnetic junctions.

  9. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Georg Hermann

    2012-03-04

    We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO{sub x}/Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18}/Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to {pi}-coupling is observed for a thickness d{sub F}=6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.

  10. Josephson supercurrent in a graphene-superconductor junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvestani, Esmaeel [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Jafari, Seyed Akbar [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Within the tunneling Hamiltonian formulation for the eight-component spinors, the Josephson critical supercurrent has been calculated in a planar superconductor-normal graphene-superconductor junction. Coupling between superconductor regions and graphene is taken into account by a tunneling Hamiltonian which contains two types of tunneling, intravalley and intervalley tunneling. Within the present tunneling approach, we find that the contributions of two kinds of tunneling to the critical supercurrent are completely separable. Therefore, it is possible to consider the effect of the intervalley tunnelings in the critical supercurrent. The incorporation of these type of processes into the tunneling Hamiltonian exposes a special feature of the graphene Josephson junctions. The effect of intervalley tunneling appears in the length dependence plot of critical current in the form of oscillations. We also present the results for temperature dependence of critical supercurrent and compare with experimental results and other theoretical calculations.

  11. Epitaxial growth of Fe{sub 3}Si/CaF{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}Si magnetic tunnel junction structures on CaF{sub 2}/Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Ken' ichi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Suemasu, Takashi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)], E-mail: suemasu@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Kuwano, Noriyuki; Hara, Daisuke [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Akinaga, Hiroyuki [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    The Fe{sub 3}Si(24 nm)/CaF{sub 2}(2 nm)/Fe{sub 3}Si(12 nm) magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) structures were grown epitaxially on CaF{sub 2}/Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The 12-nm-thick Fe{sub 3}Si underlayer was grown epitaxially on CaF{sub 2/}Si(111) at approximately 400 deg. C; however, the surface of the Fe{sub 3}Si film was very rough, and thus a lot of pinholes are considered to exist in the 2-nm-thick CaF{sub 2} barrier layer. The average roughness (Ra) of the CaF{sub 2} barrier layer was 7.8 nm. This problem was overcome by low-temperature deposition of Fe and Si at 80 deg. C on CaF{sub 2}/Si(111), followed by annealing at 250 deg. C for 30 min to form the Fe{sub 3}Si layer. The Ra roughness was significantly reduced down to approximately 0.26 nm. A hysteresis loop with coercive field H{sub c} of approximately 25 Oe was obtained in the magnetic field dependence of Kerr rotation at room temperature (RT)

  12. Nanotube junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Vincent Henry; Cohen, Marvin Lou; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    2003-01-01

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  13. Method and apparatus for increasing resistance of bipolar buried layer integrated circuit devices to single-event upsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Bipolar transistors fabricated in separate buried layers of an integrated circuit chip are electrically isolated with a built-in potential barrier established by doping the buried layer with a polarity opposite doping in the chip substrate. To increase the resistance of the bipolar transistors to single-event upsets due to ionized particle radiation, the substrate is biased relative to the buried layer with an external bias voltage selected to offset the built-in potential just enough (typically between about +0.1 to +0.2 volt) to prevent an accumulation of charge in the buried-layer-substrate junction.

  14. Modeling Indirect Tunneling in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edward

    Indirect tunneling in silicon p-n junctions catches people's attention again in recent years. First, the phenomenon induces a serious leakage problem, so called gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) effect, in modern metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Second, it is utilized to develop a novel tunneling transistor with the sharp turn-on ability for continuing ITRS roadmap. Although the indirect tunneling is important for the state-of-the-art transistor-technology, the accuracy of the present tunneling models in technology computer-aided design (TCAD) tools is still vague. In the research work, the theory of indirect tunneling in silicon has been thoroughly studied. The phonon-assisted tunneling model has been developed and compared with the existing ones in the Sentaurus-Synopsys, Medici-Synopsys, and Atlas-Silvaco TCAD tools. Beyond these existing models, ours successfully predicts the indirect tunneling current under the different field direction in silicon. In addition, bandgap narrowing in heavily-doped p-n junctions under the reverse-biased condition is also studied during the model development. At the end of the research work, the application to low standby power (LSTP) transistors is demonstrated to show the capability of our tunneling model in the device level.

  15. Performance of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  16. The role of antiferromagnetic La{sub 1/3}Ca{sub 2/3}MnO{sub 3} barriers in superconductor/insulator/ferromagnet tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, O., E-mail: omoranc@unalmed.edu.c [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568 Medellin (Colombia); Saldarriaga, W. [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568 Medellin (Colombia); Baca, E. [Grupo de Ingenieria de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia)

    2010-01-15

    Current transport through thin antiferromagnetic (AF) barriers of the perovskite manganite La{sub 1/3}Ca{sub 2/3}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO) was studied with respect to its dependence on temperature and voltage. Planar-type La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3}(approx80 nm)/La{sub 1/3}Ca{sub 2/3}MnO{sub 3}(approx7 nm)/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-d}elta(approx100 nm) heterojunctions were used as basic structures. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out on test junctions with a standard area of 20 x 40 mum{sup 2} in a four-terminal configuration. In spite of the carefully controlled growth conditions, barriers with the same nominal thickness showed different electrical behavior varying from elastic tunneling to Mott variable range hopping (VRH) via localized states. Fitting the VRH model to the experimental data, allowed for estimating important physical parameters of the barrier as the density of states at the Fermi level N(E{sub F}) and with this the average distance between two localized states l{sub 0}. The different transport characteristics seem to be related to intrinsic difference in microstructure as the average surface roughness of the constituent layers may already be larger than the thickness of the barrier itself. Independent of the barrier quality, the active presence of the diamagnetic and ferromagnetic phases in the heterostructure was corroborated by transport measurements in magnetic fields and in-plane/out-of-plane magnetization hysteresis loops below the superconducting critical temperature, T{sub c} (approx80 K). The values of the critical magnetic field H{sub c1} estimated from these experiments were in good accordance with those reported in the literature.

  17. Quenching of tunneling magnetoresistance at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.I.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, W.Y.; Shin, K.H.; Ri, H.-C.; Lee, B.C. E-mail: chan@inha.ac.kr; Rhie, K. E-mail: krhie@korea.ac.kr

    2004-05-01

    It was observed that the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) was quenched at low temperatures for magnetic tunnel junctions fabricated with high-energy oxidation power. The unusual temperature dependence of the TMR is attributed to the spin-flip scattering at the interface.

  18. Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, J.R.; Plut, T.A.; Martens, J.S.

    1995-05-02

    A novel method for fabricating nanometer geometry electronic devices is described. Such Josephson junctions can be accurately and reproducibly manufactured employing photolithographic and direct write electron beam lithography techniques in combination with aqueous etchants. In particular, a method is described for manufacturing planar Josephson junctions from high temperature superconducting material. 10 figs.

  19. Probing buried carbon nanotubes within polymer-nanotube composite matrices by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi; Zhang, Wei-De; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNT) inside a polyamide-6 (PA6)–MW-CNT composite were visualized by atomic force microscopy (i) in a field-assisted intermittent contact and (ii) in the tunneling (TUNA) mode. Individual buried MW-CNTs were clearly discerned within the PA6 matrix. An average

  20. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around Buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Christensen, Steen

    In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures. The admini......In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures....... The administration of groundwater resources has been based on simulations using regional scale groundwater models. However, regional scale models have difficulties with accurately resolving the complex geology of the buried valleys, which bears the risk of poor model predictions of local scale effects of groundwater...

  1. [Congenital buried penis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardellier-Reynaud, F; Varlet, F; François, M; Mouriquand, P

    2011-10-01

    Congenital buried penis in children is an uncommon and poorly known entity. The aims of this study were to report an original technique for correction of buried penis and to evaluate its results. It is a retrospective study of buried penis operated between November 1998 and May 2009. The acquired concealed penis and hypospadias were excluded from this study. The procedure includes several stages: degloving of the penis through a ventral anchor-like incision; division of the adherent layers surrounding the corpora cavernosa; anchorage of the Buck's fascia to the corporeal albuginea at the base of the penis; and ventral cutaneous coverage. The long-term results were evaluated by the parents and the surgeon according to anatomical, functional and aesthetic criterion. Twenty-five boys were evaluated. The mean age at surgery was 27 months (seven days-120 months). Two children required an additional plasty. Results were satisfactory in 24 cases (96%). One child required a redo procedure for unsatisfactory outcome. Of seven children with redundant skin (28%), three underwent a complementary cutaneous excision. Congenital buried penis remains a controversial issue. Our technique was simple and easily reproducible. Voiding difficulties, urinary tract infection or strong parental request were the main indications of this surgery in our experience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of spin injection from ferromagnetic metal into a two-dimensional electron gas using a tunnel barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heersche, HB; Schapers, T; Nitta, J; Takayanagi, H

    2001-01-01

    Using free electron approximation, we calculated the spin dependent tunnel conductance of ballistic ferromagnet/tunnel barrier/two-dimensional electron gas (FM/I/2DEG) junctions and FM/I/2DEG/I/FM double junctions for different barrier strengths. We find that a tunnel barrier improves spin injection

  3. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves to Detect Buried Concrete Conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiani, P.; Anderson, N.; Rogers, J. D.; Elkrry, A.

