WorldWideScience

Sample records for buried transuranic waste

  1. Xenon Isotope Releases from Buried Transuranic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresel, P. E.; Waichler, S. R.; Kennedy, B. M.; Hayes, J. C.; McIntyre, J. I.; Giles, J. R.; Sondrup, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Xenon is an inert rare gas produced as a fission product in nuclear reactors and through spontaneous fission of some transuranic isotopes. Thus, xenon will be released from buried transuranic waste. Two complementary methods are used to measure xenon isotopes: radiometric analysis for short-lived radioxenon isotopes and mass spectrometry for detection of stable xenon isotopes. Initial measurements near disposal facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site show radioxenon and stable xenon isotopic signatures that are indicative of transuranic waste. Radioxenon analysis has greater sensitivity due to the lower background concentrations and indicates spontaneous fission due to the short half life of the isotopes. Stable isotope ratios may be used to distinguish irradiated fuel sources from pure spontaneous fission sources and are not as dependent on rapid release from the waste form. The release rate is dependent on the type of waste and container integrity and is the greatest unknown in application of this technique. Numerical multi-phase transport modeling of burial grounds at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory indicates that, under generalized conditions, the radioxenon isotopes will diffuse away from the waste and be found in the soil cap and adjacent to the burial ground at levels many orders of magnitude above the detection limit.

  2. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34,000 liters of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. The grout was also completely contained within the two trenches as no grout constituents were observed in the 12 perimeter ground water monitoring wells. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over polyacrylate grout because of its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty of controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization process in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 115 years in the test soil. However, this calculated value is likely to be conservatively low because microbial degradation of the grout set accelerator or residual monomer may be contributing most to the measured microbial respiration. Addition work, using 14C-labeled acrylate and acrylamide grouts, is being carried out to more accurately estimate the grouts' microbiological half-life

  3. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs

  4. Strategic management of health risks posed by buried transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategy is presented for reducing health risks at sites contaminated with buried transuranic (TRU) wastes by first taking measures to immobilize the contaminants until the second step, final action, becomes cost-effective and poses less risk to the remediation workers. The first step of this strategy does not preclude further action if it is warranted and is in harmony with environmental laws and regulations

  5. Buried transuranic wastes at ORNL: Review of past estimates and reconciliation with current data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inventories of buried (generally meaning disposed of) transuranic (TRU) wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been estimated for site remediation and waste management planning over a period of about two decades. Estimates were required because of inadequate waste characterization and incomplete disposal records. For a variety of reasons, including changing definitions of TRU wastes, differing objectives for the estimates, and poor historical data, the published results have sometimes been in conflict. The purpose of this review was (1) to attempt to explain both the rationale for and differences among the various estimates, and (2) to update the estimates based on more recent information obtained from waste characterization and from evaluations of ORNL waste data bases and historical records. The latter included information obtained from an expert panel's review and reconciliation of inconsistencies in data identified during preparation of the ORNL input for the third revision of the Baseline Inventory Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The results summarize current understanding of the relationship between past estimates of buried TRU wastes and provide the most up-to-date information on recorded burials thereafter. The limitations of available information on the latter and thus the need for improved waste characterization are highlighted

  6. Defense Waste Management Plan for buried transuranic-contaminated waste, transuranic-contaminated soil, and difficult-to-certify transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAO recommended that DOE provide specific plans for permanent disposal of buried TRU-contaminated waste, TRU-contaminated soil, and difficult-to-certify TRU waste; cost estimates for permanent disposal of all TRU waste, including the options for the buried TRU-contaminated waste, TRU-contaminated soil, and difficult-to-certify TRU waste; and specific discussions of environmental and safety issues for the permanent disposal of TRU waste. Purpose of this document is to respond to the GAO recommendations by providing plans and cost estimates for the long-term isolation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste, TRU-contaminated soil, and difficult-to-certify TRU waste. This report also provides cost estimates for processing and certifying stored and newly generated TRU waste, decontaminating and decommissioning TRU waste processing facilities, and interim operations

  7. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting

  8. Evaluation of Xenon Gas Detection as a Means for Identifying Buried Transuranic Waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P Evan; Waichler, Scott R.

    2004-04-01

    Xenon is produced as a fission product in nuclear reactors and through spontaneous fission of some transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Xenon gas is nearly inert and will be released from buried TRU waste. This document describes and evaluates the potential for analyzing xenon isotopes in soil gas to detect TRU waste in the subsurface at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  9. MANAGEING THE RETRIEVAL RISK OF BURIED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE WITH UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States-Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store transuranic (TRU) waste are almost certain to encounter waste packages with characteristics that are so unique as to warrant special precautions for retrieval. At the Hanford Site, a subgroup of stored TRU waste (12 drums) had special considerations due to the radioactive source content of plutonium oxide (PuO2), and the potential for high heat generation, pressurization, criticality, and high radiation. These characteristics bear on the approach to safely retrieve, overpack, vent, store, and transport the waste package. Because of the potential risk to personnel, contingency planning for unexpected conditions played an effective roll in work planning and in preparing workers for the field inspection activity. As a result, the integrity inspections successfully confirmed waste package configuration and waste confinement without experiencing any perturbations due to unanticipated packaging conditions. This paper discusses the engineering and field approach to managing the risk of retrieving TRU waste with unique characteristics

  10. A Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 191 Evaluation of Buried Transuranic Waste at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently buried in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is considered five options for management of the buried TRU waste. One option is to leave the waste in-place if the disposal can meet the requirements of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 'Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'. This paper describes analyses that assess the likelihood that TRU waste in shallow land burial can meet the 40 CFR 191 standards for a geologic repository. The simulated probability of the cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the 40 CFR 191.13 containment requirements is estimated to be 0.009 and less than 0.0001, respectively. The cumulative release is most sensitive to the number of groundwater withdrawal wells drilled through the disposal trench. The mean total effective dose equivalent for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.014 milli-Sievert (mSv) at 10,000 years, or approximately 10 percent of the 0.15 mSv 40 CFR 191.15 individual protection requirement. The dose is predominantly from inhalation of short-lived Rn-222 progeny in air produced by low-level waste disposed in the same trench. The transuranic radionuclide released in greatest amounts, Pu-239, contributes only 0.4 percent of the dose. The member of public dose is most sensitive to the U-234 inventory and the radon emanation coefficient. Reasonable assurance of compliance with the Subpart C groundwater protection standard is provided by site characterization data and hydrologic processes modeling which support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Limited quantities of transuranic waste in a shallow land burial trench at the NTS can meet

  11. An integrated systems approach to remote retrieval of buried transuranic waste using a telerobotic transport vehicle, innovative end effector, and remote excavator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic feet of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic feet of waste is up to 10 million cubic feet of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate technologies for excavating, and transporting buried transuranic wastes at the INEL, and other hazardous or radioactive waste sites throughout the US Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conduced at RAHCO Internationals facilities in Spokane, Washington, in the summer of 1994, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for digging, dumping, and transporting buried waste. Three technologies were evaluated in the demonstration: an Innovative End Effector for dust free dumping, a Telerobotic Transport Vehicle to convey retrieved waste from the digface, and a Remote Operated Excavator to deploy the Innovative End Effector and perform waste retrieval operations. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate retrieval performance parameters such as retrieval rates, transportation rates, human factors, and the equipment's capability to control contamination spread

  12. An integrated systems approach to remote retrieval of buried transuranic waste using a telerobotic transport vehicle, innovative end effector, and remote excavator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.; Hyde, R. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterson, R. [RAHCO International, Spokane, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic feet of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic feet of waste is up to 10 million cubic feet of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate technologies for excavating, and transporting buried transuranic wastes at the INEL, and other hazardous or radioactive waste sites throughout the US Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conduced at RAHCO Internationals facilities in Spokane, Washington, in the summer of 1994, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for digging, dumping, and transporting buried waste. Three technologies were evaluated in the demonstration: an Innovative End Effector for dust free dumping, a Telerobotic Transport Vehicle to convey retrieved waste from the digface, and a Remote Operated Excavator to deploy the Innovative End Effector and perform waste retrieval operations. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate retrieval performance parameters such as retrieval rates, transportation rates, human factors, and the equipment`s capability to control contamination spread.

  13. Using Downhole Probes to Locate and Characterize Buried Transuranic and Mixed Low Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinman, Donald K; Bramblett, Richard L; Hertzog, Russel C

    2012-06-25

    Borehole logging probes were developed and tested to locate and quantify transuranic elements in subsurface disposal areas and in contaminated sites at USDOE Weapons Complex sites. A new method of measuring very high levels of chlroine in the subsurface was developed using pulsed neutron technology from oilfield applications. The probes were demonstrated at the Hanford site in wells containing plutonium and other contaminants.

  14. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  15. Transuranic waste management program and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1954, defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste has been received at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Prior to 1970, approximately 2.2 million cubic feet of transuranic waste were buried in shallow-land trenches and pits at the RWMC. Since 1970, an additional 2.1 million cubic feet of waste have been retrievably stored in aboveground engineered confinement. A major objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is the proper management of defense-generated transuranic waste. Strategies have been developed for managing INEL stored and buried transuranic waste. These strategies have been incorporated in the Defense Waste Management Plan and are currently being implemented with logistical coordination of transportation systems and schedules for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is providing nondestructive examination and assay of retrievably stored, contact-handled TRU waste. Construction of the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) was recently completed, and PREPP is currently undergoing system checkout. The PRFPP will provide processing capabilities for contact-handled waste not meeting WIPP-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In addition, ongoing studies and technology development efforts for managing the TRU waste such as remote-handled and buried TRU waste, are being conducted

  16. Transuranic Waste Management Program and Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1954, defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste has been received at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Prior to 1970, approximately 2.2 million cubic feet of transuranic waste were buried in shallow-land trenches and pits at the RWMC. Since 1970, an additional 2.1 million cubic feet of waste have been retrievably stored in aboveground engineered confinement. A major objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is the proper management of defense-generated transuranic waste. Strategies have been developed for managing INEL stored and buried transuranic waste. These strategies have been incorporated in the Defense Waste Management Plan and are currently being implemented with logistical coordination of transportation systems and schedules for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is providing nondestructive examination and assay of retrievably stored, contact-handled TRU waste. Construction of the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) was recently completed, and PREPP is currently undergoing system checkout. The PREPP will provide processing capabilities for contact-handled waste not meeting WIPP-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In addition, ongoing studies and technology development efforts for managing the TRU waste such as remote-handled and buried TRU waste, are being conducted

  17. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  18. Enhanced CLAB transuranic waste spreadsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The spreadsheet calculates the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) including the weight percent of the various waste components. In addition, the spreadsheet calculates the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheet also has the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for the spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  19. Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) Strategy Document presents the general strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) waste materials generated during defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. The Strategy Document includes discussion of objectives and activities relating to the entire Defense Transuranic Waste Program. However, the primary focus is on the specific management responsibilities of the Transuranic Waste Lead Organization (TLO). The document also includes an updated summary of progress on TLO-managed activities over the past year

  20. Long-term management USDOE transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities for permanent disposal of US DOE TRU waste are presently focused on newly generated and stored waste. The buried waste and contaminated soils pose no near term problem. Decisions on any possible actions for these wastes will be deferred until the newly generated and stored wastes are being placed into disposal on a routine basis. Several elements must be in place before such disposal can become routine. These elements consist of: a disposal facility; waste acceptance criteria; waste certification mechanisms; waste processing facilities; and a waste transportation system. Each of these elements has been the subject of considerable activity in the recent past. Progress and plans for each element are summarized. As of January 1981, DOE has 60,500 m3 of waste classified as Transuranic waste (TRU) in retrievable storage, and projects that additional TRU waste will be generated at an average rate of 4500 m3 per year for the next 10 years. Over 99% of this waste is contact handled, with the remainder being remote handled, i.e., surface radiation dose levels exceeding 200 mrem/h. An estimated 273,000 m3 of TRU waste were placed in shallow land burial prior to establishment of the 1970 policy. In addition, large quantities of soil at DOE sites are contaminated with TRU elements due to disposal of liquid wastes and by contact of soil with solid, buried waste whose original containers are now badly degraded. Possibly as much as 10,000,000 m3 of soil are contaminated above 10 nCi/gm. Less than 1,000,000 m3 are estimated to be contaminated above 100 nCi/gm

  1. Selected transuranic waste immobilization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) elements may require immobilization prior to final disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has conducted research and development to identify and characterize the wastes; to evaluate the possible immobilization requirements and treatment alternatives; and to develop immobilization process technologies. This paper describes systems that are anticipated to be capable of immobilizing a selected TRU waste stream consisting of a blend of process sludge and incinerator ash. The selected waste streams are based on the waste compositions generated at the Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. The specific waste forms and processes considered are identified in Table 1. Summary results of leach testing of the immobilized waste forms is provided for comparison. This information along with the processing considerations identify the major advantages and disadvantages of each system. The evaluation of these considerations suggests the implementation for cement or glass system with preference to the cast cement system because of its process simplicity

  2. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  3. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  4. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP

  5. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP

  6. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes

  7. Transuranic contaminated waste functional definition and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to examine the problem(s) of TRU waste classification and to document the development of an easy-to-apply standard(s) to determine whether or not this waste package should be emplaced in a geologic repository for final disposition. Transuranic wastes are especially significant because they have long half-lives and some are rather radiotoxic. Transuranic radionuclides are primarily produced by single or multiple neutron capture by U-238 in fuel elements during the operation of a nuclear reactor. Reprocessing of spent fuel elements attempts to remove plutonium, but since the separation is not complete, the resulting high-activity liquids still contain some plutonium as well as other transuranics. Likewise, transuranic contamination of low-activity wastes also occurs when the transuranic materials are handled or processed, which is primarily at federal facilities involved in R and D and nuclear weapons production. Transuranics are persistent in the environment and, as a general rule, are strongly retained by soils. They are not easily transported through most food chains, although some reconcentration does take place in the aquatic food chain. They pose no special biological hazard to humans upon ingestion because they are weakly absorbed from the gastrointestional tract. A greater hazard results from inhalation since they behave like normal dust and fractionate accordingly

  8. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory's many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory's boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department

  9. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory`s many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory`s boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department.

  10. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

  11. Transuranic waste baseline inventory report. Revision No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (TWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties from across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system into a series of open-quotes waste profilesclose quotes that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The purpose of Revisions 0 and 1 of this report was to provide data to be included in the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) performance assessment (PA) processes for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revision 2 of the document expanded the original purpose and was also intended to support the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) requirement for providing the total DOE TRU waste inventory. The document included a chapter and an appendix that discussed the total DOE TRU waste inventory, including nondefense, commercial, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated, and buried (predominately pre-1970) TRU wastes that are not planned to be disposed of at WIPP

  12. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  13. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Department's needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications

  14. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10-5 parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables

  15. Defense transuranic waste program strategy document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) wastes generated in defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. It supercedes a document issued in July 1980. In addition to showing how current strategies of the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) are consistent with the national objective of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere, this document includes information about the activities of the Transuranic Lead Organization (TLO). To explain how the DTWP strategy is implemented, this document also discusses how the TLO coordinates and integrates the six separate elements of the DTWP: (1) Waste Generation Site Activities, (2) Storage Site Activities, (3) Burial Site Activities, (4) Technology Development, (5) Transportation Development, and (6) Permanent Disposal. Storage practices for TRU wastes do not pose short-term hazards to public health and safety or to the environment. Isolation of TRU wastes in a deep-mined geologic repository is considered the most promising of the waste disposal alternatives available. This assessment is supported by the DOE Record of Decision to proceed with research and development work at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico - a deep-mined geologic research and development project. In support of the WIPP research project and the permanent disposal of TRU waste, the DTWP strategy for the near term will concentrate on completion of procedures and the design and construction of all facilities necessary to certify newly-generated (NG) and stored TRU wastes for emplacement in the WIPP. In addition, the strategy involves evaluating alternatives for disposing of some transuranic wastes by methods which may allow for on-site disposal of these wastes and yet preserve adequate margins of safety to protect public health and the environment

  16. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package (TRUPACT-11 SARP). In

  17. Defense remote-handled transuranic waste implementation plan: Transuranic Waste Program System Integration Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a detailed schedule for the implementation of the strategy for managing defense remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste. The baseline management strategy was defined in the Defense Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Cost/Schedule Optimization Study and is summarized in this document. Also included are revised RH TRU waste inventory projections, current site management plans, a list of key decision points and milestones, and a discussion of uncertainties associated with management of RH TRU waste. The plans are summarized in a detailed schedule diagram and in an RH TRU waste work off diagram. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Hanford site transuranic waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management, and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant' (DOE 1996d) (WIPP WAC). The WIPP WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WIPP WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their management of TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter41 (TRUPACT-11). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-I1 requirements in the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (NRC 1997) (TRUPACT-I1 SARP)

  19. Los Alamos transuranic waste size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) was designed and constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the period of 1977 to 1981. This paper summarizes the engineering development, installation, and early test operations of the SRF. The facility incorporates a large stainless steel enclosure fitted with remote handling and cutting equipment to obtain an estimated 4:1 volume reduction of gloveboxes and other bulky metallic wastes

  20. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  1. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended

  2. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies

  3. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies.

  4. Defense Transuranic Waste Program. Transuranic waste transportation assessment and guidance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    The Transportation Assessment and Guidance Report (TAGR) is designed to provide DOE-managed defense sites with guidance and citable analyses addressing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements for qualifying and transporting transuranic (TRU) wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico.

  5. Defense Transuranic Waste Program. Transuranic waste transportation assessment and guidance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transportation Assessment and Guidance Report (TAGR) is designed to provide DOE-managed defense sites with guidance and citable analyses addressing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements for qualifying and transporting transuranic (TRU) wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico

  6. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented

  7. Hydrothermal processing of transuranic contaminated combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated the usefulness of hydrothermal processing for the disposal of a wide variety of transuranic contaminated combustible wastes. This paper provides an overview of the implementation and performance of hydrothermal treatment for concentrated salt solutions, explosives, propellants, organic solvents, halogenated solvents, and laboratory trash, such as paper and plastics. Reaction conditions vary from near ambient temperatures and pressure to over 1000degC and 100 MPa pressure. Studies involving both radioactive and non-radioactive waste simulants are discussed. (author)

  8. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

  9. Nuclear waste: Department of Energy's Transuranic Waste Disposal Plan needs revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic waste consists of discarded tools, rags, machinery, paper, sheet metal, and glass containing man-made radioactive elements that can be dangerous if inhaled, ingested, or absorbed into the body through an open wound. GAO found that the Defense Waste Management Plan does not provide the Congress with complete inventory and cost data or details on environmental and safety issues related to the permanent disposal of TRU waste; the Plan's $2.8 billion costs are understated by at least $300 million. Further, it does not include costs for disposing of buried waste, contaminated soil, and TRU waste that may not be accepted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Lastly, the Plan provides no details on the environmental and safety issues related to the permanent disposal of TRU waste, nor does it discuss the types of or timing for environmental analyses needed before WIPP starts operating

  10. Gamma analysis for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive gamma analysis is one of the key technologies for the identification of transuranic elements in waste material. The techniques use high purity germanium detectors for the detection of the gamma photons. The detected signals are then analyzed in multi-channel gamma spectrometers to determine the photon energies. These photon energies are generally unique to the nuclide that produced the gamma rays and can, therefore, be used as an identifier of the nuclides present. This report is a discussion of methods used to calibrate the measurement systems and for the analysis of the data. 3 tabs

  11. Los Alamos Transuranic Waste Size Reduction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) is a production oriented prototype. The facility is operated to remotely cut and repackage TRU contaminated metallic wastes (e.g., glove boxes, ducting and pipes) for eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The resulting flat sections are packaged into a tested Department of Transportation Type 7A metal container. To date, the facility has successfully processed stainless steel glove boxes (with and without lead shielding construction) and retention tanks. We have found that used glove boxes generate more cutting fumes than do unused glove boxes or metal plates - possibly due to deeply embedded chemical residues from years of service. Water used as a secondary fluid with the plasma arc cutting system significantly reduces visible fume generation during the cutting of used glove boxes and lead-lined glove boxes. 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Inventory and sources of transuranic solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    In the past, solid radioactive waste has often been buried in the most accessible and convenient vacant place, without a great deal of thought for the long-term consequences. The transuranium (TRU) elements were very strictly conserved and, at first, solid waste containing separated fission products was not a serious land burial problem. Wartime pressures for production and lack of knowledge or understanding led to siting and operational practices that, in many situations, are unsatisfactory by present day standards. Purpose of this report is to support the development of standards and criteria which will specifically address the problem of TRU contaminated waste generated by Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear programs and commercial application of nuclear technology. This report covers: DOE facilities, commercial disposal sites, commercial nuclear industry, TRU-contaminated waste inventory, and waste projections. (DLC)

  13. Certification plan transuranic waste: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWBF; and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification

  14. Induction melting of simulated transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coreless induction melting was investigated as a method to melt and consolidate waste material representative of the transuranic waste (TRU) stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Waste material was introduced onto the surface of a molten cast iron bath in a coreless induction furnace. Waste metallics were incorporated into the bath. Noncombustibles formed a slag which was poured or skimmed from the bath surface. Stack sampling was performed to characterize the off-gas and particulate matter evolved. Experimental melting tests were performed for a variety of types of wastes including metallics, chemical sludge, soil, concrete, and glass. Each test also included a representative level of combustible materials consisting of paper, wood, cloth, polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene. Metallic wastes were readily processed by induction melting with a minimum of slag production. Test waste consisting primarily of chemical sludge provided fluid slags which could be poured from the bath surface. Processing of wastes consisting of soil, concrete, or glass was limited by the inability to achieve fluid slags. It appears from test results that coreless induction melting is a feasible method to process INEL-type waste materials if two problems can be resolved. First, slag fluidity must be improved to facilitate the collection of slags formed from soil, concrete, or glass containing wastes. Secondly, refractory life must be further optimized to permit prolonged processing of the waste materials. The use of a chrome-bearing high-alumina refractory was found to resist slag line attach much better than a magnesia refractory, although some attack was still noted

  15. Remotely controlled vehicles and systems for integrated remediation of buried tru wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of remotely controlled vehicle systems developed for cooperative retrieval and transportation of Transuranic (TRU) buried wastes. The systems described are for the control of a Remote Excavator (REMEX), a Self Guided Transfer Vehicle (SGTV), a Remotely Controlled Materials Handling System and a Virtual Environment for Remote Operations (VERO), using imaging by a 3D Laser Camera

  16. Waste management facilities cost information for transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing transuranic waste. The report`s information on treatment and storage modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  17. Waste management facilities cost information for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing transuranic waste. The report's information on treatment and storage modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  18. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment that was purchased in the abbreviated year 1 of this project has been used during year 2 to study the fundamental behavior of materials that simulate the behavior of the Hanford transuranic waste sludge. Two significant results have been found, and each has been submitted for publication. Both studies found non-DLVO behavior in simulant systems. These separate but related studies were performed concurrently. It was previously shown in Rassat et al.'s report Physical and Liquid Chemical Simulant Formulations for Transuranic Wastes in Hanford Single-Shell Tanks that colloidal clays behave similarly to transuranic waste sludge (PNNL-14333, National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce). Rassat et al. also discussed the pH and salt content of actual waste materials. It was shown that these materials exist at high pHs, generally above 10, and at high salt content, approximately 1.5 M from a mixture of different salts. A type of clay commonly studied, due to its uniformity, is a synthetic hectorite, Laponite. Therefore the work performed over the course of the last year was done mainly using suspensions of Laponite at high pH and involving high salt concentrations. One study was titled ''Relating Clay Rheology to Colloidal Parameters''. It has been submitted to the Journal of Colloid and INterface Science and is currently in the review process. The idea was to gain the ability to use measurable quantities to predict the flow behavior of clay systems, which should be similar to transuranic waste sludge. Leong et al. had previously shown that the yield stress of colloidal slurries of titania and alumina could be predicted, given the measurement of the accessible parameter zeta potential (Leong YK et al. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans, 19 (1993) 2473). Colloidal clays have a fundamentally different morphology and surface charge distribution than the spheroidal, uniformly charged colloids previously studied. This study was therefore performed in order to

  19. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Sampling and Analysis Methods Manual (Methods Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP.

  20. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Sampling and Analysis Methods Manual (Methods Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP

  1. Remote technologies for buried waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE is evaluating what should be done with this buried waste. Although the radioactive waste is not particularly mobile unless airborne, some of it was buried with volatile organics and/or other substances that tend to spread easily to surrounding soil or water tables. Volatile organics are hazardous materials (such as trichloroethylene) and require clean-up at certain levels in drinking water. There is concern that the buried volatile organics will spread into the water table and contaminate drinking water. Because of this, the DOE is considering options for handling this buried waste and reducing the risks of spreading or exposure. There are two primary options: containment and stabilization, or retrieval. Containment and stabilization systems would include systems that would leave the waste where it is, but contain and stabilize it so that the radioactive and hazardous materials would not spread to the surrounding soil, water, or air. For example, an in situ vitrification system could be used to melt the waste into a composite glass-like material that would not leach into the surrounding soil, water, or air. Retrieval systems are those that would remove the waste from its burial location for treatment and/or repackaging for long term storage. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate remote technologies that would minimize dust generation and the spread of airborne contaminants during buried waste retrieval. Remote technologies are essential for the retrieval of buried waste because they remove workers from the hazardous environment and provide greater automation, reducing the chances of human error. Minimizing dust generation is also essential to increased safety for the workers and the environment during buried waste retrieval. The main contaminants within the waste are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides, which are easily suspended in air and spread if disturbed

  2. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-03-25

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  3. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-08-27

    Phase I retrieval of post-1970 TRU wastes from burial ground 218-W-4C can be done in a safe, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Initiating TRU retrieval by retrieving uncovered drums from Trenches 1, 20, and 29, will allow retrieval to begin under the current SWBG safety authorization basis. The retrieval of buried drums from Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29, which will require excavation, will commence once the uncovered drum are retrieved. This phased approach allows safety analysis for drum venting and drum module excavation to be completed and approved before the excavation proceeds. In addition, the lessons learned and the operational experience gained from the retrieval of uncovered drums can be applied to the more complicated retrieval of the buried drums. Precedents that have been set at SRS and LANL to perform retrieval without a trench cover, in the open air, should be followed. Open-air retrieval will result in significant cost savings over the original plans for Phase I retrieval (Project W-113). Based on LANL and SRS experience, open-air retrieval will have no adverse impacts to the environment or to the health and safety of workers or the public. Assaying the waste in the SWBG using a mobile assay system, will result in additional cost savings. It is expected that up to 50% of the suspect-TRU wastes will assay as LLW, allowing those waste to remain disposed of in the SWBG. Further processing, with its associated costs, will only occur to the portion of the waste that is verified to be TRU. Retrieval should be done, to the extent possible, under the current SWBG safety authorization basis as a normal part of SWBG operations. The use of existing personnel and existing procedures should be optimized. By working retrieval campaigns, typically during the slow months, it is easier to coordinate the availability of necessary operations personnel, and it is easier to coordinate the availability of a mobile assay vendor.

  4. Waste profiling of newly generated transuranic waste at TA-55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K. K.; Punjak, W. A. (Wayne A.); Montoya, A. J. (Andrew J.)

    2004-01-01

    For many years, segregation of transuranic (TRU) waste at Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was based on the TRU Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) Content Code (TRUCON Code)-dependent matrices, hazardous constituents, the nonhazardous nature of waste, nondestructive assay requirements, and other factors. This approach required well over a hundred active waste profiles for waste acceptance at the onsite treatment storage and disposal facility. Over the past few years, the profiling approach has evolved in an effort to make the waste disposition process more efficient. Based on interpretation of various requirements, TA-55 is further simplifying its waste management operations and plans to eventually have only a few tens of waste profiles to expedite the review and approval of drum data packages. Nondefense, or homogeneous, cemented, or vitrified wastes are excluded from discussion in this paper.

  5. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  6. Structural integrity evaluation of transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 4,400 Transuranic (TRU) waste drums have been found to contain standing rain water in the drum annulus, liner, or both. This has caused some pitting corrosion damage to the inside surface of the drums. A dewatering plan is underway to inspect these drums and determine their reusability. The drums will then be stored inside the weather enclosures to mitigate the corrosion problem. The storage and any subsequent handling may extend to next 20 years until these drums are transported for final disposal at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report evaluates the loading conditions during storage and handling at SRS to ensure that these drums maintain their structural integrity. Structural analyses and fracture analyses have been performed to evaluate the storage and handling loading conditions of the drums. The analyses are based on the observation that the general corrosion will not be a concern in the weather enclosures. However, the pitting corrosion will continue to exist. Structural analyses using finite element techniques show that the drums containing 150 lbs to 800 lbs TRU waste could be safely handled under these conditions. Fracture analyses show that a drum containing 800 lbs of TRU waste could be safely handled provided a cluster of through wall corrosion pits is less than 4.0in. long. Some conclusions are derived from the drop tests performed at Sandia Labs. Drop tests at Sandia Labs were performed on new drums, however, some general observations can be made for the reusable SRS TRU drums (with some corrosion pitting) which are structurally sound and will have only limited corrosion in the future due to improved storage conditions. It is believed that the TRU drums, which have high ductility, will not fail (walls split apart) due to a postulated 10 foot drop. However, some drums which might develop localized pitting due to extended storage in the weather enclosures might fail in the event of a drop depending upon the location of corroded areas

  7. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  8. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided

  9. Calculation of projected waste loads for transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of treatment and the treatment and interim storage site configurations (decentralized, regional, or centralized) impact transuranic (TRU) waste loads at and en route to sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Other elements that impact waste loads are the volume and characteristics of the waste and the unit operation parameters of the technologies used to treat it. Projected annual complexwide TRU waste loads under various TRU waste management alternatives were calculated using the WASTEunderscoreMGMT computational model. WASTEunderscoreMGMT accepts as input three types of data: (1) the waste stream inventory volume, mass, and contaminant characteristics by generating site and waste stream category; (2) unit operation parameters of treatment technologies; and (3) waste management alternative definitions. Results indicate that the designed capacity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, identified under all waste management alternatives as the permanent disposal facility for DOE-generated TRU waste, is sufficient for the projected complexwide TRU waste load under any of the alternatives

  10. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94

  11. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration test objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program (BWID) is to support the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies form a comprehensive system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the US Department of Energy complex. To accomplish this mission of identifying technology solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated the BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1991. This document provides the test objectives against which the demonstrations will be tested during FY-93

  12. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-07-01

    This report outlines the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. This document serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of transuranic wastes, waste forms, waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present NRC waste management program. No attempt is made to evaluate or analyze the suitability of one technology over another. Indeed, by the nature of this report, there is little critical evaluation or analysis of technologies because such analysis is only appropriate when evaluating a particular application or transuranic waste streams. Due to fiscal restriction, the data base is developed from a myriad of technical sources and does not necessarily contain operating experience and the current status of all technologies. Such an effort was beyond the scope of this report.

  13. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. This document serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of transuranic wastes, waste forms, waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present NRC waste management program. No attempt is made to evaluate or analyze the suitability of one technology over another. Indeed, by the nature of this report, there is little critical evaluation or analysis of technologies because such analysis is only appropriate when evaluating a particular application or transuranic waste streams. Due to fiscal restriction, the data base is developed from a myriad of technical sources and does not necessarily contain operating experience and the current status of all technologies. Such an effort was beyond the scope of this report

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.; Bates, L.D.; Box, W.D.; Aaron, W.S.; Setaro, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that all DOE facilities handling defense transuranic (TRU) waste develop and implement a program whereby all TRU waste will be contained, stored, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in the DOE certification documents WIPP-DOE-069, 114, 120, 137, 157, and 158. The program described in this report describes how Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) intends to comply with these requirements and the techniques and procedures used to ensure that ORNL TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP. This document describes the program for certification of newly generated (NG) contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. Previsions have been made for addenda, which will extend the coverage of this document to include certification of stored CH-TRU and NG and stored remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste, as necessary. 24 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  16. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP

  17. A process for ensuring regulatory compliance at the INEL`s buried waste integrated demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, P.G.; Watson, L.R.; Blacker, P.B. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1993-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program is funded by the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The mission of this Integrated Demonstration is to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate a suite of innovative technologies for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous waste buried throughout the DOE complex between 1950 and 1970. The program approach to development of a long-range strategy for improving buried waste remediation capabilities is to combine systems analysis with already identified remediation needs for DOE complex buried waste. The systems analysis effort has produced several configuration options (a top-level block diagram of a cradle-to-grave remediation system) capable of remediating the transuranic-contaminated waste pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Technologies for demonstration are selected using three criteria: (a) the ability to satisfy a specific buried waste need, (b) the ability to satisfy functional and operational requirements defined for functional sub-elements in a configuration option, and (c) performance against Comprehensive Environmental Restoration and Compensation Liability Act selection criteria, such as effectiveness, implementability, and cost. Early demonstrations experienced problems with missed requirements, prompting the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program Office to organize a Corrective Action Team to identify the cause and recommend corrective actions. The result of this team effort is the focus of this paper.