    2016-12-01

    The detection of underground cavities is of significant concern to geotechnical engineers working in karst terrain. In spite of the marked progress in nondestructive geophysical methods for detecting shallow underground voids, no unique methodology has emerged that can be applied globally. Various studies have been performed on the use of Rayleigh waves to detect shallow tunnels. In this study, we examined the potential of both Rayleigh and Love waves for detecting subsurface voids. Vertical geophones with Eigen-frequencies of 4.5 Hz, 14 Hz, and 100 Hz were utilized to evaluate Rayleigh waves to resolve near-surface tunnels. Seismic surveys were carried out using horizontal 14 Hz geophones to verify the feasibility of using Love waves to detect shallow tunnels. Two buried conduits of known size and embedment were chosen for the study. One conduit serves as a spillway outfall for an embankment dam, and the other as a low flow outlet for aa flood retention basin. Attenuation analyses of surface waves were performed on all of the data sets to identify locations of the buried concrete conduits. In order to minimize the far-field effects, such as body-wave domination, or low signal-to-noise ratio, it was suggested that we try muting the direct waves, refraction, reflection, air wave, and ambient noise. An amplification of energy on, or in front of the near boundary of the conduits was thereby observed. The muting process greatly reduced the number of false positives. The results of this study not only confirmed previous work, but also displayed the ability of Love waves in detecting the shallow subsurface tunnels or conduits.

  4. Short tunnels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    Before dealing with the question of lighting short tunnels, it is necessary define what is meant by a tunnel and when it should be called 'short'. Confined to motorized road traffic the following is the most apt definition of a tunnel: every form of roofing-over a road section, irrespective of it

  5. Theory buried under heavy description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In journalism when a reporter puts the main news or point of the story deep down in the text, we say she’s buried the lead, the lead being the main point of the story and usually the first paragraph. In Children in Genocide: extreme traumatization and affect regulation, psychoanalyst Suzanne Kaplan buries her theory. Her study of the after effects of trauma among Holocaust survivors who were children during their persecution and survivors of atrocities during the Rwandan atrocities of the 1990s, is filled with highly descriptive material from the many interviews that serve as data. An interesting grounded theory is peeking out from under all the disciplinary discourse and historical background one must read through to get to what grounded theory readers will consider the juicy parts: concepts on affect regulation in trauma survivors.

  6. Thermographic detection of buried objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eduardo H.; Abbate, Horacio A.; Mallaina, Eduardo F.; Santos, Juan M.; Mejail, Marta; Borensztejn, Patricia; Jacobo-Berlles, Julio

    2005-03-01

    A great development of technologies for the detection of buried objects took place in the last years. Applications in archeology, finding of pipe lines and others were important, but most attention was paid in humanitarian detection of land mines and unexploded ordnances. Among these technologies, thermography is one of the most useful techniques and has been applied concurrent with other ones (Ground Penetrating Radar, Electromagnetic Induction, etc.) We have made several experiments to obtain thermographic images of buried objects in the middle and far infrared, in laboratory and in field, and in different types of terrain: naked ground, ground covered with grass and sand. We employed, as warming methods, natural sun radiation and blowing of warm air or halogen lamps. We have used metallic and dielectric objects of different sizes and shapes so as to recognize them by their characteristics. The acquired images were improved using noise reduction and image enhancement techniques. In this work we present the thermographic images obtained. All measurements were made at short distance, less than 100 cm, as the objective of our work is to develop a thermographic imaging system for the detection of buried objects to be installed in an autonomous ground robot.

  7. Hybrid High-Temperature-Superconductor–Semiconductor Tunnel Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hayat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the demonstration of hybrid high-T_{c}-superconductor–semiconductor tunnel junctions, enabling new interdisciplinary directions in condensed matter research. The devices are fabricated by our newly developed mechanical-bonding technique, resulting in high-T_{c}-superconductor–semiconductor tunnel diodes. Tunneling-spectra characterization of the hybrid junctions of Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ} combined with bulk GaAs, or a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well, exhibits excess voltage and nonlinearity, similarly to spectra obtained in scanning-tunneling microscopy, and is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a d-wave-superconductor–normal-material junction. Additional junctions are demonstrated using Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ} combined with graphite or Bi_{2}Te_{3}. Our results pave the way for new methods in unconventional superconductivity studies, novel materials, and quantum technology applications.

  8. Investigation into scanning tunnelling luminescence microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Manson-Smith, S K

    2001-01-01

    This work reports on the development of a scanning tunnelling luminescence (STL) microscope and its application to the study of Ill-nitride semiconductor materials used in the production of light emitting devices. STL microscopy is a technique which uses the high resolution topographic imaging capabilities of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to generate high resolution luminescence images. The STM tunnelling current acts as a highly localised source of electrons (or holes) which generates luminescence in certain materials. Light generated at the STM tunnelling junction is collected concurrently with the height variation of the tunnelling probe as it is scanned across a sample surface, producing simultaneous topographic and luminescence images. Due to the very localised excitation source, high resolution luminescence images can be obtained. Spectroscopic resolution can be obtained by using filters. Additionally, the variation of luminescence intensity with tunnel current and with bias voltage can provi...

  9. Interface Structure and Transport of Complex Oxide Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Wong, F.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Chi, M.; Arenholz, E.; Browning, N. D.; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-02-01

    The interface structure and magnetism of hybrid magnetic tunnel junction-spin filter devices have been investigated and correlated with the transport behavior exhibited. Magnetic tunnel junctions made of theoretically predicted half-metallic electrodes (perovskite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and spinel Fe3O4) sandwiching a spinel NiMn2O4 tunnel barrier exhibit very high crystalline quality as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Structurally abrupt interfaces allow for the distinct magnetic switching of the electrodes as well as large junction magnetoresistance. The change in the magnetic anisotropy observed at the spinel-spinel interface supports the presence of limited interdiffusion and the creation of a magnetically soft interfacial layer, whose strong exchange coupling to the Fe3O4 electrode likely accounts for the low background magnetoresistance observed in these junctions, and the successful spin filtering when the barrier layer is ferrimagnetic.

  10. Combination of Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Carrier Statistics Into an Atomistic Quantum Transport Model for Tunneling Heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Tarek A.; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Huang, Jun Z.; Povolotskyi, Michael; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    Tunneling hetero-junctions (THJs) usually induce confined states at the regions close to the tunnel junction which significantly affect their transport properties. Accurate numerical modeling of such effects requires combining the non-equilibrium coherent quantum transport through tunnel junction, as well as the quasi-equilibrium statistics arising from the strong scattering in the induced quantum wells. In this work, a novel atomistic model is proposed to include both effects: the strong scattering in the regions around THJ and the coherent tunneling. The new model matches reasonably well with experimental measurements of Nitride THJ and provides an efficient engineering tool for performance prediction and design of THJ based devices.

  11. Computational Analysis of Protein Tunnels and Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezovsky, Jan; Kozlikova, Barbora; Damborsky, Jiri

    2018-01-01

    Protein tunnels connecting the functional buried cavities with bulk solvent and protein channels, enabling the transport through biological membranes, represent the structural features that govern the exchange rates of ligands, ions, and water solvent. Tunnels and channels are present in a vast number of known proteins and provide control over their function. Modification of these structural features by protein engineering frequently provides proteins with improved properties. Here we present a detailed computational protocol employing the CAVER software that is applicable for: (1) the analysis of tunnels and channels in protein structures, and (2) the selection of hot-spot residues in tunnels or channels that can be mutagenized for improved activity, specificity, enantioselectivity, or stability.

  12. Gold Electrodes Wired for Coupling with the Deeply Buried Active Site of Arthrobacter globiformis Amine Oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Corinna R.; Juda, Gregory A.; Dooley, David M.; Amii, Ricky N.; Hill, Michael G.; Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B.

    2003-01-01

    Diethylaniline-terminated oligo(phenyl-ethynyl)-thiol (DEA-OPE-SH) wires on Au-bead electrodes facilitate electron tunneling to and from the deeply buried topaquinone (TPQ) cofactor in Arthrobacter globiformis amine oxidase (AGAO). Reversible cyclic voltammograms were observed when AGAO was adsorbed onto this DEA-OPE-SAu surface:  the 2e^-/2H^+ reduction potential is −140 mV versus SCE.

  13. Anomalous tensoelectric effects in gallium arsenide tunnel diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, Z.M.; Vyatkin, A.P.; Krivorotov, N.P.; Shchegol' , A.A.

    1988-02-01

    Anomalous tensoelectric phenomena induced in a tunnel p-n junction by a concentrated load and by hydrostatic compression were studied. The anomalous tensoelectric effects are caused by the action of concentrators of mechanical stresses in the vicinity of the p-n junction, giving rise to local microplastic strain. Under the conditions of hydrostatic compression prolate inclusions approx.100-200 A long play the role of concentrators. Analysis of irreversible changes in the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions made it possible to separate the energy levels of the defects produced with plastic strain of gallium arsenide.

  14. Anomalous tensoelectric effects in gallium arsenide tunnel diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Z. M.; Vyatkin, A. P.; Krivorotov, N. P.; Shchegol', A. A.

    1987-08-01

    Anomalous tensoelectric phenomena induced in a tunnel p-n junction by a concentrated load and by hydrostatic compression were studied. The anomalous tensoelectric effects are caused by the action of concentrators of mechanical stresses in the vicinity of the p-n junction, giving rise to local microplastic strain. Under the conditions of hydrostatic compression prolate inclusions ∿100 200 å long play the role of concentrators. Analysis of irreversible changes in the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions made it possible to separate the energy levels of the defects produced with plastic strain of gallium arsenide.

  15. Tunneling of trapped-atom Bose condensates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamical equations are of the canonical form for the two conjugate variables, and the Hamiltonian corresponds to that of a momentum-shortened pendulum, supporting a richer set of tunneling oscillation modes than for a superconductor Josephson junction, that has a fixed-length pendulum as a mechanical model.

  16. Superconducting properties of lithographic lead break junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David; Scheer, Elke

    2018-01-01

    We have fabricated mechanically controlled break junction samples made of lead (Pb) by means of state-of-the-art nanofabrication methods: electron beam lithography and physical vapour deposition. The electrical and magnetic properties were characterized in a {}3{He} cryostat and showed a hard superconducting gap. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of tunnel contacts were compared and quantitatively described by including either thermal broadening of the density of states or pair breaking in the framework of a Skalski model, respectively. We show point contact spectra of few-atom contacts and present tunneling spectra exhibiting a superconducting double-gap structure.

  17. Fluxon Dynamics in Elliptic Annular Josephson Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Mygind, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a magnetic flux quantum (current vortex) trapped in a current-biased long planar elliptic annular Josephson tunnel junction. The system is modeled by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation that determines the spatial and temporal behavior of the phase difference across...... the tunnel barrier separating the two superconducting electrodes. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the fluxon dynamics in an elliptic annulus does not differ from that of a circular annulus where the stationary fluxon speed merely is determined by the system losses. The interaction between...

  18. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, F.; Medina-Tanco, G.A.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, M.E.; Nahmad-Achar, E.; Valdes Galicia, J.F.; Sandoval, A.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, M.A.; Vergara Limon, S.; Villasenor, L.M.

    Muon telescopes can have several applications, ranging from astrophysical to solar-terrestrial interaction studies, and fundamental particle physics. We show the design parameters, characterization and end-to-end simulations of a detector composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fix depths ranging from 0.30 m to 3 m. Each layer is 4 m2 and is composed by 50 rectangular pixels of 4cm x 2 m, oriented at a 90 deg angle with respect to its companion layer. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips with two Bicron wavelength shifting fibers mounted on machined grooves. Scintillation light is collected by multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels, accommodating two fibers per pixel. The front-end electronics has a time resolution of 7.5 nsec. Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2 micro-seconds data collection window. All data, including signal and background, are saved to hard disk. Separation of extensive air shower signals from secondary cosmic-ray background muons and electrons is done offline using the GPS-tagged threefold coincidence signal from surface water cerenkov detectors located nearby in a triangular array. Cosmic-ray showers above 6 PeV are selected. The data acquisition system is designed to keep both, background and signals from extensive air showers for a detailed offline data.

  19. A thin-film silicon/silicon hetero-junction hybrid solar cell for photoelectrochemical water-reduction applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasudevan, R.A.; Thanawala, Z; Han, L.; Buijs, Thom; Tan, H.; Deligiannis, D.; Perez Rodriguez, P.; Digdaya, I.A.; Smith, W.A.; Zeman, M.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell consisting of a thin-film, nanocrystalline silicon top junction and a siliconheterojunction bottom junction is proposed as a supporting solar cell for photoelectrochemical applications.Tunneling recombination junction engineering is shown to be an important consideration

  20. Interface Structure and Transport of Complex Oxide Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson-Cheeseman, B.B.; Wong, F.; Chopdekar, R.V.; Chi, M.; Arenholz, E.; Browning, N.D; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-11-05

    The interface structure and magnetism of hybrid magnetic tunnel junction-spin filter devices have been investigated and correlated with their transport properties. Magnetic tunnel junctions made of a spinel NiMn2O4 tunnel barrier sandwiched by theoretically predicted half-metallic electrodes, perovskite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and spinel Fe3O4, exhibit very high crystalline quality as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Structurally abrupt interfaces allow for the distinct magnetic switching of the electrodes as well as large junction magnetoresistance. The change in the magnetic anisotropy observed at the spinel-spinel interface is indicative of a thin interdiffused magnetically soft interfacial layer. The strong exchange coupling at this interface allows for low background magnetoresistance, and a spin-filter effect with when the barrier is ferrimagnetic.

  1. Josephson radiation and shot noise of a semiconductor nanowire junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerkom, David J.; Proutski, Alex; van Gulik, Ruben J. J.; Kriváchy, Tamás; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastian R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Geresdi, Attila

    2017-09-01

    We measured the Josephson radiation emitted by an InSb semiconductor nanowire junction utilizing photon-assisted quasiparticle tunneling in an ac-coupled superconducting tunnel junction. We quantify the action of the local microwave environment by evaluating the frequency dependence of the inelastic Cooper-pair tunneling of the nanowire junction and find the zero-frequency impedance Z (0 )=492 Ω with a cutoff frequency of f0=33.1 GHz . We extract a circuit coupling efficiency of η ≈0.1 and a detector quantum efficiency approaching unity in the high-frequency limit. In addition to the Josephson radiation, we identify a shot noise contribution with a Fano factor F ≈1 , consistently with the presence of single electron states in the nanowire channel.

  2. Nonequilibrium Andreev bound states population in short superconducting junctions coupled to a resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Raffael L.; Rastelli, Gianluca; Belzig, Wolfgang

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by recent experiments, we study a short superconducting junction of length L ≪ξ (coherence length) inserted in a dc-SQUID containing an ancillary Josephson tunnel junction. We evaluate the nonequilibrium occupation of the Andreev bound states (ABS) for the case of a conventional junction and a topological junction, with the latter case of ABS corresponding to a Majorana mode. We take into account small phase fluctuations of the Josephson tunnel junction, acting as a damped LC resonator, and analyze the role of the distribution of the quasiparticles of the continuum assuming that these quasiparticles are in thermal distribution with an effective temperature different from the environmental temperature. We also discuss the effect of strong photon irradiation in the junction leading to a nonequilibrium occupation of the ABS. We systematically compare the occupations of the bound states and the supercurrents carried by these states for conventional and topological junctions.

  3. Towards quantum signatures in a swept-bias Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losert, Harald; Vogel, Karl; Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Josephson junctions are one of the best examples for the observation of macroscopic quantum tunneling. The phase difference in a current-biased Josephson junction behaves like the position of a particle in a tilted washboard potential. The escape of this phase-particle corresponds to the voltage switching of the associated junction. Quantum mechanically, the escape from the washboard potential can be explained as tunneling from the ground state, or an excited state. However, it has been shown, that in the case of periodic driving the experimental data for quantum mechanical key features, e.g. Rabi oscillations or energy level quantization, can be reproduced by a completely classical description. Motivated by this discussion, we investigate a swept-bias Josephson junction in the case of a large critical current. In particular, we contrast the switching current distributions resulting from a quantum mechanical and classical description of the time evolution.

  4. Performance evaluation of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts installed ...

  5. Zeeman effects on the tunneling spectra of a ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor in contact with a quantum wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emamipour, Hamidreza, E-mail: h_emamipour@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Ilam University, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrabzad, Narges [Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    We study tunneling conductance in a quantum wire–insulator–ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor junction. The results show that exchange field of superconductor has a strong impact on tunneling spectra depending on the junction parameters. We have found a gap like structure in the tunneling limit when we have an interface normal to the (100) axis of superconductor. In the case of (110) axis of superconductor, there is not any zero- bias conductance peaks in tunneling spectra. For a metallic junction the dips disappear.

  6. Effect of surface losses on soliton propagation in Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Pagano, S.

    1986-01-01

    We have explored numerically the effects on soliton propagation of a third order damping term in the modified sine-Gordon equation. In Josephson tunnel junctions such a term corresponds physically to quasiparticle losses within the metal electrodes of the junction. We find that this loss term plays...... the dominant role in determining the shape and stability of the soliton at high velocity. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  7. TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  8. Natural ventilation without air breathing in the top openings of highway tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sike; Jin, Jiali; Gong, Yanfeng

    2017-05-01

    A number of urban shallow-buried highway tunnels have been built in China. Despite much better internal air quality compared to the traditional tunnels, there is no sufficient theoretical ground or experimental support for the construction of such tunnels. Most researchers hold that natural ventilation in such tunnels depends on air breathing in the top openings, but some others are skeptical about this conclusion. By flow visualization technology on a tunnel experiment platform, we tested the characteristics of airflow in the top openings of highway tunnels. The results showed that air always flowed from outside to inside in all top openings above a continuous traffic stream, and the openings did not breathe at all. In addition, intake air in the top openings reached its maximum velocity at the tunnel entrance, and then gradually slowed down with tunnel depth increasing.