  18. Transuranic waste form characterization and data base. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Form Characterization and Data Base (Volume 1) provides a wide range of information from which a comprehensive data base can be established and from which standards and criteria can be developed for the present NRC waste management program. Supplementary information on each of the areas discussed in Volume 1 is presented in Appendices A through K (Volumes 2 and 3). The structure of the study (Volume 1) is outlined and appendices of Volumes 2 and 3 correlate with each main section of the report. The Executive Summary reviews the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. Due to the variety of potential treatment processes for transuranic wastes, the end products for long-term storage may have corresponding variations in quantities and characteristics

  19. Recovery of legacy transuranic waste from earth-covered storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 1993, the University of California (UC) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) signed a consent agreement with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). This consent agreement requires retrieval of ∼ 16800 containers of legacy transuranic (TRU) and TRU-mixed waste from earth-covered storage and placement into storage in compliance with the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (NMHWA). Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project is a $43 million (estimated) 10-yr project to satisfy the requirements of the consent agreement and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. A preliminary safety analysis and facility design have been completed

  20. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology's threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides baseline inventories of transuranic wastes for the WIPP facility. Information on waste forms, forecasting of future inventories, and waste stream originators is also provided. A diskette is provided which contains the inventory database

  2. Transuranic wastes from the commercial light-water-reactor cccle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne and transuranic-contaminated wastes generated in postfission activities are identified by quantity and radioactivity for the case in which spent fuel is declared waste (once-through cycle) and that in which spent fuel is reprocessed and the recovered uranium and plutonium are recycled. Because no standard defining transuranic wastes is available at this time, in this chapter the waste source is used as the basis for such a definition. Radioactive wastes are generally treated to reduce their volume and/or mobility. For convenience the radioactive wastes discussed are categorized according to the treatment they require. A selected treatment process as well as the final treated volume is presented for each of the seven categories of waste

  3. Privatization of contact-handled transuranic waste transportation services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) currently stores and generates contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) waste at 10 major and 13 smaller sites across the United States. The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in May 1998 will begin the use of a radioactive waste transportation system to transport TRU waste from these sites to the WIPP for disposal. The DOE will transport CH-TRU waste in a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified type B package called the TRUPACT-II. The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) has determined that the CH-TRU waste transportation system is sufficiently well defined to allow privatization, resulting in significant cost savings. The CAO manages the National Transuranic Program and has developed the National Transuranic (TRU) Waste Management Plan for integrating TRU waste management activities throughout the DOE complex. The management plan outlines an aggressive schedule for transporting and disposing of TRU waste at the WIPP. The WIPP is scheduled to begin receiving CH-TRU waste in May 1998, at which time five truck sets (a truck set consists of tractor, trailer, and three TRUPACT-IIs) will be in service. Starting in 1998, truck sets will be added until the fleet size reaches 20 in 2000. The WIPP CH-TRU waste-handling capacity will start at a rate of 250 shipments per year in 1998 and will increase to 850 shipments per year by the year 2000

  4. Developing an institutional strategy for transporting defense transuranic waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late 1988, the US Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin emplacing transuranic waste materials in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), an R and D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense program activities. Transuranic wastes are production-related materials, e.g., clothes, rags, tools, and similar items. These materials are contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives of > 20 yr and concentrations > 100 nCi/g. Much of the institutional groundwork has been done with local communities and the State of New Mexico on the siting and construction of the facility. A key to the success of the emplacement demonstration, however, will be a qualified transportation system together with institutional acceptance of the proposed shipments. The DOE's Defense Transuranic Waste Program, and its contractors, has lead responsibility for achieving this goal. The Joint Integration Office (JIO) of the DOE, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is taking the lead in implementing an integrated strategy for assessing nationwide institutional concerns over transportation of defense transuranic wastes and in developing ways to resolve or mitigate these concerns. Parallel prototype programs are under way to introduce both the new packaging systems and the institutional strategy to interested publics and organizations

  5. Field-scale permeation testing of jet-grouted buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducted field-scale hydraulic conductivity testing of simulated buried waste sites with improved confinement. The improved confinement was achieved by jet grouting the buried waste, thus creating solid monoliths. The hydraulic conductivity of the monoliths was determined using both the packer technique and the falling head method. The testing was performed on simulated buried waste sites utilizing a variety of encapsulating grouts, including high-sulfate-resistant Portland cement, TECT, (a proprietary iron oxide cement) and molten paraffin. By creating monoliths using in-situ jet grouting of encapsulating materials, the waste is simultaneously protected from subsidence and contained against further migration of contaminants. At the INEL alone there is 56,000 m3 of buried transuranic waste commingled with 170,000--224,000 m3 of soil in shallow land burial. One of the options for this buried waste is to improve the confinement and leave it in place for final disposal. Knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity for these monoliths is important for decision-makers. The packer tests involved coring the monolith, sealing off positions within the core with inflatable packers, applying pressurized water to the matrix behind the seal, and observing the water flow rate. The falling head tests were performed in full-scale 3-m-diameter, 3-m-high field-scale permeameters. In these permeameters, both water inflow and outflow were measured and equated to a hydraulic conductivity

  6. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility

  7. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  8. Utilization of borosilicate glass for transuranic waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinerated transuranic waste and other low-level residues have been successfully vitrified by mixing with boric acid and sodium carbonate and heating to 10500C in a bench-scale continuous melter. The resulting borosilicate glass demonstrates excellent mechanical durability and chemical stability

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

  10. ACCELERATION OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSURANIC WASTE DISPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) most significant risks is the site's inventory of transuranic waste retrievably stored above and below-ground in Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, particularly the dispersible high-activity waste stored above-ground in deteriorating facilities. The high activity waste represents approximately 50% (by activity) of the total 292,000 PE-Ci inventory remaining to be disposed. The transuramic waste inventory includes contact-handled and remote-handled waste packaged in drums, boxes, and oversized containers which are retrievably stored both above and below-ground. Although currently managed as transuranic waste, some of the inventory is low-level waste that can be disposed onsite or at approved offsite facilities. Dispositioning the transuranic waste inventory requires retrieval of the containers from above and below-ground storage, examination and repackaging or remediation as necessary, characterization, certification and loading for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad New Mexico, all in accordance with well-defined requirements and controls. Although operations are established to process and characterize the lower-activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, LAN L does not currently have the capability to repack high activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers (> 56 PE-Ci) or to process oversized containers with activity levels over 0.52 PE-Ci. Operational issues and compliance requirements have resulted in less than optimal processing capabilities for lower activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, limiting preparation and reducing dependability of shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Since becoming the Los Alamos National Laboratory contract in June 2006, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) L.L.C. has developed a comprehensive, integrated plan to effectively and efficiently disposition the transuranic waste inventory, working in concert with the Department of

  11. ACCELERATION OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSURANIC WASTE DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' LEARY, GERALD A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-04

    One of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) most significant risks is the site's inventory of transuranic waste retrievably stored above and below-ground in Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, particularly the dispersible high-activity waste stored above-ground in deteriorating facilities. The high activity waste represents approximately 50% (by activity) of the total 292,000 PE-Ci inventory remaining to be disposed. The transuramic waste inventory includes contact-handled and remote-handled waste packaged in drums, boxes, and oversized containers which are retrievably stored both above and below-ground. Although currently managed as transuranic waste, some of the inventory is low-level waste that can be disposed onsite or at approved offsite facilities. Dispositioning the transuranic waste inventory requires retrieval of the containers from above and below-ground storage, examination and repackaging or remediation as necessary, characterization, certification and loading for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad New Mexico, all in accordance with well-defined requirements and controls. Although operations are established to process and characterize the lower-activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, LAN L does not currently have the capability to repack high activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers (> 56 PE-Ci) or to process oversized containers with activity levels over 0.52 PE-Ci. Operational issues and compliance requirements have resulted in less than optimal processing capabilities for lower activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, limiting preparation and reducing dependability of shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Since becoming the Los Alamos National Laboratory contract in June 2006, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) L.L.C. has developed a comprehensive, integrated plan to effectively and efficiently disposition the transuranic waste inventory, working in concert with

  12. Certification document for newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has requested that all national laboratories handling defense waste develop and augment a program whereby all newly generated contact-handled transuranic (TRU) waste be contained, stored, and then shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in WIPP-DOE-114. The program described in this report delineates how Oak Ridge National Laboratory intends to comply with these requirements and lists the procedures used by each generator to ensure that their TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP

  13. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  14. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year

  15. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  16. Evaluation of a self-guided transport vehicle for remote transportation of transuranic and other hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic ft of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic ft of waste is up to 10 million cubic ft of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate a technology for transporting exhumed transuranic wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at other hazardous or radioactive waste sites through the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conducted at the INEEL Robotics Center in the summer of 1995, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for remote transport of exhumed buried waste. The technology consisted of a Self-Guided Transport Vehicle designed to remotely convey retrieved waste from the retrieval digface and transport it to a receiving/processing area with minimal human intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate performance parameters such as precision and accuracy of navigation and transportation rates

  17. Characteristics of transuranic waste at Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports data and information on TRU waste from all DOE generating and storage sites. The geographical location of the sites is shown graphically. There are four major sections in this document. The first three cover the TRU waste groups known as Newly Generated, Stored, and Buried Wastes. Subsections are included under Newly Generated and Stored on contact-handled and remote-handled waste. These classifications of waste are defined, and the current or expected totals of each are given. Figure 1.3 shows the total amount of Buried and Stored TRU waste. Preparation of this document began in 1981, and most of the data are as of December 31, 1980. In a few cases data were reported to December 31, 1981, and these have been noted. The projections in the Newly Generated section were made, for the most part, at the end of 1981

  18. Gas generation from transuranic waste degradation: an interim assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of all available, applicable data pertaining to gas generation from the degradation of transuranic waste matrix material and packaging is presented. Waste forms are representative of existing defense-related TRU wastes and include cellulosics, plastics, rubbers, concrete, process sludges, and mild steel. Degradation mechanisms studied were radiolysis, thermal, bacterial, and chemical corrosion. Gas generation rates are presented in terms of moles of gas produced per year per drum, and in G(gas) values for radiolytic degradation. Comparison of generation rates is made, as is a discussion of potential short- and long-term concerns. Techniques for reducing gas generation rates are discussed. 6 figures, 10 tables

  19. Methods for removing transuranic elements from waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines a treatment scheme for separating and concentrating the transuranic (TRU) elements present in aqueous waste solutions stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The treatment method selected is carrier precipitation. Potential carriers will be evaluated in future laboratory work, beginning with ferric hydroxide and magnetite. The process will result in a supernatant with alpha activity low enough that it can be treated in the existing evaporator/concentrator at ANL. The separated TRU waste will be packaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  20. Assessment of LANL transuranic waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings that resulted from the evaluation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TRU Waste Characterization Procedures, conducted to determine their compliance with applicable DOE requirements. The driving requirements for the procedures appear to be contained in DOE Order 5820.2A; specific reference is made to Chapter II of that document. In addition, the WIPP-WAC sets forth specific waste forms and establishes the basis for LANL's TRU Waste Acceptance Criteria; any characterization plan must utilize procedures that address the requirements of the WIPP-WAC in order to ensure compliance with it. The purpose of the characterization procedures is to provide details to waste generators and/or waste certifiers regarding how the characterization plan is implemented for the gathering of analytical and/or knowledge-of-process information to allow certification of the waste. An annotated outline was developed from those criteria found in Sections 4.0 and 5.0 of the WIPP-WAC. The annotated outline of elements that should be addressed in characterization procedures is provided

  1. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions

  2. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits.

  3. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits

  4. Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document

  5. Repository disposal requirements for commercial transuranic wastes (generated without reprocessing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wastes generated in a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. The four main objectives of this study were to: develop estimates of the current inventories, projected generation rates, and characteristics of commercial TRU wastes; develop proposed acceptance requirements for TRU wastes forms and waste canisters that ensure a safe and effective disposal system; develop certification procedures and processing requirements that ensure that TRU wastes delivered to a repository for disposal meet all applicable waste acceptance requirements; and identify alternative conceptual strategies for treatment and certification of commercial TRU first objective was accomplished through a survey of commercial producers of TRU wastes. The TRU waste acceptance and certification requirements that were developed were based on regulatory requirements, information in the literature, and from similar requirements already established for disposal of defense TRU wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which were adapted, where necessary, to disposal of commercial TRU wastes. The results of the TRU waste-producer survey indicated that there were a relatively large number of producers of small quantities of TRU wastes

  6. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, K M

    2000-01-01

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval ...

  7. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  8. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE`s Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  9. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD)

  10. Integrated test schedule for buried waste integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Test Schedule incorporates the various schedules the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports into one document. This document contains the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order schedules for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Reservation, Oak Ridge Reservation, and Fernald Environmental Materials Center. Included in the Integrated Test Schedule is the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration ''windows of opportunity'' schedule. The ''windows of opportunity'' schedule shows periods of time in which Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program-sponsored technology demonstrations could support key decisions in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. Schedules for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration-sponsored technology task plans are categorized by technology area and divided by current fiscal year and out-year. Total estimated costs for Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration-sponsored Technology Task Plans for FY-92 through FY-97 are $74.756M

  11. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A', the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-I13 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1,4,20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1,20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  12. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  13. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-09-28

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  14. Fluidized bed incineration process design for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluidized bed incineration facility has been installed at the Rocky Flats Plant to develop and demonstrate a process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit's capacity is about 82 kg/hr of combustible solid waste, which is nine times higher than the rate for the operating pilot-scale unit. The facility utilizes nonaqueous, in situ neutralization of acid gases. These gases are generated during the combustion of halogen-containing materials. The low-temperature (550 0C) operation eliminates refractory-lined equipment

  15. Neural network utility in nondestructive transuranic waste assay, initial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of transuranic (TRU) and associated radioactive material quantities entrained in waste forms is a necessary component of waste characterization. Measurement performance requirements are specified in the National TRU Waste Characterization Program quality assurance plan for which compliance must be demonstrated prior to the transportation and disposition of wastes. With respect to this criterion, the existing TRU nondestructive waste assay (NDA) capability is inadequate for a significant fraction of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste inventory. This is a result of the general application of safeguard-type measurement and calibration schemes to waste form configurations. Incompatibilities between such measurement methods and actual waste form configurations complicate regulation. compliance demonstration processes and illustrate the need for an alternate measurement interpretation paradigm. Hence, it appears necessary to supplement or perhaps restructure the perceived solution and approach to the waste NDA problem. The first step is to understand the magnitude of the waste matrix/source attribute space associated with those waste form configurations in inventory and how this creates complexities and unknowns with respect to existing NDA methods. Once defined and/or bounded, a conceptual method must be developed that specifies the necessary tools and the framework in which the tools are used. A promising framework is a hybridized neural network structure. Discussed are some typical complications associated with conventional waste NDA techniques and how improvements can be obtained through the application of neural networks

  16. Degradation of transuranic-contaminated wastes under geological isolation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of extensive experimental studies on the degradation of existing defense transuranic-contaminated (TRU) wastes are presented. Environmental conditions for waste degradation are representative of deep geological isolation of TRU wastes in a bedded-salt repository, as anticipated for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico. TRU-contaminated waste matrices investigated include cellulosics, plastics, rubbers, mixed organic composite, bitumen, a developmental concrete-TRU ash matrix, mild steel, and inorganic process sludges. Degradation mechanisms studied were alpha radiolysis, microbial action, thermal decomposition and dewatering, and chemical corrosion. Experimental variables are waste composition, alpha-contamination level, temperature, pressure, time, water or brine content, aerobic or anaerobic conditions, etc. Results of waste degradation are presented in terms of gas generation rates, gas compositions, container corrosion rates, effectiveness of anti-corrosion coatings, microbial formation and degradation of chelating agents. Based on experimental results, the relative quantities of gas generated by individual mechanisms acting on the organic matrix wastes can be ranked as follows: (1) microbial action, (2) thermal decomposition (at 400C and higher), (3) alpha radiolysis, and (4) corrosion. Corrosion of metallic waste canisters and realistic bedded-salt repository conditions was determined not to have a significant effect on potential waste retrievability. The technical data provided in these studies are used in assessments to determine whether existing forms of TRU wastes are acceptable for safe geological isolation. (author)

  17. Assessment of radiation effects in defense transuranic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actinide concentrations of the defense transuranic (TRU) wastes were analyzed and the potential effects of the radiation on the properties of the wastes after conversion to immobile forms were assessed. The study focused on the contact-handled retrievably-stored wastes. The major components of the current inventory are defense plutonium-contaminated wastes containing various amounts of 241Am. The wastes stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are typical of the wastes in this category. There is also a substantial amount of wastes contaminated with plutonium enriched in 238Pu arising from the Department of Energy's isotopic heat-source programs. Most of these wastes are stored at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) sites. Four reference wastes were selected representing a credible range of actinide activities and were used for estimating radiation doses to the final waste forms based on: INEL first stage sludge, a composite of all wastes at INEL, a composite of all wastes at LANL including both defense and heat source plutonium wastes, and a composite of all heat-source plutonium wastes at SRP free from defense plutonium. From integrated alpha and beta-gamma doses over a 105y storage period, it is concluded that: accumulated beta-gamma doses of 106 to 108 rad over a 105 y storage period will not significantly change physical properties of the waste form. The alpha decay doses are 3-30 x 1016 decays/cm3 (up to 3 x 1010 rad ionizing radiation from alpha particles) accumulated over a 105 y storage period. Radiolytic gas generation can be substantial in waste forms containing water or organic materials. The effect of leachant radiolysis on the leachabilities of TRU waste forms is not sufficiently understood to rule out the need for testing with actinide-doped specimens

  18. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Qualit Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP)

  19. Transportation system (TRUPACT) for contact-handled transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact-handled transuranic defense waste is being, and will continue to be, moved between a number of locations in the United States. The DOE is sponsoring development of safe, efficient, licensable, and cost-effective transportation systems to handle this waste. The systems being developed have been named TRUPACT which stands for TRansUranic PACkage Transporter. The system will be compatible with Type A packagings used by waste generators, interim storage facilities, and repositories. TRUPACT is required to be a Type B packaging since larger than Type A quantities of some radionuclides (particularly plutonium) may be involved in the collection of Type A packagings. TRUPACT must provide structural and thermal protection to the waste in hypothetical accident environments specified in DOT regulations 49CFR173 and NRC regulations 10CFR71. Preliminary design of the systems has been completed and final design for a truck system is underway. The status of the development program is reviewed in this paper and the reference design is described. Tests that have been conducted are discussed and long-term program objectives are reviewed

  20. Assessment of LANL transuranic mixed waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to present findings from the evaluation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria to determine its compliance with applicable DOE requirements. The driving requirements for s TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria are essentially those contained in the ''TRU Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' or WIPP WAC (DOE Report WIPP-DOE-069), 40 CFR 261-270, and DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management), specifically Chapter II which is entitled ''Management of Transuranic Waste''. The primary purpose of the LANL WAC is the establishment of those criteria that must be met by generators of TRU mixed waste before such waste can be accepted by the Waste Management Group. An annotated outline of a genetic TRU mixed waste acceptance criteria document was prepared from those requirements contained in the WIPP WAC, 40 CFR 261-270, and 5820.2A, and is based solely upon those requirements

  1. The National Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opened for nonmixed contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) waste receipt on March 26, 1999, planning for the receipt of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste has been revitalized. WIPP is scheduled to begin receiving RH TRU waste in January 2002. Before the first receipt of RH waste at WIPP, the disposal of RH TRU waste must be coordinated with the waste management plans at the TRU waste sites, the packaging and transportation system must be in place and operational, and the WIPP RH must be operational. Successful implementation of the National RH TRU Waste Program will require that a commitment to sustained funding and full support of the entire DOE TRU waste complex be maintained. Implementation will also require effective application of capital assets, human resources, and a continued effort to identify and resolve programmatic and technical issues. Involvement of regulatory agencies, stakeholders, and affected tribal nations in decision-making processes will have a positive impact on successful implementation

  2. In situ grouting for improved confinement of buried tru waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reports that in situ grouting was experimentally examined as an improved confinement technique for buried transuranic (TRU) waste in a simulated waste trench at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Prior to 1970, the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) served as a disposal site for defense-generated TRU waste. Between 1953 and 1970, approximately 56,000 m3 of TRU waste were buried in shallow-land-filled trenches. As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) charter for managing the TRU waste, improved confinement techniques are being examined as a long-term management alternative. The object of the INEL in situ grouting study was to examine the capability of the in situ grouting technique to reduce voids in the waste and to hydrologically isolate the waste. To be considered a successful candidate for long-term confinement of the TRU waste, the acceptance criterion was that the grouted trench have a hydraulic conductivity no more than 1 x 10-8 cm/s, which is 100 times less than the undisturbed soil of the RWMC. In addition, the injected grout must reduce accessible voids by 80%

  3. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Retireval Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, G.M.; Christensen, D.V.; Stanford, A.R.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents the status of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) project for remediation of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste from Pads 1, 2, and 4. Some of the TRU waste packages retrieved from Pad I are anticipated to be part of LANL`s initial inventory to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in April 1998. The TRU Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP) was initiated in February 1993 in response to the New Mexico Environment Department`s (NMED`s) Consent Agreement for Compliance Order, ``New Mexico Hazardous Waste Agreement (NMHWA) 93-03.`` The TWISP involves the recovery of approximately 16,865 TRU and TRU-mixed waste containers currently under earthen cover on Pads 1, 2, and 4 at Technical Area 54, Area G, and placement of that waste into inspectable storage. All waste will be moved into inspectable storage by September 30, 2003. Waste recovery and storage operations emphasize protection of worker safety, public health, and the environment.

  4. Optimizing transuranic waste management-challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste in March of 1999, the granting of the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit in November 1999, and over two years of operational experience have demonstrated the Department of Energy's (DOE'S) capability in closing the nuclear energy cycle. While these achievements resolved several scientific, engineering, regulatory and political issues, the DOE has identified a new set of challenges that represent opportunities for improving programmatic efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and operational safety in managing the nation's TRU waste. The DOE has recognized that the complex administrative and regulatory requirements for characterization, transportation and disposal of TRU waste are costly (1). A review by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) states that these requirements lead to inefficient waste characterization, handling and transportation operations that in turn can lead to unnecessary radiation exposure to workers without a commensurate decrease in risk to the public and the environment (2). This paper provides an overview of the status of the WJPP repository, explains the principles of the proposed commercial business approach, and describes some of the proposed major enhancements of the TRU waste transportation systems. The DOE is developing a remote-handled (RH) waste program to enable emplacement of RH waste at WPP. This program includes appropriate facility modifications and regulatory changes (3).

  5. Design of packaging for transporting transuranic contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact-handled transuranic (C-TRU) waste continues to be generated and temporarily stored at a number of locations in the United States as a by-product of national defense programs. The Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories has assumed the lead lab responsibility for development of safe, efficient, licensable, and cost-effective transportation systems to be used in the management of this waste. The TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT), a Type B packaging, will be transported by rail or truck and will be compatible with Type A packagings used by waste generators, interim storage sites, and repositories. Developing an efficient interface with each facility is being given a high priority. CH-TRU waste is typically packaged in steel drums, fiberglass reinforced plywood (FRP) boxes, or a variety of steel boxes. The waste typically consists of plutonium contaminated metal scraps, sludge, paper, filters, and other materials resulting from production of weapons grade nuclear materials and from reprocessing operations. The activity of the waste is low with the maximum container surface dose rate being less than 200 mrem/h. Preliminary design of the packaging has been completed and effective methods have been employed to prevent failure under both the normal handling and hypothetical accident conditions. This paper describes design criteria adopted, mechanical and physical features of the packaging, and packaging features included to meet regulatory test conditions. In addition, analyses that have been conducted are summarized, scale model tests that have been performed are discussed, and the program schedule through delivery of first production units are outlined

  6. Electric arc furnace melting of simulated transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an interagency agreement between the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, and the US Department of Energy through its contractor, EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Bureau conducted six melting tests at its Albany Research Center to assess the feasibility of melting transuranic-containing wastes. The tests were conducted with simulated wastes in a conventional refractory-lined electric arc furnace. Charge materials included concrete, soil, metal, wood, CaO- and Na2O-containing chemical waste sludges, cement, and polyethylene mixed in various proportions in both unburned and partially incinerated forms. The investigation showed that it is possible to melt these materials in a 1-metric-ton conventional electric arc furnace and separate the slag and metal provided that suitable fluxes are added to condition the silicious slages. However, the electric arc furnace cannot be considered an efficient incinerator. The molten slags were poured into 210-liter steel drums having a 0.64-cm-thick steel chill plate on the bottom. All slags were tapped from the furnace satisfactorily. The concrete and sludge materials required the most energy for melting (2.2 to 2.6 kWhr/kg). The highest electrode consumption occurred when the sludges were melted (0.04 kg/kg product). A high alumina-chrome refractory is satisfactory for use as a furnace lining in melting these wastes. Offgases and particulates from all of the tests were sampled and analyzed. The greatest amounts of particulate matter in the offgas streams were obtained from melting sludges and incinerated wastes. It is recommended that if a conventional electric arc furnace is used to melt transuranic waste that it (1) be fed slowly to prevent excessive fumes and flames and (2) be operated continuously to minimize startup problems and improve efficiency

  7. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford site is one of several U.S. Department of Energy locations that has transuranic radioactive Waste in storage, resulting from nuclear weapons material production. Transuranic waste has extremely long-lived radionuclides requiring great care in management; such waste is slated for eventual disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Most of this waste is stored in 208-ell (55-gal) drums below ground. At the Hanford site 37 641 drums are stored in several trenches. The drums were stacked up to five high with plywood sheeting between the layers and on top of the stacks. Plastic tarps were used to cover the drums and the plywood, with several feet of earth backfilled on top of the plastic. A fraction of the drums (∼20%) were covered only with earth, not with plywood and plastic. The drums are either painted low-carbon steel or galvanized low-carbon steel. They have been placed in storage from 1970 to 1988, resulting in between 7 and 25 yr of storage. The environment is either soil or air atmosphere. The air atmosphere environment also includes, for some drum surfaces, contact with the underside of the tarp. The temperature of the air atmosphere is relatively uniform. Year-round measurements have not been taken, but available data suggest that the temperature span should be from ∼ 10 to 30 degrees C (50 to 86 degrees F). Humidity in underground storage module mock-ups has been measured at nearly 90% during testing in the summer months. Subsequent tests have shown that the humidity probably drops to 50 to 60% during other seasons. This report describes results of a project to inspect the condition of the waste drums

  8. Description of processes for the immobilization of selected transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processed sludge and incinerator-ash wastes contaminated with transuranic (TRU) elements may require immobilization to prevent the release of these elements to the environment. As part of the TRU Waste Immobilization Program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing applicable waste-form and processing technology that may meet this need. This report defines and describes processes that are capable of immobilizing a selected TRU waste-stream consisting of a blend of three parts process sludge and one part incinerator ash. These selected waste streams are based on the compositions and generation rates of the waste processing and incineration facility at the Rocky Flats Plant. The specific waste forms that could be produced by the described processes include: in-can melted borosilicate-glass monolith; joule-heated melter borosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter aluminosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter basaltic-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter glass-ceramic monolith; cast-cement monolith; pressed-cement pellet; and cold-pressed sintered-ceramic pellet

  9. Electron accelerator based system for assay of transuranic waste barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete assay system for 208-liter barrels contianing transuranic wastes has been developed. The system consists of an 8-MeV commercial electron accelerator, neutron moderating cavity housing the waste barrel and containing neutron detectors, high resolution germanium gamma spectrometer, and x-ray radiography camera (both film and real time). The electron linac is used to produce bremsstrahlung and high-intensity pulsed neutron flux, both of which are used to interrogate the fissionable materials. The Differential Dieaway Technique is used to assay the amounts of fissile and fertile materials. The neutron flux is also used in the Prompt Gamma Activation Assay to determine and to quantify the matrix elements present in the barrels. This information is then used to correct the assay of fissionable material. The bremsstrahlung too, is also used by x-ray radiography system to further identify the matrix

  10. Supercompaction and repackaging facility for Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility (SaRF) for processing Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) generated transuranic (TRU) waste was conceptualized and has received funding of $1.9 million. The SaRF is scheduled for completion in September, 1989, and eliminates a labor intensive manual repackaging effort. The semi-automated, glovebox-contained SaRF is being designed to process 63,500 cubic feet of TRU waste annually for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). SaRF processing sequence is waste enters the process through an airlock or drum dump and the combustible waste is precompacted, drums are pierced to allow air to escape during supercompaction, and the drum is supercompacted and transferred to a load out station for final packaging into a 55 gallon drum. Preliminary evaluations indicate an average 5 to 1 volume reduction, 2 to 1 increased processing rate and 50% reduction in manpower. The SaRF produces a significant annual savings in labor, material, shipping, and burial costs over the projected 15 year life, and also improves operator safety, reduces personnel exposure, and improves the quality of the waste product

  11. Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility for Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility (SaRF) for processing Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) generated transuranic (TRU) waste was conceptualized and has received funding of $1.9 million. The SaRF is scheduled for completion in September, 1989 and will eliminate a labor intensive manual repackaging effort. The semi-automated glovebox-contained SaRF is being designed to process 63,500 cubic feet of TRU waste annually for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste will enter the process through an airlock or drum dump and the combustible waste will be precompacted. Drums will be pierced to allow air to escape during supercompaction. Each drum will be supercompacted and transferred to a load out station for final packaging into a 55 gallon drum. Preliminary evaluations indicate an average 5 to 1 volume reduction, 2 to 1 increased processing rate, and 50% reduction in manpower. The SaRF will produce a significant annual savings in labor, material, shipping, and burial costs over the projected 15 year life, and also improve operator safety, reduce personnel exposure, and improve the quality of the waste product. 1 ref., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Approach for systematic evaluation of transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an approach for systematic evaluation of management alternatives that are being considered for the treatment, storage, and disposal of transuranic waste (TRUW) at U.S. Department of Energy sites. The approach, which is currently under development, would apply WASTE-MGMT, a database application model developed at Argonne National Laboratory, to estimate projected environmental releases and would evaluate impact measures such as health risk and costs associated with each of the waste management alternatives. The customized application would combine site-specific TRUW inventory and characterization data with treatment and transportation parameters to estimate the quantities and characteristics of the wastes to be treated, emissions of hazardous substances from the treatment facilities, and the quantities and characteristics of the wastes to be shipped between sites. These data would then be used to estimate for several TRUW management scenarios the costs and health risks of constructing and operating the required treatment facilities and of transporting TRUW for treatment and final disposal. Treatment, storage, and disposal of TRUW at DOE sites is composed of many variables and options at each stage. The approach described in this paper would provide for efficient consideration of all of these facets when evaluating potentially feasible TRUW management alternatives. By expanding existing databases, this model could eventually be adapted to accommodate the introduction of new treatment technologies, updated TRUW characterization data, and/or revised waste acceptance criteria

  13. Development of consistent hazard controls for DOE transuranic waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of a re-engineering initiative undertaken with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) in order to standardize hazard analysis assumptions and methods and resulting safety controls applied to multiple transuranic (TRU) waste operations located across the United States. A wide range of safety controls are historically applied to transuranic waste operations, in spite of the fact that these operations have similar operational characteristics and hazard/accident potential. The re-engineering effort supported the development of a DOE technical standard with specific safety controls designated for accidents postulated during waste container retrieval, staging/storage, venting, onsite movements, and characterization activities. Controls cover preventive and mitigative measures; include both hardware and specific administrative controls; and provide protection to the facility worker, onsite co-located workers and the general public located outside of facility boundaries. The Standard development involved participation from all major DOE sites conducting TRU waste operations. Both safety analysts and operations personnel contributed to the re-engineering effort. Acknowledgment is given in particular to the following individuals who formed a core working group: Brenda Hawks, (DOE Oak Ridge Office), Patrice McEahern (CWI-Idaho), Jofu Mishima (Consultant), Louis Restrepo (Omicron), Jay Mullis (DOE-ORO), Mike Hitchler (WSMS), John Menna (WSMS), Jackie East (WSMS), Terry Foppe (CTAC), Carla Mewhinney (WIPP-SNL), Stephie Jennings (WIPP-LANL), Michael Mikolanis (DOESRS), Kraig Wendt (BBWI-Idaho), Lee Roberts (Fluor Hanford), and Jim Blankenhorn (WSRC). Additional acknowledgment is given to Dae Chung (EM) and Ines Triay (EM) for leadership and management of the re-engineering effort. (authors)

  14. Defense Remote Handled Transuranic Waste Cost/Schedule Optimization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to provide the DOE information with which it can establish the most efficient program for the long management and disposal, in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste. To fulfill this purpose, a comprehensive review of waste characteristics, existing and projected waste inventories, processing and transportation options, and WIPP requirements was made. Cost differences between waste management alternatives were analyzed and compared to an established baseline. The result of this study is an information package that DOE can use as the basis for policy decisions. As part of this study, a comprehensive list of alternatives for each element of the baseline was developed and reviewed with the sites. The principle conclusions of the study follow. A single processing facility for RH TRU waste is both necessary and sufficient. The RH TRU processing facility should be located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Shielding of RH TRU to contact handled levels is not an economic alternative in general, but is an acceptable alternative for specific waste streams. Compaction is only cost effective at the ORNL processing facility, with a possible exception at Hanford for small compaction of paint cans of newly generated glovebox waste. It is more cost effective to ship certified waste to WIPP in 55-gal drums than in canisters, assuming a suitable drum cask becomes available. Some waste forms cannot be packaged in drums, a canister/shielded cask capability is also required. To achieve the desired disposal rate, the ORNL processing facility must be operational by 1996. Implementing the conclusions of this study can save approximately $110 million, compared to the baseline, in facility, transportation, and interim storage costs through the year 2013. 10 figs., 28 tabs

  15. Risk evaluations of transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 75% of the defense low-level transuranic (TRU) waste stored in the United States and 25% of the buried TRU waste is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Studies have been performed to identify and evaluate technical alternatives for the long-term management of this waste. (The alternatives range from leaving the waste in place as is to reviewing, processing, and shipping it to an offsite geological repository.) Among the evalations that have been performed were preliminary risk evaluations. The dose commitment and risk of hypothetical, near-term, accidental or uncontrolled releases of radionuclides have been evaluated for each alternative. The following potential causes of radionuclide release have been studied: process and handling accidents, shipping accidents, natural events (e.g., earthquakes), man-caused events (e.g., airplane crashes), and future intrusion by individuals or small populations after loss of societal control over the waste. The hypothetical releases have been evaluated, in terms of dose commitment and (if pertinent) probability and risk, for all operational steps making up each concept. The dominant scanerios in terms of near-term risk are (1) lava flow up through or over the waste, leading to airbone releases; (2) an explosion or a criticality accident in the waste-processing facility; and (3) a tornado strike or a fire during waste retrieval. The dominant long-term releases are (1) volcanic action; and (2) intrusion of people on the waste site.Although substantial dose commitments to individual members of the public were calculated for the lava flow and intrusion scenarios, no prompt health effects would be expected from the exposures. The effects would be in the form of a slightly increased likelihood of latent cancer induction

  16. Transuranic waste assay instrumentation: new developments and directions at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, D.A.; Umbarger, C.J.; West, L.; Smith, W.J.; Cates, M.R.; Noel, B.W.; Honey, F.J.; Franks, L.A.; Pigg, J.L.; Trundle, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. This also includes wastes generated in the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities and wastes generated during burial ground exhumation. The assay instrumentation will have a detection capability for the transuranics of less than 10 nCi of activity per gram of waste whenever practicable.

  17. Transuranic radioactive (TRU) waste management in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States of America (USA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the safe management and disposal of all transuranic radioactive (TRU) waste. Based on the promising characteristics of the 225-million-year-old stable sequence of evaporitic rocks (mainly rock salt) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, an underground test facility was developed in the early 1980s at a depth of approximately 655 meters in the candidate host salt formation. In 1994, after more than 20 years of characterizing and evaluating the WIPP site, the DOE concluded that available data and long-term performance assessments (PAs) strongly indicated the WIPP site exhibits very suitable natural characteristics for hosting a deep geologic disposal facility (repository) for TRU waste. In April 1994, the DOE Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) presented a new strategy and an accelerated schedule targeting June 1998 for the opening of a TRU waste repository at the WIPP site. The main objectives of this strategy are to: resolve regulatory compliance and technical issues; characterize the waste; address transportation and safety issues; and involve stakeholders (interested parties) in the regulatory compliance process

  18. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration

  19. Contact-handled transuranic waste mock retrieval demonstration: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Contact-Handled Transuranic (CH TRU) Waste Mock Retrieval Demonstration which was conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Successful completion of the demonstration using mock (non-radioactive) waste packages is a prerequisite to the receipt of actual CH TRU waste. The demonstration was witnessed by members of the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) of the State of New Mexico. The demonstration was completed in Room 1 of Panel 1 of the WIPP underground storage area. This area was configured to simulate in-situ storage conditions projected to be encountered late in the retrieval period. The retrieval period extends for 10 years beyond the Operations Demonstration period which is up to five years in duration. At the conclusion of the Operations Demonstration, a declaration would be made regarding whether or not WIPP should become a permanent TRU disposal facility. Even though salt creep in the storage area is not projected to contact the waste stack, as a worst-case scenario, the demonstration included retrieval techniques which would be employed should stack contamination be encountered. A Contamination Control Barrier was installed upstream of the demonstration waste stack. This barrier incorporated a pass-through system which was used to overpack simulated contaminated waste package. The demonstration confirmed the acceptability of WIPP operational procedures, personnel, equipment, and techniques. Further, extrapolation of the operating time line data developed during this demonstration has confirmed that in-room retrieval of up to 930,000 ft3 of CH TRU waste can be completed within applicable radiological and time constraints. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Dangerous Waste Characteristics of Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed Wastes from the Hanford Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, Joel M.; Bryan, Garry H.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.

    2004-08-31

    This report summarizes existing analytical data from samples taken from the Hanford tanks designated as potentially containing transuranic mixed process wastes. Process knowledge of the wastes transferred to these tanks has been reviewed to determine whether the dangerous waste characteristics now assigned to all Hanford underground storage tanks are applicable to these particular wastes. Supplemental technologies are being examined to accelerate the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission and accomplish waste treatment safely and efficiently. To date, 11 Hanford waste tanks have been designated as potentially containing contact-handled (CH) transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes. The CH-TRUM wastes are found in single-shell tanks B-201 through B-204, T-201 through T-204, T-104, T-110, and T-111. Methods and equipment to solidify and package the CH-TRUM wastes are part of the supplemental technologies being evaluated. The resulting packages and wastes must be acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The dangerous waste characteristics being considered include ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity arising from the presence of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol at levels above the dangerous waste threshold. The analytical data reviewed include concentrations of sulfur, sulfate, cyanide, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, total organic carbon, and oxalate; the composition of the tank headspace, pH, and mercury. Differential scanning calorimetry results were used to determine the energetics of the wastes as a function of temperature.

  1. Intermediate depth burial of classified transuranic wastes in arid alluvium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermediate depth disposal operations were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1984 through 1989. These operations emplaced high-specific activity low-level wastes (LLW) and limited quantities of classified transuranic (TRU) wastes in 37 m (120-ft) deep, Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes. The GCD boreholes are 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and founded in a thick sequence of arid alluvium. The bottom 15 m (50 ft) of each borehole was used for waste emplacement and the upper 21 m (70 ft) was backfilled with native alluvium. The bottom of each GCD borehole is almost 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in one of the most arid portions of the US, with an average precipitation of 13 cm (5 inches) per year. The limited precipitation, coupled with generally warm temperatures and low humidities results in a hydrologic system dominated by evapotranspiration. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191 defines the requirements for protection of human health from disposed TRU wastes. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU wastes emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA's 40 CFR 191 requirements. This paper describes DOE's actions undertaken to evaluate whether the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes will, or will not, endanger human health. Based on preliminary modeling, the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes meet the EPA's requirements, and are, therefore, protective of human health

  2. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  3. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document

  4. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste quality assurance project plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Transuranic (TRU) Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) serves as the quality management plan for the characterization of transuranic waste in preparation for certification and transportation. The Transuranic Waste Characterization/Certification Program (TWCP) consists of personnel who sample and analyze waste, validate and report data; and provide project management, quality assurance, audit and assessment, and records management support, all in accordance with established requirements for disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. This QAPjP addresses how the TWCP meets the quality requirements of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the technical requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The TWCP characterizes and certifies retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste using the waste selection, testing, sampling, and analytical techniques and data quality objectives (DQOs) described in the QAPP, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Plan (Certification Plan), and the CST Waste Management Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)]. At the present, the TWCP does not address remote-handled (RH) waste

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste quality assurance project plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-14

    This Transuranic (TRU) Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) serves as the quality management plan for the characterization of transuranic waste in preparation for certification and transportation. The Transuranic Waste Characterization/Certification Program (TWCP) consists of personnel who sample and analyze waste, validate and report data; and provide project management, quality assurance, audit and assessment, and records management support, all in accordance with established requirements for disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. This QAPjP addresses how the TWCP meets the quality requirements of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the technical requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The TWCP characterizes and certifies retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste using the waste selection, testing, sampling, and analytical techniques and data quality objectives (DQOs) described in the QAPP, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Plan (Certification Plan), and the CST Waste Management Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)]. At the present, the TWCP does not address remote-handled (RH) waste.

  7. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste - transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Hanford Plutonium and Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX), in Richland, Washington, plutonium and uranium products are recovered from irradiated fuel by a solvent extraction process. A byproduct of this process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste (CAW), is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks (DSTs) on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant located nearby. In B-Plant, the transuranic (TRU) elements in NCAW are separated from the non-TRU elements. The majority of the TRU elements in NCAW are in the solids. Therefore, the primary processing operation is to separate the NCAW solids (NCAW-TRU) from the NCAW liquid. These two waste streams will be pumped to suitable holding tanks before being further processed for permanent disposal. To ensure that the retrieval and transportation of NCAW and NCAW-TRU are successful, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the rheological and transport properties of the slurries. This evaluation had two phases. First, researchers conducted laboratory rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW and NCAW-TRU. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. This scale-up procedure has already been successfully used to predict the critical transport properties of a slurry (Neutralized Cladding Removal Waste) with rheological properties similar to those displayed by NCAW and NCAW-TRU

  8. Risk and cost tradeoffs for remote retrieval of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration is supporting the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially available technologies, form a comprehensive system for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. As a part of the program's technology development, remote retrieval equipment is being developed and tested for the remediation of buried waste. During remedial planning, several factors are considered when choosing remote versus manual retrieval systems. Time that workers are exposed to radioactivity, chemicals, air particulate, and industrial hazards is one consideration. The generation of secondary waste is also a consideration because it amounts to more waste to treat and some wastes may require special handling or treatment. Cost is also a big factor in determining whether remote or manual operations will be used. Other considerations include implementability, effectiveness, and the number of required personnel. This paper investigates each of these areas to show the risk and cost benefits and limitations for remote versus manual retrieval of buried waste

  9. Risk and cost tradeoffs for remote retrieval of buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Grienbenow, B.E.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration is supporting the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially available technologies, form a comprehensive system for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. As a part of the program`s technology development, remote retrieval equipment is being developed and tested for the remediation of buried waste. During remedial planning, several factors are considered when choosing remote versus manual retrieval systems. Time that workers are exposed to radioactivity, chemicals, air particulate, and industrial hazards is one consideration. The generation of secondary waste is also a consideration because it amounts to more waste to treat and some wastes may require special handling or treatment. Cost is also a big factor in determining whether remote or manual operations will be used. Other considerations include implementability, effectiveness, and the number of required personnel. This paper investigates each of these areas to show the risk and cost benefits and limitations for remote versus manual retrieval of buried waste.

  10. A system to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses design features of a contamination control system for use during retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Between 1952 and 1970 over 56,000m3 of primarily Rocky Mats Plant (RFP) generated TRU waste was stored at the INEL in shallow land filled pits and trenches, which consisted of sludges, cloth, paper, metal, wood, concrete, and asphalt contaminated with micron-sized, oxidized particles of plutonium and americium. Retrieval for final disposal is one of the options being considered for this buried waste. This contamination control system is an important subsystem of an overall retrieval system design involving containment buildings, remotely controlled excavators and transporters, separation systems, and final disposal options. The main contaminants to be controlled are plutonium and americium compounds associated with the TRU waste. The contamination control system is comprised of the Dust Suppression System (DSS) and a Rapid Monitoring System (RMS). The DSS is a grouping of subsystems including: (a) the inner building laminar flow ventilation system (b) the Lifting and Moving System (LAMS) which provides mobility for (c) the Contamination Suppression System (CSS). The RMS consists of state-of-the-art air monitors and detection systems for measuring loose contamination. To complement and guide the design effort, engineering background experimental studies were performed on the DSS and RMS. The results of these studies are summarized along with a discussion of the general design features. 6 refs., 1 fig

  11. Development of a teleoperated backhoe for buried waste excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nearly five decades the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have engaged in broad-based research and development activities as well as nuclear weapons component production. As a by-product of these activities, large quantities of waste materials have been granted. One of the most common approaches used for solid waste storage was to bury waste containers in pits and trenches. With the current emphasis on environmental restoration, DOE now plans to either retrieve much of the legacy of buried waste or stabilize the waste in place via in situ vitrification or other means. Because of the variety of materials that have been buried over the years, the hazards of retrieval are significant if performed using conventional manned operations. The potential hazards, in addition to radiation exposure, include pyrophorics, toxic chemicals, and explosives. Although manifests exist for much of the buried waste, these records are often incomplete compared to today's requirements. Because of the potential hazards and uncertainty about waste contents and container integrity, it is highly desirable to excavate these wastes using remotely operated equipment. In this paper the authors describe the development of a teleoperated military tractor called the Small Emplacement Excavator (SEE). Development of the SEE is being funded jointly by both DOE and the US Army. The DOE sponsor is the Office of Technology Development (OTD) Robotics Program. The US Army sponsor is the Program Manager for Ammunition Logistics, Picatinny Arsenal. The primary interest for DOE is in the application to remote excavation of buried waste, while the primary emphasis for the US Army is in the remote retrieval of unexploded ordnance. Technical requirements for these two tasks are very similar and, therefore, justify a joint development project. 1 ref

  12. Remote characterization system for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapping of buried objects and chemical and radiological contamination is required at US Department of Energy (DOE) buried waste sites. The DOE Office of Technology Development's robotics integrated program has initiated a project to develop and demonstrate a remotely controlled sensor and vehicle system, named the remote characterization system (RCS) to obtain highly precise and timely subsurface data to support characterization of waste sites. Site characterization surveys using the RCS will be safer, more cost effective, more accurate, and more complete than surveys being performed with current methods. The RCS project is staffed by a coordinated team from five DOE laboratories and will produce meaningful demonstrations at buried waste sites within the next 2 yr. An advisory group composed of site users and technologists has been identified to ensure that the RCS is responsive to site user requirements. Technology transfer to potential users and to industry is planned as part of the program

  13. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory code assessment of the Rocky Flats transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report is an assessment of the content codes associated with transuranic waste shipped from the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, to INEL. The primary objective of this document is to characterize and describe the transuranic wastes shipped to INEL from Rocky Flats by item description code (IDC). This information will aid INEL in determining if the waste meets the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The waste covered by this content code assessment was shipped from Rocky Flats between 1985 and 1989. These years coincide with the dates for information available in the Rocky Flats Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS). The majority of waste shipped during this time was certified to the existing WIPP WAC. This waste is referred to as precertified waste. Reassessment of these precertified waste containers is necessary because of changes in the WIPP WAC. To accomplish this assessment, the analytical and process knowledge available on the various IDCs used at Rocky Flats were evaluated. Rocky Flats sources for this information include employee interviews, SWIMS, Transuranic Waste Certification Program, Transuranic Waste Inspection Procedure, Backlog Waste Baseline Books, WIPP Experimental Waste Characterization Program (headspace analysis), and other related documents, procedures, and programs. Summaries are provided of: (a) certification information, (b) waste description, (c) generation source, (d) recovery method, (e) waste packaging and handling information, (f) container preparation information, (g) assay information, (h) inspection information, (i) analytical data, and (j) RCRA characterization.

  14. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory code assessment of the Rocky Flats transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an assessment of the content codes associated with transuranic waste shipped from the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, to INEL. The primary objective of this document is to characterize and describe the transuranic wastes shipped to INEL from Rocky Flats by item description code (IDC). This information will aid INEL in determining if the waste meets the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The waste covered by this content code assessment was shipped from Rocky Flats between 1985 and 1989. These years coincide with the dates for information available in the Rocky Flats Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS). The majority of waste shipped during this time was certified to the existing WIPP WAC. This waste is referred to as precertified waste. Reassessment of these precertified waste containers is necessary because of changes in the WIPP WAC. To accomplish this assessment, the analytical and process knowledge available on the various IDCs used at Rocky Flats were evaluated. Rocky Flats sources for this information include employee interviews, SWIMS, Transuranic Waste Certification Program, Transuranic Waste Inspection Procedure, Backlog Waste Baseline Books, WIPP Experimental Waste Characterization Program (headspace analysis), and other related documents, procedures, and programs. Summaries are provided of: (a) certification information, (b) waste description, (c) generation source, (d) recovery method, (e) waste packaging and handling information, (f) container preparation information, (g) assay information, (h) inspection information, (i) analytical data, and (j) RCRA characterization

  15. Test and evaluation of a high-sensitivity assay system for bulk transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past year, we tested and evaluated the performance of an assay system that accommodates 55-gal drums of transuranic waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This neutron assay system provides a routine assay of fissile transuranic isotopes to the 1-mg sensitivity level with a pulsed active neutron interrogation based on the differential dieaway technique. A highly sensitive passive neutron measurement determines the content of spontaneous fission transuranic isotopes in each drum as well as an upper-bound estimate of the total alpha activity. All components of the combined, pulsed active and passive neutron assay system performed well on a routine basis during the test-and-evaluation period. We performed more than 400 combined passive and active assay measurements of waste drums at Oak Ridge. One-fifth of the initial set of waste drums measured contain less than 100 nCi/g of total transuranic isotopes and thus qualify legally as nontransuranic waste

  16. Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste - Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems

  17. Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste -- Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-23

    This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems.

  18. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Technology Preparedness and Status Report Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Technology Preparedness and Status Report is required for each Technical Task Plan funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. This document provides guidance for the preparation of that report. Major sections of the report will include a subset of the need for the technology, objectives of the demonstration, technology description and readiness evaluation, demonstration requirements, and preparedness checklist and action plan

  19. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380{sup 3} corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  20. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,3803 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  1. Scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance of the waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent successful certification and opening of a first-of-a-kind, deep geological repository for safe disposal of long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, New Mexico, United States of America (USA), embody both long-standing local and wide-spread, gradually achieved, scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance. The related historical background and development are outlined and the main contributors to the successful siting, certification, and acceptance of the WIPP TRUW repository, which may also serve as a model to success for other radioactive waste disposal programs, are described. (author)

  2. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  3. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National

  4. Transuranic (TRU) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actinide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter or longer glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glovebox as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste volume generation by almost 2½ times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  5. 'Hydrotechnical' problems of burying radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the design and construction problems of an underground storage facility of nuclear wastes. Special attention ids paid to the role of underground water. After detailed surveys the construction works of the Hungarian Radioactive Waste Storage Facility at Bataapati begun in 2005. The construction of the two 1700 m long inclines are near to the level of the planned storage chambers, today. (TRA)

  6. Can nuclear wastes be buried at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary assessment, recently carried out by the National Radiological Protection Board, of the radiological consequences of the disposal of highly radioactive wastes on the ocean floor is considered. This assessment was concerned chiefly with developing a model describing how radioactive material deposited on the floor of the deep ocean could eventually lead to the irradiation of man, especially through food chains. It was assumed that the waste from the power programme will be incorporated into a glass material to form a solidified product and that this solidified waste will be stored for 10 years following reprocessing. Vitrifying processes for waste are described. The main routes for return of radioactivity to man considered are; consumption of near-surface fish, consumption of deep-sea fish, consumption of food derived from plankton, exposure to contaminated coastal sediments, and inhalation of resuspended activity from coastal sediments. It was found that the dominant route of individual and collective exposure for all nuclides was from consuming food derived from marine plankton. It is felt that there are many uncertainties to be resolved before the disposal of high-level radioactive waste on the ocean floor is acceptable. (U.K.)

  7. Field test plan: Buried waste technologies, Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that, when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies, form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The Fiscal Year 1995 effort is to deploy and test multiple technologies from four functional areas of buried waste remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, and treatment. This document is the basic operational planning document for the deployment and testing of the technologies that support the field testing in Fiscal Year 1995. Discussed in this document are the scope of the tests; purpose and objective of the tests; organization and responsibilities; contingency plans; sequence of activities; sampling and data collection; document control; analytical methods; data reduction, validation, and verification; quality assurance; equipment and instruments; facilities and utilities; health and safety; residuals management; and regulatory management

  8. FY-94 buried waste integrated demonstration program report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) needs and objectives. This document summarizes previous demonstrations and describes the FY-94 BWID technology development and demonstration activities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD), BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process

  9. FY-94 buried waste integrated demonstration program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) needs and objectives. This document summarizes previous demonstrations and describes the FY-94 BWID technology development and demonstration activities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD), BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process.

  10. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described

  11. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  12. The current strategy for safe management and disposal of transuranic radioactive waste in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current laws in the United States of America direct the Department of Energy (DOE) to safely manage transuranic radioactive waste resulting from past, current and future defense-related nuclear activities. They also direct the DOE to develop and operate a deep geological repository for safe disposal of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP will be a world-class first of a kind facility for safe disposal of long-lived transuranic waste. It will be the first permanent repository licensed under a rigorous, ultra-conservative regulatory program requiring a risk-based performance assessment to demonstrate compliance with the environmental standards for 10,000 years. Its continued safe operation in compliance with several hazardous waste regulations and one of the strictest environmental radiation protection standards in the world will enhance public confidence in the safety of deep geological repositories both in the USA and abroad

  13. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  14. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies and system concepts for testing the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Feizollahi, F. (Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Del Signore, J.C. (Ebasco Environmental, Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  15. Disposal of transuranic solid waste using Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process for disposal of transuranic solid waste utilizes a molten salt to combust organic materials, to trap inorganic substances including transuranics, and to react chemically with acidic gases formed during combustion. Subsequent processing of the melt in an aqueous system produces three products: (1) ash, which includes the transuranics, (2) salt, which is recycled to the combustor, and (3) solid sodium chloride for disposal. The transuranics are readily leached from the ash and separated via ion exchange techniques. The leached ash is the second solid process product requiring disposal. No liquid wastes are produced in the process. The reductions in weight and volume are 82 and 98 percent respectively, if one considers the products from the process only. (U.S.)

  16. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration FY-95 Deployment Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The FY-95 effort will fund 24 technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. Ten of these technologies will take part in the integrated field demonstration that will take place at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities in the summer of 1995. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects funded in FY-95. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for the INEL integrated field demonstration, INEL research and development (R ampersand D) demonstrations, non-INEL R ampersand D demonstrations, and office research and technical review meetings. Each project will have a test plan detailing the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of the test. Therefore, information that is specific to testing each technology is intentionally limited in this document

  17. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All transuranic (TRU) waste generators are required by US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A to package their TRU waste to comply with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Transuranic Waste Certification Plan was developed to ensure that TRU newly waste generated at WHC meets the WIPP-WAC and/or. The methods used at WHC to package TRU waste are described in sufficient detail to meet WIPP certification or the regulations. This document is organized to provide a brief overview of waste generation operations at WHC, along with details on data management for TRU waste. The methods used to implement this plan are discussed briefly along with the responsibilities and authorities of applicable organizations. This certification plan describes how WHC complies with all applicable regulations and requirements set forth in the latest approved revision of WIPP-DOE-069

  18. Case studies of corrosion of mixed waste and transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents three case studies of corrosion of waste drums at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Corrosion was not anticipated by the waste generators, but occurred because of subtle chemical or physical mechanisms. In one case, drums of a cemented transuranic (TRU) sludge experienced general and pitting corrosion. In the second instance, a chemical from a commercial paint stripper migrated from its primary containment drums to chemically attack overpack drums made of mild carbon steel. In the third case, drums of mixed low level waste (MLLW) soil corroded drum packaging even though the waste appeared to be dry when it was placed in the drums. These case studies are jointly discussed as ''lessons learned'' to enhance awareness of subtle mechanisms that can contribute to the corrosion of radioactive waste drums during interim storage

  19. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations

  20. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  1. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping

  2. Transporting transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Risk and cost perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an authorized US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility constructed near the city of Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The facility is intended to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities. Under the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA), federal lands surrounding the WIPP facility were withdrawn from all public use and the title of those lands was transferred to the Secretary of Energy. The DOE's TRU waste is stored, and in some cases is still being generated, at 10 large-quantity and 13 small-quantity sites across the US. After applicable certification requirements have been met, the TRU waste at these sites will be sent to the WIPP to initiate the disposal phase of the facility, which according to current planning is projected to last for approximately 35 years

  3. Application of service examinations to transuranic waste container integrity at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic waste containers in retrievable storage trenches at the Hanford Site and their storage environment are described. The containers are of various types, predominantly steel 0.21-m3 (55-gal) drums and boxes of many different sizes and materials. The storage environment is direct soil burial and aboveground storage under plastic tarps with earth on top of the tarps. Available data from several transuranic waste storage sites are summarized and degradation rates are projected for containers in storage at the Hanford Site

  4. Application of service examinations to transuranic waste container integrity at the Hanford Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.; Burbank, D.A. Jr.; Anderson, B.C.; Demiter, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    Transuranic waste containers in retrievable storage trenches at the Hanford Site and their storage environment are described. The containers are of various types, predominantly steel 0.21-m{sup 3} (55-gal) drums and boxes of many different sizes and materials. The storage environment is direct soil burial and aboveground storage under plastic tarps with earth on top of the tarps. Available data from several transuranic waste storage sites are summarized and degradation rates are projected for containers in storage at the Hanford Site.

  5. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  6. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  7. Integration of long-range planning for management of defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As described in The Defense Waste Management Plan, the defense TRU program goal is to achieve permanent disposal and to end interim storage. TRU waste is currently stored at six Department of Energy (DOE) sites, and new waste is generated at several more sites. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project is well defined, and it has been necessary to integrate the activities of other parts of the TRU program in support of DOE Headquarters policy and the WIPP schedules and technical requirements. The strategy is described in the Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document. More detailed, quantitative plans have been developed through the use of several system models, with a Long-Range Master Plan for Defense Transuranic Waste Management as the focal point for coordination of proposed plans with all the parties involved

  8. U.S. experience with acid digestion of combustible transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated transuranic waste from a plutonium finishing plant has been processed in a waste treatment demonstration plant, the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) located at Hanford, Washington, U.S.A. Waste treatment experience, including process and equipment performance, the behavior of plutonium in the system, and chemical and nuclear safety are all discussed. The complementary relationship of this research and development to that at the ALONA pilot plant in Mol, Belgium is noted

  9. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  10. W-026, transuranic waste restricted waste management (TRU RWM) glovebox operational test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-18

    The TRU Waste/Restricted Waste Management (LLW/PWNP) Glovebox 401 is designed to accept and process waste from the Transuranic Process Glovebox 302. Waste is transferred to the glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagless Transfer Port (DO-07401) on a transfer stand. The stand is removed with a hoist and the operator inspects the waste (with the aid of the Sampling and Treatment Director) to determine a course of action for each item. The waste is separated into compliant and non compliant. One Trip Port DO-07402A is designated as ``Compliant``and One Trip Port DO-07402B is designated as ``Non Compliant``. As the processing (inspection, bar coding, sampling and treatment) of the transferred items takes place, residue is placed in the appropriate One Trip port. The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved for sampling or storage or it`s state altered by treatment, the Operator will track an items location using a portable barcode reader and entry any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolutions (described here) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  11. W-026, transuranic waste restricted waste management (TRU RWM) glovebox operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRU Waste/Restricted Waste Management (LLW/PWNP) Glovebox 401 is designed to accept and process waste from the Transuranic Process Glovebox 302. Waste is transferred to the glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagless Transfer Port (DO-07401) on a transfer stand. The stand is removed with a hoist and the operator inspects the waste (with the aid of the Sampling and Treatment Director) to determine a course of action for each item. The waste is separated into compliant and non compliant. One Trip Port DO-07402A is designated as ''Compliant''and One Trip Port DO-07402B is designated as ''Non Compliant''. As the processing (inspection, bar coding, sampling and treatment) of the transferred items takes place, residue is placed in the appropriate One Trip port. The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved for sampling or storage or it's state altered by treatment, the Operator will track an items location using a portable barcode reader and entry any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolutions (described here) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation

  12. Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m3/MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m3/MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs

  13. Current Program for the management of U.S. Department of Energy transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing inventory of TRU waste can be divided into tow distinct components: (1) retrievably stored TRU waste and (2) buried TRU waste. The distinction between open-quotes storedclose quotes and open-quotes buriedclose quotes TRU waste was established in 1970 when the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) determined that TRU-contaminated waste, when disposed, should have more effective isolation from the environment than the confinement provided by burial in pits and trenches covered with soil. Buried TRU (and contaminated soils surrounding buried TRU) are the results of disposal operations carried out at DOE sites prior to the 1970 decision. The inventory of buried TRU is 190,600 m3. This waste is the responsibility of the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). All TRU waste generated since 1970 has been placed in storage at six DOE sites. This storage was designed with a lifetime expected to be 20 years. The waste is stored in retrievable form for eventual shipment and disposal at a geologic repository. Currently, TRU waste is contained in a variety of packaging, including metal drums and wooden and metal boxes, and stored in earth-mounded berms, concrete culverts, or other facilities. At the end of 1991, there were approximately 64,000 m3 of retrievably stored TRU waste. With the WIPP facility not becoming operational until the year 2000 or later, the DOE must effectively manage this waste in other manners. The issues regarding the management of TRU wastes is described

  14. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

  15. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests

  16. Fifth in situ vitrification engineering-scale test of simulated INEL buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1990, an engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test was conducted on sealed canisters containing a combined mixture of buried waste materials expected to be present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The test was part of a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) program to assist INEL in treatability studies of the potential application of ISV to mixed transuranic wastes at the INEL SDA. The purpose of this test was to determine the effect of a close-packed layer of sealed containers on ISV processing performance. Specific objectives included determining (1) the effect of releases from sealed containers on hood plenum pressure and temperature, (2) the release pressure ad temperatures of the sealed canisters, (3) the relationships between canister depressurization and melt encapsulation, (4) the resulting glass and soil quality, (5) the potential effects of thermal transport due to a canister layer, (6) the effects on particle entrainment of differing angles of approach for the ISV melt front, and (7) the effects of these canisters on the volatilization of voltatile and semivolatile contaminants into the hood plenum

  17. Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for Transuranic (TRU) Waste Pads. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a revision of the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Pads located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The EPHA was conducted in accordance with Emergency Management Program Procedure (EMPP) 6Q-001 (Ref. 1). The EPHA provides the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts

  18. The effect of vibration on alpha radiolysis of transuranic (TRU) waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on previously unpublished scoping work related to the potential for vibration to redistribute radionuclides on transuranic (TRU) waste. If this were to happen, the amount of gases generated, including hydrogen, could be increased above the undisturbed levels. This could be an important consideration for transport of TRU wastes either at DOE sites or from them to a future repository, e.g., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These preliminary data on drums of real waste seem to suggest that radionuclide redistribution does not occur. However improvements in the experimental methodology are suggested to enhance safety of future experiments on real wastes as well as to provide more rigorous data

  19. Final Inventory Work-Off Plan for ORNL transuranic wastes (1986 version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final Inventory Work-Off Plan (IWOP) for ORNL Transuranic Wastes addresses ORNL's strategy for retrieval, certification, and shipment of its stored and newly generated contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the proposed geologic repository near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document considers certification compliance with the WIPP waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and is consistent with the US Department of Energy's Long-Range Master Plan for Defense Transuranic Waste Management. This document characterizes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) TRU waste by type and estimates the number of shipments required to dispose of it; describes the methods, facilities, and systems required for its certification and shipment; presents work-off strategies and schedules for retrieval, certification, and transportation; discusses the resource needs and additions that will be required for the effort and forecasts costs for the long-term TRU waste management program; and lists public documentation required to support certification facilities and strategies. 22 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the waste acceptance criteria applicable to the transportation, storage, and disposal of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These criteria serve as the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary directive for ensuring that CH-TRU waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that protects human health and safety and the environment.The authorization basis of WIPP for the disposal of CH-TRU waste includes the U.S.Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear EnergyAuthorization Act of 1980 (reference 1) and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA;reference 2). Included in this document are the requirements and associated criteriaimposed by these acts and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA,reference 3), as amended, on the CH-TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP.|The DOE TRU waste sites must certify CH-TRU waste payload containers to thecontact-handled waste acceptance criteria (CH-WAC) identified in this document. Asshown in figure 1.0, the flow-down of applicable requirements to the CH-WAC istraceable to several higher-tier documents, including the WIPP operational safetyrequirements derived from the WIPP CH Documented Safety Analysis (CH-DSA;reference 4), the transportation requirements for CH-TRU wastes derived from theTransuranic Package Transporter-Model II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT Certificates ofCompliance (references 5 and 5a), the WIPP LWA (reference 2), the WIPP HazardousWaste Facility Permit (reference 6), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) Compliance Certification Decision and approval for PCB disposal (references 7,34, 35, 36, and 37). The solid arrows shown in figure 1.0 represent the flow-down of allapplicable payload container-based requirements. The two dotted arrows shown infigure 1.0 represent the flow-down of summary level requirements only; i.e., the sitesmust reference the regulatory source

  1. Results from simulated remote-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-year, simulated remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU, nonradioactive) experiments are being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot-Plant (WIPP) facility. These experiments involve the near-reference (thermal and geometrical) testing of eight full size RH TRU test containers emplaced into horizontal, unlined rock salt boreholes. Half of the test emplacements are partially filled with bentonite/silica-sand backfill material. All test containers were electrically heated at about 115 W/each for three years, then raised to about 300 W/each for the remaining time. Each test borehole was instrumented with a selection of remote-reading thermocouples, pressure gages, borehole vertical-closure gages, and vertical and horizontal borehole-diameter closure gages. Each test emplacements was also periodically opened for visual inspections of brine intrusions and any interactions with waste package materials, materials sampling, manual closure measurements, and observations of borehole changes. Effects of heat on borehole closure rates and near-field materials (metals, backfill, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored as a function of time. This paper summarizes results for the first five years of in situ test operation with supporting instrumentation and laboratory data and interpretations. Some details of RH TRU waste package materials, designs, and assorted underground test observations are also discussed. Based on the results, the tested RH TRU waste packages, materials, and emplacement geometry in unlined salt boreholes appear to be quite adequate for initial WIPP repository-phase operations

  2. Current status of the multi-isotopic transuranic-waste-assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed, constructed, tested, and are scheduled to field a 208-l barrel-sized working version of our multi-isotopic transuranic assay system. This system uses both passive neutron multiplicity and pulsed active measurements to identify and quantify spontaneous neutron emitters and fissile TRU isotopes. Using the system we can separately quantify up to seven individual transuranic isotopes under favorable conditions with the intrinsic sensitivity to screen or assay barrels at or below the 10 nCi/g transuranic level. Our measured 3 sigma sensitivity for 239Pu is about 0.5 mg. A large range of waste matrix materials can be accommodated by the system, as well as extremes in both gamma-ray and neutron backgrounds

  3. The waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository: A case study in radioactive waste disposal safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological defense-generated transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) repository in the United States was certified on the 13 of May 1998 and opened on the 26 of March 1999. Two sets of safety/performance assessment calculations supporting the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository show that the maximum annual individual committed effective dose will be 32 times lower than the regulatory limit and that the cumulative amount of radionuclide releases will be at least 10 times, more likely at least 20 times, lower than the regulatory limits. Yet, perceptions remain among the public that the WIPP TRUW repository imposes an unacceptable risk

  4. Nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination of remote-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL waste handling and packaging plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the use of an electron linear accelerator (LINAC) in the performance of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) measurements of remote-handled transuranic wastes. The system will be used to perform waste characterization and certification activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant. The NDA and NDE technologies which were developed for contact-handled wastes are inadequate to perform such measurements on high gamma and neutron dose-rate wastes. A single LINAC will provide the interrogating fluxes required for both NDA and NDE measurements of the wastes. 11 refs., 6 figs

  5. Nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination of remote-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL waste handling and packaging plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Pajarito Scientific Corp. (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the use of an electron linear accelerator (LINAC) in the performance of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) measurements of remote-handled transuranic wastes. The system will be used to perform waste characterization and certification activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant. The NDA and NDE technologies which were developed for contact-handled wastes are inadequate to perform such measurements on high gamma and neutron dose-rate wastes. A single LINAC will provide the interrogating fluxes required for both NDA and NDE measurements of the wastes. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

    2000-04-01

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

  7. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low

  8. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Berry, C.

    2012-10-15

    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  9. W-026, transuranic waste (TRU) glovebox acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-03-11

    On July 18, 1997, the Transuranic (TRU) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13021A-86. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, sorting table, lidder/delidder device and the TRU empty drum compactor were also conducted. As of February 25, 1998, 10 of the 102 test exceptions that affect the TRU glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  10. W-026, transuranic waste (TRU) glovebox acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 18, 1997, the Transuranic (TRU) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13021A-86. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, sorting table, lidder/delidder device and the TRU empty drum compactor were also conducted. As of February 25, 1998, 10 of the 102 test exceptions that affect the TRU glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test exceptions are provided as appendices to this report

  11. Transuranic contaminated waste container characterization and data base. Revision I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing regulations governing the management, handling and disposal of transuranium (TRU) radioisotope contaminated wastes as part of the NRC's overall waste management program. In the development of such regulations, numerous subtasks have been identified which require completion before meaningful regulations can be proposed, their impact evaluated and the regulations implemented. This report was prepared to assist in the development of the technical data base necessary to support rule-making actions dealing with TRU-contaminated wastes. An earlier report presented the waste sources, characteristics and inventory of both Department of Energy (DOE) generated and commercially generated TRU waste. In this report a wide variety of waste sources as well as a large TRU inventory were identified. The purpose of this report is to identify the different packaging systems used and proposed for TRU waste and to document their characteristics. This document then serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of TRU waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present TRU waste management program. It is the purpose of this report to serve as a working document which will be used as appropriate in the TRU Waste Management Program. This report, and those following, will be compatible not only in format, but also in reference material and direction.

  12. Transuranic contaminated waste container characterization and data base. Revision I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing regulations governing the management, handling and disposal of transuranium (TRU) radioisotope contaminated wastes as part of the NRC's overall waste management program. In the development of such regulations, numerous subtasks have been identified which require completion before meaningful regulations can be proposed, their impact evaluated and the regulations implemented. This report was prepared to assist in the development of the technical data base necessary to support rule-making actions dealing with TRU-contaminated wastes. An earlier report presented the waste sources, characteristics and inventory of both Department of Energy (DOE) generated and commercially generated TRU waste. In this report a wide variety of waste sources as well as a large TRU inventory were identified. The purpose of this report is to identify the different packaging systems used and proposed for TRU waste and to document their characteristics. This document then serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of TRU waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present TRU waste management program. It is the purpose of this report to serve as a working document which will be used as appropriate in the TRU Waste Management Program. This report, and those following, will be compatible not only in format, but also in reference material and direction

  13. RETRIEVING SUSPECT TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS PROGRESS PLANS AND CHALLENGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the scope and status of the program for retrieval of suspect transuranic (TRU) waste stored in the Hanford Site low-level burial grounds. Beginning in 1970 and continuing until the late 1980's, waste suspected of containing significant quantities of transuranic isotopes was placed in ''retrievable'' storage in designated modules in the Hanford burial grounds, with the intent that the waste would be retrieved when a national repository for disposal of such waste became operational. Approximately 15,000 cubic meters of waste, suspected of being TRU, was placed in storage modules in four burial grounds. With the availability of the national repository (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), retrieval of the suspect TRU waste is now underway. Retrieval efforts, to date, have been conducted in storage modules that contain waste, which is in general, contact-handled, relatively new (1980's and later), is stacked in neat, engineered configurations, and has a relatively good record of waste characteristics. Even with these optimum conditions, retrieval personnel have had to deal with a large number of structurally degraded containers, radioactive contamination issues, and industrial hazards (including organic vapors). Future retrieval efforts in older, less engineered modules are expected to present additional hazards and difficult challenges

  14. RETRIEVING SUSPECT TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS PROGRESS PLANS & CHALLENGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the scope and status of the program for retrieval of suspect transuranic (TRU) waste stored in the Hanford Site low-level burial grounds. Beginning in 1970 and continuing until the late 1980's, waste suspected of containing significant quantities of transuranic isotopes was placed in ''retrievable'' storage in designated modules in the Hanford burial grounds, with the intent that the waste would be retrieved when a national repository for disposal of such waste became operational. Approximately 15,000 cubic meters of waste, suspected of being TRU, was placed in storage modules in four burial grounds. With the availability of the national repository (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), retrieval of the suspect TRU waste is now underway. Retrieval efforts, to date, have been conducted in storage modules that contain waste, which is in general, contact-handled, relatively new (1980's and later), is stacked in neat, engineered configurations, and has a relatively good record of waste characteristics. Even with these optimum conditions, retrieval personnel have had to deal with a large number of structurally degraded containers, radioactive contamination issues, and industrial hazards (including organic vapors). Future retrieval efforts in older, less engineered modules are expected to present additional hazards and difficult challenges.

  15. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  16. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transuranic waste repository: A sleeping beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 13, 1998, crowning a 24-year United States Department of Energy effort, the US Environmental Protection Agency certified that the deep geological repository for safe disposal of long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste proposed by the DOE at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in New Mexico complied with all applicable environmental radiation protection standards and compliance criteria. Pursuant to the applicable law, the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, as amended in 1997, at the decision of the secretary of energy, the WIPP repository could open 30 calendar days after receiving the EPA certification. The secretary of energy announced May 13, 1998, that he intended to open the WIPP TRUW repository by June 14, 1998. However, at the end of 1998, the opening of the WIPP TRUW repository remains hostage to time-consuming, hazardous-waste-permitting procedures by the state of New Mexico Environment Department and two legal actions. Based on the EPA-verified high safety and the demonstrated risk reduction to both current and future generations offered by the WIPP TRUW repository, it is concluded that the WIPP TRUW repository is a sleeping beauty that will awake, perhaps in stages, and begin its important mission in 1999

  17. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In FY 1993 research continued on development and testing of grout materials for in-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The work on grouting materials was initiated in FY 1992 and the accomplishments for that year are documented in the previous annual report (Allan, Kukacka and Heiser, 1992). The remediation plan involves stabilization of the chromium plume, placement of impermeable vertical and horizontal barriers to isolate the landfill and installation of a surface cap. The required depth of subsurface barriers is approximately 33 m (100 ft). The work concentrated on optimization of grout formulations for use as grout and soil cement barriers and caps. The durability of such materials was investigated, in addition to shrinkage cracking resistance, compressive and flexural strength and permeability. The potential for using fibers in grouts to control cracking was studied. Small scale field trials were conducted to test the practicality of using the identified formulations and to measure the long term performance. Large scale trials were conducted at Sandia as part of the Subsurface Barrier Emplacement Technology Program. Since it was already determined in FY 1992 that cementitious grouts could effectively stabilize the chromium plume at the CWL after pre-treatment is performed, the majority of the work was devoted to the containment aspect

  18. Graphite electrode DC arc technology program for buried waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the program is to apply EPI's Arc Furnace to the processing of Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) waste from Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This is being facilitated through the Department of Energy's Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. A second objective is to apply the diagnostics capability of MIT's Plasma Fusion Center to the understanding of the high temperature processes taking place in the furnace. This diagnostics technology has promise for being applicable in other thermal treatment processes. The program has two parts, a test series in an engineering-scale DC arc furnace which was conducted in an EPI furnace installed at the Plasma Fusion Center and a pilot-scale unit which is under construction at MIT. This pilot-scale furnace will be capable of operating in a continuous feed and continuous tap mode. Included in this work is the development and implementation of diagnostics to evaluate high temperature processes such as DC arc technology. This technology can be used as an effective stabilization process for Superfund wastes

  19. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains appendices A to F. The properties of transuranium (TRU) radionuclides are described. Immobilization of TRU wastes by bituminization, urea-formaldehyde polymers, and cements is discussed. Research programs at DOE facilities engaged in TRU waste characterization and management studies are described.