  9. Observation of Andreev bound states in YBa2Cu3O7-d/Au/Nb ramp-type Josephson junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesca, B.; Doenitz, D.; Dahm, T.; Huebener, R.P.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Ariando, A.; Smilde, H.J.H.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on Josephson and quasiparticle tunneling in YBa2Cu3O7-x(YBCO)/Au/Nb ramp junctions of several geometries. Macroscopically, tunneling is studied in the ab-plane of YBCO either in the (100) or (010) direction, or in the (110) direction. These junctions have a stable and macroscopically well

  10. Giant Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR) in Graphene Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapito, Luis; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2010-03-01

    Graphene-based field effect devices based on graphene flakes and nanoislands have attracted a great deal of attention due to their unique physical properties and potential for nanoelectronic applications. The emergence of magnetism[1,2] in nanometer graphene patches terminated by zigzag edges along with the low intrinsic spin-orbit interaction opens a new research venue for spintronics, such as tunneling magnetoresistance, spin filter, and quantum computing. We have employed density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's functions approach to study the charge and spin transport in tunnel junctions comprising of one and two zigzag-terminated graphene triangular flakes connected to reconstructed zigzag-terminated graphene ribbons. We will present results of (1) the interplay between gate voltage and its incidence on the selection of the filtered spin channel and (2) the effect of the relative orientation of the magnetizations of the two graphene nanoflakes on the transport of the tunnel junctions. The calculations demonstrate the possibility of engineering such graphene patches as magnetic tunneling junctions that exhibit giant TMR. [1] J. Fernandez-Rossier et al., Physical Review Letters 99 (2007). [2] W. L. Wang et al., Nano Letters 8, 241 (2008).

  11. Quantum tunnelling in condensed media

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yu

    1992-01-01

    The essays in this book deal with of the problem of quantum tunnelling and related behavior of a microscopic or macroscopic system, which interacts strongly with an ""environment"" - this being some form of condensed matter. The ""system"" in question need not be physically distinct from its environment, but could, for example, be one particular degree of freedom on which attention is focussed, as in the case of the Josephson junction studied in several of the papers. This general problem has been studied in many hundreds, if not thousands, of articles in the literature, in contexts as diverse

  12. Concealed epispadias associated with a buried penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol Melgar, Ricardo; Gorduza, Daniela; Demède, Delphine; Mouriquand, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to describe the clinical presentation and the surgical management of penile epispadias associated with a buried penis in five children. This is a 5-year retrospective review of patients presenting with a buried penis, a congenital defect of the penile skin shaft associated with an unretractable foreskin for whom a penile epispadias was found at the time of surgery. All had undergone surgery combining a Cantwell-Ransley procedure and refashioning of the penile skin following the authors' technique. Three children had a glanular epispadias and two had a midshaft epispadias. Four had a satisfactory outcome, and one required a complementary urethroplasty for glanular dehiscence. Buried penis and epispadias are usually isolated congenital anomalies, although they can be associated. It is therefore recommended to warn parents about the possibility of underlying penile anomaly in children with buried penises and unretractable foreskin. Careful palpation of the dorsum of the glans through the foreskin looking for a dorsal cleft could indicate an associated epispadiac urethra. Surgical correction of both anomalies can be done at the same time. Parents of boys with buried penises should be warned that underlying penile anomaly may exist. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Building a Six-Junction Inverted Metamorphic Concentrator Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steiner, Myles A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schulte, Kevin L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); France, Ryan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMahon, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Perl, Emmett [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-02

    We propose practical six-junction (6J) inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) concentrator solar cell designs with the potential to exceed 50% efficiency using moderately high quality junction materials. We demonstrate the top three junctions and their monolithic integration lattice matched to GaAs using 2.1-eV AlGaInP, 1.7-eV AlGaAs or GaInAsP, and 1.4-eV GaAs with external radiative efficiencies >0.1%. We demonstrate tunnel junctions with peak tunneling current >400 A/cm2 that are transparent to <2.1-eV light. We compare the bottom three GaInAs(p) junctions with bandgaps of 1.2, 1.0, and 0.7 eV grown on InP and transparent metamorphic grades with low dislocation densities. The solution to an integration challenge resulting from Zn diffusion in the GaAs junction is illustrated in a five-junction IMM. Excellent 1-sun performance is demonstrated in a complete 6J IMM device with VOC = 5.15 V, and a promising pathway toward >50% efficiency at high concentrations is presented.

  14. Quasiparticle lifetimes and tunneltimes in SIS junctions for X-ray spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, D.J.; Lieshout, H.L.; Michels, F.A.; Valko, P.; Bruijn, M.P.; Kiewiet, F.; Adelerhof, D.J.; Hamster, A.W.; Brons, G.C.S.; Flokstra, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    The quasiparticle lifetimes and tunneltimes in SIS tunnel junctions are essential parameters in the development of these devices for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. We present a simple analytical model which allows us to calculate both the risetime and the total charge of the integrated tunnel

  15. Spectroscopy of transmission resonances through a C60 junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, N. L.; Néel, N.; Andersen, Nick Papior

    2015-01-01

    Electron transport through a single C60 molecule on Cu(1 1 1) has been investigated with a scanning tunnelling microscope in tunnelling and contact ranges. Single-C60 junctions have been fabricated by establishing a contact between the molecule and the tip, which is reflected by a down-shift in t...

  16. Functional Molecular Junctions Derived from Double Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sohyeon; Hwang, Eunhee; Cho, Yunhee; Lee, Junghyun; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2017-09-25

    Information processing using molecular junctions is becoming more important as devices are miniaturized to the nanoscale. Herein, we report functional molecular junctions derived from double self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) intercalated between soft graphene electrodes. Newly assembled molecular junctions are fabricated by placing a molecular SAM/(top) electrode on another molecular SAM/(bottom) electrode by using a contact-assembly technique. Double SAMs can provide tunneling conjugation across the van der Waals gap between the terminals of each monolayer and exhibit new electrical functions. Robust contact-assembled molecular junctions can act as platforms for the development of equivalent contact molecular junctions between top and bottom electrodes, which can be applied independently to different kinds of molecules to enhance either the structural complexity or the assembly properties of molecules. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Noise characteristics of resistors buried in low-temperature co-fired ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolek, A; Dziedzic, A

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of noise properties of conventional thick film resistors prepared on alumina substrates and resistors embedded in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCCs) is presented. Both types of resistors were prepared from commercially available resistive inks. Noise measurements of LTCC resistors below 1 kHz show Gaussian 1/f noise. This is concluded from the calculations of the second spectra as well as from studying the volume dependence of noise intensity. It has occurred that noise index of LTCC resistors on average is not worse than that of conventional resistors. A detailed study of co-fired surface resistors and co-fired buried resistors show that burying a resistor within LTCC substrate usually leads to (significant) enhancement of resistance but not of noise intensity. We interpret this behaviour as another argument in favour of tunnelling as the dominant conduction mechanism in LTCC resistors.

  18. High Performance Single Nanowire Tunnel Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have emerged as a promising technology for future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Epitaxial growth of III-V materials on Si substrates have been demonstrated, allowing for low-cost production. As the lattice matching requirements are much less strict than...... is the tunnel (Esaki) diode, which provides a low-resistance connection between junctions. We demonstrate an InP-GaAs NW axial heterostructure with tunnel diode behavior. InP and GaAs can be readily n- and p-doped, respectively, and the heterointerface is expected to have an advantageous type II band alignment...

  19. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of axially doped silicon nanowire tunnel field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallett, Aaron L; Minassian, Sharis; Kaszuba, Phil; Datta, Suman; Redwing, Joan M; Mayer, Theresa S

    2010-12-08

    Tunnel field-effect transistors were fabricated from axially doped silicon nanowire p-n junctions grown via the vapor-liquid-solid method. Following dry thermal oxidation to form a gate dielectric shell, the nanowires have a p-n-n(+) doping profile with an abrupt n-n(+) junction, which was revealed by scanning capacitance microscopy. The lightly doped n-segment can be inverted to p(+) by modulating the top gate bias, thus forming an abrupt gated p(+)-n(+) junction. A band-to-band tunneling current flows through the electrostatically doped p(+)-n(+) junction when it is reverse biased. Current-voltage measurements performed from 375 down to 4.2 K show two different regimes of tunneling current at high and low temperatures, indicating that there are both direct band-to-band and trap-assisted tunneling paths.