  20. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains appendices A to F. The properties of transuranium (TRU) radionuclides are described. Immobilization of TRU wastes by bituminization, urea-formaldehyde polymers, and cements is discussed. Research programs at DOE facilities engaged in TRU waste characterization and management studies are described

  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste characterization and certification program - an overview of capabilities and capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has full capability to characterize transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for its projected opening. LANL TRU waste management operations also include facilities to repackage both drums of waste found not to be certifiable for WIPP and oversized boxes of waste that must be size reduced for shipment to WIPP. All characterization activities and repackaging are carried out under a quality assurance program designed to meet Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) requirements. The flow of waste containers through characterization operations, the facilities used for characterization, and the electronic data management system used for data package preparation and certification of TRU waste at LANL are described

  2. FY85 Program plan for the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense TRU Waste Program (DTWP) is the focal point for the Department of Energy in national planning, integration, and technical development for TRU waste management. The scope of this program extends from the point of TRU waste generation through delivery to a permanent repository. The TRU program maintains a close interface with repository development to ensure program compatibility and coordination. The defense TRU program does not directly address commercial activities that generate TRU waste. Instead, it is concerned with providing alternatives to manage existing and future defense TRU wastes. The FY85 Program Plan is consistent with the Defense TRU Waste Program goals and objectives stated in the Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document, January 1984. The roles of participants, the responsibilities and authorities for Research and Development (R and D), the organizational interfaces and communication channels for R and D and the establishment of procedures for planning, reporting, and budgeting of all R and D activities meet requirements stated in the Technical Management Plan for the Transuranic Waste Management Program. The Program Plan is revised as needed. The work breakdown structure is reflected graphically immediately following the Administration section and is described in the subsequent narrative. Detailed budget planning (i.e., programmatic funding and capital equipment) is presented for FY85; outyear budget projections are presented for future years

  3. Radiological protection and transuranic wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significant higher actinides in the nuclear fuel cycle are identified and current knowledge of their radiotoxicity is reviewed with particular emphasis on plutonium. Experience of plutonium in the environment is briefly summarised. The origins of fuel cycle wastes contaminated by actinides are described and available data examined to estimate the amounts of radioactivity involved now and in the future. The radiological importance of individual isotopes of the various actinide elements in wastes is compared and attention drawn to changes with time. Some possible alternative waste management policies are reviewed against the requirements of radiological safety. (author)

  4. A passive-active neutron device for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined passive-active neutron assay device was constructed for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste. A study of matrix and source position effects in active assays showed that a knowledge of the source position alone is not sufficient to correct for position-related errors in highly moderating or absorbing matrices. An alternate function for the active assay of solid fuel pellets was derived, although the efficacy of this approach remains to be established

  5. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and surrounding contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  6. Project plans for transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy comples-10522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mctaggart, Jerri Lynne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lott, Sheila [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadbury, Casey [DOE

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), has been tasked to write Project Plans for all of the Small Quantity Sites (SQS) with defense related Transuranic (TRU) waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Transuranic Work-Off Plans were precursors to the Project Plans. LANL-CO prepared a Work-Off Plan for each small quantity site. The Work-Off Plan that identified issues, drivers, schedules, and inventory. Eight sites have been chosen to deinventory their legacy TRU waste; Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, General Electric-Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Area 300, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Radiation Development, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Separations Process Research Unit. Each plan was written for contact and/or remote handled waste if present at the site. These project plans will assist the small quantity sites to ship legacy TRU waste offsite and de-inventory the site of legacy TRU waste. The DOE is working very diligently to reduce the nuclear foot print in the United States. Each of the eight SQSs will be de-inventoried of legacy TRU waste during a campaign that ends September 2011. The small quantity sites have a fraction of the waste that large quantity sites possess. During this campaign, the small quantity sites will package all of the legacy TRU waste and ship to Idaho or directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The sites will then be removed from the Transuranic Waste Inventory if they are de-inventoried of all waste. Each Project Plan includes the respective site inventory report, schedules, resources, drivers and any issues. These project plans have been written by the difficult waste team and will be approved by each site. Team members have been assigned to each site to write site specific project plans. Once the project plans have been written, the difficult team members will visit the sites to ensure nothing has

  7. Savannah River Certification Plan for newly generated, contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Certification Plan document describes the necessary processes and methods for certifying unclassified, newly generated, contact-handled solid transuranic (TRU) waste at the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory (SRP, SRL) to comply with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). Section 2 contains the organizational structure as related to waste certification including a summary of functional responsibilities, levels of authority, and lines of communication of the various organizations involved in certification activities. Section 3 describes general plant operations and TRU waste generation. Included is a description of the TRU Waste classification system. Section 4 contains the SR site TRU Waste Quality Assurance Program Plan. Section 5 describes waste container procurement, inspection, and certification prior to being loaded with TRU waste. Certification of waste packages, after package closure in the waste generating areas, is described in Section 6. The packaging and certification of individual waste forms is described in Attachments 1-5. Included in each attachment is a description of controls used to ensure that waste packages meet all applicable waste form compliance requirements for shipment to the WIPP. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah

  9. Application of cryogenic grinding to achieve homogenization of transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in collaboration with the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE/RFFO) and with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado. Researchers on this project have developed a method for cryogenic grinding of mixed wastes to homogenize and, thereby, to acquire a representative sample of the materials. There are approximately 220,000 waste drums owned by the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)-50,000 at RFETS and 170,000 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The cost of sampling the heterogeneous distribution of waste in each drum is prohibitive. In an attempt to produce a homogeneous mixture of waste that would reduce greatly the cost of sampling, researchers at NIST and RFETS are developing a cryogenic grinder. The Los Alamos work herein described addresses the implementation issues of the task. The first issue was to ascertain whether samples of the open-quotes small particleclose quotes mixtures of materials present in the waste drums at RFETS were representative of actual drum contents. Second, it was necessary to determine at what temperature the grinding operation must be performed in order to minimize or to eliminate the release of volatile organic compounds present in the waste. Last, it was essential to evaluate any effect the liquid cryogen might have on the structural integrity and ventilation capacity of the glovebox system. Results of this study showed that representative samples could be and had been obtained, that some release of organics occurred below freezing because of sublimation, and that operation of the cryogenic grinding equipment inside the glovebox was feasible

  10. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is being designed for construction in the north end of the Central Waste Complex. The WRAP Facility will receive, store, and process radioactive solid waste of both transuranic (TRU) and mixed waste (mixed radioactive-chemical waste) categories. Most of the waste is in 208-L (55-gal) steel drums. Other containers such as wood and steel boxes, and various sized drums will also be processed in the facility. The largest volume of waste and the type addressed in this report is TRU in 208-L (55-gal) drums that is scheduled to be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1). Half of the TRU waste processed by WRAP 1 is expected to be retrieved stored waste and the other half newly generated waste. Both the stored and new waste will be processed to certify it for permanent storage in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or disposal. The stored waste will go through a process of retrieval, examination, analysis, segregation, repackaging, relabeling, and documentation before certification and WIPP shipment. Newly generated waste should be much easier to process and certify. However, a substantial number of drums of both retrievable and newly generated waste will require temporary storage and handling in WRAP. Most of the TRU waste is combustible or has combustible components. Therefore, the presence of a substantial volume of drummed combustible waste raises concern about fire safety in WRAP and similar waste drum storage facilities. This report analyzes the fire related characteristics of the expected WRAP TRU waste stream

  11. TRUSYSTEM - A computerized system for the management of defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is embarking on a program to dispose of defense transuranic waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. In order to ensure that WIPP receives the waste at the required rate, the careful management of a logistic system involving numerous DOE facilities and specialized waste transports is required. TRUSYSTEM is being used in the design and operation of this complex system. TRUSYSTEM consists of a computerized database (PRIMS), a system simulation program (TRUSIM), and software for the monitoring and dispatching of waste transports (PHOENIX). This system designed to operate on the new generation of microcomputers, is being written in machine independent code (FORTRAN and ''C''). It is easily maintained and can be moved between different types of computers. TRUSYSTEM resides entirely within computer memory. This provides the speed necessary for real-time operations

  12. Shredder and incinerator technology for treatment of commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the selection and evaluation of process equipment to accomplish the shredding and incineration of commercial TRU wastes. The primary conclusions derived from this study are: Shredding and incineration technology appears effective for converting simulated commercial TRU wastes to a noncombustible form. The gas-heated controlled-air incinerator received the highest technical ranking. On a scale of 1 to 10, the incinerator had a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) number of 7.0. This compares to an FOM of 6.1 for the electrically heated controlled-air incinerator and an FOM of 5.8 for the rotary kiln incienrator. The present worth costs of the incineration processes for a postulated commercial reprocessing plant were lowest for the electrically heated and gas-heated controlled-air incinerators with costs of $16.3 M and $16.9 M, respectively (1985 dollars). Due to higher capital and operating costs, the rotary kiln process had a present worth cost of $20.8 M. The recommended process from the three evaluated for the commercial TRU waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment. This process had the best cost-effectiveness ratio of 1.0 (normalized). The electrically heated controller-air incinerator had a rating of 1.2 and the rotary kiln rated a 1.5. Most of the simulated wastes were easily processed by the low-speed shredders evaluated. The HEPA filters proved difficult to process, however. Wood-framed HEPA filters tended to ride on the cutter wheels and spacers without being gripped and shredded. The metal-framed HEPA filters and other difficult to shred items caused the shredders to periodically reach the torque limit and go into an automatic reversal cycle; however, the filters were eventually processed by the units. All three incinerators were ineffective for oxidizing the aluminum metal used as spacers in HEPA filters

  13. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2008-05-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  14. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  15. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2008-05-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  16. In situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: An updated systems evaluation and applications assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a process whereby joule heating immobilizes contaminated soil in place into a durable glass and crystalline waste form. Numerous technological advances made during the past three years in the design, fabrication, and testing of the ISV process are discussed. Performance analysis of ISV focuses on process equipment, element retention (in the vitrified soil during processing), melt geometry, depth monitors, and electrodes. The types of soil and waste processed by ISV are evaluated as process parameters. Economic data provide the production costs of the large-scale unit for radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes (wet and dry). The processing of transuranic-contaminated soils are discussed with respect to occupational and public safety. Alternative applications and operating sequences for various waste sites are identified. The technological data base warrants conducting a large-scale radioactive test at a contaminated soil site at Hanford to provide a representative waste form that can be evaluated to determine its suitability for in-place stabilization of transuranic-contaminated soils

  17. Repackaging of High Fissile TRU Waste at the Transuranic Waste Processing Center - 13240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six drums of high fissile transuranic (TRU) waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operations were declared waste in the mid-1980's and placed in storage with the legacy TRU waste inventory for future treatment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Repackaging and treatment of the waste at the TRU Waste Packaging Center (TWPC) will require the installation of additional equipment and capabilities to address the hazards for handling and repackaging the waste compared to typical Contact Handled (CH) TRU waste that is processed at the TWPC, including potential hydrogen accumulation in legacy 6M/2R packaging configurations, potential presence of reactive plutonium hydrides, and significant low energy gamma radiation dose rates. All of the waste is anticipated to be repackaged at the TWPC and certified for disposal at WIPP. The waste is currently packaged in multiple layers of containers which presents additional challenges for repackaging activities due to the potential for the accumulation of hydrogen gas in the container headspace in quantities than could exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL). The outer container for each waste package is a stainless steel 0.21 m3 (55-gal) drum which contains either a 0.04 m3 or 0.06 m3 (10-gal or 15-gal) 6M drum. The inner 2R container in each 6M drum is ∼12 cm (5 in) outside diameter x 30-36 cm (12-14 in) long and is considered to be a > 4 liter sealed container relative to TRU waste packaging criteria. Inside the 2R containers are multiple configurations of food pack cans, pipe nipples, and welded capsules. The waste contains significant quantities of high burn-up plutonium oxides and metals with a heavy weight percentage of higher atomic mass isotopes and the subsequent in-growth of significant quantities of americium. Significant low energy gamma radiation is expected to be present due to the americium in-growth. Radiation dose rates on inner containers are estimated to be 1-3 mSv/hr (100

  18. Heat loading limits for solid transuranic wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat loading limits have been established for four storage configurations of TRU wastes. The calculations were performed assuming the worst case scenario whereby all the heat generated within a drum was generated within one ''cut'' and that this cut was located in the very center of the drum. Poly-boxes containing one HEPA filter were assumed to have a uniform heat generation throughout the filter. The maximum allowable temperatures were based on the materials in the containers. A comparison between the drum center temperature for a uniform heat load distribution and for the center temperature when the heat load is confined to one cut in the center of the drum is also illustrated. This comparison showed that the heat load of a particular drum can be more than doubled by distributing the sources of heat uniformly throughout the container

  19. TRUSYSTEM: A computerized system for the management of defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is embarking on a program to dispose of defense transuranic waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. In order to ensure that WIPP receives the waste at the required rate, the careful management of a logistic system involving numerous DOE facilities and specialized transports is required. TRUSYSTEM is being used in the design and operation of this complex system. TRUSYSTEM consists of a computerized database, a system simulation program, and software for the monitoring and dispatching of waste transport. This system, designed to operate on new generation of microcomputers, is being written in machine independent code (FORTRAN and ''C''). It is easily maintained and can be moved among different types of computers. TRUSYSTEM resides entirely within computer memory. This provides the speed necessary for real-time operations

  20. Incinerator development program for processing transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 1981, two short-term tests were conducted on a controlled air and a rotary kiln incinerator to assess their potential for processing transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The primary purpose of the test program was a proof-of-principle verification that the incinerators could achieve near-complete combustion of the combustible portion of the waste, while mixed with high percentages of noncombustible and metal waste materials. Other important test objectives were to obtain system design information including off-gas and end-product characteristics and incinerator operating parameters. Approximately 7200 kg of simulated (non-TRU) waste from the INEL were processed during the two tests

  1. Development of an integrated transuranic waste management system for a large research facility: NUCEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF) is a large complex of research facilities where transuranic (TRU) elements are used. Liquid and solid waste containing TRU elements is generated mainly in the treatment of fuel for critical experiments and in the research of reprocessing and TRU waste management in hot cells and glove boxes. The rational management of TRU wastes is a very important issue not only for NUCEF but also for Japan. An integrated TRU waste management system is being developed with NUCEF as the test bed. The basic policy for establishing the system is to classify wastes by TRU concentration, to reduce waste volume, and to maximize reuse of TRU elements. The principal approach of the development program is to apply the outcomes of the research carried out in NUCEF. Key technologies are TRU measurement for classification of solid wastes and TRU separation and volume reduction for organic and aqueous wastes. Some technologies required for treating the wastes specific to the research activities in NUCEF need further development. Specifically, the separation and stabilization technologies for americium recovery from concentrated aqueous waste, which is generated in dissolution of mixed oxide when preparing fuel for critical experiments, needs further research

  2. Hazardous gas production by alpha particles in solid organic transuranic waste matrices. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'This project uses fundamental radiation chemical techniques to elucidate the basic processes occurring in the heavy-ion radiolysis of solid hydrocarbon matrices such as polymers and organic resins that are associated with many of the transuranic waste deposits or the transportation of these radionuclides. The environmental management of mixed waste containing transuranic radionuclides is difficult because these nuclides are alpha particle emitters and the energy deposited by the alpha particles causes chemical transformations in the matrices accompanying the waste. Most radiolysis programs focus on conventional radiation such as gamma rays, but the chemical changes induced by alpha particles and other heavy ions are typically very different and product yields can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The objective of this research is to measure the production of gases, especially molecular hydrogen, produced in the proton, helium ion, and carbon ion radiolysis of selected solid organic matrices in order to obtain fundamental mechanistic information on the radiolytic decomposition of these materials. This knowledge can also be used to directly give reasonable estimates of explosive or flammability hazards in the storage or transport of transuranic wastes in order to enhance the safety of DOE sites. This report summarizes the work after eight months of a three-year project on determining the production of hazardous gases in transuranic waste. The first stage of the project was to design and build an assembly to irradiate solid organic matrices using accelerated ion beams. It is necessary to measure absolute radiolytic yields, and simulate some of the conditions found in the field. A window assembly was constructed allowing the beam to pass consecutively through a collimator, a vacuum exit window and into the solid sample. The beam is stopped in the sample and the entire end of the assembly is a Faraday cup. Integration of the collected current, in conjunction

  3. Decontamination of transuranic waste metal by melt refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melt refining of transuraniuc- (TRU-) contaminated metals has been proposed as a decontamination process with the potential advantages of reclaiming metal and simplifying analytical problems. The feasibility of routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g (approx. 0.1 ppM) decontamination level by melt refining will demonstrate the removing of scrap metal from the TRU waste classification. To demonstrate this feasibility, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppM PuO2 and melted with various fluxes. Four different fluxes, borosilicate glass, blast furnace slag, high silica slag, and artificial basalt, were used in these studies. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents by the use of a combination of wet chemical and α-activity counting technique. Partition ratios were calculated for plutonium using the analytical results of each experiment. Some metals were doubled refined to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate its effect on plutonium removal. The results indicated that the use of proper slags is necessary for effective removal of plutonium. All four slags were effective in removing plutonium from the metals. Values of less than 1 ppM Pu (approx. 100 nCi/g) could be obtained in all cases. The double-refined samples were cleaned to less than 0.1 ppM Pu (approx. nCi/g), which is the goal. Variation in the slag weight did not change the results significantly. Double refining of the metal with small primary and secondary slag volume can be an effective process for removal of TRU contaminants from metals

  4. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types

  5. Project B-589, 300 Area transuranic waste interim storage project engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to look at various alternatives of taking newly generated, remote-handled transuranic waste (caisson waste) in the 300 Area, performing necessary transloading operations and preparing the waste for storage. The prepared waste would then be retrieved when the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant becomes operational and transshipped to the repository in New Mexico with a minimum of inspection and packaging. The scope of this study consisted of evaluating options for the transloading of the TRU wastes for shipment to a 200 Area storage site. Preconceptual design information furnished as part of the engineering study is listed below: produce a design for a clean, sealed waste canister; hot cell loadout system for the waste; in-cell loading or handling equipment; determine transshipment cask options; determine assay system requirements (optional); design or specify transport equipment required; provide a SARP cost estimate; determine operator training requirements; determine waste compaction equipment needs if desirable; develop a cost estimate and approximate schedule for a workable system option; and update the results presented in WHC Document TC-2025

  6. Measurements of fission and activation products for Oak Ridge National Laboratory transuranic waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is beyond the current nondestructive analysis (NDA) state-of-the-art to accurately measure important alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in the presence of typically-occurring background levels of neutron and photon radiation associated with remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste; in addition, it is not economically feasible to perform destructive analyses (DA) that employ radiochemical techniques on representative random samples from each waste container designated for disposal. Techniques that utilize gamma spectroscopy cannot measure purely alpha-emitting radionuclides, and they are difficult for measurements of photon-emitting radionuclides in large containers with energies below about one hundred keV. The methodology presented in this report combines gamma spectroscopy measurements of waste canisters with radiochemical analyses of smear samples and with statistical analyses to obtain estimates of alpha-emitting radionuclides in waste containers. This approach, with some additional research, is expected to provide an effective and practical technique for characterization of TRU radioactive waste to meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and for segregating waste at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). The objectives of this report are to determine if a waste container generated from ORNL/REDC can be classified as TRU and to provide an appropriate method of estimating the initial TRU concentration in this container

  7. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-15

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual.

  8. 3He detector design for low-level transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From this study it appears that a logical configuration of 3He detectors imbedded in CH2 for nondestructive assay of low-level transuranic waste is: rho = 1 atmosphere, d = 2.54 cm, x = 5.08 cm, t = 15.24 cm, h = 61 cm, and N = 5. If a greater detector response is desired, the best way to achieve it is to first double the detector height, h, and then to increase the number of tubes, N, and/or increase the 3He density, rho

  9. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual

  10. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Transuranic Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, S.J.

    1996-08-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) specifies the quality of data necessary and the characterization techniques employed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to meet the objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) requirements. This QAPJP is written to conform with the requirements and guidelines specified in the QAPP and the associated documents referenced in the QAPP. This QAPJP is one of a set of five interrelated QAPjPs that describe the INEL Transuranic Waste Characterization Program (TWCP). Each of the five facilities participating in the TWCP has a QAPJP that describes the activities applicable to that particular facility. This QAPJP describes the roles and responsibilities of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) in the TWCP. Data quality objectives and quality assurance objectives are explained. Sample analysis procedures and associated quality assurance measures are also addressed; these include: sample chain of custody; data validation; usability and reporting; documentation and records; audits and 0385 assessments; laboratory QC samples; and instrument testing, inspection, maintenance and calibration. Finally, administrative quality control measures, such as document control, control of nonconformances, variances and QA status reporting are described.

  11. Assessment of Physical Properties of Transuranic Waste in Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is in the process of identifying and developing supplemental process technologies to accelerate the tank waste cleanup mission. One technology targets disposal of Hanford transuranic (TRU) process wastes stored in single-shell tanks (SSTs). Ten Hanford SSTs are candidates for designation as contact-handled TRU waste type: the B-200 series tanks (241-B-201, -B-202, -B-203, and -B-204), the T-200 series tanks (241-T-201, -T-202, -T-203, and -T-204), and Tanks 241-T-110 and T-111. Current plans identify a process in which these wastes are retrieved from the tanks, either dry or with a recycled liquid stream to help mobilize the waste in the tank and through transfer lines and vessels, dewatered to remove excess liquid, and transferred to waste packages in a form suitable for disposal. CH2M HILL seeks to procure a process for dewatering, handling, and packaging the contact-handled TRU waste after it is retrieved. An understanding of waste physical properties is needed to support design of the SST TRU handling and packaging system and to produce suitable physical simulants to test such a process. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked with developing these waste simulants. This report summarizes PNNL's assessment of available waste physical property information for the 10 candidate TRU SSTs. Data sources include the Hanford Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) database, technical reports, and visual observations from the review of photographs and videotape recordings taken during the extrusion of various SST TRU waste core samples. While the retrieval process is expected to alter certain waste physical properties such as shear strength, the effects of this process on waste properties cannot yet be quantified. Therefore, the scope of this report is to describe the properties of SST TRU wastes as they are known for unprocessed wastes or, in some cases, for diluted waste samples. The report focuses on

  12. Assessment of Physical Properties of Transuranic Waste in Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassat, Scot D.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Wells, Beric E.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Caldwell, Dustin D.

    2003-03-05

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is in the process of identifying and developing supplemental process technologies to accelerate the tank waste cleanup mission. One technology targets disposal of Hanford transuranic (TRU) process wastes stored in single-shell tanks (SSTs). Ten Hanford SSTs are candidates for designation as contact-handled TRU waste type: the B-200 series tanks (241-B-201, -B-202, -B-203, and -B-204), the T-200 series tanks (241-T-201, -T-202, -T-203, and -T-204), and Tanks 241-T-110 and T-111. Current plans identify a process in which these wastes are retrieved from the tanks, either dry or with a recycled liquid stream to help mobilize the waste in the tank and through transfer lines and vessels, dewatered to remove excess liquid, and transferred to waste packages in a form suitable for disposal. CH2M HILL seeks to procure a process for dewatering, handling, and packaging the contact-handled TRU waste after it is retrieved. An understanding of waste physical properties is needed to support design of the SST TRU handling and packaging system and to produce suitable physical simulants to test such a process. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked with developing these waste simulants. This report summarizes PNNL's assessment of available waste physical property information for the 10 candidate TRU SSTs. Data sources include the Hanford Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) database, technical reports, and visual observations from the review of photographs and videotape recordings taken during the extrusion of various SST TRU waste core samples. While the retrieval process is expected to alter certain waste physical properties such as shear strength, the effects of this process on waste properties cannot yet be quantified. Therefore, the scope of this report is to describe the properties of SST TRU wastes as they are known for unprocessed wastes or, in some cases, for diluted waste samples. The report

  13. Identification of the fast and thermal neutron characteristics of transuranic waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, B.H. Jr.; Bramblett, R.L. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Largo, FL (United States); Hensley, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Fissile and spontaneously fissioning material in transuranic waste drums can be most sensitively assayed using an active and passive neutron assay system such as the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay. Both the active and the passive assays are distorted by the presence of the waste matrix and containerization. For accurate assaying, this distortion must be characterized and accounted for. An External Matrix Probe technique has been developed that accomplishes this task. Correlations between in-drum neutron flux measurements and monitors in the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay chamber with various matrix materials provide a non-invasive means of predicting the thermal neutron flux in waste drums. Similarly, measures of the transmission of fast neutrons emitted from sources in the drum. Results obtained using the Lockheed Martin Specialty Components Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay system are discussed. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Hot Cell Liners Category of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is an agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Hot Cell Liners category; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and the justification to reclassify the five containers as LLW rather than TRU waste.

  15. Transuranic waste characterization and certification for shipment to WIPP at the INEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) weapons program legacy Transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is scheduled for shipment and disposal in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility in New Mexico beginning in 1998. The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located within the INEEL contains facilities and equipment to manage low-level, mixed (hazardous and radioactive), and TRU solid radioactive waste generated by the INEEL and other DOE laboratories and operations. The primary mission of the RWMC is safe disposal of INEEL-generated low-level waste (LLW), the temporary storage of mixed and TRU waste, and the characterization and certification of TRU waste in the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) for shipment and disposal. This paper provides an overview of the TRU waste characterization and certification activities at the 1NEEL. The normal process associated with the waste characterization involves a process flow through the SWEPP facility that begins with the drum selection and labeling effort and ends with the data review and quality verification activity. In between the drums pass through a number of inspection and assay stations including a real-time radioscopic system, a neutron assay system, and a gamma-ray spectrometer system. Each step in the process is designed to provide data required for reporting the waste physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, and structural integrity of the drum in accordance with the transportation requirements and the acceptance criteria requirements for disposal at the WIPP. The TRU waste characterization and certification is critical path for the start of shipment of TRU waste out of the State of Idaho in accordance with the DOE and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600 degrees C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation

  17. In-situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: systems evaluation and applications assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major advantages of in-situ vitrification (ISV) as a means of stabilizing radioactive waste are: long term durability of the waste form; cost effectiveness; safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; and applicability to different kinds of soils and buried wastes. This document describes ISV technology that is available as another viable tool for in place stabilization of waste sites. The following sections correspond to the chapters in the body of this document: description of the ISV process; analysis of the performane of the ISV tests conducted thus far; parameters of the ISV process; cost analysis for the ISV process; analysis of occupational and public exposure; and assessment of waste site applications

  18. In-situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: systems evaluation and applications assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Brown, D.R.; Buelt, J.L.; FitzPatrick, V.F.; Hawley, K.A.; Mellinger, G.B.; Napier, B.A.; Silviera, D.J.; Stein, S.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1983-09-01

    Major advantages of in-situ vitrification (ISV) as a means of stabilizing radioactive waste are: long term durability of the waste form; cost effectiveness; safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; and applicability to different kinds of soils and buried wastes. This document describes ISV technology that is available as another viable tool for in place stabilization of waste sites. The following sections correspond to the chapters in the body of this document: description of the ISV process; analysis of the performane of the ISV tests conducted thus far; parameters of the ISV process; cost analysis for the ISV process; analysis of occupational and public exposure; and assessment of waste site applications.

  19. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Shipping Remote Handled Transuranic Waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An Operational Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 18, 2007, the first ever shipment of Remote Handled Transuranic (RH TRU) waste left the gate at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), headed toward the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal, thus concluding one of the most stressful, yet rewarding, periods the authors have ever experienced. The race began in earnest on October 16, 2006, with signature of the New Mexico Environment Department Secretary's Final Order, ruling that the '..draft permit as changed is hereby approved in its entirety.' This established the effective date of the approved permit as November 16, 2006. The permit modification was a consolidation of several Class 3 modification requests, one of which included incorporation of RH TRU requirements and another of which incorporated the requirements of Section 311 of Public Law 108-137. The obvious goal was to complete the first shipment by November 17. While many had anticipated its approval, the time had finally come to actually implement, and time seemed to be the main item lacking. At that point, even the most aggressive schedule that could be seriously documented showed a first ship date in March 2007. Even though planning for this eventuality had started in May 2005 with the arrival of the current Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) contractor (and even before that), there were many facility and system modifications to complete, startup authorizations to fulfill, and many regulatory audits and approvals to obtain before the first drum could be loaded. Through the dedicated efforts of the ICP workers, the partnership with Department of Energy (DOE) - Idaho, the coordinated integration with the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the flexibility and understanding of the regulatory community, and the added encouragement of DOE - Carlsbad Field Office and at Headquarters, the first RH TRU canister was loaded on December 22, 2006. Following final regulatory approval on January 17, 2007, the historic event finally occurred the

  1. Performance assessment requirements for the identification and tracking of transuranic waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, C.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Weston, W.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    To demonstrate compliance with environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes, a performance assessment (PA) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was made of waste-waste and waste-repository interactions and impacts on disposal system performance. An estimate of waste components and accumulated quantities was derived from a roll-up of the generator/storage sites` TRU waste inventories. Waste components of significance, and some of negligible effect, were fixed input parameters in the model. The results identified several waste components that require identification and tracking of quantities to ensure that repository limits are not exceeded. The rationale used to establish waste component limits based on input estimates is discussed. The distinction between repository limits and waste container limits is explained. Controls used to ensure that no limits are exceeded are identified. For waste components with no explicit repository based limits, other applicable limits are contained in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The 10 radionuclides targeted for identification and tracking on either a waste container or a waste stream basis include Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, U-233, U-234, U-238, Sr-90, and Cs-137. The accumulative activities of these radionuclides are to be inventoried at the time of emplacement in the WIPP. Changes in inventory curie content as a function of radionuclide decay and ingrowth over time will be calculated and tracked. Due to the large margin of compliance demonstrated by PA with the 10,000 year release limits specified, the quality assurance objective for radioassay of the 10 radionuclides need to be no more restrictive than those already identified for addressing the requirements imposed by transportation and WIPP disposal operations in Section 9 of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. 6 refs.

  2. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-02-01

    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  3. Training requirements and responsibilities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, H.G.; French, S.B.; Rick, D.L.

    1992-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is scheduled to conduct intrusive (hydropunch screening tests, bore hole installation, soil sampling, etc.) and nonintrusive (geophysical surveys) studies at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These studies and activities will be limited to specific locations at the RWMC. The duration of these activities will vary, but most tasks are not expected to exceed 90 days. The BWID personnel requested that the Waste Management Operational Support Group establish the training requirements and training responsibilities for BWID personnel and BWID subcontractor personnel. This document specifies these training requirements and responsibilities. While the responsibilities of BWID and the RWMC are, in general, defined in the interface agreement, the training elements are based on regulatory requirements, DOE orders, DOE-ID guidance, state law, and the nature of the work to be performed.

  4. Training requirements and responsibilities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is scheduled to conduct intrusive (hydropunch screening tests, bore hole installation, soil sampling, etc.) and nonintrusive (geophysical surveys) studies at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These studies and activities will be limited to specific locations at the RWMC. The duration of these activities will vary, but most tasks are not expected to exceed 90 days. The BWID personnel requested that the Waste Management Operational Support Group establish the training requirements and training responsibilities for BWID personnel and BWID subcontractor personnel. This document specifies these training requirements and responsibilities. While the responsibilities of BWID and the RWMC are, in general, defined in the interface agreement, the training elements are based on regulatory requirements, DOE orders, DOE-ID guidance, state law, and the nature of the work to be performed

  5. Transuranic removal from neutralized current acid waste with pneumatic hydropulse filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) is generated by the solvent extraction portion of the PUREX process. It contains <20% solids by volume, and is currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. These solids contain the transuranic (TRU) elements and most of the fission products and will be converted to glass for permanent disposal. Because of the high cost of vitrification and repository disposal, there is a large economic incentive to minimize volume. Separation of the solids from the supernatant liquor provides a more concentrated high-level waste stream for vitrification, thereby reducing the cost. Removal of the solids will also provide an approximately TRU- free supernatant liquor which can be disposed of as grout in near-surface facilities. Allowing the solids to settle, then decanting (settle/decant) and filtering the supernatant are the principal unit operations used for TRU removal. These unit operations as shown will be used at the B Plant, an existing facility at the Hanford Site

  6. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, M.M. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards.

  7. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency's long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards

  8. Adequacy of TRUPACT-I design for transporting contact-handled transuranic wastes to WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRUPACT I is the shipping container designed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to transport contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Approximately 24,000 shipments will be required to transport the 6 million cubic feet of waste to WIPP over a 20-year period. TRUPACT I was designed with two features that do not meet the NRC and DOT transportation regulations: (1) it has only single containment, which is not permitted for most forms of radioactive material if the shipment contains 20 Ci of plutonium; and (2) the waste storage cavity is continuously vented through filters to the atmosphere. The evaluation addressed these two design features as well as the problem of hydrogen gas generation in the wastes and the limits of radioactive materials proposed by DOE for a TRUPACT shipment. EEG recommends that TRUPACT-I not be certified for transporting any waste to WIPP unless the vents are sealed and the package is limited to 20 Ci of plutonium per load. We further recommend that: (1) the TRUPACT be redesigned to include double containment and eliminate continuous venting; (2) the use of methods other than venting for hydrogen gas control be seriously considered; and (3) the maximum curie content in a TRUPACT be limited to about 2,000 Ci

  9. Assessment of change in shallow land burial limits for defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an emerging consensus within the waste management technical community that the current concentration limit of 10 nCi/g for shallow land burial (SLB) of transuranic (TRU) waste is excessively restrictive. A concentration limit for SLB in the range of 100 to 1000 nCi/g is reasonable and justifiable based upon these reasons: Resultant increase in collective radiation dose (total population dose) would be very small, and the net detriment to public health would be negligible. Increasing the limit is cost-effective and could save hundreds of millions of dollars for the national economy over time. The hazard resulting from the increased SLB limit for TRU would be significantly less than that due to many naturally occurring mineral deposits and/or human activities. Expenditures directed toward health and safety conform to the economic law of diminishing returns: as the absolute expenditure increases, the marginal return decreases. Excessive restriction of the TRU concentration limit for SLB needlessly diverts limited resources (time, talent, and money) from other areas of health and safety where they might be more beneficially applied. Despite considerable effort, this study did not find any compelling technical argument to maintain the limit for TRU in SLB at 10 nCi/g. Subsequent to the initial preparation of this document, the US Department of Energy issued DOE Order 5820 which raises the administrative disposal limit for transuranic wastes from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g. In addition, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has subsequently proposed and adopted a revised version of regulation 10 CFR 61 in which the disposal limit for shallow land burial of Category C (intruder protected) waste is set at 100 nCi/g

  10. Establishment of a facility for intrusive characterization of transuranic waste at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes design and construction, project management, and testing results associated with the Waste Examination Facility (WEF) recently constructed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The WEF and associated systems were designed, procured, and constructed on an extremely tight budget and within a fast track schedule. Part 1 of this paper focuses on design and construction activities, Part 2 discusses project management of WEF design and construction activities, and Part 3 describes the results of the transuranic (TRU) waste examination pilot project conducted at the WEF. In Part 1, the waste examination process is described within the context of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) characterization requirements. Design criteria are described from operational and radiological protection considerations. The WEF engineered systems are described. These systems include isolation barriers using a glove box and secondary containment structure, high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration and ventilation systems, differential pressure monitoring systems, and fire protection systems. In Part 2, the project management techniques used for ensuring that stringent cost/schedule requirements were met are described. The critical attributes of these management systems are described with an emphasis on team work. In Part 3, the results of a pilot project directed at performing intrusive characterization (i.e., examination) of TRU waste at the WEF are described. Project activities included cold and hot operations. Cold operations included operator training, facility systems walk down, and operational procedures validation. Hot operations included working with plutonium contaminated TRU waste and consisted of waste container breaching, waste examination, waste segregation, data collection, and waste repackaging

  11. EXAMPLE OF A RISK-BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL: SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP

  12. Near-complete transuranic waste incineration in a thorium fuelled pressurised water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thorium, transuranic waste fuelled pressurised water reactor (such as EPR). ► Evolution of isotopes modelled over 125 years. ► All actinides returned to the reactor after reprocessing. ► Rapid and near complete elimination of transuranic waste is possible. ► Competitive burn-up is achievable and reactor is stable and controllable. - Abstract: The production of long-lived transuranic (TRU) waste is a major disadvantage of fission-based nuclear power. Incineration, and virtual elimination, of waste stockpiles is possible in a thorium (Th) fuelled critical or subcritical fast reactor. Fuel cycles producing a net decrease in TRUs are possible in conventional pressurised water reactors (PWRs). However, minor actinides (MAs) have a detrimental effect on reactivity and stability, ultimately limiting the quality and quantity of waste that can be incinerated. In this paper, we propose using a thorium-retained-actinides fuel cycle in PWRs, where the reactor is fuelled with a mixture of thorium and TRU waste, and after discharge all actinides are reprocessed and returned to the reactor. To investigate the feasibility and performance of this fuel cycle an assembly-level analysis for a one-batch reloading strategy was completed over 125 years of operation using WIMS 9. This one-batch analysis was performed for simplicity, but allowed an indicative assessment of the performance of a four-batch fuel management strategy. The build-up of 233U in the reactor allowed continued reactive and stable operation, until all significant actinide populations had reached pseudo-equilibrium in the reactor. It was therefore possible to achieve near-complete transuranic waste incineration, even for fuels with significant MA content. The average incineration rate was initially around 330 kg per GWth year and tended towards 250 kg per GWth year over several decades: a performance comparable to that achieved in a fast reactor. Using multiple batch fuel management, competitive

  13. Optimization of Gas Generation Testing of Contact-Handled Transuranic Solidified Organic Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) requires that drums containing Waste Type IV (solidified organic waste) must be evaluated by gas generation testing (GGT) because a G-value, a measure of gas generation potential, has not been determined for Waste Type IV. Preliminary gas generation testing of Waste Type IV drums at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) resulted in a subset of drums exceeding one or both rate limits. This is not an unreasonable phenomenon, given the quantity of source material for hydrogen gas and potentially high concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drums containing this waste type. Typically, waste drums in which the flammable gas and total gas generation rates from GGT exceed allowable limits cannot be shipped until these rates are reduced to an allowable level through treatment or repackaging. However, since the gas generation rates are not measured directly, but calculated using test data measurements, there is the possibility that the calculated rates are inaccurate or overly conservative as a result of gas sampling methodology or inaccuracies in equations and assumptions used to estimate total gas release or hydrogen gas generation rates in the GGT system. In an effort to increase the number of drums that comply with the gas generation rate limits, the Gas Generation Test Program (GGTP) was reviewed at the AMWTP. The objective of the effort was to identify overly conservative aspects of the GGTP and reduce the level of conservatism by using more realistic parameters and assumptions. In addition, the impact of transportation initiatives in the CH-TRAMPAC, Revision 2 on the number of drums that must undergo GGT and shippability is examined. Based on the presented case study, an optimal payload assembly is recommended for the total gas generation rate and flammable gas generation for Waste Type IV drums. (authors)

  14. Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE's management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive

  15. Development and characterization of basalt-glass ceramics for the immobilization of transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basalt-based waste forms were developed for the immobilization of transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes. The specific waste studied is a 3:1 blend of process sludge and incinerator ash. Various amounts of TRU blended waste were melted with Pomona basalt powder. The vitreous products were subjected to a variety of heat treatment conditions to form glass ceramics. The total crystallinity of the glass ceramic, ranging from 20 to 45 wt %, was moderately dependent on composition and heat treatment conditions. Three parent glasses and four glass ceramics with varied composition and heat treatment were produced for detailed phase characterization and leaching. Both parent glasses and glass ceramics were mainly composed of a continuous, glassy matrix phase. This glass matrix entered into solution during leaching in both types of materials. The Fe-Ti rich dispersed glass phase was not significantly degraded by leaching. The glass ceramics, however, exhibited four to ten times less elemental releases during leaching than the parent glasses. The glass ceramic matrix probably contains higher Fe and Na and lower Ca and Mg relative to the parent glass matrix. The crystallization of augite in the glass ceramics is believed to contribute to the improved leach rates. Leach rates of the basalt glass ceramic are compared to those of other TRU nuclear waste forms containing 239Pu

  16. Criticality Safety Envelope for Receipt, Handling, and Storage of Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, A.M.