  1. Low-frequency noise in Josephson junctions for superconducting qubits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eroms, J.; Van Schaarenburg, L.C.; Driessen, E.F.C.; Plantenberg, J.H.; Huizinga, C.M.; Schouten, R.N.; Verbruggen, A.H.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Mooij, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors have studied low-frequency resistance fluctuations in shadow-evaporated Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions. Between 300 and 5?K the spectral density follows a 1/f law. Below 5?K, individual defects distort the 1/f shape of the spectrum. The spectral density decreases linearly with temperature

  2. Quantum dissipative dynamics in nanostructure d-wave Josephson junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawabata, S.; Kawabata, Shiro; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Tanaka, Yukio; Kashiwaya, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    The macroscopic quantum dynamics of nano-scale high-Tc superconductor Josephson junctions is investigated theoretically. We analytically obtained the macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) rate and showed that the presence of the zero energy bound states at the interface leads to a strong damping

  3. Aspects of stochastic resonance in Josephson junction, bimodal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the results of extensive numerical studies on stochastic resonance and its characteristic features in three model systems, namely, a model for Josephson tunnel junctions, the bistable cubic map and a coupled map lattice formed by coupling the cubic maps. Some interesting features regarding the mechanism ...

  4. Switching between dynamic states in intermediate-length Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagano, S.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Parmentier, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The appearance of zero-field steps (ZFS’s) in the current-voltage characteristics of intermediate-length overlap-geometry Josephson tunnel junctions described by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation (PSGE) is associated with the growth of parametrically excited instabilities of the McCumber backgroun...

  5. Negative differential resistance in Josephson junctions coupled to a cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Filatrella, G.; Pierro, V.

    2014-01-01

    or external – is often used. A cavity may also induce a negative differential resistance region at the lower side of the resonance frequency. We investigate the dynamics of Josephson junctions with a negative differential resistance in the quasi particle tunnel current, i.e. in the McCumber curve. We find...

  6. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ... three times more likely to have carpal tunnel syndrome than men. Early diagnosis and treatment are important ...

  7. Thermal annealing of junctions with amorphous and polycrystalline ferromagnetic electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, T.; Gieres, G.; Wecker, J.; Wiese, N.; Sacher, M. D.

    2004-12-01

    In this work we study Al-oxide-based tunnel junctions with amorphous Co60Fe20B20 and polycrystalline Co90Fe10 ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes. Focus is given on the evolution of the tunnel magnetoresistance and barrier characteristics (resistance-area product, effective thickness, height, and asymmetry) as a function of the annealing temperature up to 400°C. Junctions with two CoFeB electrodes show the largest thermal stability of the tunnel magnetoresistance. Substituting firstly one and then both CoFeB electrodes with CoFe leads to an increasingly faster degradation of the spin-dependent transport upon annealing. The observed differences suggest an improved interface quality between the amorphous FM and the Al oxide.

  8. Manifestation of counteracting photovoltaic effect on IV characteristics in multi-junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintairov, M. A.; Evstropov, V. V.; Mintairov, S. A.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Kozhukhovskaia, S. A.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.

    2017-11-01

    The existence within monolithic double- and triple-junction solar cells of a photoelectric source, which counteracts the basic photovoltaic p-n junctions, is proved. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the shape of the light IV-characteristics, as well as the dependence Voc-Jsc (open circuit voltage - short-circuit current). It is established that the counteracting source is tunnel p+-n+ junction. The photoelectric characteristics of samples with different tunnel diode peak current values were investigated, including the case of a zero value. When the tunnel p+-n+ junction is photoactive, the Voc-Jsc dependence has a dropping part, including a sharp jump. This undesirable effect decreases with increasing peak current.

  9. Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1993-04-01

    Given multiple registered images of the earth`s surface from dual-band sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised teaming pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. Thee first step, referred to as feature selection, determines the features of sub-images which result in the greatest separability among the classes. The second step, image labeling, uses the selected features and the decisions from a pattern classifier to label the regions in the image which are likely to correspond to buried mines. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the sensors add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using supervised teaming pattern classifiers (including neural networks). We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  10. Probing the local environment of a single OPE3 molecule using inelastic tunneling electron spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisenda, R.; Perrin, M.L.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.

    2015-01-01

    We study single-molecule oligo(phenylene ethynylene)dithiol junctions by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). The molecule is contacted with gold nano-electrodes formed with the mechanically controllable break junction technique. We record the IETS spectrum of the molecule from

  11. Direct current heating in superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel devices for THz mixing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, P; Klapwijk, T.M; Kovtonyuk, S.; van de Stadt, H.

    1996-01-01

    DC heating effects in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions are studied by comparing junctions sandwiched between niobium or aluminum layers. With niobium a temperature rise of several Kelvin is observed, which is reduced by an order of magnitude by using aluminum. A simple

  12. Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bode, M

    2003-01-01

    The recent experimental progress in spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy (SP-STM) - a magnetically sensitive imaging technique with ultra-high resolution - is reviewed. The basics of spin-polarized electron tunnelling are introduced as they have been investigated in planar tunnel junctions for different electrode materials, i.e. superconductors, optically excited GaAs, and ferromagnets. It is shown that ferromagnets and antiferromagnets are suitable tip materials for the realization of SP-STM. Possible tip designs and modes of operations are discussed for both classes of materials. The results of recent spatially resolved measurements as performed with different magnetic probe tips and using different modes of operation are reviewed and discussed in terms of applicability to surfaces, thin films, and nanoparticles. The limits of spatial resolution, and the impact of an external magnetic field on the imaging process.

  13. Time in dissipative tunneling: Subtleties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, N. G.; Lozano Gómez, D.; Patiño, Edgar J.

    2017-07-01

    Characteristic features of tunneling times for dissipative tunneling of a particle through a rectangular barrier are studied within a semiclassical model involving dissipation in the form of a velocity dependent frictional force. The average dwell time and traversal time with dissipation are found to be less than those without dissipation. This counter-intuitive behavior is reversed if one evaluates the physically relevant transmission dwell time. Apart from these observations, we find that the percentage of energy lost by the tunneling particle is higher for smaller energies. The above observations are tested and confirmed in a realistic case by applying the dissipation model to study the current-voltage data in a Al/Al2O3/Al solid state junction at various temperatures. The friction coefficient for Al2O3 as a function of temperature is presented. It is found to decrease with increasing temperature.

  14. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative......, and focuses on mechanism, structure/function relations, regimes and mechanisms of transport, some molecular regularities, and some substantial challenges facing the field. Because there are many regimes and mechanisms in transport junctions, we will discuss time scales, geometries, and inelastic scattering...

  15. Charge Transport Phenomena in Peptide Molecular Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Luchini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS is a valuable in situ spectroscopic analysis technique that provides a direct portrait of the electron transport properties of a molecular species. In the past, IETS has been applied to small molecules. Using self-assembled nanoelectronic junctions, IETS was performed for the first time on a large polypeptide protein peptide in the phosphorylated and native form, yielding interpretable spectra. A reproducible 10-fold shift of the I/V characteristics of the peptide was observed upon phosphorylation. Phosphorylation can be utilized as a site-specific modification to alter peptide structure and thereby influence electron transport in peptide molecular junctions. It is envisioned that kinases and phosphatases may be used to create tunable systems for molecular electronics applications, such as biosensors and memory devices.

  16. Tunnelling anisotropic magnetoresistance due to antiferromagnetic CoO tunnel barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Sanderink, J G M; Bolhuis, T; van der Wiel, W G; de Jong, M P

    2015-10-21

    A new approach in spintronics is based on spin-polarized charge transport phenomena governed by antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for AFM metals and semiconductors. We report tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) due to the rotation of antiferromagnetic moments of an insulating CoO layer, incorporated into a tunnel junction consisting of sapphire(substrate)/fcc-Co/CoO/AlOx/Al. The ferromagnetic Co layer is exchange coupled to the AFM CoO layer and drives rotation of the AFM moments in an external magnetic field. The results may help pave the way towards the development of spintronic devices based on AFM insulators.

  17. High-efficiency thermal switch based on topological Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothmann, Björn; Giazotto, Francesco; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.

    2017-02-01

    We propose theoretically a thermal switch operating by the magnetic-flux controlled diffraction of phase-coherent heat currents in a thermally biased Josephson junction based on a two-dimensional topological insulator. For short junctions, the system shows a sharp switching behavior while for long junctions the switching is smooth. Physically, the switching arises from the Doppler shift of the superconducting condensate due to screening currents induced by a magnetic flux. We suggest a possible experimental realization that exhibits a relative temperature change of 40% between the on and off state for realistic parameters. This is a factor of two larger than in recently realized thermal modulators based on conventional superconducting tunnel junctions.

  18. Narrow Josephson junctions under oscillatory conditions and elasto-dynamic displacement of plasma frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushadze, G. I.

    1986-03-01

    A study has been carried out on the nonlinear nature of Anderson plasma excitations in narrow Josephson junctions in case of a longitudinal ultrasonic wave propagating normal to the tunnel barrier plane with a frequency resonant to the plasma oscillation frequency in the junction. A high frequency current associated with a sound-induced displacement of Anderson plasma energy levels was shown to be excited across the junction. The problem of sound wave attenuation and amplification is discussed and an attempt is made to predict the effect of amplification of ultrasonic waves passing through the junction.

  19. Large room-temperature electroresistance in dual-modulated ferroelectric tunnel barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Greta; Gutiérrez, Diego; Sánchez, Florencio; Bertacco, Riccardo; Stengel, Massimiliano; Fontcuberta, Josep

    2015-04-24

    Pt/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 tunnel junctions, at negative voltage bias, for two polarization directions are represented. It is demonstrated that reversing the polarization direction of a ferroelectric barrier in a tunnel junction leads to a change of junction conductance and capacitance, with concomitant variations on the barrier height and effective thickness, both contributing to produce larger electroresistance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A novel structure of a high current gain 4H-SiC BJT with a buried layer in the base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, You-Run; Zhang, Bo; Li, Zhao-Ji; Deng, Xiao-Chuan; Liu, Xi-Ling

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, a new structure of a 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor (BJT) with a buried layer (BL) in the base is presented. The current gain shows an approximately 100% increase compared with that of the conventional structure. This is attributed to the creation of a built-in electric field for the minority carriers to transport in the base which is explained based on 2D device simulations. The optimized design of the buried layer region is also considered by numeric simulations.

  1. A DC SQUID with instrinsically shunted submicron junctions near the hysteretic limit exhibiting an extremely large dV/dphi-transfer function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houwman, E.P.; Cantor, R.; Peters, M.; Scheer, H.J.; Koch, H.

    1989-03-01

    A new fabrication process yielding submicron scaled Josephson junctions has been developed. The junction consists of two metal striplines lying in line and separated by a vertical barrier. Thus the contact area is determined by the width and thickness of the stripline. The capacitive coupling is only due to the small contact area, because there is no layer overlap. The process was applied to all Nb thin film junction technology with nitrided Si-barriers. The IV-curves of these junctions show the characteristic features of SNS-contacts. DC SQUIDs made out of these junctions exhibit characteristics competitive to those of high quality tunnel junction DC SQUIDS.

  2. Gold plasmonic effects on charge transport through single molecule junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Olgun; Venkataraman, Latha

    2014-03-01

    We study the impact of surface plasmon polaritons, the coupling of electromagnetic waves to collective electron oscillations on metal surfaces, on the conductance of single-molecule junctions. We use a scanning-tunneling microscope based break junction setup that is built into an optical microscope to form molecular junctions. Coherent 685nm light is used to illuminate the molecular junctions formed with 4,4'-bipyridine with diffraction limited focusing performance. We employ a lock-in type technique to measure currents induced by light. Furthermore, the thermal expansion due to laser heating is mimicked by mechanically modulating inter-electrode separation. For each junction studied, we measure current, and use AC techniques to determine molecular junction resonance levels and coupling strengths. We use a cross correlations analysis technique to analyze and compare the effect of light to that of the mechanical modulation. Our results show that junction transmission characteristics are not altered under illumination, within the resolution of our instrument. We argue that photo-currents measured with lock-in techniques in these kinds of structures are due to thermal effects. This work was funded by the Center for Re-Defining Photovoltaic Efficiency through Molecule Scale Control, an EFRC funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DESC0001085.

  3. Manipulating the voltage dependence of tunneling spin torques

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2012-10-01

    Voltage-driven spin transfer torques in magnetic tunnel junctions provide an outstanding tool to design advanced spin-based devices for memory and reprogrammable logic applications. The non-linear voltage dependence of the torque has a direct impact on current-driven magnetization dynamics and on devices performances. After a brief overview of the progress made to date in the theoretical description of the spin torque in tunnel junctions, I present different ways to alter and control the bias dependence of both components of the spin torque. Engineering the junction (barrier and electrodes) structural asymmetries or controlling the spin accumulation profile in the free layer offer promising tools to design effcient spin devices.

  4. Shallow Junction Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Teyin Mark

    Shallow junction technology is a necessity to maintain the performance of the scaled integrated devices in VLSL. In this work, various approaches to the process design of shallow junctions in implantation/diffusion technology are explored. The high concentration shallow arsenic implant/diffusion profile is described by the Chebyshev polynomial model. Based on the model, the inter-relationships of four design parameters: sheet resistance, junction depth, effective surface concentration, and thermal cycle are analytically derived. A general design graph for shallow arsenic junctions is developed. A similar methodology is applied to describe the high concentration boron shallow junctions design. At very high concentration, arsenic clustering and boron precipitation limit the achievable lower bound of sheet resistance. The sheet resistance is experimentally characterized and modeled. The ultimate limitations on sheet resistance due to these effects are defined. Unintentional channeling in low energy ion-implantation of boron into silicon results in much deeper junctions than predicted by LSS theory, even for wafers tilted well off the channeling directions. The channeling tail imposes an unexpected limitation on the achievable shallow junction depth. This partial channeling effect caused by boron ions being randomly scattered into crystal channels is examined by a calculation of the angular spreading for boron ions in silicon. An empirical formula is found to describe the enhancement of junction depth. To prevent the boron channeling, two methods of dechanneling are explored. Dechanneling by surface oxide layers is found to be ineffective. As-implanted junction depths much deeper than the predictions of LSS theory cannot be avoided. Based on a "lucky" ion model, the as-implanted junction depth with the surface oxide can be predicted. Silicon pre-implantation is found very effective in reducing the junction depth. The amorphization process by the silicon pre

  5. Estimating the location of a tunnel using correlation and inversion of Rayleigh wave scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasililar, A.; Harmankaya, U.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of near-surface scatterers, such as cavities, tunnels, abandoned mine shafts, and buried objects, is important to mitigate geohazards and environmental hazards. By inversion of travel times of cross-correlated scattered waves, due to the incident Rayleigh waves, we estimate the

  6. Optimized structure of AlGaAs/GaAs double junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Ali; Mohammadnejad, Shahram; Jouyandeh Abkenar, Nima

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the sub-layers of AlGaAs/GaAs double junction (DJ) solar cell have been redesigned in order to achieve an optimum cell structure. It has been deduced with cooperation of detailed balance limit theory and structural behaviour of AlGaAs, that the Al0.45Ga0.55As is the best choice for top cell's material in AlGaAs/GaAs DJ solar cell. Also, there is a trade-off between peak tunnelling current and transparency in tunnel junction which makes Al0.07Ga0.93As as the optimum tunnel junction of AlGaAs/GaAs cell. Finally, a smoothed reflectance senary-layer structure based on modified-DBR has been proposed to be used as anti-reflection coating of proposed structure. Also, the thickness and doping concentration level of different layers have been optimized.

  7. Spin control by application of electric current and voltage in FeCo-MgO junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshishige; Kubota, Hitoshi; Tulapurkar, Ashwin; Nozaki, Takayuki

    2011-09-28

    Efficient control and detection of spins are the most important tasks in spintronics. The current and voltage applied to a magnetic tunnel junction may exert a torque on the magnetic thin layer in the junction and cause its reversal or continuous precession. The discovery of the giant tunnelling magnetoresistance effect in ferromagnetic tunnelling junctions using an MgO barrier enabled us to obtain a large signal output from the magnetization reversal and precession. Also, the interplay of large spin configuration-electric conduction coupling provides highly nonlinear effects like the spin-torque diode effect. The negative resistance effect and amplification using it are predicted. A new discovery about a voltage-induced magnetic anisotropy change in Fe ultrathin films is also discussed.

  8. Supramolecular Systems and Chemical Reactions in Single-Molecule Break Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Duan; Tan, Zhibing; Bai, Jie; Xiao, Zongyuan; Yang, Yang; Shi, Jia; Hong, Wenjing

    2017-04-01

    The major challenges of molecular electronics are the understanding and manipulation of the electron transport through the single-molecule junction. With the single-molecule break junction techniques, including scanning tunneling microscope break junction technique and mechanically controllable break junction technique, the charge transport through various single-molecule and supramolecular junctions has been studied during the dynamic fabrication and continuous characterization of molecular junctions. This review starts from the charge transport characterization of supramolecular junctions through a variety of noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bond, π-π interaction, and electrostatic force. We further review the recent progress in constructing highly conductive molecular junctions via chemical reactions, the response of molecular junctions to external stimuli, as well as the application of break junction techniques in controlling and monitoring chemical reactions in situ. We suggest that beyond the measurement of single molecular conductance, the single-molecule break junction techniques provide a promising access to study molecular assembly and chemical reactions at the single-molecule scale.