    1998-12-04

    Current criticality safety limits for Solid Waste Management Facility (SWMF) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Storage Pads are based on analysis of systems where mass is the only independent parameter and all other parameters are assumed at their most reactive values (Ref. 1). These limits result in administrative controls (i.e., limit stacking of containers, coordination of drums for culvert storage based on individual drum fissile inventories, and mass limits for accumulation of polyethylene boxes in culverts) which can only be met by redundant SWMF administrative controls. These analyses did not credit the nature of the waste generator process that would provide bounding limits on the other parameters (i.e. less than optimal moderation and configurations within packages (containers)). They also did not indicate the margin of safety associated with operating to these mass limits. However, by crediting the waste generator processes (and maintaining such process assumptions via controls in the criteria for waste acceptance) sufficient margin of safety can be demonstrated to justify continued SWMF TRU pad operation with fewer administrative controls than specified in the Double Contingency analysis (DCA) (Ref. 1).

  17. Transuranic solid waste management research programs. Progress report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests continued to evaluate less costly fiber drums as alternate storage containers for low-level wastes. Tests completed to date indicated that the factory-applied fire retardants were not satisfactory; however, investigations of more promising coatings have been undertaken. The fiber drums were more satisfactory in other aspects. Expanded laboratory and field radiolysis experiments were performed. These were accompanied by investigations of H2 diffusion through common waste packaging materials and through Los Alamos soil. Radiolysis studies were also initiated on wastes typical of Mound Laboratory. All results to date show that while H2 is being slowly generated, the quantities are not excessive and should diffuse rapidly away. Construction of the TDF facility began and was 14 percent complete at the end of this reporting period. The incinerator was received, installed and checked out, and is operational. Additional specifications were developed and equipment procurement continued. Progress is reported on development of a system for evaluating radioactively contaminated solid waste burial sites. Source term data are summarized for some Los Alamos areas along with waste composition and configuration considerations. Physical and biotic transport pathways are discussed and development of modeling methods for projecting the environmental fate of transuranic materials is detailed

  18. Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, L.A.

    1994-08-15

    The Department of Energy`s program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE`s management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive.

  19. Mobile/Modular Deployment Project-Enhancing Efficiencies within the National Transuranic Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999, the National Transuranic (TRU) Waste Program (NTP) achieved two significant milestones. First, the Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP) opened in March for the permanent disposal of TRU waste generated by, and temporarily stored at, various sites supporting the nation's defense programs. Second, the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, issued by the New Mexico Environment Department, for WIPP became effective in November. While the opening of WIPP brought to closure a number of scientific, engineering, regulatory, and political challenges, achieving this major milestone led to a new set of challenges-how to achieve the Department of Energy's (DOE's) NTP end-state vision: All TRU waste from DOE sites scheduled for closure is removed All legacy TRU waste from DOE sites with an ongoing nuclear mission is disposed 0 All newly generated TRU waste is disposed as it is generated The goal is to operate the national TRU waste program safely, cost effectively, in compliance with applicable regulations and agreements, and at full capacity in a fully integrated mode. The existing schedule for TRU waste disposition would achieve the NTP vision in 2034 at an estimated life-cycle cost of $16B. The DOE's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) seeks to achieve this vision early-by at least 10 years- while saving the nation an estimated $48 to $6B. CBFO's approach is to optimize, or to make as functional as possible, TRU waste disposition. That is, to remove barriers that impede waste disposition, and increase the rate and cost efficiency of waste disposal at WIPP, while maintaining safety. The Mobile/Modular Deployment Project (MMDP) is the principal vehicle for implementing DOE's new commercial model of using best business practices of national authorization basis, standardization, and economies of scale to accelerate the completion of WIPP's mission. The MMDP is one of the cornerstones of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (1). The objective of the MMDP is to increase TRU

  20. Rates of CO2 production from the microbial degradation of transuranic wastes under simulated geologic isolation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic wastes containing organic matter can serve as an energy source for microbial growth. The rates of microbial respiration during decomposition of several transuranic-contaminated waste materials were measured under environmental conditions representative of a geologic waste repository in bedded salt. The major observed effect of microbial activity on organic-matrix wastes was the generation of CO2 gas. Experimental variables studied include: incubation temperature (250 to 700C), atmosphere (aerobic and anaerobic), moisture content, brine content, and plutonium contamination level (0 to 40 microcuries of alpha activity per gram of waste). The maximum rate of CO2 generation observed was 11 g/day per gram of waste. The addition of 300 μg (20 μCi) of defense-grade PuO2 per gram of waste reduced the rate of CO2 generation by approximately 70%. Results indicate that microbial activity in existing drums of defense-related transuranic wastes has the potential to generate significant quantities of gas under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Carbon dioxide was the only gas detected in these studies. 42 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  1. Super analog computer for evaluating the safety of buried radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that the past use of digital computer programs for evaluating the safety of buried radioactive waste has been largely wasteful and dangerously delusive. It is suggested to use actual rocks as the analog of buried waste. The problem of comparable rates of leaching of radioactive waste and of natural rock is discussed. Two examples are given of the use of natural rock as an ''analog computer'': one for high-level radioactive waste, and one for low-level radioactive waste. Digital computers have not contributed anything to two crucial questions: Can shafts be securely sealed. Does the heat crack the rock or have important effects on its chemistry. 4 refs

  2. The role of acceptable knowledge in transuranic waste disposal operations - 11117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Roger [DOE-CARLSBAD

    2010-11-08

    The Acceptable Knowledge (AK) process plays a key role in the delineation of waste streams destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). General Electric's Vallecitos Nuclear Center (GEVNC) provides for an ideal case study of the application of AK in a multiple steward environment. In this review we will elucidate the pivotal role Acceptable Knowledge played in segregating Department of Energy (DOE) responsibilities from a commercial facility. The Acceptable Knowledge process is a necessary component of waste characterization that determines whether or not a waste stream may be considered for disposal at the WIPP site. This process may be thought of as an effort to gain a thorough understanding of the waste origin, chemical content, and physical form gleaned by the collection of documentation that concerns generator/storage site history, mission, and operations; in addition to waste stream specific information which includes the waste generation process, the waste matrix, the quantity of waste concerned, and the radiological and chemical make up of the waste. The collection and dissemination of relevant documentation is the fundamental requirement for the AK process to work. Acceptable Knowledge is the predominant process of characterization and, therefore, a crucial part of WIPP's transuranic waste characterization program. This characterization process, when conducted to the standards set forth in WIPP's operating permit, requires confirmation/verification by physical techniques such as Non-Destructive Examination (NDE), Visual Examination (VE), and Non-Destructive Assay (NDA). These physical characterization techniques may vary in their appropriateness for a given waste stream; however, nothing will allow the substitution or exclusion of AK. Beyond the normal scope of operations, AK may be considered, when appropriate, a surrogate for the physical characterization techniques in a procedure that appeals to concepts such As Low As Reasonably

  3. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  4. Trasax '90: An integrated transportation emergency response exercise program involving transuranic waste shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and several states and numerous local governments have been preparing for the transportation of transuranic (TRU) waste to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, near Carlsbad. Seven western states, represented by the Western Governors' Association (WGA), submitted a report to the US Congress that discussed the concerns of their constituents related to the transportation of TRU waste through their communities. One of the three major concerns identified was emergency preparedness. Initial funding to resolve concerns identified in the WGA report to Congress was provided by the US Department of Transportation. Upon receiving funding, lead states were assigned responsibilities to devise programs aimed at increasing public confidence in the areas of most concern. The responsibility for emergency response readiness, as demonstrated through a program of training and responding to simulated accident scenarios, was accepted by the state of Colorado. The state of Colorado laid out an exercise program which expanded upon the DOE training programs already offered to emergency responders along Colorado's designated TRU-waste transportation corridor. The ongoing program included a full-scale field exercise staged in Colorado Springs and dubbed, ''TRANSAX '90.''

  5. Radiolytic generation of chloro-organic compounds in transuranic and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolytic degradation of chloro-plastics is being investigated to evaluate the formation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in radioactive waste. These chlorinated VOCs, when their subsequent migration in the geosphere is considered, are potential sources of ground-water contamination. This contamination is an important consideration for transuranic waste repositories being proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project and the several additional low-level radioactive waste sites being considered throughout the United States. The production of chlorinated volatile organic compounds due to the interaction of ionizing radiation with chloro-plastic materials has been well-established in both this work and past studies. This occurs as a result of gamma, beta, and alpha particle interactions with the plastic material. The assemblage of organic compounds generated depends on the type of plastic material, the type of ionizing radiation, the gaseous environment present and the irradiation temperature. In the authors' experiments, gas generation data were obtained by mounting representative plastics near (3 mm) an alpha particle source (Am-241 foil). This assembly was placed in an irradiation vessel which contained air, nitrogen, or a hydrogen/carbon dioxide mixture, at near-atmospheric pressures, to simulate the range of atmospheres likely to be encountered in the subsurface. The gas phase in the vessels are periodically sampled for net gas production. The gas phase concentrations are monitored over time to determine trends and calculate the radiolytic yield for the various gaseous products

  6. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Hanford Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of Hanford's transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization (Reference 1). Various programs exist to ensure the validity of waste characterization data; all of these cite the need for clearly defined knowledge of uncertainty, associated with any measurements taken. All measurements have an inherent uncertainty associated with them. The combined effect of all uncertainties associated with a measurement is referred to as the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU). The NDA measurement uncertainties can be numerous and complex. In addition to system-induced measurement uncertainty, other factors contribute to the TMU, each associated with a particular measurement. The NDA measurements at WRAP are based on processes (radioactive decay and induced fission) which are statistical in nature. As a result, the proper statistical summation of the various uncertainty components is essential. This report examines the contributing factors to NDA measurement uncertainty at WRAP. The significance of each factor on the TMU is analyzed, and a final method is given for determining the TMU for NDA measurements at WRAP. As more data becomes available, and WRAP gains in operational experience, this report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary. This report also includes the data flow paths for the analytical process in the radiometric determinations

  7. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLS, C.E.

    2000-02-24

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Hanford Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of Hanford's transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization (Reference 1). Various programs exist to ensure the validity of waste characterization data; all of these cite the need for clearly defined knowledge of uncertainty, associated with any measurements taken. All measurements have an inherent uncertainty associated with them. The combined effect of all uncertainties associated with a measurement is referred to as the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU). The NDA measurement uncertainties can be numerous and complex. In addition to system-induced measurement uncertainty, other factors contribute to the TMU, each associated with a particular measurement. The NDA measurements at WRAP are based on processes (radioactive decay and induced fission) which are statistical in nature. As a result, the proper statistical summation of the various uncertainty components is essential. This report examines the contributing factors to NDA measurement uncertainty at WRAP. The significance of each factor on the TMU is analyzed, and a final method is given for determining the TMU for NDA measurements at WRAP. As more data becomes available, and WRAP gains in operational experience, this report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary. This report also includes the data flow paths for the analytical process in the radiometric determinations.

  8. Removing transuranic waste from water: The TRU/Clear process system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major advance toward solving some of the most intractable problems of environmental cleanup is the TRU/Clear Process System invented by a team of researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This process was developed to extract and remove the final trace amounts of the radioactive elements called transuranic (TRU) elements from wastewater streams produced by nuclear facilities. The system, which is completely compatible with existing wastewater treatment technologies, is potentially capable of removing other toxic heavy metals, such as arsenic, mercury, and cadmium, as well as hazardous organic contaminants from wastewater. Future users of the LANL system might include electronics manufacturers and chemical production plants as well as the nuclear industry. The process defines a new chemistry and chemical technology for wastewater treatment that makes a near-zero discharge of pollutants feasible in the near future, while reducing overall waste management costs

  9. Buried waste integrated demonstration fiscal year 1992 close-out report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program (BWID) is to support the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially-available baseline technologies form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste disposed of throughout the US Department of Energy complex. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated the BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY)-91. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID Program during FY-92

  10. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  11. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Mitch [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howard, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weyerman, Wade [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mctaggart, Jerri [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  12. Definition and compositions of standard wastestreams for evaluation of Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Project was organized at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to support research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of emerging technologies that offer promising solutions to remediation of buried waste. BWID will identify emerging technologies, screen them for applicability to the identified needs, select technologies for demonstration, and then evaluate the technologies based on prescribed performance objectives. The technical objective of the project is to establish solutions to Environmental Restoration and Waste Management's technological deficiencies and improve baseline remediation systems. This report establishes a set of standard wastestream compositions that will be used by BWID to evaluate the emerging technologies. Five wastestreams are proposed that use four types of waste and a nominal case that is a homogenized combination of the four wastes. The five wastestreams will provide data on the compositional extremes and indicate the technologies' effectiveness over the complete range of expected wastestream compositions

  13. Accident analysis for transuranic waste management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary accident analyses and radiological source term evaluations have been conducted for transuranic waste (TRUW) as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) effort to manage storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes at its various sites. The approach to assessing radiological releases from facility accidents was developed in support of the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The methodology developed in this work is in accordance with the latest DOE guidelines, which consider the spectrum of possible accident scenarios in the implementation of various actions evaluated in an EIS. The radiological releases from potential risk-dominant accidents in storage and treatment facilities considered in the EM PEIS TRUW alternatives are described in this paper. The results show that significant releases can be predicted for only the most severe and extremely improbable accidents sequences

  14. An overview of the waste handling and packaging plant, a major processing facility for remote-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHPP) is a FY 1991 line item project proposed for construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the facility is to receive, package, certify and ship remote-handled (RH) and special case (SC) transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The scope of the facility includes the mobilization of liquids and sludges from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, transport of these liquids and sludges to the WHPP, solidification to a certifiable waste form, and final packaging and shipment to WIPP. Various solid hot cell wastes will be received at the WHPP from storage at ORNL and from other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The solid wastes will be removed from the storage or shipping container, examined, processed as required, certified and packaged for shipment to WIPP. All packages coming from the processing cell will be in 55 gallon drums, and the facility will have the capability to load these directly into a shielded drum shipping cask, or to load these into the RH TRU canister for remote welding and shipment to WIPP using the RH TRU canister cask. 4 figs

  15. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  16. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  17. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF PLUTONIUM AND OTHER ACTINIDES IN TRANSURANIC AND MIXED WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of the actinides Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am in transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes is a major concern because of their potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contamination of the environment. The toxicity of the actinide elements and the long half-lives of their isotopes are the primary causes for concern. In addition to the radionuclides the TRU waste consists a variety of organic materials (cellulose, plastic, rubber, chelating agents) and inorganic compounds (nitrate and sulfate). Significant microbial activity is expected in the waste because of the presence of organic compounds and nitrate, which serve as carbon and nitrogen sources and in the absence of oxygen the microbes can use nitrate and sulfate as alternate electron acceptors. Biodegradation of the TRU waste can result in gas generation and pressurization of containment areas, and waste volume reduction and subsidence in the repository. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of actinides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. Microbial activity could affect the chemical nature of the actinides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of actinides in solution. Under appropriate conditions, dissolution or immobilization of actinides is brought about by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions of microorganisms. Dissolution of actinides by microorganisms is brought about by changes in the Eh and pH of the medium, by their production of organic acids, such as citric acid, siderophores and extracellular metabolites. Immobilization or precipitation of actinides is due to changes in the Eh of the environment, enzymatic reductive precipitation (reduction from higher to lower oxidation state), biosorption, bioaccumulation, biotransformation of actinides complexed

  18. Demonstrating feasible disposable concepts for Transuranic (Tru) Wastes in Japan - an overview of project Tru-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the Federation of Electric Power Companies (FEPC) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have been collaborating with relevant organizations to promote generic research and development (R and D) for the safe geological disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste based on the technical achievements in Japan's high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal program. A result of this collaborative effort was the production of a recent progress report on the R and D for TRU-waste disposal in Japan (project TRU-2). This paper is an overview of TRU-2 describing the key results and some unique methodologies developed. It is estimated that ca 140,000 m3 of TRU-waste will be generated in Japan by 2050. TRU-2 has demonstrated that depending on the alpha, beta and gamma contents, 63% of TRU-waste is suitable for near surface disposal (a few tens of meters deep), 18% for intermediate depth disposal (50-100 m) and 19% for deep geological disposal (several 100 m). Radionuclide migration analyses were performed with realistic near-field models and databases taking into account the specific design components in a TRU-waste disposal. This was complemented with a unique top-down sensitivity analysis for handling remaining uncertainties. I-129 and C-14 gave the dominant dose but this was much lower than background levels in Japan and regulatory levels in overseas countries. Furthermore, through application of alternative technologies, it was shown that higher containment of I-129 and C-14 could produce even more robust repository concepts over a wide range of geological environments. Finally, it was demonstrated that feasibility and cost could be improved through the concept of co-locational disposal with HLW; a concept that has already been demonstrated in many other countries (e.g. Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland). (authors)

  19. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  20. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) currently manages an interim storage site for Westinghouse Hanford and non-Westinghouse Hanford-generated transuranic (TRU) waste and operates TRU waste generating facilities within the Hanford Site in Washington State. Approval has been received from the Waste Acceptance Criteria Certification Committee (WACCC) and Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generating facilities to certify newly generated contact-handled TRU (CH-TRU) solid waste to meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). This document describes the plan for certifying newly generated CH-TRU solid waste to meet the WAC requirements for storage at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Attached to this document are facility-specific certification plans for the Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generators that have received WACCC approval. The certification plans describe operations that generate CH-TRU solid waste and the specific procedures by which these wastes will be certified and segregated from uncertified wastes at the generating facilities. All newly generated CH-TRU solid waste is being transferred to the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) and/or a controlled storage facility. These facilities will store the waste until the certified TRU waste can be sent to the WIPP site and the non-certified TRU waste can be sent to the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility. All non-certifiable TRU waste will be segregated and clearly identified

  1. Audit Report on 'Waste Processing and Recovery Act Acceleration Efforts for Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste at the Hanford Site'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's (EM), Richland Operations Office (Richland), is responsible for disposing of the Hanford Site's (Hanford) transuranic (TRU) waste, including nearly 12,000 cubic meters of radioactive contact-handled TRU wastes. Prior to disposing of this waste at the Department's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Richland must certify that it meets WIPP's waste acceptance criteria. To be certified, the waste must be characterized, screened for prohibited items, treated (if necessary) and placed into a satisfactory disposal container. In a February 2008 amendment to an existing Record of Decision (Decision), the Department announced its plan to ship up to 8,764 cubic meters of contact-handled TRU waste from Hanford and other waste generator sites to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) at Idaho's National Laboratory (INL) for processing and certification prior to disposal at WIPP. The Department decided to maximize the use of the AMWTP's automated waste processing capabilities to compact and, thereby, reduce the volume of contact-handled TRU waste. Compaction reduces the number of shipments and permits WIPP to more efficiently use its limited TRU waste disposal capacity. The Decision noted that the use of AMWTP would avoid the time and expense of establishing a processing capability at other sites. In May 2009, EM allocated $229 million of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) funds to support Hanford's Solid Waste Program, including Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Besides providing jobs, these funds were intended to accelerate cleanup in the short term. We initiated this audit to determine whether the Department was effectively using Recovery Act funds to accelerate processing of Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Relying on the availability of Recovery Act funds, the Department changed course and approved an alternative plan that could increase costs by about $25 million

  2. Successfully burying low-level waste for fun and profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of Washington, now receiving more than half the nation's waste, is here to provide a practical review of the benefits of having a low-level waste disposal site and to provide our perspective on how the state of Washington carries out its responsibilities through regulation of that disposal site. This information is offered in the hope that it may be useful to other states when they accept their responsibility to provide for the disposal of their low-level radioactive waste. The 1980 Low-Level Waste Policy Act very directly gave the responsibility for finding and developing new waste disposal capacity to the states. Through the process of compacting, the states have begun to accept this responsibility. From Washington's perspective, however, the progress shown to date, especially in some states generating very large amounts of waste, has not been adequate to meet the 1986 deadline

  3. De-Inventory Plan for Transuranic Waste Stored at Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christensen, Davis V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shepard, Mark D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-21

    This report describes the strategy and detailed work plan developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to disposition transuranic (TRU) waste stored at its Area G radioactive waste storage site. The focus at this time is on disposition of 3,706 m3 of TRU waste stored above grade by June 30, 2014, which is one of the commitments within the Framework Agreement: Realignment of Environmental Priorities between the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the State of New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), Reference 1. A detailed project management schedule has been developed to manage this work and better ensure that all required activities are aligned and integrated. The schedule was developed in conjunction with personnel from the NNSA Los Alamos Site Office (LASO), the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), the Central Characterization Project (CCP), and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). A detailed project management schedule for the remainder of the above grade inventory and the below grade inventory will be developed and incorporated into the De-Inventory Plan by December 31, 2012. This schedule will also include all newly-generated TRU waste received at Area G in FYs 2012 and 2013, which must be removed by no later than December 31, 2014, under the Framework Agreement. The TRU waste stored above grade at Area G is considered to be one of the highest nuclear safety risks at LANL, and the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board has expressed concern for the radioactive material at risk (MAR) contained within the above grade TRU waste inventory and has formally requested that DOE reduce the MAR. A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned extensive areas west of LANL in late June and July 2011. Although there was minimal to no impact by the fire to LANL, the fire heightened public concern and news media attention on TRU waste storage at Area G. After the fire, New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez also

  4. PROJECT STRATEGY FOR THE REMEDIATION AND DISPOSITION OF LEGACY TRANSURANIC WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE, South Carolina, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.

    2010-12-17

    This paper discusses the Savannah River Site Accelerated Transuranic (TRU) Waste Project that was initiated in April of 2009 to accelerate the disposition of remaining legacy transuranic waste at the site. An overview of the project execution strategy that was implemented is discussed along with the lessons learned, challenges and improvements to date associated with waste characterization, facility modifications, startup planning, and remediation activities. The legacy waste was generated from approximately 1970 through 1990 and originated both on site as well as at multiple US Department of Energy sites. Approximately two thirds of the waste was previously dispositioned from 2006 to 2008, with the remaining one third being the more hazardous waste due to its activity (curie content) and the plutonium isotope Pu-238 quantities in the waste. The project strategy is a phased approach beginning with the lower activity waste in existing facilities while upgrades are made to support remediation of the higher activity waste. Five waste remediation process lines will be used to support the full remediation efforts which involve receipt of the legacy waste container, removal of prohibited items, venting of containers, and resizing of contents to fit into current approved waste shipping containers. Modifications have been minimized to the extent possible to meet the accelerated goals and involve limited upgrades to address life safety requirements, radiological containment needs, and handling equipment for the larger waste containers. Upgrades are also in progress for implementation of the TRUPACT III for the shipment of Standard Large Boxes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, the US TRU waste repository. The use of this larger shipping container is necessary for approximately 20% of the waste by volume due to limited size reduction capability. To date, approximately 25% of the waste has been dispositioned, and several improvements have been made to the overall processing

  5. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Nickelson; D.K. Jorgensen; J.J. Jessmore; R.A. Hyde; R.K. Farnsworth

    1999-02-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  6. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph

    1999-03-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  7. Transport through deep aquifers of transuranic nuclides leached from vitrified high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented in this paper are the first output of a new program carried out at the Joint Research Centre of Ispra on underground migration of actinides related to risk evaluation of the geological waste disposal option. In order to simulate the expected conditions of glass leaching and underground transport in the laboratory, a water pathway is established which flows over the actinide-bearing borosilicate glass, through a filter and then up through columns containing soil samples. Water fractions are continuously collected and analyzed at the column outlet; the water velocity through the columns corresponds to a groundwater movement of about 25 m/y. The experiments are carried out over periods of 1 to 6 months, and at the end the columns are cut into thin sections and the distribution profile of transuranic isotopes is measured. These initial results already demonstrate a certain number of phenomena; firstly, that the soil matrix studied effectively retains the transuranic nuclides. However the more effective processes seem not to be related to the high effective filtering ability of sandy clays. Further the data appears to show that both for plutonium and americium cationic species are only present at very low levels and negatively charged species appear, for plutonium at least, to be the main mobile form. For both plutonium and americium a soluble anionic form having a concentration of 10-13M was detected which was not retained by the columns. Under the present experimental conditions, this concentration is about four orders of magnitude lower than the Maximum Permissible Concentration for drinking water

  8. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 ..mu..Ci per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact.

  9. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 μCi per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact

  10. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  11. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described

  12. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described.

  13. In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

  14. Westinghouse Hanford Company Plan for certifying newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) currently manages an interim storage site for Westinghouse Hanford and non-Westinghouse Hanford-generated transuranic (TRU) waste and operates TRU waste generating facilities within the Hanford Site in Washington State. Approval has been received from the Waste Acceptance Criteria Certification Committee (WACCC) and Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generating facilities to certify newly generated contact-handled TRU (CH-TRU) solid waste to meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). This document describes the overall plan for certifying newly generated CH-TRU solid waste to meet the WAC requirements for storage at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Attached to this document are facility-specific certification plans for the Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generators that have received WACCC approval. The certification plans describe operations that generate CH-TRU solid waste and the specific procedures by which these wastes will be certified and segregated from uncertified wastes at the generating facilities. 1 fig

  15. Disposal of transuranic solid waste using Atomics International's molten salt combustion process. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process reduces the weight and volume of combustible transuranic waste by utilizing a molten salt medium to combust organic materials, to trap particulates and fissile material, and to react chemically with any acidic gases produced during combustion. The ''ash'' is retained by the molten salt. To control the amount of noncombustible substances in the melt, a portion of the molten salt is periodically drained from the combustor. There are two options following the combustion step: the salt-ash mixture can be cast into a metal canister for direct storage, which is preferred, or the salt-ash mixture can be processed to separate ash for disposal, to recover the salt for recycle and to recover fissile materials. Either option results in the rapid, complete, and nonpolluting destruction of the combustible waste. Bench-scale (0.2 kg/hr) combustion tests with plutonium-contaminated waste showed that >99.9 percent of the plutonium is retained in the melt during combustion. A similar test with uranium indicated that uranium and plutonium behave identically during combustion. Bench-scale plutonium recovery tests have shown that approx. 98 percent of the plutonium can be recovered from the ash-melt mixture with a single acid leach. Pilot plant combustion tests were conducted with uncontaminated shredded waste consisting of paper, Kimwipes, cardboard, rubber, polyvinyl chloride, and polyethylene at feed rates up to 70 kg/hr. Hydrogen chloride (3 at approx. 7900C to 0.6 g/m3 at 10200C before the venturi scrubber, and 0.01 to 0.04 g/m3, respectively, after the scrubber. Downstream of the HEPA filters, no particulates could be detected

  16. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report

  17. Buried waste integrated demonstration Fiscal Year 1993 close-out report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management needs and objectives. BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID program during FY-93

  18. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives

  19. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Clemo, T.M. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites` compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site.

  20. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites' compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site

  1. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Mousseau; S.C. Raish; F.M. Russo

    2006-05-18

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  2. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct and install

  3. Application of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Transuranic Waste Recycling in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Cole A [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Presented is an investigation of the utilization of Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) particle-based fuel designs for the recycling of transuranic (TRU) wastes in typical Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Though numerous studies have evaluated the recycling of TRU in light water reactors (LWRs), this work differentiates itself by employing TRU-loaded TRISO particles embedded within a SiC matrix and formed into pellets that can be loaded into standard 17 x 17 fuel element cladding. This approach provides the capability of TRU recycling and, by virtue of the TRISO particle design, will allow for greater burnup (i.e., removal of the need for UO2 mixing) and improved fuel reliability. In this study, a variety of assembly layouts and core loading patterns were analyzed to demonstrate the feasibility of TRU-loaded TRISO fuel. The assembly and core design herein reported are a work in progress, so they still require some fine-tuning to further flatten power peaks; however, the progress achieved thus far strongly supports the conclusion that with further rod/assembly/core loading and placement optimization, TRU-loaded TRISO fuel and core designs that are capable of balancing TRU production and destruction can be designed within the standard constraints for thermal and reactivity performance in PWRs.

  4. TRUPACT-I, a contact-handled transuranic waste transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a program to develop an efficient, safe, reliable and cost effective transportation system for the carriage of contact-handled transuranic waste within the DOE complex. The system developed (TRUPACT-I) consists of two major assemblies: the containment system and the outer protective structure. The containment system prevents the release of TRU nuclides in excess of regulatory limits. The outer protective structure protects against the structural and thermal loadings imposed during normal and accident conditions. A fully-loaded truck version of TRUPACT-I will weigh 22.7 tonnes (50,000 lbs) and has a payload of 7.7 tonnes (17,000 lb). TRUPACT-I has been designed to accommodate a variety of material handling equipment such as lift trucks, powered roller conveyors and possibly air pallet systems. The prototype will be fabricated and tested during late FY 84. A three unit minifleet will be operated during FY 85 and FY 86 to gain operational experience

  5. EVALUATION OF RISKS AND WASTE CHARACTERIZATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSURANIC WASTE EMPLACED IN WIPP DURING 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channell, J.K.; Walker, B.A.

    2000-05-01

    Specifically this report: 1. Compares requirements of the WAP that are pertinent from a technical viewpoint with the WIPP pre-Permit waste characterization program, 2. Presents the results of a risk analysis of the currently emplaced wastes. Expected and bounding risks from routine operations and possible accidents are evaluated; and 3. Provides conclusions and recommendations.

  6. EVALUATION OF RISKS AND WASTE CHARACTERIZATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSURANIC WASTE EMPLACED IN WIPP DURING 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specifically this report: 1. Compares requirements of the WAP that are pertinent from a technical viewpoint with the WIPP pre-Permit waste characterization program, 2. Presents the results of a risk analysis of the currently emplaced wastes. Expected and bounding risks from routine operations and possible accidents are evaluated; and 3. Provides conclusions and recommendations

  7. Analyzing Losses: Transuranics into Waste and Fission Products into Recycled Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert E. Cherry; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros; Candido Pereira; Denia Djokic

    2010-11-01

    All mass streams from separations and fuel fabrication are products that must meet criteria. Those headed for disposal must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the eventual disposal sites corresponding to their waste classification. Those headed for reuse must meet fuel or target impurity limits. A “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. The various types of losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of transuranic (TRU) material into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. We have analyzed four separation options and two fuel fabrication options in a generic fuel cycle. The separation options are aqueous uranium extraction plus (UREX+1), electrochemical, Atomics International reduction oxidation separation (AIROX), and melt refining. UREX+1 and electrochemical are traditional, full separation techniques. AIROX and melt refining are taken as examples of limited separations, also known as minimum fuel treatment. The fuels are oxide and metal. To define a generic fuel cycle, a fuel recycling loop is fed from used light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel (UOX) at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup. The recycling loop uses a fast reactor with TRU conversion ratio (CR) of 0.50. Excess recovered uranium is put into storage. Only waste, not used fuel, is disposed – unless the impurities accumulate to a level so that it is impossible to make new fuel for the fast reactor. Impurities accumulate as dictated by separation removal and fission product generation. Our model approximates adjustment to fast reactor fuel stream blending of TRU and U products from incoming LWR UOX and recycling FR fuel to compensate for impurity accumulation by adjusting TRU:U ratios. Our mass flow model ignores postulated fuel impurity limits; we compare the calculated impurity values with those limits to identify elements of concern. AIROX and melt refining cannot be used to separate used LWR UOX-51 because they cannot

  8. Buried waste remote survey of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burial site characterization is an important first step in the restoration of subsurface disposal sites. Testing and demonstration of technology for remote buried waste site characterization were performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by a team from five US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories. The US Army's Soldier Robot Interface Project (SRIP) vehicle, on loan to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was used as a remotely operated sensor platform. The SRIP was equipped with an array of sensors including terrain conductivity meter, magnetometer, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), organic vapor detector, gamma-based radar detector, and spectrum analyzer. The testing and demonstration were successfully completed and provided direction for future work in buried waste site characterization

  9. Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Plan for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. This document describes the Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality requirements for conducting BWID activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Topics discussed in this report, as they apply to BWID operations, include Federal, State of Idaho, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations, Health and Safety Plans, Quality Program Plans, Data Quality Objectives, and training and job hazard analysis. Finally, a discussion is given on CERCLA criteria and System and Performance audits as they apply to the BWID Program

  10. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  11. Selective retrieval of buried waste using mobile robot manipulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous operations which involve the dextrous manipulation of dangerous materials in the field have, in the past, been completed by technicians. Use of humans in such hazardous operations is under increased scrutiny due to high costs and low productivity associated with providing protective clothing and environments. Remote systems are needed to accomplish many tasks such as the clean up of waste sites in which the exposure of personnel to radiation, chemical, explosive, and other hazardous constituents is unacceptable. Traditional remote manual field operations have, unfortunately, proven to have very low productivity when compared with unencumbered human operators. Recent advances in the integration of wars and computing into the control of remotely operated equipment have shown great promise for reducing the cost of remote systems while providing faster and safer remote systems. This paper discusses applications of such advances to remote field operations

  12. Systematic evaluation of options to avoid generation of noncertifiable transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, J.M.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Triay, I.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.