  9. Many-junction photovoltaic device performance under non-uniform high-concentration illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Christopher E.; Wilkins, Matthew M.; Chahal, Sanmeet S.; Proulx, Francine; Provost, Philippe-Olivier; Masson, Denis P.; Fafard, Simon; Hinzer, Karin

    2017-09-01

    A parameterized 3D distributed circuit model was developed to calculate the performance of III-V solar cells and photonic power converters (PPC) with a variable number of epitaxial vertically-stacked pn junctions. PPC devices are designed with many pn junctions to realize higher voltages and to operate under non-uniform illumination profiles from a laser or LED. Performance impacts of non-uniform illumination were greatly reduced with increasing number of junctions, with simulations comparing PPC devices with 3 to 20 junctions. Experimental results using Azastra Opto's 12- and 20-junction PPC illuminated by an 845 nm diode laser show high performance even with a small gap between the PPC and optical fiber output, until the local tunnel junction limit is reached.

  10. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmel, Nico

    2015-07-23

    a variation of j{sub c} and I{sub c}R{sub n} by the s-layer thickness up to the value of nonmagnetic SIS junctions is notable. Additionally information on the emergence of superconductivity with the s-layer thickness was acquired. The introduction of this thesis (Chapter 1) is intended to motivate the experimental efforts and put them into the research context. An account on the evolving field of quantum information processing shall highlight the relevance of performance enhancements of superconducting devices. The chapter also introduces the theories of electron tunneling and effects at Josephson barriers, which are essential to analyse the experimental data. Moreover a description of magnetism along with mechanisms and experiments related to π Josephson junctions are presented. In the following (Chapter 2) an overview about machines and processes for the fabrication and characterisation of thin film devices is given. The preparation of samples was performed at facilities of the Technical Faculty of the University of Kiel. Also information about the experimental setup are given. A focus is put on the deposition of layers with thickness gradients across the wafer and combinatorial sputtering to achieve independent variations of two layer parameters. Finally (Chapter 3) experimental data for different types of Josephson junctions are shown. Related theories, relevant publications and a discussion are introduced along with the data.

  11. Dynamic interaction of twin vertically overlapping lined tunnels in an elastic half space subjected to incident plane waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongxian; Wang, Yirui; Liang, Jianwen

    2016-06-01

    The scattering of plane harmonic P and SV waves by a pair of vertically overlapping lined tunnels buried in an elastic half space is solved using a semi-analytic indirect boundary integration equation method. Then the effect of the distance between the two tunnels, the stiffness and density of the lining material, and the incident frequency on the seismic response of the tunnels is investigated. Numerical results demonstrate that the dynamic interaction between the twin tunnels cannot be ignored and the lower tunnel has a significant shielding effect on the upper tunnel for high-frequency incident waves, resulting in great decrease of the dynamic hoop stress in the upper tunnel; for the low-frequency incident waves, in contrast, the lower tunnel can lead to amplification effect on the upper tunnel. It also reveals that the frequency-spectrum characteristics of dynamic stress of the lower tunnel are significantly different from those of the upper tunnel. In addition, for incident P waves in low-frequency region, the soft lining tunnels have significant amplification effect on the surface displacement amplitude, which is slightly larger than that of the corresponding single tunnel.

  12. Carpal tunnel biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tunnel Images Carpal tunnel syndrome Surface anatomy - normal palm Surface anatomy - normal wrist Carpal biopsy References Calandruccio ... CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. ...

  13. Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is a continuous flow wind-tunnel facility capable of speeds up to Mach 1.2 at stagnation pressures up to one atmosphere. The TDT...

  14. Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) is a blow-down, non-vitiated (clean air) free-jet wind tunnel capable of testing large-scale, propulsion systems at Mach 5, 6,...

  15. Carpal tunnel repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100078.htm Carpal tunnel repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... in the wrist and the wrist bones (carpal tunnel). Review Date 4/18/2017 Updated by: C. ...

  16. Road and Railroad Tunnels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Tunnels in the United States According to the HSIP Tiger Team Report, a tunnel is defined as a linear underground passageway open at both ends. This dataset is based...

  17. Quantum theory of tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Razavy, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    In this revised and expanded edition, in addition to a comprehensible introduction to the theoretical foundations of quantum tunneling based on different methods of formulating and solving tunneling problems, different semiclassical approximations for multidimensional systems are presented. Particular attention is given to the tunneling of composite systems, with examples taken from molecular tunneling and also from nuclear reactions. The interesting and puzzling features of tunneling times are given extensive coverage, and the possibility of measurement of these times with quantum clocks are critically examined. In addition by considering the analogy between evanescent waves in waveguides and in quantum tunneling, the times related to electromagnetic wave propagation have been used to explain certain aspects of quantum tunneling times. These topics are treated in both non-relativistic as well as relativistic regimes. Finally, a large number of examples of tunneling in atomic, molecular, condensed matter and ...

  18. Effect of band gap narrowing on GaAs tunnel diode I-V characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebib, A.; Hannanchi, R. [Laboratoire d' énergie et de matériaux, LabEM-LR11ES34-Université de sousse (Tunisia); Beji, L., E-mail: lotbej_fr@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire d' énergie et de matériaux, LabEM-LR11ES34-Université de sousse (Tunisia); EL Jani, B. [Unité de Recherche sur les Hétéro-Epitaxies et Applications, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2016-12-01

    We report on experimental and theoretical study of current-voltage characteristics of C/Si-doped GaAs tunnel diode. For the investigation of the experimental data, we take into account the band-gap narrowing (BGN) effect due to heavily-doped sides of the tunnel diode. The BGN of the n- and p-sides of tunnel diode was measured by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The comparison between theoretical results and experimental data reveals that BGN effect enhances tunneling currents and hence should be considered to identify more accurately the different transport mechanisms in the junction. For C/Si-doped GaAs tunnel diode, we found that direct tunneling is the dominant transport mechanism at low voltages. At higher voltages, this mechanism is replaced by the rate-controlling tunneling via gap states in the forbidden gap.

  19. New superjuction LDMOS with surface and bulk electric field modulation by buffered step doping and multi floating buried layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Duan, Baoxing; Yuan, Song; Shi, Tongtong; Yang, Yintang

    2017-11-01

    A new superjunction lateral double diffused MOSFET with surface and bulk electric field modulation (SBEFM SJ-LDMOS) by applying of multiple floating buried layers and buffered step doping is proposed in this paper. The Multiple N-type floating buried layers are embedded in P-substrate, to reduce the amount of field crowding at N+/N-buffer/P-substrate junction by spreading the vertical depletion layer, which effectively improves the bulk electric field distribution in SJ-LDMOS, and the N+/N-buffer/P-substrate junction and the auxiliary MFB layers/substrate junctions jointly sustain a high vertical breakdown voltage (BV). In addition, based on the buffered step doping layer under the SJ layer, a uniform lateral electric field at the drift region surface of the device is obtained. Therefore, the bulk and surface electric field are both optimized simultaneously in SBEFM SJ-LDMOS. Simulated results show that compared with the conventional Buffered SJ-LDMOS and BSD SJ-LDMOS, the proposed SBEFM SJ-LDMOS improves BV by 131.7% and 80.4%, respectively, at the same drift region length and with low specific ON-resistance (RON,sp). SBEFM SJ-LDMOS exhibits excellent performance with the power figure-of-merit (FOM=BV2/RON,sp) of 13.07 MW/cm2.

  20. [Plastic Surgical Correction of Buried Penis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boliglowa, Dominik Krzysztof; Ryu, Seung-Min; Ebrahim, Tarek; Menke, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    A "buried penis" causes functional problems and embarrassment. In the past, this complex condition was only seen in extremely overweight patients or as a result of severe inflammations in this region. More recently, this problem has also been observed in patients with massive weight loss following bariatric surgery. In these patients there is an abundance of extremely flaccid skin in the suprapubic region, which covers the penis and causes it to "disappear". This leads to balanitis and, in turn, further retraction of the penis. The only solution to this condition is a sophisticated surgical approach in 3 phases: At first, suprapubic tissues must be lifted. Secondly, the penis must be completely denuded and debrided and the correct penopubic/penoscrotal angles must be reconstructed. The last phase includes a strainless coverage of the remaining defect of the penis. This condition has not been widely described in the literature. The general incidence and prevalence in the postbariatric population is unknown, probably due to patients' embarrassment and lack of knowledge on the physicians' end. Nevertheless, the buried penis can be successfully exposed through careful, structured surgical treatment and an interdisciplinary approach between plastic surgeons and urologists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Scattering Effects in Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Wei

    PETS (Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy) technique has been applied to Niobium/Yttrium and Niobium/Lutetium bilayers. We have determined electron - phonon interaction parameter lambda_{rm e -ph} is 0.55 for Yttrium and 0.67 for Lutetium. Spin fluctuations parameter lambda_{ rm S} is 0.20 for Yttrium and 0.33 for Lutetium. We found that the large spin fluctuations in Yttrium and Lutetium has responsibility to the absence of superconductivity in them. Our results have given a reasonable explanation of high superconducting transition temperature in them under high pressure. The large reflection coefficient and strong diffuse scattering at Nb/Y and Nb/Lu interface has been discovered and it should have strong influence on the transport properties of metallic superlattices. From the modeling study of elastic scattering in proximity effect tunnel junctions, we have explained why some conventional made high {rm T_{C}} superconducting tunnel junctions give ideal like characteristics in the gap region but variable strength phonon structures in the phonon region.