    1998-03-01

    At present, >35% of the volume of newly generated transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory is not certifiable for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Noncertifiable waste would constitute 900--1,000 m{sup 3} of the 2,600 m{sup 3} of waste projected during the period of the Environmental Management (EM) Accelerated Cleanup: Focus on 2006 plan (DOE, 1997). Volume expansion of this waste to meet thermal limits would increase the shipped volume to {approximately}5,400 m{sup 3}. This paper presents the results of efforts to define which TRU waste streams are noncertifiable at Los Alamos, and to prioritize site-specific options to reduce the volume of certifiable waste over the period of the EM Accelerated Cleanup Plan. A team of Los Alamos TRU waste generators and waste managers reviewed historic generation rates and thermal loads and current practices to estimate the projected volume and thermal load of TRU waste streams for Fiscal Years 1999--2006. These data defined four major problem TRU waste streams. Estimates were also made of the volume expansion that would be required to meet the permissible wattages for all waste. The four waste streams defined were: (1) {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste from production of Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) with {sup 238}Pu activity which exceeds allowable shipping limits by 10--100X. (2) {sup 241}Am-contaminated cement waste from plutonium recovery processes (nitric and hydrochloric acid recovery) are estimated to exceed thermal limits by {approximately}3X. (3) {sup 239}Pu-contaminated combustible waste, mainly organic waste materials contaminated with {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am, is estimated to exceed thermal load requirements by a factor of {approximately}2X. (4) Oversized metal waste objects, (especially gloveboxes), cannot be shipped as is to WIPP because they will not fit in a standard waste box or drum.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant contact-handled transuranic waste preoperational checkout: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the WIPP CH TRU Preoperational Checkout which was completed between June 8 and June 14, 1988 during which period, a total of 10 TRUPACT shipping containers were processed from site receipt through emplacement of the simulated waste packages in the underground storage area. Since the design of WIPP includes provisions to unload an internally contaminated TRUPACT, in the controlled environment of the Overpack and Repair Room, one TRUPACT was partially processed through this sequence of operations to verify this portion of the waste handling process as part of the checkout. The successful completion of the CH TRU Preoperational Checkout confirmed the acceptability of WIPP operating procedures, personnel, equipment, and techniques. Extrapolation of time-line data using a computer simulation model of the waste handling process has confirmed that WIPP operations can achieve the design throughput capability of 500,000 ft3/year, if required, using two waste handling shifts. The single shift throughput capability of 273,000 ft3/year exceeds the anticipated operating receival rate of about 230,000 ft3/year. At the 230,000 ft3/year rate, the combined CH TRU annual operator dose and the average individual dose (based on minimum crew size) is projected to be 13.7 rem and 0.7 rem, respectively. 6 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Status of microwave process development for RH-TRU [remote-handled transuranic] wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Handling and Packaging Plant is developing a microwave process to reduce and solidify remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) liquids and sludges presently stored in large tanks at ORNL. Testing has recently begun on an in-drum microwave process using nonradioactive RH-TRU surrogates. The microwave process development effort has focused on an in-drum process to dry the RH-TRU liquids and sludges in the final storage container and then melt the salt residues to form a solid monolith. A 1/3-scale proprietary microwave applicator was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the essential features of the microwave design and to provide input into the design of the full-scale applicator. The microwave fields are uniform in one dimension to reduce the formation of hot spots on the microwaved wasteform. The final wasteform meets the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a federal repository for defense transuranic wastes near Carlsbad, New Mexico. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Density, movement, and transuranic tissue inventory of small mammals at a liquid-radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear movement, density, and transuranic radionuclide inventory were estimated for small mammals residing at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii), western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), and Great Basin pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) were the predominant species. The total small mammal population within the 3.0-ha waste area was estimated to be 93. The distance between consecutive captures for all species combined averaged 41 m and ranged from 7 to 201 m. About 30% of the rodents captured inside the waste area were also captured outside its boundaries. The total population inventory of 238Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm was 44 pCi, 30 pCi, 19 pCi, 21 pCi, and <1 pCi, respectively. One-third, or about 35 pCi of transuranics, could be removed from the waste area by small mammals during the summer of 1981. 16 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  16. Current trends for packaging transuranic waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LA-UR-07-4785)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic (TRU) waste leaving the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is packaged using LANL's waste acceptance criteria for onsite storage. Before shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, each payload container is subject to rigorous characterization to ensure compliance with WIPP waste acceptance criteria and Department of Transportation regulations. Techniques used for waste characterization include nondestructive examination by WIPP-certified real-time radiography (RTR) and nondestructive assay (NDA) of containers, as well as headspace gas sampling to ensure hydrogen and other flammable gases remain at safe levels during transport. These techniques are performed under a rigorous quality assurance program to confirm that results are accurate and reproducible. If containers are deemed problematic, corrective action is taken before shipment to WIPP. Currently this activity is possible only at the Laboratory's Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. To minimize additional waste requiring remediation, WIPP waste acceptance criteria must be applied at the point of waste generation. Additional criteria stem from limitations of RTR or NDA instruments or lack of appropriate sampling and analysis. This paper presents the changes that have been implemented at the Plutonium Facility and gives readers a preview of what LANL expects to accomplish to expeditiously certify and dispose of newly generated TRU waste. (authors)

  17. Environmental impact statement for initiation of transuranic waste disposal at the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIPP's long-standing mission is to demonstrate the safe disposal of TRU waste from US defense activities. In 1980, to comply with NEPA, US DOE completed its first environmental impact statement (EIS) which compared impacts of alternatives for TRU waste disposal. Based on this 1980 analysis, DOE decided to construct WIPP in 1981. In a 1990 decision based on examination of alternatives in a 1990 Supplemental EIS, DOE decided to continue WIPP development by proceeding with a testing program to examine WIPP's suitability as a TRU waste repository. Now, as DOE's Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) attempts to complete its regulatory obligations to begin WIPP disposal operations, CAO is developing WIPP's second supplemental EIS (SEIS-II). To complete the SEIS-II, CAO will have to meet a number of challenges. This paper explores both the past and present EISs prepared to evaluate the suitability of WIPP. The challenges in completing an objective comparison of alternatives, while also finalizing other critical-path compliance documents, controlling costs, and keeping stakeholders involved during the decision-making process are addressed

  18. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area - Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Mark Lee

    2002-04-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB. It has the needed binding rate and capacity, but some of the chemical species that might be present in the containers could interfere with its ability to remove hydrogen. This project is focused upon developing a protective polymeric membrane coating for the DEB getter material, which comes in the form of small, irregularly shaped particles. This report summarizes the experimental results of the second phase of the development of the materials.

  19. A proposed alternative approach for protection of inadvertent human intruders from buried Department of Energy low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The burial of radioactive wastes creates a legacy. To limit the impact of this legacy on future generations, we establish and comply with performance objectives. This paper reviews performance objectives for the long-term isolation of buried radioactive wastes; identifies regulatorly-defined performance objectives for protecting the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) from buried low-level radioactive waste (LLW); (3) discusses a shortcoming of the current approach; and (4) offers an alternative approach for protecting the IHI. This alternative approach is written specifically for the burial of US Department of Energy (DOE) wastes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), although the approach might be applied at other DOE burial sites

  20. Waste Generator Instructions: Key to Successful Implementation of the US DOE's 435.1 for Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions (LA-UR-12-24155) - 13218

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In times of continuing fiscal constraints, a management and operation tool that is straightforward to implement, works as advertised, and virtually ensures compliant waste packaging should be carefully considered and employed wherever practicable. In the near future, the Department of Energy (DOE) will issue the first major update to DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This update will contain a requirement for sites that do not have a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste certification program to use two newly developed technical standards: Contact-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions and Remote-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions. The technical standards are being developed from the DOE O 435.1 Notice, Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Packaging, approved August 2011. The packaging instructions will provide detailed information and instruction for packaging almost every conceivable type of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal at WIPP. While providing specificity, the packaging instructions leave to each site's own discretion the actual mechanics of how those Instructions will be functionally implemented at the floor level. While the Technical Standards are designed to provide precise information for compliant packaging, the density of the information in the packaging instructions necessitates a type of Rosetta Stone that translates the requirements into concise, clear, easy to use and operationally practical recipes that are waste stream and facility specific for use by both first line management and hands-on operations personnel. The Waste Generator Instructions provide the operator with step-by-step instructions that will integrate the sites' various operational requirements (e.g., health and safety limits, radiological limits or dose limits) and result in a WIPP certifiable waste and package that can be transported to and emplaced at WIPP. These little known but widely productive Waste

  1. Transuranic Waste Burning Potential of Thorium Fuel in a Fast Reactor - 12423

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Electric Company (referred to as 'Westinghouse' in the rest of this paper) is proposing a 'back-to-front' approach to overcome the stalemate on nuclear waste management in the US. In this approach, requirements to further the societal acceptance of nuclear waste are such that the ultimate health hazard resulting from the waste package is 'as low as reasonably achievable'. Societal acceptability of nuclear waste can be enhanced by reducing the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste, which is currently driven primarily by the protracted radiotoxicity of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Therefore, a transition to a more benign radioactive waste can be accomplished by a fuel cycle capable of consuming the stockpile of TRU 'legacy' waste contained in the LWR Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) while generating waste which is significantly less radio-toxic than that produced by the current open U-based fuel cycle (once through and variations thereof). Investigation of a fast reactor (FR) operating on a thorium-based fuel cycle, as opposed to the traditional uranium-based is performed. Due to a combination between its neutronic properties and its low position in the actinide chain, thorium not only burns the legacy TRU waste, but it does so with a minimal production of 'new' TRUs. The effectiveness of a thorium-based fast reactor to burn legacy TRU and its flexibility to incorporate various fuels and recycle schemes according to the evolving needs of the transmutation scenario have been investigated. Specifically, the potential for a high TRU burning rate, high U-233 generation rate if so desired and low concurrent production of TRU have been used as metrics for the examined cycles. Core physics simulations of a fast reactor core running on thorium-based fuels and burning an external TRU feed supply have been carried out over multiple cycles of irradiation, separation and reprocessing. The TRU burning capability as well as the core isotopic content have been characterized

  2. A Little Here, A Little There, A Fairly Big Problem Everywhere: Small Quantity Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Parker, Douglas Wayne; Moss, J.; Monk, Thomas Hugh; Fritz, Lori Lee; Daugherty, B.; Hladek, K.; Kosiewicx, S.

    2000-03-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far.

  3. A little here, a little there, a fairly big problem everywhere: Small quantity site transuranic waste disposition alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Luke; D. Parker; J. Moss; T. Monk (INEEL); L. Fritz (DOE-ID); B. Daugherty (SRS); K. Hladek (WM Federal Services Hanford); S. Kosiewicx (LANL)

    2000-02-27

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound Laboratory. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far.

  4. Data package format for certified transuranic waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These instructions have been prepared as a reference guide for those personnel responsible for the transmission of the data package to the WIPP. For those sites having automated data processing systems available for use, it should be understood that the shipper's computer system will be used to place the information into the specified format for transmittal. The method of input will, of course, depend upon the particular system being used. Prior to shipment, the shipper's computer system must retrieve the required information for all the packages in that shipment and write the information to an IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer in the data package format. The data package will then be transmitted in ASCII format over the specified communications system to the WIPP Waste Information System (WWIS) using RLINK, which will be furnished by WIPP. Therefore, these instructions are primarily for use by data processing personnel to aid them in programming the system to provide the transmittal information in the data package format. The method to input the data into the shipper's computer system should be determined through a joint effort between the waste generator/shipper and the data processing personnel

  5. Mobile neutron/gamma waste assay system for characterization of waste containing transuranics, uranium, and fission/activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new integrated neutron/gamma assay system has been built for measuring 55-gallon drums at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The system is unique because it allows simultaneous measurement of neutrons and gamma-rays. This technique also allows measurement of transuranics (TRU), uranium, and fission/activation products, screening for shielded Special Nuclear Material prior to disposal, and critically determinations prior to transportation. The new system is positioned on a platform with rollers and installed inside a trailer or large van to allow transportation of the system to the waste site instead of movement of the drums to the scanner. The ability to move the system to the waste drums is particularly useful for drum retrieval programs common to all DOE sites and minimizes transportation problems on the site. For longer campaigns, the system can be moved into a facility. The mobile system consists of two separate subsystems: a passive Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and a open-quotes clam-shellclose quotes passive neutron counter. The SGS with high purity germanium detector and 75Se transmission source simultaneously scan the height of the drum allowing identification of unshieled open-quotes hot spotsclose quotes in the drum or segments where the matrix is too dense for the transmission source to penetrate. Dense segments can flag shielding material that could be used to hide plutonium or uranium during the gamma analysis. The passive nuetron counter with JSR-12N Neutron Coincidence Analyzer measures the coincident neutrons from the spontaneous fission of even isotopes of plutonium. Because high-density shielding produces minimal absorption of neutrons, compared to gamma rays, the passive neutron portion of the system can detect shielded SNM. Measurements to evaluate the performance of the system are still underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  6. Assessment of degradation concerns for spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes in monitored retrievalbe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been concluded that there are no significant degradation mechanisms that could prevent the design, construction, and safe operation of monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facilities. However, there are some long-term degradation mechanisms that could affect the ability to maintain or readily retrieve spent fuel (SF), high-level wastes (HLW), and transuranic wastes (TRUW) several decades after emplacement. Although catastrophic failures are not anticipated, long-term degradation mechanisms have been identified that could, under certain conditions, cause failure of the SF cladding and/or failure of TRUW storage containers. Stress rupture limits for Zircaloy-clad SF in MRS range from 300 to 4400C, based on limited data. Additional tests on irradiated Zircaloy (3- to 5-year duration) are needed to narrow this uncertainty. Cladding defect sizes could increase in air as a result of fuel density decreases due to oxidation. Oxidation tests (3- to 5-year duration) on SF are also needed to verify oxidation rates in air and to determine temperatures below which monitoring of an inert cover gas would not be required. Few, if any, changes in the physical state of HLW glass or canisters or their performance would occur under projected MRS conditions. The major uncertainty for HLW is in the heat transfer through cracked glass and glass devitrification above 5000C. Additional study of TRUW is required. Some fraction of present TRUW containers would probably fail within the first 100 years of MRS, and some TRUW would be highly degraded upon retrieval, even in unfailed containers. One possible solution is the design of a 100-year container. 93 references, 28 figures, 17 tables

  7. Transuranic radionuclides in the environment surrounding radioactive waste diposal sites, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, A.C.; Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Jones, H.E.; Kehl, S.; Stuart, M.L.; Wasley, L.M.; Bradsher, R.V. [and others

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e. site specific). An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. In an attempt to gather relevant information about the transuranic radionuclides in a variety of environments, we conducted an extensive literature search. In our literature search we identified over 5700 potential written sources of information for review. In addition, we have identified many references which were not found through the literature searches, but which were known to contain useful data. A total of approximately 2600 documents were determined to contain information which would be useful for an in depth study of radionuclides in different environments. The journal articles, books, reports and other documents were reviewed to obtain the source term of the radionuclides studied. Most references containing laboratory study data were not included in our databases. Although these may contain valuable data, we were trying to compile references with information on the behavior of the transuranics in the specific environment being studied.

  8. Supplement analysis of transuranic waste characterization and repackaging activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supplement analysis has been prepared to describe new information relevant to waste retrieval, handling, and characterization at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and to evaluate the need for additional documentation to satisfy the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The INEL proposes to characterize and repackage contact-handled transuranic waste to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Test Phase. Waste retrieval, handling and processing activities in support of test phase activities at the WIPP were addressed in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the WIPP. To ensure that test-phase wastes are properly characterized and packaged, waste containers would be retrieved, nondestructively examined, and transported from the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) to the Hot-Fuel Examination Facility for headspace gas analysis, visual inspections to verify content code, and waste acceptance criteria compliance, then repackaging into WIPP experimental test bins or returned to drums. Following repackaging the characterized wastes would be returned to the RWMC. Waste characterization would help DOE determine WIPP compliance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing disposal of transuranic waste and hazardous waste. Additionally, this program supports onsite compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, compliance with the terms of the No-Migration Variance at WIPP, and provides data to support future waste shipments to WIPP. This analysis will help DOE determine whether there have been substantial changes made to the proposed action at the INEL, or if preparation of a supplement to the WIPP Final Environmental Impact Statement (DOE, 1980) and SEIS (DOE, 1990a) is required. This analysis is based on current information and includes details not available to the SEIS

  9. Conceptual design of retrieval systems for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have jurisdiction over the nuclear waste management program. Design studies were previously made of proposed repository site configurations for the receiving, processing, and storage of nuclear wastes. However, these studies did not provide operational designs that were suitable for highly reliable TRU retrieval in the deep geologic salt environment for the required 60-year period. The purpose of this report is to develop a conceptual design of a baseline retrieval system for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. The conceptual design is to serve as a working model for the analysis of the performance available from the current state-of-the-art equipment and systems. Suggested regulations would be based upon the results of the performance analyses

  10. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  11. Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister Categories of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is a settlement agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister categories; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and potential issues in retrieval and processing of the waste containers.

  12. The implications of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] regulation for the disposal of transuranic and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May of 1987 the Department of Energy (DOE) published a rule interpreting the definition of ''byproduct'' under the Atomic Energy Act. This byproduct rule clarified the role of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in the regulation of DOE's radioactive waste management activities. According to the rule, only the radioactive portion of DOE's mixed radioactive and hazardous waste (mixed waste), including mixed transuranic (TRU) and high-level waste (HLW), is exempt from RCRA under the byproduct exemption. The portion of a waste that is hazardous as defined by RCRA is subject to full regulation under RCRA. Because the radioactive and hazardous portions of m any, if not most, DOE wastes are likely to be inseparable, the rule in effect makes most mixed wastes subject to dual regulation. The potential application of RCRA to facilities such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the HLW repository creates unique challenges for both the DOE and regulatory authorities. Strategies must be developed to assure compliance with RCRA without either causing excessive administrative burdens or abandoning the goal of minimizing radiation exposure. This paper will explore some of the potential regulatory options for and recent trends in the regulation of TRU and HLW under RCRA

  13. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using in-situ decontamination techniques to convert glove boxes and other large TRU-contaminated components directly into LLW. The results of the technical evaluation indicate that in-situ decontamination of these types of components to non-TRU levels is technically feasible. Applicable decontamination techniques include electropolishing, hand scrubbing, chemical washes/sprays, strippable coatings and Freon spray-cleaning. The removal of contamination from crevices and other holdup areas remains a problem, but may be solved through further advances in decontamination technology. Also, the increase in the allowable maximum TRU level from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g as defined in DOE Order 5820.2 reduces the removal requirement and facilitates measurement of the remaining quantities. The major emphasis of the study was on a cost/benefit evaluation that included a review and update of previous analyses and evaluations of TRU-waste volume reduction and conversion options. The results of the economic evaluation show, for the assumptions used, that there is a definite cost incentive to size reduce large components, and that decontamination of sectioned material has become cost competitive with the size reduction options. In-situ decontamination appears to be the lowest cost option when based on routine-type operations conducted by well-trained and properly equipped personnel. 16 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  14. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters

  15. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-21

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters.

  16. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration fiscal Year 1994 close-out report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management needs and objectives. BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development initiated BMD at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID program during Fiscal Year 1994. In Fiscal Year 1995, these activities are transitioning into the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area

  17. Development of robotics technology for remote characterization and remediationof buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection, characterization, and excavation of buried objects and materials are important steps in the restoration of subsurface disposal sites. The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its Buried Waste Robotics Program, is developing a Remote Characterization System (RCS) to address the needs of remote subsurface characterization and, in a joint program with the US Army, is developing a teleoperated excavator. Development of the RCS is based on recent DOE remote characterization testing and demonstrations performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The RCS, which will be developed and refined over a two- to three-year period, is designed to (1) increase safety by removing on-site personnel from hazardous areas, (2) remotely acquire real-time data from multiple sensors, (3) increase cost-effectiveness and productivity by partial automation of the data collection process and by gathering and evaluating data from multiple sensors in real time, and (4) reduce costs for other waste-related development programs through joint development efforts and reusable standardized subsystems. For retrieval of characterized waste, the Small Emplacement Excavator, an existing US Army backhoe that is being converted to teleoperated control, will be used to demonstrate the feasibility of retrofitting commercial equipment for high-performance remote operations

  18. Radiation and Electromagnetic Induction Data Fusion for Detection of Buried Radioactive Metal Waste - 12282

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the United States Army's test sites, fired penetrators made of Depleted Uranium (DU) have been buried under ground and become hazardous waste. Previously, we developed techniques for detecting buried radioactive targets. We also developed approaches for locating buried paramagnetic metal objects by utilizing the electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor data. In this paper, we apply data fusion techniques to combine results from both the radiation detection and the EMI detection, so that we can further distinguish among DU penetrators, DU oxide, and non- DU metal debris. We develop a two-step fusion approach for the task, and test it with survey data collected on simulation targets. In this work, we explored radiation and EMI data fusion for detecting DU, oxides, and non-DU metals. We developed a two-step fusion approach based on majority voting and a set of decision rules. With this approach, we fuse results from radiation detection based on the RX algorithm and EMI detection based on a 3-step analysis. Our fusion approach has been tested successfully with data collected on simulation targets. In the future, we will need to further verify the effectiveness of this fusion approach with field data. (authors)

  19. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  20. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs

  1. Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment

  2. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford waste via hydrothermal processing -- FY 1994/95 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating and developing organic destruction technologies that may be incorporated into the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) to treat Hanford tank waste. Organic (and ferrocyanide) destruction removes the compounds responsible for waste safety issues, and conditions the supernatant for low-level waste disposal by removing compounds that may be responsible for promoting strontium and transuranic (TRU) components solubility. Destruction or defunctionalization of complexing organics in tank wastes eliminates organic species that can reduce the efficiency of radionuclide (E.g., 90Sr) separation processes, such as ion exchange, solvent extraction, and precipitation. The technologies being evaluated and tested for organic destruction are low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) and wet air oxidation (WAO). Four activities are described: Batch HTP/WAO testing with Actual Tank Waste (Section 3.0), Batch HTP Testing with Simulant (Section 4.0), Batch WAO testing with Simulant (Section 5.0), and Continuous Bench-scale WAO Testing with Simulant (Section 6.0). For each of these activities, the objectives, test approach, results, status, and direction of future investigations are discussed. The background and history of the HTP/WAO technology is summarized below. Conclusions and Recommendations are provided in Section 2.0. A continuous HTP off-gas safety evaluation conducted in FY 1994 is included as Appendix A

  3. Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment.

  4. Treatment of simulated INEL buried wastes using a graphite electrode DC arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program has been established under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD), to develop the graphite electrode DC arc technology for the application of treating buried heterogenous solid wastes. A three way open-quotes National Laboratory-University-Industryclose quotes partnership was formed to develop this technology in the most timely and cost effective manner. This program is presently testing a newly fabricated pilot-scale DC arc furnace with associated diagnostics at the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Initial testing in a smaller engineering scale furnace has established the viability of this technology for the treatment of solid heterogeneous wastes. Two diagnostic tools were developed under this program which support the evaluation of the DC arc technology. The diagnostics provide for both spatially resolved temperature measurements within the furnace and real time monitoring of the furnace metal emissions

  5. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Commercialization Action Plans second quarter, FY-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Government is extremely good at creating knowledge and developing new technology. However, our declining market share in many industries points to a weakness in our ability to successfully commercialize new discoveries. BWID assembled a team of qualified experts with expertise in technology transfer and broad-based technology knowledge to assist with this effort. Five new technologies were chosen to develop commercialization action plans. They include Dig-Face Characterization, Imaging Infrared Interferometer for Waste Characterization, Tensor Magnetic Gradiometer, Very Early Time Electromagnetic System, and Virtual Environment Generation of Buried Waste. Each plan includes a short description of the technology, a market overview, a list of potential customers, a description of competitors and the technology's competitive advantage, the status of intellectual property, the status of technology transfer, a table of action items, commercialization contacts, and program contacts

  6. The principles of burying radioactive waste: basic physical and thermomechanical properties of geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a review of the various types of radioactive wastes (short and long lives), the principles of radioactive waste storage in geologic structures are detailed: water is the main vector of migration so radionuclides are buried at depth within a medium of very low permeability and hydraulic gradient; the geological medium must retain its integrity during all the duration of their activity; its very age is obviously the guarantee of its future, but tectonic movements, erosion, climate must not deteriorate it in any way nor break down its structure. The thermomechanical effects are examined for each host medium such as plastic media (salt, clay) and brittle media (granite, shale) with an estimation of the long term and very long term rheological properties. 4 figs., 1 tab., 21 refs

  7. Application of real-time radioscopy and digital imaging to the examination of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kurt L.; Stanley, Clifford J.

    1999-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex, located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), contains facilities and equipment to manage and characterize transuranic radioactive waste generated primarily at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Laboratory and currently stored at the INEEL. The facility, referred to as the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant, provides space for the systems that characterize and certify the various waste forms for shipping and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. This paper describes the processes and instrumentation used in the nondestructive examination of the TRU waste 55-gal drums.

  8. A comprehensive inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the INEL RWMC during the years 1984-2003, Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third volume of this comprehensive report of the inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains a complete printout of contaminant inventory and other information from the CIDRA Database and is presented in volumes 2 and 3 of the report

  9. A comprehensive inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the INEL RWMC during the years 1984-2003, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second volume of this comprehensive report of the inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains a complete printout of contaminant inventory and other information from the CIDRA Database and is presented in volumes 2 and 3 of the report

  10. Radiological risk assessment for the remote-handled transuranic waste storage options at Argonne National Laboratory - East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interim storage of the remote-handled transuranic (RH/TRU) waste is needed at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). Two on-site facilities, the northwest (NW) vaults in the 317 Area and the converted spent nuclear fuel pool in Building 331, were identified as potential storage locations through previous studies. To assist the decision making process of selecting a storage location, radiological risk assessments were conducted to analyze potential radiation exposures that would be associated with storage of the RH/TRU waste in these two facilities. Three drum storage scenarios (one for the 317 Area and two for Building 331) considering different drum handling procedures and stacking patterns were developed. Time-motion information on worker activities that would occur in the procedures was collected and recorded in spreadsheets. Using the time-motion information, potential external doses were estimated for the involved workers for each step in the procedures. The sum of the potential external doses over all the activity steps gave the total collective dose for each scenario. The results show that during the storage phase, storing waste drums in half-liners in Building 331 would result in the lowest collective radiation exposure; however, it would also require the most human resources. When retrieving waste drums for off-site shipment was considered, storing waste drums in the 317 Area would be the most favorable option because it would require the least amount of human resources and would also result in the lowest collective radiation exposure

  11. Innovative technologies for the remediation of transuranic-contaminated landfills. Appendix 13: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic-Contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Programme, formerly the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Programme, was organized by the Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, to (a) manage the development of emerging technologies that could be successfully applied to remediation and (b) promote the use of these technologies to improve environmental restoration and waste management operations for transuranic-contaminated landfills in arid environments. Implementing the Transuranic-Contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Programme involved three key strategies: 1) A systems engineering approach was used to include an overall perspective of the entire remediation process; 2) State-of-the-art science and technology were sought for improving the remediation system; 3) Integrated product teams which were comprised of end users, regulators, stakeholders, as well as industry partners were formed

  12. National transuranic program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of various program initiatives, the U.S. generated and will continue to generate waste contaminated with radioactive materials. Because of increased awareness of the risks and special requirements to safely manage long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides, a new category of radioactive waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, was adopted in 1970. Heads of Field Elements can determine that other alpha-contaminated wastes, peculiar to a specific site, must be managed as transuranic wasteclose quotes. TRU waste is generated and stored at various DOE sites around the country. In December 1993, the National Transuranic Program Office (NTPO) was established as part of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to integrate and coordinate the diverse organizational elements that contribute to the complex-wide management of TRU waste. Numerous sites with small TRU waste inventories are also part of the national TRU waste system. The majority of TRU waste is also contaminated with hazardous materials and is thus considered mixed waste. Mixed waste must be managed in compliance with all federal, state, and local regulations that are applicable to the radioactive and/or hazardous component of the waste. Each generator site is responsible for the management of its respective waste. Sites must plan and implement programs to minimize, characterize, package, treat, store, ship, and dispose of all TRU waste; construct required waste management facilities and equipment; obtain permits; perform site-specific National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses; conduct environmental studies; perform laboratory analyses; and certify that waste meets appropriate disposal facility criteria. Due to the toxicity and long half-lives of TRU radionuclides, TRU waste must be disposed in a manner that offers greater confinement than shallow land burial

  13. A remote characterization system for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapping of buried objects and regions of chemical and radiological contamination is required at US Department of Energy (DOE) buried waste sites. The DOE Office of Technology Development Robotics Integrated Program has initiated a project to develop and demonstrate a remotely controlled subsurface sensing system, called the Remote Characterization System (RCS). This project, a collaborative effort by five of the National Laboratories, involves the development of a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface. To minimize interference with on-board sensors, the survey vehicle has been constructed predominatantly of non-metallic materials. The vehicle is self-propelled and will be guided by an operator located at a remote base station. The RCS sensors will be environmentally sealed and internally cooled to preclude contamination during use. Ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, and conductivity devices are planned for geophysical surveys. Chemical and radiological sensors will be provided to locate hot spots and to provide isotopic concentration data

  14. New Mexico environmental evaluation group perspectives on proposed EPA high-level and transuranic waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) performs independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project, a federal repository intended for permanent disposal of defense transuranic (TRU) waste. WIPP has to comply with the same disposal standards as the high level nuclear waste repository but will not be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These standards, promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1985, were vacated in 1987 and are being revised for repromulgation. EEG took an active role in the initial development of the standards and is doing so in the repromulgation process as well, to ensure adequate protection of the public health and safety for the people of New Mexico. We would like to see the repromulgated standards contain adequate consideration of the possibility of human intrusion since WIPP is underlain by oil, gas and potash resources; resolve the issue of an appropriate TRU unit comparable to 1,000 MTHM of spent fuel; contain specific requirements for container life, waste form and other engineered barriers; retain the conservatism in the probabilistic assessment; and be repromulgated as soon as possible. (author)

  15. Technical report for a fluidless directional drilling system demonstrated at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 shallow buried waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the research was to demonstrate a fluidless directional drilling and monitoring system (FDD) specifically tailored to address environmental drilling concerns for shallow buried wasted. The major concerns are related to worker exposure, minimizing waste generation, and confining the spread of contamination. The FDD is potentially applicable to Environmental Restoration (ER) activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Area Grouping 6 (WAG 6) shallow buried waste disposed in unlined trenches. Major ER activities for directional drilling are to develop a drilling system for leachate collection directly beneath trenches, and to provide localized control over leachate release to the environment. Other ER FDD activities could include vadose zone and groundwater monitoring of contaminant transport. The operational constraints pointed the research in the direction of purchasing a steerable impact hammer, or mole, manufactured by Steer-Rite Ltd. of Racine, Wisconsin. This drill was selected due to the very low cost ($25,000) associated with procuring the drill, steering module, instrumentation and service lines. The impact hammer is a self propelled drill which penetrates the soil by compacting cut material along the sidewalls of the borehole. Essentially, it forces its way through the subsurface. Although the pneumatic hammer exhausts compressed air which must be handled at the borehole collar, it does not generate soil cuttings or liquids. This is the basis for the term fluidless. A stub casing muffler was attached to the entrance hole for controlling exhaust gas and any airborne releases. Other environmental compliance modifications made to the equipment included operating the tool without lubrication, and using water instead of hydraulic fluid to actuate the steering fins on the tool.

  16. Technical report for a fluidless directional drilling system demonstrated at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 shallow buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research was to demonstrate a fluidless directional drilling and monitoring system (FDD) specifically tailored to address environmental drilling concerns for shallow buried wasted. The major concerns are related to worker exposure, minimizing waste generation, and confining the spread of contamination. The FDD is potentially applicable to Environmental Restoration (ER) activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Area Grouping 6 (WAG 6) shallow buried waste disposed in unlined trenches. Major ER activities for directional drilling are to develop a drilling system for leachate collection directly beneath trenches, and to provide localized control over leachate release to the environment. Other ER FDD activities could include vadose zone and groundwater monitoring of contaminant transport. The operational constraints pointed the research in the direction of purchasing a steerable impact hammer, or mole, manufactured by Steer-Rite Ltd. of Racine, Wisconsin. This drill was selected due to the very low cost ($25,000) associated with procuring the drill, steering module, instrumentation and service lines. The impact hammer is a self propelled drill which penetrates the soil by compacting cut material along the sidewalls of the borehole. Essentially, it forces its way through the subsurface. Although the pneumatic hammer exhausts compressed air which must be handled at the borehole collar, it does not generate soil cuttings or liquids. This is the basis for the term fluidless. A stub casing muffler was attached to the entrance hole for controlling exhaust gas and any airborne releases. Other environmental compliance modifications made to the equipment included operating the tool without lubrication, and using water instead of hydraulic fluid to actuate the steering fins on the tool

  17. Sampling and analysis validates acceptable knowledge on LANL transuranic, heterogeneous, debris waste, or ''Cutting the Gordian knot that binds WIPP''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through sampling and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analyses, LANL and the DOE validated that a LANL transuranic (TRU) waste (TA-55-43, Lot No. 01) was not a Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) hazardous waste. This paper describes the sampling and analysis project as well as the statistical assessment of the analytical results. The analyses were conducted according to the requirements and procedures in the sampling and analysis plan approved by the New Mexico Environmental Department. The plan used a statistical approach that was consistent with the stratified, random sampling requirements of SW-846. LANL adhered to the plan during sampling and chemical analysis of randomly selected items of the five major types of materials in this heterogeneous, radioactive, debris waste. To generate portions of the plan, LANL analyzed a number of non-radioactive items that were representative of the mix of items present in the waste stream. Data from these cold surrogates were used to generate means and variances needed to optimize the design. Based on statistical arguments alone, only two samples from the entire waste stream were deemed necessary, however a decision was made to analyze at least two samples of each of the five major waste types. To obtain these samples, nine TRU waste drums were opened. Sixty-six radioactively contaminated and four non-radioactive grab samples were collected. Portions of the samples were composited for chemical analyses. In addition, a radioactively contaminated sample of rust-colored powder of interest to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) was collected and qualitatively identified as rust

  18. Hybrid systems for transuranic waste transmutation in nuclear power reactors: state of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features of subcritical hybrid systems (HSs) are discussed in the context of burning up transuranic wastes from the U-Pu nuclear fuel cycle. The advantages of HSs over conventional atomic reactors are considered, and fuel cycle closure alternatives using HSs and fast neutron reactors are comparatively evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of two HS types with neutron sources (NSs) of widely different natures -- nuclear spallation in a heavy target by protons and nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasma -- are discussed in detail. The strengths and weaknesses of HSs are examined, and demand for them for closing the U-Pu nuclear fuel cycle is assessed. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  19. Graphite electrode dc arc technology development for treatment of buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ''National Laboratory-University-Industrial'' three-way partnership has been established between the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. (EPI) to develop graphite electrode DC arc technology for the treatment of buried wastes. This paper outlines the PNL-MIT-EPI program describing a series of engineering-scale DC arc furnace tests conducted in an EPI furnace at the Plasma Fusion Center at MIT, and a description of the second phase of this program involving the design, fabrication, and testing of a pilot-scale DC arc furnace. Included in this work is the development and implementation of diagnostics to evaluate and optimize high temperature thermal processes such as the DC arc technology

  20. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites

  1. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, T.L.; Lay, A.C.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1999-05-01

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites.

  2. Hydraulic and thermal properties of soil samples from the buried waste test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In shallow land burial, the most common disposal method for low-level waste, waste containers are placed in shallow trenches and covered with natural sediment material. To design such a facility requires an in-depth understanding of the infiltration and evaporation processes taking place at the soil surface and the effect these processes have on the amount of water cycling through a burial zone. At the DOE Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, a field installation called the Buried Waste Test Facility (BWTF) has been constructed to study unsaturated soil water and contaminant transport. PNL is collecting data at the BWTF to help explain soil water movement at shallow depths, and specifically evaporation from bare sols. The data presented here represent the initial phase of a cooperative effort between PNL and Washington State University to use data collected at the BWFT to study the evaporated process and how it relates to the design of shallow land burial grounds. The method of chthe fraction of a specific element leached can be determined al half-lives with experimental ones, over a range of 24 orders of magnitude was obtained. This is a strong argument that the alpha decay could be considered a fission process with very high mass asymmetry and charge density asymmetry

  3. National Transuranic Program Charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Transuranic Program Plan and Charter describes the functional elements of the National TRU Program, organizational relationships, programmatic responsibilities, division of work scope among the various DOE organizations that comprise the program, and program baselines against which overall progress will be measured. The charter defines the authorities and responsibilities of various organizations involved in the management of TRU waste throughout the DOE complex

  4. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that date are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed.

  5. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that data are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed

  6. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that date are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed

  7. Key issues identified from project TRU-2 on the generic co-location concept of transuranic (TRU) waste and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federation of the Electric Power Companies of Japan (FEPC) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have been collaborating with relevant organisations to promote the safe geological disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste following the already established disposal policy for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan. A result of this intensive collaborative effort was the production of a recent progress report (TRU-2) which describes the generic R and D for TRU-waste disposal in Japan. In order to improve feasibility and reduce costs and the burden on siting, the concept of co-locating TRU-waste and HLW repositories in a single complex was assessed in detail and compared with the results from several other countries that have also looked at co-location disposal. Heat from HLW, high pH plume(s) from the large amounts of cementitious materials used in the engineered barrier system (EBS) of TRU waste, and nitrates and organic materials in certain types of TRU waste were identified as critical reciprocal influences that might degrade the performance of the TRU/HLW co-location disposal system over the long-term. It was shown that these reciprocal influences could be avoided by establishing a separation distance between the two repositories of approximately 300 meters. (authors)

  8. Environmental assessment of the shipment of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's contact-handled transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a strategy to end interim storage of transuranic (TRU) waste generated in defense activities and to permanently dispose of TRU waste in an effective manner. The strategy requires that retrievable stored and newly generated TRU waste be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This environmental assessment (EA) is prepared to satisfy requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. It shall be used by DOE to determine whether preparation of an environmental impact statement for this action will be necessary or whether a finding of no significant impact will result. The principal environmental benefit that will result from the proposed action is the permanent disposal of retrievable stored and newly generated ORNL CH-TRU waste in a deep-mined geologic repository. In conclusion, the radiological impact to the population from transporting CH-TRU waste from ORNL to WIPP is considered insignificant. 28 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs

  9. PERFORMANCE OF A BURIED RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS AFTER 24 YEARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Daniel Kaplan, D; Ned Bibler, N; David Peeler, D; John Plodinec, J

    2008-05-05

    A radioactive high level waste glass was made in 1980 with Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 15 waste. This glass was buried in the SRS burial ground for 24 years but lysimeter data was only available for the first 8 years. The glass was exhumed and analyzed in 2004. The glass was predicted to be very durable and laboratory tests confirmed the durability response. The laboratory results indicated that the glass was very durable as did analysis of the lysimeter data. Scanning electron microscopy of the glass burial surface showed no significant glass alteration consistent with the results of the laboratory and field tests. No detectable Pu, Am, Cm, Np, or Ru leached from the glass into the surrounding sediment. Leaching of {beta}/{delta} from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the glass was diffusion controlled. Less than 0.5% of the Cs and Sr in the glass leached into the surrounding sediment, with >99% of the leached radionuclides remaining within 8 centimeters of the glass pellet.

  10. Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with barriers in the vadose zone surrounding buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. The barrier material should be compatible with soil and waste conditions specific to the site and have as low an effective diffusivity as is reasonably achievable to minimize or inhibit transport of moisture and contaminants. This report addresses the regulatory issues associated with the use of non-traditional organic polymer barriers as well as the use of soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers, considering barriers constructed from these latter materials to be a regulatory baseline. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of such barriers to the EPA as a method for achieving site or performanceimprovement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used

  11. On the road to WIPP: Or remote packaging of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hot Cell facility, highly productive programs in reactor research spanning three decades have generated appreciable quantities of legacy waste. Hot cell capability had become virtually useless due to the storage of this waste. As a result of concentrated efforts by LANL staff, in cooperation with Westinghouse Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a solution was arrived at that allowed the facility to become productive once again. Equipment has been designed and fabricated to remotely handle 55-gal. waste drums, load waste canisters, perform canister weld closure, leak test welds, grapple the waste canister and transport the canister to an interim storage site. It is our contention that the technology and acquired equipment produced from this effort should be used to further benefit other DOE sites

  12. Development of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence as a mobile analysis method for hazardous metals in transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a widely applied technique for both laboratory and field-based characterization of metals in complex matrices. Here an EDXRF method is described for analysis of 13 hazardous (RCRA) metals in Portland cement, a typical matrix for transuranic (TRU) waste from US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Samples are analyzed as homogeneous powders prepared by simple drying, mixing, and milling. Analyses are performed using a commercial EDXRF spectrometer equipped with an X-ray tube, a high-resolution Si(Li) detector, and fundamental parameters software for data reduction. The spectrometer is rugged and suitable for use in either mobile or fixed-based laboratories. Standardization is accomplished using fundamental parameters techniques for several prepared standards which bracket the expected range in metal concentrations, and typical standardization uncertainties are < 10%. Detection limits range from 2--20 ppm and meet required action levels with a few exceptions including Be, Hg and V. Accuracy is evaluated from a series of unknown quality control samples and ranges from 85--102%, whereas the total method uncertainty is typically < 10%. Consequently, this simple, rapid, and inexpensive technique can provide quantitative characterization of virtually all of the RCRA metals in TRU waste cement samples

  13. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of nature's laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia

  14. Glovebox design requirements for molten salt oxidation processing of transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Acosta, S.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wernly, K.D. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp., Bensalem, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) provides a method for removing greater than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible waste. Implementation of MSO processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and consequently reduce the cost of TRU waste disposal operations at LANL. The glovebox design requirements for unit operations including size reduction and MSO processing will be presented.

  15. Glovebox design requirements for molten salt oxidation processing of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated combustible waste. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) provides a method for removing greater than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible waste. Implementation of MSO processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility will eliminate the combustible matrix from 238Pu-contaminated waste and consequently reduce the cost of TRU waste disposal operations at LANL. The glovebox design requirements for unit operations including size reduction and MSO processing will be presented

  16. Public and worker safety issues concerning the movement of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With nuclear power, nuclear research, and nuclear weapons comes the byproducts of this technology - Nuclear Waste. Safety dictates that this waste must be protected as it is potentially hazardous to the public. As part of a long term solution, safe movement of nuclear waste must be conducted. A number of very important issues must be addressed in order to assuage public fears that movement of potentially dangerous materials can indeed be conducted on a safe and reasonable basis. The alternative is that nuclear waste will continue to be stored in interim devices with no adequate long term storage solutions

  17. New Payload Initiatives for Shipments to WIPP Will Expand DoE's Ability to Dispose of Transuranic Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the same RH-72B canister-based system currently employed at WIPP. DOE is evaluating the possible packaging of neutron-emitting RH waste streams in either 57 liter (15 gallon) or 114 liter (30 gallon) drums and shipping them inside a nominal RH canister configured with a high density polyethylene (HDPE) 'sleeve' inside. Commercially available thick-walled HDPE tubing could be used to manufacture the sleeves. End-cap inserts (also made of HDPE) would provide neutron shielding for pathways out the axial ends of the canister. This paper describes the neutron-shielded canister design and possible testing, as well as the regulatory approach that would be used to meet the requirements that apply to WIPP and its associated transportation system. This paper also describes the candidate neutron-emitting RH transuranic waste inventory that could be packaged and disposed in neutron-shielded canisters. Finally, the status of another packaging initiative, called the TRUPACT-III, which has been in development for several years, is reported in this paper. The TRUPACT-III, a rectangular shipping container also currently under review by the NRC, is a Type B package that will be used to ship boxes too large to fit in the TRUPACT-II. DOE proposes to over-pack existing fiberglass, plastic, and even wooden boxes into large over-pack containers, referred to as Standard Large Boxes (SLB-2). The SLB-2 over-pack containers will be shipped to WIPP in the TRUPACT-III, unloaded just like other payload containers, and emplaced in the WIPP underground as contact handled TRU waste. (authors)

  18. Report on the emergency response training and equipment activities through fiscal year 1992 for the transportation of transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility with the mission of demonstrating the safe shipment, emplacement, and retrieval of radioactive transuranic (TRU) wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States. It is the only long-term storage facility constructed for TRU waste. This report provides the status on the Department of Energy (DOE) efforts as of September 30, 1992, regarding emergency response training provided to local, state, and tribal governments for waste shipments to the WIPP, as required by section 16(c)(1)(A) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (Public Law 102-579). This is an update to the April 1992 report (DOE/WIPP 92003) which provided status through 1991. This report will be updated and issued annually. Because of a growing public awareness of transportation-activities involving nuclear materials, this report was prepared to provide a status of the DOE's activities in this regard, as well as the cooperative efforts between the DOE and state and tribal governments

  19. Gamma-ray spectrometry combined with acceptable knowledge (GSAK). A technique for characterization of certain remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. Part 1. Methodology and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray spectrometry combined with acceptable knowledge (GSAK) is a technique for the characterization of certain remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. GSAK uses gamma-ray spectrometry to quantify a portion of the fission product inventory of RH-TRU wastes. These fission product results are then coupled with calculated inventories derived from acceptable process knowledge to characterize the radionuclide content of the assayed wastes. GSAK has been evaluated and tested through several test exercises. GSAK approach is described, while test results are presented in Part II. (author)

  20. Gamma-ray spectrometry combined with acceptable knowledge (GSAK). A technique for characterization of certain remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. Part 2. Testing and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray spectrometry combined with acceptable knowledge (GSAK) is a technique for the characterization of certain remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. GSAK uses gamma-ray spectrometry to quantify a portion of the fission product inventory of RH-TRU wastes. These fission product results are then coupled with calculated inventories derived from acceptable process knowledge to characterize the radionuclide content of the assayed wastes. GSAK has been evaluated and tested through several test exercises. These tests and their results are described; while the former paper in this issue presents the methodology, equipment and techniques. (author)

  1. Potential microbial impact on transuranic wastes under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous results were confirmed showing elevated frequencies of radiation-resistant bacteria in microorganisms isolated from shallow transuranic (TRU) burial soil that exhibits nanocurie levels of beta and gamma radioactivity. Research to determine whether plutonium could be methylated by the microbially produced methyl donor, methylcobalamine, was terminated when literature and consulting radiochemists confirmed that other alkylated transuranic elements are extremely short-lived in the presence of oxygen. Emphasis was placed on investigation of the dissolution of plutonium dioxide by complex formation between plutonium and a polyhydroxamate chelate similar to that produced by microorganisms. New chromatographic and spectrophotometric evidence supports previous results showing enhanced dissolution of alpha radioactivity when 239Pu dioxide was mixed with the chelate Desferol. Microbial degradation studies of citrate, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), and nitrilo triacetate (NTA) chelates of europium are in progress. Current results are summarized. All of the chelates were found to degrade. The average half-life for citrate, NTA, and EDTA was 3.2, 8.0, and 28 years, respectively. Microbial CO2 generation is also in progress in 72 tests on several waste matrices under potential WIPP isolation conditions. The mean rate of gas generation was 5.97 μg CO2/g waste/day. Increasing temperature increased rates of microbial gas generation across treatments of brine, varying water content, nutrient additions, and anaerobic conditions. No microbial growth was detected in experiments to enumerate and identify the microorganisms in rocksalt cores from the proposed WIPP site. This report contains the year's research results and recommendations derived for the design of safe storage of TRU wastes under geologic repository conditions

  2. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 160 grams (8). The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 gkc. PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 3 18 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. The GEA system design density correction macroscopic absorption cross section table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type

  3. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-10-20

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: (1) The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. (2) Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 200 grams (g). (3) The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. (4) PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 g/cc. (5) PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 318 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. (6) The GEA system design density correction mass absorption coefficient table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. (7) Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  4. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-05-22

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 160 grams (8). The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 gkc. PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 3 18 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. The GEA system design density correction macroscopic absorption cross section table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  5. Integrated process analyses studies on mixed low level and transuranic wastes. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Options for integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low-level waste (MLLW) are compared such as total life cycle cost (TLCC), cost sensitivities, risk, energy requirements, final waste volume, and aqueous and gaseous effluents. The comparisons were derived by requiring all conceptual systems to treat the same composition of waste with the same operating efficiency. Thus, results can be used as a general guideline for the selection of treatment and disposal concepts. However, specific applications of individual systems will require further analysis. The potential for cost saving options and the research and development opportunities are summarized.

  6. Integrated process analyses studies on mixed low level and transuranic wastes. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Options for integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low-level waste (MLLW) are compared such as total life cycle cost (TLCC), cost sensitivities, risk, energy requirements, final waste volume, and aqueous and gaseous effluents. The comparisons were derived by requiring all conceptual systems to treat the same composition of waste with the same operating efficiency. Thus, results can be used as a general guideline for the selection of treatment and disposal concepts. However, specific applications of individual systems will require further analysis. The potential for cost saving options and the research and development opportunities are summarized

  7. Pre-title I safety evaluation for the retrieval operations of transuranic waste drums in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase I of the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Facility Line Item Project includes the retrieval and safe storage of the pad drums that are stored on TRU pads 2-6 in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF). Drums containing TRU waste were placed on these pads as early as 1974. The pads, once filled, were mounded with soil. The retrieval activities will include the excavation of the soil, retrieval of the pad drums, placing the drums in overpacks (if necessary) and venting and purging the retrieved drums. Once the drums have been vented and purged, they will be transported to other pads within the SWDF or in a designated area until they are eventually treated as necessary for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This safety evaluation provides a bounding assessment of the radiological risk involved with the drum retrieval activities to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker. The results of the analysis indicate that the risk to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker using maximum frequencies and maximum consequences are within the acceptance criteria defined in WSRC Procedural Manual 9Q. The purpose of this evaluation is to demonstrate the incremental risk from the SWDF due to the retrieval activities for use as design input only. As design information becomes available, this evaluation can be revised to satisfy the safety analysis requirements of DOE Orders 4700 and 5480.23

  8. Neutron and gamma-ray nondestructive examination of contact-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL TRU Waste Drum Assay Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nondestructive assay system, which includes the Neutron Assay System (NAS) and the Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS), for the quantification of contact-handled (<200 mrem/h total radiation dose rate at contact with container) transuranic elements (CH-TRU) in bulk solid waste contained in 208-L and 114-L drums has been in operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since April 1982. The NAS has been developed and demonstrated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use by most US Department of Energy Defense Plant (DOE-DP) sites. More research and development is required, however, before the NAS can provide complete assay results for other than routine defense waste. To date, 525 ORNL waste drums have been assayed, with varying degrees of success. The isotopic complexity of the ORNL waste creates a correspondingly complex assay problem. The NAS and SGS assay data are presented and discussed. Neutron matrix effects, the destructive examination facility, and enriched uranium fuel-element assays are also discussed

  9. Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with polymers for subsurface barriers surrounding buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. Subsurface barriers will improve remediation performance by removing pathways for contaminant transport due to groundwater movement, meteorological water infiltration, vapor- and gas-phase transport, transpiration, etc. Subsurface barriers may be used to open-quotes directclose quotes contaminant movement to collection sumps/lysimeters in cases of unexpected remediation failures or transport mechanisms, to contain leakage from underground storage tanks, and to restrict in-situ soil cleanup operation and chemicals. Brookhaven National Laboratory is currently investigating advanced polymer materials for subsurface barriers. This report addresses the regulatory aspects of using of non-traditional polymer materials as well as soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of subsurface barriers to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a method for achieving waste site performance improvement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used. Since many of EPA's concerns regarding subsurface barriers focus on the chemicals used during installation of these barriers the authors discuss the results of a search of the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations for references in Titles 29 and 40 pertaining to key chemicals likely to be utilized in installing non-traditional barrier materials. The use of polymeric materials in the construction industry has been accomplished with full compliance with the applicable health, safety, and environmental regulations

  10. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  11. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests

  12. Development of the remote-handled transuranic waste radioassay data quality objectives. An evaluation of RH-TRU waste inventories, characteristics, radioassay methods and capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, A.M.; Chapman, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant will accept remote-handled transuranic waste as early as October of 2001. Several tasks must be accomplished to meet this schedule, one of which is the development of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) and corresponding Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs) for the assay of radioisotopes in RH-TRU waste. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was assigned the task of providing to the DOE QAO, information necessary to aide in the development of DQOs for the radioassay of RH-TRU waste. Consistent with the DQO process, information needed and presented in this report includes: identification of RH-TRU generator site radionuclide data that may have potential significance to the performance of the WIPP repository or transportation requirements; evaluation of existing methods to measure the identified isotopic and quantitative radionuclide data; evaluation of existing data as a function of site waste streams using documented site information on fuel burnup, radioisotope processing and reprocessing, special research and development activities, measurement collection efforts, and acceptable knowledge; and the current status of technologies and capabilities at site facilities for the identification and assay of radionuclides in RH-TRU waste streams. This report is intended to provide guidance in developing the RH-TRU waste radioassay DQOs, first by establishing a baseline from which to work, second, by identifying needs to fill in the gaps between what is known and achievable today and that which will be required before DQOs can be formulated, and third, by recommending measures that should be taken to assure that the DQOs in fact balance risk and cost with an achievable degree of certainty.

  13. Innovative technologies for the remediation of transuranic- contaminated landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a comprehensive research,development, demonstration, testing and evaluation program to provide innovative technology systems to achieve its environmental management responsibilities. The Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for this research in support of the Offices of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management efforts. In fiscal year (FY) 1992 the OTD established the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID). The BWID mission was to support the development of emerging technologies for their application to the remediation of DOE buried waste site. During FY95, the BWID program was transitioned into a larger program which will focus its attention to DOE Landfills and Contaminated Soils. There search and activities formerly referred to as the BWID will now be associated with the Transuranic-contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Program.(TALS). The TALS Program supports these buried waste remediation efforts by seeking out the best talent to solve the technology challenges as identified in baseline remediation strategies. Experts from throughout the DOE complex, universities, private sector, and the international community are being included in this program to solve these challenges and ensure implementation and commercialization of innovative technologies

  14. On permission of waste-burying business in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Answer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As to this case written in the title which was inquired on July 19, 1994, from the prime minister, and changed partly on November 21, 1994, the Nuclear Safety Commission answered to the prime minister as follows after the prudent deliberation. As for the application of the criteria for permission, the technical capability is adequate, and the results of the examination of safety by the expert committee for examining nuclear fuel safety is adequate. It was judged that the safety after the permission of this waste-burying business can be secured. The expert committee reported on the policy of the investigation and deliberation, and the contents of the investigation and deliberation, such as the basic location conditions, namely, site, weather, ground, hydraulics, earthquakes and social environment, the radioactive wastes to be buried, the method of determining radioactivity concentration, the expected time of changing the measures to be taken for security, the safety design for the waste-burying facility related to radiation control, environment safety, earthquakes, fires and explosion, the loss of electric power and the standards and criteria to be conformed, and the assessment of dose equivalent in normal state, after finishing the period of control and safety evaluation, and the course of the investigation and deliberation. (K.I.)

  15. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this research project were to lay the foundation for further improvement in the use of geophysical methods for detection of buried wastes, and to increase the information content derived from surveys. Also, an important goal was to move from mere detection to characterization of buried wastes. The technical approach to achieve these objectives consisted of: (1) Collect a data set of high spatial density; (2) Acquire data with multiple sensors and integrate the interpretations inferred from the various sensors; (3) Test a simplified time domain electromagnetic system; and (4) Develop imaging and display formats of geophysical data readily understood by environmental scientists and engineers. The breadth of application of this work is far reaching. Not only are uncontrolled waste pits and trenches, abandoned underground storage tanks, and pipelines found throughout most US DOE facilities, but also at military installations and industrial facilities. Moreover, controlled land disposal sites may contain ''hot spots'' where drums and hazardous material may have been buried. The technologies addressed by the R ampersand D will benefit all of these activities

  16. Potential problems from shipment of high-curie content contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste to WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are about 1000 drums of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes containing more than 100 Ci/drum of Pu-238 that are stored at the Savannah River Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Studies performed at DOE laboratories have shown that large quantities of gases are generated in stored drums containing 100 Ci of 238Pu. Concentrations of hydrogen gas in the void space of the drums are often found to be high enough to be explosive. None of the analyses in the DOE WIPP Final Environmental Impact Statement, Safety Analysis Report, and Preliminary Transportation Analysis have considered the possibility that the generation of hydrogen gas by radiolysis may create an explosive or flammable hazard that could increase the frequency and severity of accidental releases of radionuclides during transportation or handling. These high 238Pu concentration containers would also increase the estimated doses received by individuals and populations from transportation, WIPP site operations, and human intrusion scenarios even if the possibility of gas-enhanced releases is ignored. The WIPP Project Office has evaluated this effect on WIPP site operations and is suggesting a maximum limit of 140 239Pu equivalent curies (P-Ci) per drum so that postulated accidental off-site doses will not be larger than those listed in the FEIS. The TRUPACT container, which is being designed for the transportation of CH-TRU wastes to WIPP, does not appear to meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations requiring double containment for the transportation of plutonium in quantities >20 Ci. A 20 alpha Ci/shipment limit would require about 200,000 shipments for the 4 million curies of alpha emitters slated for WIPP

  17. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION and PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT and EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  18. Functions and requirements document for interim store solidified high-level and transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Fewell, M.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-17

    The functions, requirements, interfaces, and architectures contained within the Functions and Requirements (F{ampersand}R) Document are based on the information currently contained within the TWRS Functions and Requirements database. The database also documents the set of technically defensible functions and requirements associated with the solidified waste interim storage mission.The F{ampersand}R Document provides a snapshot in time of the technical baseline for the project. The F{ampersand}R document is the product of functional analysis, requirements allocation and architectural structure definition. The technical baseline described in this document is traceable to the TWRS function 4.2.4.1, Interim Store Solidified Waste, and its related requirements, architecture, and interfaces.

  19. Nondestructive assays of 55-gallon drums containing uranium and transuranic waste using passive-active shufflers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A passive-active neutron shuffler for 55-gal. drums of waste has been characterized using more than 1500 active and 500 passive assays on drums with 28 different matrices. Flux-monitor corrections have been improved, the assay accuracy with localized fissile materials in a drum has been characterized, and improvements have been suggested. Minimum detectable masses for 235U with active assays and 240Pueff with passive assays are presented for the various amounts of moderators and absorbers studied

  20. Volume reduction of low-level, combustible, transuranic waste at Mound Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level combustible waste (<100 nCi per g of waste) generated during plutonium-238 processing is collected and stored in 55-gallon (200-liter) drums. The composition of this waste is approximately 32 wt % paper, 46% plastic, 16% rubber and cloth, and 6% metal. Treatment of this waste is initiated by burning in the Mound Cyclone Incinerator, which consists of a burning chamber, deluge tank, venturi scrubber and blower. During the two years of operating the Cyclone Incinerator, experiments have been performed on particle distribution throughout the system using various mixtures of feed material. Measurements were taken at the incinerator outlet, after the spray tank, and after the venturi scrubber. An average emission of 0.23 g of particles per kg of feed at the venturi outlet was determined. The distribution of chlorine from the combustion of polyvinyl chloride was studied. Analyses of the off-gas and scrubber solution show that approximately 75 wt % of the chlorine was captured by the scrubber solution and approximately 17 wt % remained in the off-gas after the venturi scrubber. Measurements of the amount of NO/sub chi/ present in the off-gas were also made during the chloride studies. An average of approximately 200 ppM NO/sub chi/ was produced during each incineration run. Immobilization of the incinerator ash is being studied with regard to long-term behavior of the product. The immobilization matrix which looks most promising is ash mixed with Portland 1A cement in a 65/35 wt % ash-to-cement ratio. This matrix exhibits good mechanical properties while maintaining a maximum volume reduction

  1. Risk assessment for the transportation of hazardous waste and hazardous waste components of low-level mixed waste and transuranic waste for the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, a supplement to Appendix E (Transportation Risk) of the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), provides additional information supporting the accident data for chemical risk assessment and health risk methodology described in that appendix (Part II) and presents the uncertainty analysis and on-site risk calculations. This report focuses on hazardous material truck accident rates, release probabilities, and release quantities; provides the toxicological values derived for each hazardous chemical assessed in the WM PEIS and further details on the derivation of health criteria; describes the method used in the transportation risk assessments to address potential additivity of health effects from simultaneous exposure to several chemicals and the method used to address transportation risks for maximally exposed individuals; presents an expanded discussion of the uncertainty associated with transportation risk calculations; and includes the results of the on-site transportation risk analysis. In addition, two addenda are provided to detail the risk assessments conducted for the hazardous components of low-level mixed waste (Addendum I) and transuranic waste (Addendum II)

  2. Risk assessment for the transportation of hazardous waste and hazardous waste components of low-level mixed waste and transuranic waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, a supplement to Appendix E (Transportation Risk) of the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), provides additional information supporting the accident data for chemical risk assessment and health risk methodology described in that appendix (Part II), as well as providing the uncertainty analysis and on-site risk calculations. This report focuses on hazardous material truck accident rates, release probabilities, and release quantities; provides the toxicological values derived for each hazardous chemical assessed in the WM PEIS and further details on the derivation of health criteria; describes the method used in the transportation risk assessments to address potential additivity of health effects from simultaneous exposure to several chemicals and the method used to address transportation risks for maximally exposed individuals; presents an expanded discussion of the uncertainty associated with transportation risk calculations; and includes the results of the on-site transportation risk analysis. In addition, two addenda are provided to detail the risk assessments conducted for the hazardous components of low-level mixed waste (Addendum I) and transuranic waste (Addendum II)

  3. Neutron shielding analysis for remote handled transuranic waste containers in facility casks at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron shielding characteristics of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant facility cask have been quantified for a variety of combinations of neutron sources and waste matrices which would potentially be handled in waste containers. The neutron attenuation and neutron environment of the waste container and the facility cask have been analyzed to ensure that the design requirement of neutron dose rate will be met under the combinations of the source and waste matrix conditions. The analyses considered the ranges of neutron source spectrum and waste matrices which combine to produce the minimum neutron shielding worth of the facility cask. One-dimensional analyses were performed with discrete ordinate transport theory methods using multigroup neutron cross section data. The results discussed in this report demonstrate the effect of source spectrum and waste container matrix on predicted neutron dose rates adjacent to the unshielded waste container and the surface of the facility cask. An evaluation of the uncertainties in predicted neutron dose rates is provided which results in an assessment of the maximum measured neutron dose rate external to the facility cask. A description of the analytical models developed, the analysis methodology, the neutron source spectra, and the detailed results are described in this report. 10 refs., 50 figs., 39 tabs

  4. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage

  5. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: (1) The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. (2) Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 200 grams (g). (3) The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. (4) PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 g/cc. (5) PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 318 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. (6) The GEA system design density correction mass absorption coefficient table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. (7) Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type

  6. Physical Property and Rheological Testing of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites of sludge from Hanford tanks 241-B-203 (B-203), 241-T-203 (T-203), 241-T-204 (T-204), and 241-T-110 (T-110) were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory and transferred to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for measurement of the composites' physical properties. These tank composites were prepared from core samples retrieved from these tanks. These core samples may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste in these underground storage tanks. Dilutions in water were prepared from the composite samples. The measurements included paint filter tests, viscosity, shear strength, settling and centrifuging behavior, a qualitative test of stickiness, total solids concentration, and extrusion tests to estimate shear strength.

  7. Physical Property and Rheological Testing of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, Joel M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gao, Johnway (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Delegard, Calvin H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Bagaasen, Larry M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wells, Beric E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-08-25

    Composites of sludge from Hanford tanks 241-B-203 (B-203), 241-T-203 (T-203), 241-T-204 (T-204), and 241-T-110 (T-110) were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory and transferred to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for measurement of the composites' physical properties. These tank composites were prepared from core samples retieved from these tanks. These core samples may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste in these underground storage tanks. Dilutions in water were prepared from the composite samples. The measurements included paint filter tests, viscosity, shear strength, settling and centrifuging behavior, a qualitative test of stickiness, total solids concentration, and extrusion tests to estimate shear strength.

  8. Processing Plan for Potentially Reactive/Ignitable Remote Handled Transuranic Waste at the Idaho Cleanup Project - 12090

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote Handle Transuranic (RH-TRU) Waste generated at Argonne National Laboratory - East, from the examination of irradiated and un-irradiated fuel pins and other reactor materials requires a detailed processing plan to ensure reactive/ignitable material is absent to meet WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria prior to shipping and disposal. The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) approach to repackaging Lot 2 waste and how we ensure prohibited materials are not present in waste intended for disposal at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 'WIPP' uses an Argon Repackaging Station (ARS), which provides an inert gas blanket. Opening of the Lot 2 containers under an argon gas blanket is proposed to be completed in the ARS. The ARS is an interim transition repackaging station that provides a mitigation technique to reduce the chances of a reoccurrence of a thermal event prior to rendering the waste 'Safe'. The consequences, should another thermal event be encountered, (which is likely) is to package the waste, apply the reactive and or ignitable codes to the container, and store until the future treatment permit and process are available. This is the same disposition that the two earlier containers in the 'Thermal Events' were assigned. By performing the initial handling under an inert gas blanket, the waste can sorted and segregate the fines and add the Met-L-X to minimize risk before it is exposed to air. The 1-gal cans that are inside the ANL-E canister will be removed and each can is moved to the ARS for repackaging. In the ARS, the 1-gal can is opened in the inerted environment. The contained waste is sorted, weighed, and visually examined for non compliant items such as unvented aerosol cans and liquids. The contents of the paint cans are transferred into a sieve and manipulated to allow the fines, if any, to be separated into the tray below. The fines are weighed and then blended with a minimum 5:1 mix of Met-L-X. Other debris materials found are segregated from the cans into containers

  9. A comprehensive inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the INEL RWMC during the years 1984-2003, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report presents a comprehensive inventory of the radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried from 1984 through 2003 in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The project to compile the inventory is referred to as the recent and projected data task. The inventory was compiled primarily for use in a baseline risk assessment under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The compiled information may also be useful for environmental remediation activities that might be necessary at the RWMC. The information that was compiled has been entered into a database termed CIDRA-the Contaminant Inventory Database for Risk Assessment. The inventory information was organized according to waste generator and divided into waste streams for each generator. The inventory is based on waste information that was available in facility operating records, technical and programmatic reports, shipping records, and waste generator forecasts. Additional information was obtained by reviewing the plant operations that originally generated the waste, by interviewing personnel formerly employed as operators, and by performing nuclear physics and engineering calculations. In addition to contaminant inventories, information was compiled on the physical and chemical characteristics and the packaging of the 99 waste streams. The inventory information for waste projected to be buried at the SDA in the future was obtained from waste generator forecasts. The completeness of the contaminant inventories was confirmed by comparing them against inventories in previous reports and in other databases, and against the list of contaminants detected in environmental monitoring performed at the RWMC.

  10. A comprehensive inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the INEL RWMC during the years 1984-2003, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a comprehensive inventory of the radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried from 1984 through 2003 in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The project to compile the inventory is referred to as the recent and projected data task. The inventory was compiled primarily for use in a baseline risk assessment under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The compiled information may also be useful for environmental remediation activities that might be necessary at the RWMC. The information that was compiled has been entered into a database termed CIDRA-the Contaminant Inventory Database for Risk Assessment. The inventory information was organized according to waste generator and divided into waste streams for each generator. The inventory is based on waste information that was available in facility operating records, technical and programmatic reports, shipping records, and waste generator forecasts. Additional information was obtained by reviewing the plant operations that originally generated the waste, by interviewing personnel formerly employed as operators, and by performing nuclear physics and engineering calculations. In addition to contaminant inventories, information was compiled on the physical and chemical characteristics and the packaging of the 99 waste streams. The inventory information for waste projected to be buried at the SDA in the future was obtained from waste generator forecasts. The completeness of the contaminant inventories was confirmed by comparing them against inventories in previous reports and in other databases, and against the list of contaminants detected in environmental monitoring performed at the RWMC

  11. Mobile/portable transuranic waste characterization systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a model for their use complex-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has implemented mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems to characterize transuranic (TRU) waste in storage for ultimate shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. These mobile systems are being used to characterize and repackage waste to meet the full requirements of the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the WIPP Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems are being used to supplement the capabilities and throughputs of existing facilities. Utilization of mobile systems is a key factor that is enabling LANL to (1) reduce its TRU waste work-off schedule from 36 years to 8.5 years; (2) eliminate the need to construct a $70M+ TRU waste characterization facility; (3) have waste certified for shipment to WIPP when WIPP opens; (4) continue to ship TRU waste to WIPP at the rate of 5000 drums per year; and (5) reduce overall costs by more than $200M. Aggressive implementation of mobile and portable systems throughout the Department of Energy complex through a centralized-distributed services model will result in similar advantages complex-wide

  12. The waste isolation pilot plant. Permanent isolation of defense transuranic waste in deep geologic salt. A national solution and international model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is located about 42 kilometers from the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. It is an operating deep geologic repository in bedded salt 657 meters below the surface of the Chihuahuan desert. Since its opening in March of 1999, it has received about 12,000 shipments totaling about 91,000 cubic meters of defense related transuranic (TRU) wastes. Twenty-two sites have been cleaned up of their defense-legacy TRU waste. The WIPP's shipping program has an untarnished safety record and its trucks and trailers have safely traveled the equivalent of about 60 round-trips to the Moon. WIPP received, and deserved, a variety of safety accolades over its nearly 15 year working life. In February of 2014, however, two incidents resulted in a major operational suspension and reevaluation of its safety systems, processes and equipment. The first incident was an underground mining truck fire, followed nine days later by an airborne radiation release incident. Accident Investigation Board (AIB) reports on both incidents point to failures of plans, procedures and persons. The AIB recommendations for recovery from both these incidents are numerous and are being carefully implemented. One major recommendation is to no longer have different maintenance and safety requirements for nuclear handling equipment and mining equipment. Maintenance and cleanliness of mining equipment was cited as a contributing cause to the underground fire, and the idea that there can be lesser rigor in taking care of mining equipment, when it is being operated in the same underground space as the waste handling equipment, is not tenable. At some point in the future, the changes made in response to these two incidents will be seen as a valuable lesson learned on behalf of future repository programs. WIPP will once again be seen as a ''pilot'' in the nautical sense, in terms of 'showing the way' - the way to a national and international radioactive waste

  13. The waste isolation pilot plant. Permanent isolation of defense transuranic waste in deep geologic salt. A national solution and international model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Jose; Van Luik, Abraham [US Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Carlsbad Field Office

    2015-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is located about 42 kilometers from the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. It is an operating deep geologic repository in bedded salt 657 meters below the surface of the Chihuahuan desert. Since its opening in March of 1999, it has received about 12,000 shipments totaling about 91,000 cubic meters of defense related transuranic (TRU) wastes. Twenty-two sites have been cleaned up of their defense-legacy TRU waste. The WIPP's shipping program has an untarnished safety record and its trucks and trailers have safely traveled the equivalent of about 60 round-trips to the Moon. WIPP received, and deserved, a variety of safety accolades over its nearly 15 year working life. In February of 2014, however, two incidents resulted in a major operational suspension and reevaluation of its safety systems, processes and equipment. The first incident was an underground mining truck fire, followed nine days later by an airborne radiation release incident. Accident Investigation Board (AIB) reports on both incidents point to failures of plans, procedures and persons. The AIB recommendations for recovery from both these incidents are numerous and are being carefully implemented. One major recommendation is to no longer have different maintenance and safety requirements for nuclear handling equipment and mining equipment. Maintenance and cleanliness of mining equipment was cited as a contributing cause to the underground fire, and the idea that there can be lesser rigor in taking care of mining equipment, when it is being operated in the same underground space as the waste handling equipment, is not tenable. At some point in the future, the changes made in response to these two incidents will be seen as a valuable lesson learned on behalf of future repository programs. WIPP will once again be seen as a ''pilot'' in the nautical sense, in terms of 'showing the way' - the way to a national and international radioactive waste

  14. High-sensitivity transuranic waste assay by simultaneous proton and thermal-neutron interrogation using an electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation from electron linear accelerator pulses is used as the basis for a unique assay technique for transuranics. Both prompt and delayed neutrons from the induced fissions are counted on a single detection system, and the contributions from each interrogating flux are resolved. Detection limits (3 sigma) for 239Pu were estimated to be 3 mg for prompt fission neutrons and 6 mg for delayed neutrons. The technique also provides a clear distinction between fissile and fertile nuclides

  15. Overall strategy and program plan for management of radioactively contaminated liquid wastes and transuranic sludges at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of hydrofracture was terminated after 1984, and LW concentrate has been accumulated and stored since that time. Currently, the volume of stored LW concentrate is near the safe fill limit for the 11 storage tanks in the active LW system, and significant operational constraints are being experienced. The tanks that provide the storage capacity of the active LW system contain significant volumes of TRU sludges that have been designated remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes because of associated quantities of other radioisotopes, including 90Sr and 137Cs. Thirty-three additional tanks, which are inactive, also contain significant volumes of TRU waste and radioactive LW. A lack of adequate storage volume for LW jeopardizes ORNL's ability to ensure continued conduct of research and development (RandD) activities that generate LW because an unexpected operational incident could quickly deplete the remaining storage volume. Accordingly, a planning team comprised of staff members from the ORNL Nuclear and Chemical Waste Programs (NCWP) was created for developing recommended actions to be taken for management of LW. A program plan is presented which outlines work required for the development of a disposal method for each of the likely future waste streams associated with LW management and the disposal of the bulk of the resulting solid waste on the ORR. 8 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs

  16. Risk assessment of the retrieval of transuranic waste: Pads 1, 2, and 4, Technical Area-54, Area G Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Risk Assessment for the Retrieval of Transuranic Waste is a comparative risk assessment of the potential adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to contaminants during retrieval and post-retrieval aboveground storage operations of post-1970 earthen-covered transuranic waste. Two alternatives are compared: (1) Immediate Retrieval and (2) Delayed Retrieval. Under the Immediate Retrieval Alternative, retrieval of the waste is assumed to begin immediately, Under the Delayed Retrieval Alternative, retrieval is delayed 10 years. The current risk assessment is on Pads 1, 2, and 4, at Technical Area-54, Area-G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Risks are assessed independently for three scenarios: (1) incident-free retrieval operations, (2) incident-free storage operations, and (3) a drum failure analysis. The drum failure analysis evaluates container integrity under both alternatives and assesses the impacts of potential drum failures during retrieval operations. Risks associated with a series of drum failures are potentially severe for workers, off-site receptors, and general on-site employees if retrieval is delayed 10 years and administrative and engineering controls remain constant. Under the Delayed Retrieval Alternative, an average of 300 drums out of 16,647 are estimated to fail during retrieval operations due to general corrosion, while minimal drums are predicted to fail under the Immediate Retrieval Alternative. The results of the current study suggest that, based on risk, remediation of Pads 1, 2, and 4 at LANL should not be delayed. Although risks from incident-free operations in the Delayed Retrieval Alternative are low, risks due to corrosion and drum failures are potentially severe

  17. A demonstration of remote survey and characterization of a buried waste site using the SRIP [Soldier Robot Interface Project] testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During FY 1990, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supported the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Office of Technology Development through several projects including the development of a semiautonomous survey of a buried waste site using a remotely operated all-terrain robotic testbed borrowed from the US Army. The testbed was developed for the US Army's Human Engineering Laboratory (HEL) for the US Army's Soldier Robot Interface Project (SRIP). Initial development of the SRIP testbed was performed by a team including ORNL, HEL, Tooele Army Depot, and Odetics, Inc., as an experimental testbed for a variety of human factors issues related to military applications of robotics. The SRIP testbed was made available to the DOE and ORNL for the further development required for a remote landfill survey. The robot was modified extensively, equipped with environmental sensors, and used to demonstrate an automated remote survey of Solid Waste Storage Area No. 3 (SWSA 3) at ORNL on Tuesday, September 18, 1990. Burial trenches in this area containing contaminated materials were covered with soil nearly twenty years ago. This paper describes the SRIP testbed and work performed in FY 1990 to demonstrate a semiautonomous landfill survey at ORNL. 5 refs

  18. A demonstration of remote survey and characterization of a buried waste site using the SRIP (Soldier Robot Interface Project) testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, B.L.; Richardson, B.S.; Armstrong, G.A.; Hamel, W.R.; Jansen, J.F.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.; Emery, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    During FY 1990, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supported the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER WM) Office of Technology Development through several projects including the development of a semiautonomous survey of a buried waste site using a remotely operated all-terrain robotic testbed borrowed from the US Army. The testbed was developed for the US Army's Human Engineering Laboratory (HEL) for the US Army's Soldier Robot Interface Project (SRIP). Initial development of the SRIP testbed was performed by a team including ORNL, HEL, Tooele Army Depot, and Odetics, Inc., as an experimental testbed for a variety of human factors issues related to military applications of robotics. The SRIP testbed was made available to the DOE and ORNL for the further development required for a remote landfill survey. The robot was modified extensively, equipped with environmental sensors, and used to demonstrate an automated remote survey of Solid Waste Storage Area No. 3 (SWSA 3) at ORNL on Tuesday, September 18, 1990. Burial trenches in this area containing contaminated materials were covered with soil nearly twenty years ago. This paper describes the SRIP testbed and work performed in FY 1990 to demonstrate a semiautonomous landfill survey at ORNL. 5 refs.