  2. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  3. Tunnel and Station Cost Methodology : Mined Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a model for estimating the cost of subway station and tunnel construction. This report describes a cost estimating methodology for subway tunnels that can be used by planners, designers, owners, and gov...

  4. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Fluxon bunching in supercurrent-coupled Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Lomdahl, Peter S.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1993-01-01

    We investigate analytically and numerically the interaction between fluxons of different Josephson junctions coupled through Cooper-pair tunneling. We find that the supercurrent interaction gives rise to attraction between fluxons regardless of their polarity, although fluxons of different polarity...... in interaction between fluxons of equal and opposite polarity are discussed. Numerical simulations of coupled sine-Gordon equations agree very well with the analytical predictions....

  6. Reverse degradation of nickel graphene junction by hydrogen annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal contacts are fundamental building components for graphene based electronic devices and their properties are greatly influenced by interface quality during device fabrication, leading to resistance variation. Here we show that nickel graphene junction degrades after air exposure, due to interfacial oxidation, thus creating a tunneling barrier. Most importantly, we demonstrate that hydrogen annealing at moderate temperature (300 0C is an effective technique to reverse the degradation.

  7. Charge transport in disordered superconductor-graphene junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metalidis, Georgo; Schoen, Gerd [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Golubev, Dmitry [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We consider the charge transport through superconductor-graphene tunnel junctions, including the effect of disorder. Coherent scattering on elastic impurities in the graphene layer can give rise to multiple reflections at the graphene-superconductor interface, and can thereby increase the probability of Andreev reflection, leading to an enhancement of the subgap conductance above its classical value. Although the phenomenon is known already from heterostructures involving normal metals, we have studied how graphenes peculiar dispersion relation influences the effect.

  8. Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

    2011-07-01

    We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n++ Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

  9. Reverse degradation of nickel graphene junction by hydrogen annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenjun; Agnihotri, Pratik; Lee, Ji Ung; Lloyd, Jim R

    2016-01-01

    Metal contacts are fundamental building components for graphene based electronic devices and their properties are greatly influenced by interface quality during device fabrication, leading to resistance variation. Here we show that nickel graphene junction degrades after air exposure, due to interfacial oxidation, thus creating a tunneling barrier. Most importantly, we demonstrate that hydrogen annealing at moderate temperature (300 0C) is an effective technique to reverse the degradation.

  10. Current-phase relations of few-mode InAs nanowire Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanton, Eric M.; Deng, Mingtang; Vaitiekėnas, Saulius; Krogstrup, Peter; Nygård, Jesper; Marcus, Charles M.; Moler, Kathryn A.

    2017-12-01

    Gate-tunable semiconductor nanowires with superconducting leads have great potential for quantum computation and as model systems for mesoscopic Josephson junctions. The supercurrent, I, versus the phase, φ, across the junction is called the current-phase relation (CPR). It can reveal not only the amplitude of the critical current, but also the number of modes and their transmission. We measured the CPR of many individual InAs nanowire Josephson junctions, one junction at a time. Both the amplitude and shape of the CPR varied between junctions, with small critical currents and skewed CPRs indicating few-mode junctions with high transmissions. In a gate-tunable junction, we found that the CPR varied with gate voltage: near the onset of supercurrent, we observed behaviour consistent with resonant tunnelling through a single, highly transmitting mode. The gate dependence is consistent with modelled subband structure that includes an effective tunnelling barrier due to an abrupt change in the Fermi level at the boundary of the gate-tuned region. These measurements of skewed, tunable, few-mode CPRs are promising both for applications that require anharmonic junctions and for Majorana readout proposals.

  11. Substrate tunnels in enzymes: structure-function relationships and computational methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Laura J; Lill, Markus A

    2015-04-01

    In enzymes, the active site is the location where incoming substrates are chemically converted to products. In some enzymes, this site is deeply buried within the core of the protein, and, in order to access the active site, substrates must pass through the body of the protein via a tunnel. In many systems, these tunnels act as filters and have been found to influence both substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism. Identifying and understanding how these tunnels exert such control has been of growing interest over the past several years because of implications in fields such as protein engineering and drug design. This growing interest has spurred the development of several computational methods to identify and analyze tunnels and how ligands migrate through these tunnels. The goal of this review is to outline how tunnels influence substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency in enzymes with buried active sites and to provide a brief summary of the computational tools used to identify and evaluate these tunnels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Long Josephson tunnel junctions with doubly connected electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, J.; Koshelets, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to mimic the phase changes in the primordial Big Bang, several cosmological solid-state experiments have been conceived, during the last decade, to investigate the spontaneous symmetry breaking in superconductors and superfluids cooled through their transition temperature. In one...

  13. Fluxon dynamics in long annular Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martucciello, N.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V.P.

    1998-01-01

    on the fluxon as a periodic potential and lowers its average speed. Further, the results of perturbative calculations do not fit the experimental current-voltage profile and, provided the temperature is low enough, this profile systematically shows pronounced deviations from the smooth predicted form...

  14. Development of superconducting tunnel junction arrays for astronomical observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, D.

    2007-01-01

    The original S-CAM1 and 2 systems were a first successful demonstration of a camera for optical astronomy based on superconducting sensors. However, a number of shortcomings were identified during the observing campaigns at the William Herschel Telescope at La Palma that triggered this work. As the

  15. Experiments on spontaneous vortex formation in Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    It has been argued by Zurek and Kibble that the likelihood of producing defects in a continuous phase transition depends in a characteristic way on the quench rate. In this paper we discuss an improved experiment for measuring the scaling exponent sigma for the production of single fluxons...

  16. Spontaneous fluxon formation in annular Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Rivers, R.

    2003-01-01

    It has been argued by Zurek and Kibble that the likelihood of producing defects in a continuous phase transition depends in a characteristic way on the quench rate. In this paper we discuss our experiment for measuring the Zurek-Kibble (ZK) scaling exponent sigma for the production of fluxons...

  17. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  18. On/off switching of bit readout in bias-enhanced tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Alexander; Milnikel, Marius; von der Ehe, Marvin; Franz, Christian; Zbarsky, Vladyslav; Czerner, Michael; Rott, Karsten; Thomas, Andy; Heiliger, Christian; Reiss, Günter; Münzenberg, Markus

    2015-03-10

    Thermoelectric effects in magnetic tunnel junctions are promising to serve as the basis for logic devices or memories in a "green" information technology. However, up to now the readout contrast achieved with Seebeck effects was magnitudes smaller compared to the well-established tunnel magnetoresistance effect. Here, we resolve this problem by demonstrating that the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect (TMS) in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tunnel junctions can be switched on to a logic "1" state and off to "0" by simply changing the magnetic state of the CoFeB electrodes. This new functionality is achieved by combining a thermal gradient and an electric field. Our results show that the signal crosses zero and can be adjusted by tuning a bias voltage that is applied between the electrodes of the junction; hence, the name of the effect is bias-enhanced tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect (bTMS). Via the spin- and energy-dependent transmission of electrons in the junction, the bTMS effect can be configured using the bias voltage with much higher control than the tunnel magnetoresistance and even completely suppressed for only one magnetic configuration. Moreover, our measurements are a step towards the experimental realization of high TMS ratios without additional bias voltage, which are predicted for specific Co-Fe compositions.

  19. A versatile high resolution scanning tunneling potentiometry implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druga, T; Wenderoth, M; Homoth, J; Schneider, M A; Ulbrich, R G

    2010-08-01

    We have developed a new scanning tunneling potentiometry technique which can-with only minor changes of the electronic setup-be easily added to any standard scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This extension can be combined with common STM techniques such as constant current imaging or scanning tunneling spectroscopy. It is capable of performing measurements of the electrochemical potential with microvolt resolution. Two examples demonstrate the versatile application. First of all, we have determined local variations of the electrochemical potential due to charge transport of biased samples down to angstrom length scales. Second, with tip and sample at different temperatures we investigated the locally varying thermovoltage occurring at the tunneling junction. Aside from its use in determining the chemical identity of substances at the sample surface our method provides a controlled way to eliminate the influence of laterally varying thermovoltages on low-bias constant current topographies.

  20. Shot noise in diffusive SNS and SIN junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefloch, Francois; Hoffmann, Christian; Quirion, David; Sanquer, Marc

    2003-05-01

    We studied shot noise in metallic SNS and doped silicon-based SIN junctions. In SNS structures, the shot noise is very much enhanced due to incoherent multiple Andreev reflections (IMAR) which are truncated, at low voltages, by inelastic electron-electron interaction. These experimental results show good agreement with recent semiclassical theory. In SIN junctions, the zero-voltage conductance is increased by disorder-induced coherent MAR (reflectionless tunneling) and we found that the shot noise is double ( SI=4 eI) below the Thouless energy and equals the full shot noise ( SI=2 eI) above. We also present conductance measurements which show the same zero bias anomaly but in a double-barrier metallic SININ junction.