  19. Preparations for Retrieval of Buried Waste at Material Disposal Area B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Material Disposal Area B, a hazard category 3 nuclear facility, is scheduled for excavation and the removal of its contents. Wastes and excavated soils will be characterized for disposal at approved off-site waste disposal facilities. Since there were no waste disposal records, understanding the context of the historic operations at MDA B was essential to understanding what wastes were disposed of and what hazards these would pose during retrieval. The operational history of MDA B is tied to the earliest history of the Laboratory, the scope and urgency of World War II, the transition to the Atomic Energy Commission in January 1947, and the start of the cold war. A report was compiled that summarized the development of the process chemistry, metallurgy, and other research and production activities at the Laboratory during the 1944 to 1948 time frame that provided a perspective of the work conducted; the scale of those processes; and the handling of spent chemicals and contaminated items in lieu of waste disposal records. By 1947, all laboratories had established waste disposal procedures that required laboratory and salvage wastes to be boxed and sealed. Large items or equipment were to be wrapped with paper or placed in wooden crates. Most wastes were placed in cardboard boxes and were simply piled into the active trench. Bulldozers were used to cover the material with fill dirt on a weekly basis. No effort was made to separate waste types or loads, or to compact the wastes under the soil cover. Using the historical information and a statistical analysis of the plutonium inventory, LANL prepared a documented safety analysis for the waste retrieval activities at MDA B, in accordance with DOE Standard 1120-2005, Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities, and the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. The selected hazard controls for the MDA B project consist of passive design

  20. Burying uncertainty: Risk and the case against geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author of this book asserts that moral and ethical issues must be considered in the development of nuclear waste disposal policies. The book develops this theme showing that to date no technology has provided a fool-proof method of isolating high-level nuclear wastes and that technological advances alone will not increase public acceptance. She supports a plan for the federal government to negotiate construction of MRS facilities that would safely house high-level nuclear waste for about 100 years, providing a temporary solution and a moral and ethical alternative to permanent storage

  1. In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Annual report FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

  2. Burn or Bury? A Social Cost Comparison of Final Waste Disposal Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkgraaf, Elbert; Herman R. J. Vollebergh

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses private and environmental cost data for the Netherlands to evaluate the social cost of two final waste disposal methods, landfilling versus incineration using waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. The data only provide some support for the widespread policy preference for incineration over landfilling if the analysis is restricted to environmental costs alone. Private costs, however, are so much higher for incineration, that landfilling is the social cost minimizing option at the marg...

  3. A NEW DAWN FOR THE BURIED GARBAGE? : AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MARKETABILITY FOR PREVIOUSLY DISPOSED WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Nils; Krook, Joakim; Frändegård, Per

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the market potential of disposed waste, a resource that is increasingly emphasized as a future mine. A framework with gate requirements of various outlets was developed and contrasted with excavated waste sorted in an advanced recycling facility. Only the smallest fraction by percentage had an outlet, the metals (8%), which were sold according a lower quality class. The other fractions (92%) were not accepted for incineration, construction materials or even re-deposition. ...

  4. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  5. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-02-27

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  6. Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper discusses the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification

  7. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of transuranic waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of transuranic waste (TRUW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) contact- and remote-handed (CH and RH) TRUW. Included are definitions of the TRUW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of CH and RH TRUW, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM TRUW case considered

  8. Radionuclide transport modelling for a buried near surface low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of radioactive waste, which is the last step of any radioactive waste management policy, has not yet been developed in Turkey. The existing legislation states only the discharge limits for the radioactive wastes to be discharged to the environment. The objective of this modelling study is to assist in safety assessment and selecting disposal site for gradually increasing non-nuclear radioactive wastes. This mathematical model has been developed for the environmental radiological assessment of near surface disposal sites for the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The model comprised of three main components: source term, geosphere transport and radiological assessment. Radiation dose for the babies (1 years age) and adults (≥17 years age) have been computed for the radionuclides Cesium 137 (Cs-137) and Strontium 90 (Sr-90), having the activity of 1.1012 Becquerel(Bq), in radioactive waste through transport of radionuclide in liquid phase with the various pathways. The model consisted of first order ordinary differential equations was coded as a TCODE file in MATLAB program. The radiation dose to man for the realist case and low probability case have been calculated by using Runge-Kutta solution method in MATLAB programme for radionuclide transport from repository to soil layer and then to the ground water(saturated zone) through drinking water directly and consuming agricultural and animal products pathways in one year period. Also, the fatal cancer risk assessment has been made by taking into account the annual dose received by people. Various dose values for both radionuclides have been found which depended on distribution coefficient, retardation factor and dose conversion factors. The most important critical parameters on radiological safety assessment are the distribution coefficient in soil layer, seepage velocity in unsaturated zone and thickness of the unsaturated zone (soil zone). The highest radiation dose and average dose to man

  9. Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper discusses the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification. The demonstration was installed at a benign site at the Hanford Geotechnical Test Facility, 400 Area, Hanford, Washington. The composite barrier was emplaced beneath a 7,500 liter tank. The tank was chosen to simulate a typical DOE Complex waste form. The stresses induced on the waste form were evaluated during barrier construction. The barrier was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45 degree angle to the ground, forming a conical shaped barrier with the waste form inside the cone. Two overlapping rows of cylindrical cement columns were grouted in a honeycomb fashion to form the secondary backdrop barrier layer. The primary barrier, a high molecular weight polymer manufactured by 3M Company, was then installed providing a relatively thin inner liner for the secondary barrier. The primary barrier was emplaced by panel jet grouting with a dual wall drill stem, two phase jet grouting system

  10. A Remote Characterization System for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a development project that will provide new technology for characterizing hazardous waste burial sites. The project is a collaborative effort by five of the national laboratories, involving the development and demonstration of a remotely controlled site characterization system. The Remote Characterization System (RCS) includes a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface

  11. Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper will discuss the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification. The demonstration will take place at a cold site at the Hanford Geotechnical Test Facility, 400 Area, Hanford, Washington

  12. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the ''hottest'' (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates for WAXFIX/paraffin do not indicate any immediate problems with the use of WAXFIX for grouting beryllium or other wastes in the SDA

  13. Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended

  14. Transuranic waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic waste (TRUW) loads and potential contaminant releases at and en route to treatment, storage, and disposal sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex are important considerations in DOE's Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Waste loads are determined in part by the level of treatment the waste has undergone and the complex-wide configuration of origination, treatment, storage, and disposal sites selected for TRUW management. Other elements that impact waste loads are treatment volumes, waste characteristics, and the unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. Treatment levels and site configurations have been combined into six TRUW management alternatives for study in the WM PEIS. This supplemental report to the WM PEIS gives the projected waste loads and contaminant release profiles for DOE treatment sites under each of the six TRUW management alternatives. It gives TRUW characteristics and inventories for current DOE generation and storage sites, describes the treatment technologies for three proposed levels of TRUW treatment, and presents the representative unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. The data presented are primary inputs to developing the costs, health risks, and socioeconomic and environmental impacts of treating, packaging, and shipping TRUW for disposal

  15. Transuranic waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic waste (TRUW) loads and potential contaminant releases at and en route to treatment, storage, and disposal sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are important considerations in DOE's Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Waste loads are determined in part by the level of treatment the waste has undergone and the complexwide configuration of origination, treatment, storage, and disposal sites selected for TRUW management. Other elements that impact waste loads are treatment volumes, waste characteristics, and the unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. Treatment levels and site configurations have been combined into 10 TRUW management alternatives for study in the WM PEIS. This supplemental report to the WM PEIS gives the projected waste loads and contaminant release profiles for DOE treatment sites under each of the 10 TRUW management alternatives. It gives TRUW characteristics and inventories for current DOE generation and storage sites, describes the treatment technologies for three levels of TRUW treatment, and presents the representative unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. The data presented are primary inputs to developing the costs, health risks, and socioeconomic and environmental impacts of treating, packaging, and shipping TRUW for disposal

  16. Engineering-scale in situ vitrification tests of simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory buried wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process for remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a public meeting was held on the proposed plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and environment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated.

  17. Engineering-scale in situ vitrification tests of simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process for remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a public meeting was held on the proposed plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and environment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated

  18. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste: Annual report FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two landfills of specific interest are the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), both located at Sandia National Laboratory. The work is comprised of two subtasks: (1) In-Situ Barriers and (2) In-Situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. The main environmental concern at the CWL is a chromium plume resulting from disposal of chromic acid and chromic sulfuric acid into unlined pits. This program has investigated means of in-situ stabilization of chromium contaminated soils and placement of containment barriers around the CWL. The MWL contains a plume of tritiated water. In-situ immobilization of tritiated water with cementitious grouts was not considered to be a method with a high probability of success and was not pursued. This is discussed further in Section 5.0. Containment barriers for the tritium plume were investigated. FY 94 work focused on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil with blast furnace slag modified grouts to bypass the stage of pre-reduction of Cr(6), barriers for tritiated water containment at the MWL, continued study of barriers for the CWL, and jet grouting field trials for CWL barriers at an uncontaminated site at SNL. Cores from the FY 93 permeation grouting field trails were also tested in FY 94

  19. In-situ stabilization of radioactively contaminated low-level solid wastes buried in shallow trenches: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential effectiveness of materials for in-situ encapsulation of low-level, radioactively contaminated solid waste buried in shallow trenches is enumerated. Cement, clay materials, and miscellaneous sorbents, aqueous and nonaqueous gelling fluids and their combinations are available to solidify contaminated free water in trenches, to fill open voids, and to minimize radionuclide mobility. The success of the grouting technique will depend on the availability of reliable geohydrologic data and laboratory development of a mix with enhanced sorption capacity for dominant radionuclides present in the trenches. A cement-bentonite-based grout mix with low consistency for pumping, several hours controlled rate of hardening, negligible bleeding, and more than 170 kPa (25 psi) compressive strength are a few of the suggested parameters in laboratory mix development. Cost estimates of a cement-bentonite-based grout mix indicate that effective and durable encapsulation can be accomplished at a reasonable cost (about $113 per cubic meter). However, extensive implementation of the method suggests the need for a field demonstration of the method. 53 references

  20. THE SUCCESSFUL UTILIZATION OF COMMERCIAL TREATMENT CAPABILITIES TO DISPOSITION HANFORD NO-PATH-FORWARD SUSPECT TRANSURANIC WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACKFORD LT; CATLOW RL; WEST LD; COLLINS MS; ROMINE LD; MOAK DJ

    2012-01-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W&FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of legacy waste was defined as ''no-path-forward waste.'' A significant portion of this waste (7,650 m{sup 3}) comprised wastes with up to 50 grams of special nuclear materials (SNM) in oversized packages recovered during retrieval operations and large glove boxes removed from Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Through a collaborative effort between the DOE, CHPRC, and Perma-Fix Environmental Services, Inc. (PESI), pathways for these problematic wastes were developed and are currently being implemented.

  1. An Investigation of the Use of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Transuranic Waste Recycling in Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Cole A [ORNL; Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Powers, Jeffrey J [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of the utilization of TRistructural- ISOtropic (TRISO)-coated fuel particles for the burning of plutonium/neptunium (Pu/Np) isotopes in typical Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactors is presented. Though numerous studies have evaluated the burning of transuranic isotopes in light water reactors (LWRs), this work differentiates itself by employing Pu/Np-loaded TRISO particles embedded within a silicon carbide (SiC) matrix and formed into pellets, constituting the fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel concept that can be loaded into standard LWR fuel element cladding. This approach provides the capability of Pu/Np burning and, by virtue of the multibarrier TRISO particle design and SiC matrix properties, will allow for greater burnup of Pu/Np material, plus improved fuel reliability and thermal performance. In this study, a variety of heterogeneous assembly layouts, which utilize a mix of FCM rods and typical UO2 rods, and core loading patterns were analyzed to demonstrate the neutronic feasibility of Pu/Np-loaded TRISO fuel. The assembly and core designs herein reported are not fully optimized and require fine-tuning to flatten power peaks; however, the progress achieved thus far strongly supports the conclusion that with further rod/assembly/core loading and placement optimization, Pu/Np-loaded TRISO fuel and core designs that are capable of balancing Pu/Np production and destruction can be designed within the standard constraints for thermal and reactivity performance in pressurized water reactors.

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  3. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-08

    The objectives of this research project were to lay the foundation for further improvement in the use of geophysical methods for detection of buried wastes, and to increase the information content derived from surveys. Also, an important goal was to move from mere detection to characterization of buried wastes. The technical approach to achieve these objectives consisted of: (1) Collect a data set of high spatial density; (2) Acquire data with multiple sensors and integrate the interpretations inferred from the various sensors; (3) Test a simplified time domain electromagnetic system; and (4) Develop imaging and display formats of geophysical data readily understood by environmental scientists and engineers. The breadth of application of this work is far reaching. Not only are uncontrolled waste pits and trenches, abandoned underground storage tanks, and pipelines found throughout most US DOE facilities, but also at military installations and industrial facilities. Moreover, controlled land disposal sites may contain ``hot spots`` where drums and hazardous material may have been buried. The technologies addressed by the R&D will benefit all of these activities.

  4. Savannah River Site Public and regulatory involvement in the transuranic (TRU) program and their effect on decisions to dispose of Pu-238 heat source tru waste onsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for deep space probes. On-site disposal would greatly reduce the risk to workers by eliminating the need to repackage the waste in order to characterize it and ship it to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Significant cost savings can also be realized. A performance assessment was completed to demonstrate that on-site disposal of this waste can be done while meeting the Department of Energy and EPA performance objectives for disposal of TRU waste in a non-WIPP location such as the SRS. This analysis provides a means of demonstrating the technical basis for this alternative to management, stakeholders and regulators. The technical analysis is required to demonstrate that the performance objectives contained in 40 CFR 191, Environmental Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes will be met over a 10,000 year period. This paper will describe the successful results of this technical, regulatory, and public involvement program, explore why and how the accomplishments occurred, and describe the future challenges along with the road map for the future. In doing this, the TRU Ship-to-WIPP program must be described to give the readers an understanding of the technical complexities that must be communicated successfully to achieve constructive stakeholder participation and regulatory approval. (authors)

  5. In-situ containment of buried waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, B.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heiser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Stewart, W.; Phillips, S. [Applied Geotechnical Engineering and Construction, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to further develop close-coupled barrier technology for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and chemically resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of issues concerning barriers and barrier materials to a pilot-scale, multiple individual column injections at Sandia National Labs (SNL) to full scale demonstration. The feasibility of this barrier concept was successfully proven in a full scale {open_quotes}cold test{close_quotes} demonstration at Hanford, WA. Consequently, a full scale deployment of the technology was conducted at an actual environmental restoration site at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), Long Island, NY. This paper discusses the installation and performance of a technology deployment implemented at OU-1 an Environmental Restoration Site located at BNL.

  6. In-situ containment of buried waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project was to further develop close-coupled barrier technology for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and chemically resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of issues concerning barriers and barrier materials to a pilot-scale, multiple individual column injections at Sandia National Labs (SNL) to full scale demonstration. The feasibility of this barrier concept was successfully proven in a full scale 'cold test' demonstration at Hanford, WA. Consequently, a full scale deployment of the technology was conducted at an actual environmental restoration site at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), Long Island, NY. This paper discusses the installation and performance of a technology deployment implemented at OU-1 an Environmental Restoration Site located at BNL

  7. Performance assessment of deep geological repositories for isolation of transuranic radioactive waste the Pacoma project - crystalline rock option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the CEC PAGIS project (for vitrified waste), the PACOMA project has been launched at the end of 1987 for cemented waste. The CEA-IPSN is in charge of the granite option. A representative inventory of this type of waste has been built up and an adaptation of the near field module, CONDIMENT, of the safety evaluation code MELODIE, has been made in order to take into account the particularities of cemented waste with respect to the vitrified waste. The best-estimate calculations have been performed on one reference site (the French Auriat Site) which is an outcropping granite and two variants, one representing a coastal granite formation (Barfleur) and the other, a granite with a sedimentary cover (notional British site). Moreover, the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis have been performed in the PACOMA project with a 2D modelling of the geosphere instead of the 1D modelling (Stream tube) previously used in the PAGIS project. After a general presentation of these points, we intended to present the main results, namely the dose rates obtained through deterministic calculations, and the most important geosphere parameters. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Review of the geological and structural setting near the site of the proposed Transuranic Waste Facility (TRUWF) Technical Area 52 (TA-52), Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Gardner, Jamie N.

    2007-10-01

    Because of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s proximal location to active geologic structures, assessment of seismic hazards, including the potential for seismic surface rupture, must occur before construction of any facilities housing nuclear or other hazardous materials. A transuranic waste facility (TRUWF) planned for construction at Technical Area 52 (TA-52) provides the impetus for this report. Although no single seismic hazards field investigation has focused specifically on TA-52, numerous studies at technical areas surrounding TA-52 have shown no significant, laterally continuous faults exhibiting activity in the last 10 ka within 3,000 ft of the proposed facility. A site-specific field study at the footprint of the proposed TRUWF would not yield further high-precision data on possible Holocene faulting at the site because post-Bandelier Tuff sediments are lacking and the shallowest subunit contacts of the Bandelier Tuff are gradational. Given the distal location of the proposed TRUWF to any mapped structures with demonstrable Holocene displacement, surface rupture potential appears minimal at TA-52.

  9. Facility Utilization and Risk Analysis for Remediation of Legacy Transuranic Waste at the Savannah River Site - 13572

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) completed the Accelerated TRU Project for remediating legacy waste at the Savannah River Site with significant cost and schedule efficiencies due to early identification of resources and utilization of risk matrices. Initial project planning included identification of existing facilities that could be modified to meet the technical requirements needed for repackaging and remediating the waste. The project schedule was then optimized by utilization of risk matrices that identified alternate strategies and parallel processing paths which drove the overall success of the project. Early completion of the Accelerated TRU Project allowed SRNS to pursue stretch goals associated with remediating very difficult TRU waste such as concrete casks from the hot cells in the Savannah River National Laboratory. Project planning for stretch goals also utilized existing facilities and the risk matrices. The Accelerated TRU project and stretch goals were funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). (authors)

  10. Preliminary radiological analysis of the transportation of contact-handled transuranic waste within the state of New Mexico. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis assesses the potential radiological impacts on the citizens of New Mexico from the transport of CH-TRU waste to WIPP by rail or by truck. Assuming exclusive use of the truck transport mode, the combined annual exposure to the public from accident-free shipment of waste is estimated to be 3.3 person-rem/year. It is estimated that a theoretical member of the public receiving maximum exposure to the combined truck shipments of CH-TRU waste to WIPP would receive an annual whole body dose equivalent of 0.000016 rem. Such an exposure is insignificant in comparison to the average annual whole body dose equivalent to an individual living in the Colorado Plateau area of between 0.075 and 0.140 rem from natural occurring radiation. The combined annual radiological risk to the public living along the new Mexico truck routes to WIPP from potential accidents is projected as 0.031 person-rem/year. Assuming exclusive use of the rail transport mode, the combined annual exposure to the public from accident-free shipment of waste is estimated to be 1.2 person-rem/year. A theoretical member of the public receiving combined maximum exposure to rail shipments of CH-TRU waste to WIPP would receive an annual whole body dose equivalent of 0.000012 rem. The combined annual radiological risk to the public living along the New Mexico rail routes to WIPP from potential accidents is projected as 0.0022 person-rem/year. An estimate of the radiological impacts in a year of maximum waste receipt can be made by multiplying the above results for rail or truck by 2. This estimate is based upon the WIPP design waste throughput rate of 500,000 ft3 per year. An estimate of the radiological impacts of CH-TRU waste transport to WIPP over the facility life can be made by multiplying the above results by 25

  11. Preparation and leaching of radioactive INEL waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appreciable quantities of radioactive waste are in storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Plans are being made to convert this waste into durable solid forms for final disposal in a geological repository. Part of the inventory consists of low- and intermediate-level fission, activation, and decay products and transuranic (TRU) wastes, either stored retrievably or buried at the INEL Radioactive Waste Management area. One of the TRU wastes is a sludge from the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant, currently stored retrievably in 55-gallon drums. Immobilizing the TRU sludge is the primary concern of the work reported here

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF VISUAL CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF CORRODED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE DRUMS AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (US/DOE) HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluor Hanford, Inc., at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, has recently begun retrieving some 37,000 contact-handled, suspect-Transuranic or ''Retrievably Stored Waste'' (CH-TRU) waste drums from its Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The drums are being retrieved, processed and prepared for eventual shipment to the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Immediately upon retrieval, the drums are visually inspected against requirements identified in the facility Authorization Basis to ensure they are safe for handling and fit for on-site transfer. A number of the retrieved drums did not meet specified corrosion criteria and as such required structural evaluation by Ultrasonic Test (UT) thickness checking (including mechanical surface prep) or overpacking into a Conex-type container prior to transfer. The additional evaluation and overpacking increases personnel exposure to the radioactive waste and reduces efficiency of the retrieval process. Based on historic Hanford CH-TRU waste drum corrosion data, showing very low general corrosion rates, there was reason to believe that existing Hanford site-transfer corrosion criteria were more conservative than needed. In an effort to demonstrate this belief, a corrosion investigation was performed. Eleven CH-TRU waste drums not meeting the corrosion criteria were included in the investigation and from these, 92 separate locations, or areas of corrosion, were evaluated. Each of these locations was visually characterized and evaluated for thickness using the UT method. Visual characterization consisted of ranking photographs for each location on a scale from 1 to 6, representing an increasing level of corrosion attack. UT thickness measurements were then plotted against the visual ratings to identify any significant correlation. Analysis of the data indicated that as the corrosion rating increased, wall thickness decreased. It was concluded that drum surfaces characterized by a corrosion rating of 1-4 could be

  13. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  14. Monte Carlo calculations on transmutation of transuranic nuclear waste isotopes using spallation neutrons. Difference of lead and graphite moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmutation rates of 239Pu and some minor actinides (237Np, 241Am, 245Cm and 246Cm), in two accelerator driven systems (ADS) with lead or graphite moderating environments, were calculated using the LAHET code system. The ADS that were used had a large volume (∼ 30 m3) and contained no fissile material, except for a small amount of fissionable waste nuclei that existed in some cases. Calculations were performed at incident proton energy of 1.5 GeV and spallation target was lead. Also breeding rates of 239Pu and 233U as well as the transmutation rates of two long-lived fission products 99Tc and 129I were calculated at different locations in the moderator. It is shown that an ADS with graphite moderator is a much more effective transmuter than that with lead moderator

  15. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of transuranic waste for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of transuranic waste (TRUW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) contact- and remote-handed (CH and RH) TRUW. Included are definitions of the TRUW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of CH and RH TRUW, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM TRUW case considered. After preparation of this report, the WM PEIS TRUW alternatives were revised as combinations of the cases presented herein. An addendum has been added to explain the revision and consolidate the impacts for each alternative for the WM PEIS TRUW transportation risk assessment

  16. Evaluation of the WIPP Project`s compliance with the EPA radiation protection standards for disposal of transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Rucker, D.F.; Silva, M.K.; Walker, B.A.; Channell, J.K.; Clemo, T.M. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) proposed rule to certify that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) meets compliance with the long-term radiation protection standards for geologic repositories (40CFR191 Subparts B and C), is one of the most significant milestones to date for the WIPP project in particular, and for the nuclear waste issue in general. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has provided an independent technical oversight for the WIPP project since 1978, and is responsible for many improvements in the location, design, and testing of various aspects of the project, including participation in the development of the EPA standards since the early 1980s. The EEG reviewed the development of documentation for assessing the WIPP`s compliance by the Sandia National Laboratories following the 1985 promulgation by EPA, and provided many written and verbal comments on various aspects of this effort, culminating in the overall review of the 1992 performance assessment. For the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) compliance certification application (CCA), the EEG provided detailed comments on the draft CCA in March, 1996, and additional comments through unpublished letters in 1997 (included as Appendices 8.1 and 8.2 in this report). Since the October 30, 1997, publication of the EPA`s proposed rule to certify WIPP, the EEG gave presentations on important issues to the EPA on December 10, 1997, and sent a December 31, 1997 letter with attachments to clarify those issues (Appendix 8.3). The EEG has raised a number of questions that may have an impact on compliance. In spite of the best efforts by the EEG, the EPA reaction to reviews and suggestions has been slow and apparently driven by legal considerations. This report discusses in detail the questions that have been raised about containment requirements. Also discussed are assurance requirements, groundwater protection, individual protection, and an evaluation of EPA`s responses to EEG`s comments.

  17. Evaluation of the WIPP Project's compliance with the EPA radiation protection standards for disposal of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed rule to certify that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) meets compliance with the long-term radiation protection standards for geologic repositories (40CFR191 Subparts B and C), is one of the most significant milestones to date for the WIPP project in particular, and for the nuclear waste issue in general. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has provided an independent technical oversight for the WIPP project since 1978, and is responsible for many improvements in the location, design, and testing of various aspects of the project, including participation in the development of the EPA standards since the early 1980s. The EEG reviewed the development of documentation for assessing the WIPP's compliance by the Sandia National Laboratories following the 1985 promulgation by EPA, and provided many written and verbal comments on various aspects of this effort, culminating in the overall review of the 1992 performance assessment. For the US Department of Energy's (DOE) compliance certification application (CCA), the EEG provided detailed comments on the draft CCA in March, 1996, and additional comments through unpublished letters in 1997 (included as Appendices 8.1 and 8.2 in this report). Since the October 30, 1997, publication of the EPA's proposed rule to certify WIPP, the EEG gave presentations on important issues to the EPA on December 10, 1997, and sent a December 31, 1997 letter with attachments to clarify those issues (Appendix 8.3). The EEG has raised a number of questions that may have an impact on compliance. In spite of the best efforts by the EEG, the EPA reaction to reviews and suggestions has been slow and apparently driven by legal considerations. This report discusses in detail the questions that have been raised about containment requirements. Also discussed are assurance requirements, groundwater protection, individual protection, and an evaluation of EPA's responses to EEG's comments

  18. Laboratory-performance criteria for in situ waste-stabilization materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is investigating a variety of in situ placement methods, grout materials, and characterization techniques for the stabilization of buried low-level transuranic-contaminated waste at Department of Energy sites. In situ stabilization involves underground injection or placement of substances to isolate, treat, or contain buried contaminants. Performance criteria were developed to evaluate various candidate stabilization materials for both long-term stabilization and interim stabilization or retrieval. The criteria are go/no-go, ready, and preliminary. The criterion go/no-go eliminates technologies that are not applicable for in situ treatment of buried waste. The criterion ready indicates that the technology is sufficiently developed and proven to be field demonstrated full-scale. The criterion preliminary indicates the prospective technologies to be potentially applicable to in situ buried waste stabilization, but further development is needed before the technology is ready for field-scale demonstration

  19. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silicon based complexing materials: extraction of transuranic elements from high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid organic/inorganic silica compounds with extractive properties have been developed under an enhanced decontamination program for radioactive aqueous nitric acid waste in nuclear facilities. The materials were obtained by the sol-gel process through hydrolysis and poly-condensation of complexing organo-tri-alkoxy-silanes with the corresponding tetra-alkoxy-silane. Hybrid silica compounds were initially synthesized and characterized from mono- and bis-silyl precursors with malonamide or ethylenediamine patterns. Solids with different specific areas and pore diameters were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, its functionality and its concentration in the tetra-alkoxy-silane. These compounds were then considered and assessed for use in plutonium and americium extraction. Excellent results-partitioning coefficients and capacities have been obtained with malonamide hybrid silica. The comparison with silica compounds impregnated or grafted with the same type of organic group is significant in this respect. Much of the improved performance obtained with hybrid silica may be attributed to the large quantity of complexing groups that can be incorporated in these materials. The effect of the solid texture on the extraction performance was also studied. Although the capacity increased with the specific area, little effect was observed on the distribution coefficients -notably for americium- indicating that the most favorable complexation sites are found on the outer surface. Macroporous malonamide hybrid silica compounds were synthesized to study the effects of the pore diameter, but the results have been inconclusive to date because of the unexpected molecular composition of the materials. (author)

  20. Inhaled transuranics in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to examine, in small animals, the fate and effects of inhaled transuranic compounds including plutonium dioxide, americium oxides, americium nitrates and curium oxides. This project should provide data for hazard evaluation and establishment of permissible exposure limits to man for inhaled transuranics, particularly with respect to the effects of radiation dose and dose distribution. Inhalation carcinogenesis was the primary effect evaluated

  1. Studies of transuranic waste storage under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Interim summary report, October 1, 1977-June 15, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major focus of the program has been on the gas generation potential of organic wastes produced by radiolytic and thermal degradation under simulated WIPP storage conditions. The effects of TRU contamination level, temperature, waste type, pressure, and exposure time on radiolysis are presented. In addition, results from preliminary experiments on processed sludge dewatering are discussed. A summary is presented here of the results of a detailed study of all retrievably stored TRU wastes present at LASL before January 1, 1978. The data indicate a gross volume for the LASL inventory of 1610 m3 with a total weight of nearly 1.24 x 106 kg (1240 metric tonnes). The dominant radionuclide contents of the waste are plutonium (primarily 238Pu) and americium

  2. Statistical sampling plan for the TRU waste assay facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to limited space, there is a need to dispose appropriately of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory transuranic waste which is presently stored below ground in 55-gal (208-l) drums within weather-resistant structures. Waste containing less than 100 nCi/g transuranics can be removed from the present storage and be buried, while waste containing greater than 100 nCi/g transuranics must continue to be retrievably stored. To make the necessary measurements needed to determine the drums that can be buried, a transuranic Neutron Interrogation Assay System (NIAS) has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and can make the needed measurements much faster than previous techniques which involved γ-ray spectroscopy. The previous techniques are reliable but time consuming. Therefore, a validation study has been planned to determine the ability of the NIAS to make adequate measurements. The validation of the NIAS will be based on a paired comparison of a sample of measurements made by the previous techniques and the NIAS. The purpose of this report is to describe the proposed sampling plan and the statistical analyses needed to validate the NIAS. 5 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  3. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP

  4. Intercalibration of transuranic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major objectives of the coordinated research programme on Transuranic Cycling Behaviour in the Marine Environment has been to achieve the comparability of the measurement results among the laboratories from different countries participating in the programme. In order to fulfil this objective, the intercalibration exercises of transuranic measurements using sea water and sediment samples were organized by the Monaco Laboratory within the duration of the programme in 1979-1981. The sediment and sea water samples were collected respectively by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre of India and the Hydrographic Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the present report the results of these intercalibration exercises are surveyed

  5. Multi-point injection demonstration for solidification of shallow buried waste at Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-point injection (MPI) technology is a precision, high-velocity jetting process for the in situ delivery of various agents to treat radiological and/or chemical wastes. A wide variety of waste forms can be treated, varying from heterogeneous waste dumped into shallow burial trenches to contaminated soils consisting of sands/gravels, silts/clays and soft rock. The robustness of the MPI system is linked to its broad range of applications which vary from in situ waste treatment to creation of both vertical and horizontal barriers. The only major constraint on the type of in situ treatment which can be delivered by the NTI system is that agents must be in a slurry form

  6. TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated

  7. TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  8. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-level Waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-06-30

    The DOE proposes to construct, operate, and decontaminate/decommission a TRU Waste Treatment Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The four waste types that would be treated at the proposed facility would be remote-handled TRU mixed waste sludge, liquid low-level waste associated with the sludge, contact-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids, and remote-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids. The mixed waste sludge and some of the solid waste contain metals regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and may be classified as mixed waste. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with five alternatives--No Action, the Low-Temperature Drying Alternative (Preferred Alternative), the Vitrification Alternative, the Cementation Alternative, and the Treatment and Waste Storage at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Alternative.

  9. Hanford transuranic storage corrosion review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of atmospheric corrosion of the transuranic (TRU) waste drums at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Project, near Richland, Washington, was evaluated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The rate of corrosion is principally contingent upon the effects of humidity, airborne pollutants, and temperature. Results of the study indicate that actual penetration of barrels due to atmospheric corrosion will probably not occur within the 20-year specified recovery period. Several other US burial sites were surveyed, and it appears that there is sufficient uncertainty in the available data to prevent a clearcut statement of the corrosion rate at a specific site. Laboratory and site tests are recommended before any definite conclusions can be made. The corrosion potential at the Hanford TRU waste site could be reduced by a combination of changes in drum materials (for example, using galvanized barrels instead of the currently used mild steel barrels), environmental exposure conditions (for example, covering the barrels in one of numerous possible ways), and storage conditions

  10. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration`s remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for {sup 90}Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs.

  11. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration's remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for 90Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs

  12. Thermal performance of a buried nuclear waste storage container storing a hybrid mix of PWR and BWR spent fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will design, model, and test nuclear waste packages for use at the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. On such package would store tightly packed spent fuel rods from both pressurized and boiling water reactors. The storage container provides the primary containment of the nuclear waste and the spent fuel rod cladding provides secondary containment. A series of transient conduction and radiation heat transfer analyses was run to determine for the first 1000 yr of storage if the temperature of the tuff at the borehole wall ever falls below 97 degrees C and whether the cladding of the stored spent fuel ever exceeds 350 degrees C. Limiting the borehole to temperatures of 97 degrees C or greater helps minimize corrosion by assuring that no condensed water collects on the container. The 350 degrees C cladding limit minimizes the possibility of creep- related failure in the spent fuel rod cladding. For a series of packages stored in a 8 x 30 m borehole grid where each package contains 10-yr-old spent fuel rods generating 4.74 kW or more, the borehole wall stays above 97 degrees C for the full 10000-yr analysis period. For the 4.74-kW load, the peak cladding temperature rises to just below the 350 degrees C limit about 4 years after emplacement. If the packages are stored using the spacing specified in the Site Characterization Plan (15 ft x 126 ft), a maximum of 4.1 kW per container may be stored. If the 0.05-m-thick void between the container and the borehole wall is filled with loosely packed bentonite, the peak cladding temperature rises more than 40 degrees C above the allowed cladding limit. In all cases the dominant heat transfer mode between container components is thermal radiation

  13. Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) data summary, fiscal year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) information system for radioactive solid waste. This document is a summary of the FY 1982 data and the forecast data for FY 1983 reported by DOE sites. Detailed data are included in the appendices. The SWIMS data base contains data on the solid transuranic and solid low-level waste generated, buried, or stored at DOE sites. The burial and storage data include the period from site initiation through FY 1982

  14. Enhanced research in ground-penetrating radar and multisensor fusion with application to the detection and visualization of buried waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the difficulty and importance of the landfill remediation problems faced by DOE, and the fact that no one sensor alone can provide complete environmental site characterization, a multidisciplinary team approach was chosen for this project. The authors have developed a multisensor fusion approach that is suitable for the wide variety of sensors available to DOE, that allows separate detection algorithms to be developed and custom-tailored to each sensor. This approach is currently being applied to the Geonics EM-61 and Coleman step-frequency radar data. High-resolution array processing techniques were developed for detecting and localizing buried waste containers. A soil characterization laboratory facility was developed using a HP-8510 network analyzer and near-field coaxial probe. Both internal and external calibration procedures were developed for de-embedding the frequency-dependent soil electrical parameters from the measurements. Dispersive soil propagation modeling algorithms were also developed for simulating wave propagation in dispersive soil media. A study was performed on the application of infrared sensors to the landfill remediation problem, particularly for providing information on volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in the atmosphere. A dust-emission lidar system is proposed for landfill remediation monitoring. Design specifications are outlined for a system which could be used to monitor dust emissions in a landfill remediation effort. The detailed results of the investigations are contained herein

  15. Enhanced research in ground-penetrating radar and multisensor fusion with application to the detection and visualization of buried waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devney, A.J.; DiMarzio, C.; Kokar, M.; Miller, E.L.; Rappaport, C.M.; Weedon, W.H.

    1996-05-14

    Recognizing the difficulty and importance of the landfill remediation problems faced by DOE, and the fact that no one sensor alone can provide complete environmental site characterization, a multidisciplinary team approach was chosen for this project. The authors have developed a multisensor fusion approach that is suitable for the wide variety of sensors available to DOE, that allows separate detection algorithms to be developed and custom-tailored to each sensor. This approach is currently being applied to the Geonics EM-61 and Coleman step-frequency radar data. High-resolution array processing techniques were developed for detecting and localizing buried waste containers. A soil characterization laboratory facility was developed using a HP-8510 network analyzer and near-field coaxial probe. Both internal and external calibration procedures were developed for de-embedding the frequency-dependent soil electrical parameters from the measurements. Dispersive soil propagation modeling algorithms were also developed for simulating wave propagation in dispersive soil media. A study was performed on the application of infrared sensors to the landfill remediation problem, particularly for providing information on volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) in the atmosphere. A dust-emission lidar system is proposed for landfill remediation monitoring. Design specifications are outlined for a system which could be used to monitor dust emissions in a landfill remediation effort. The detailed results of the investigations are contained herein.

  16. Analog elements for transuranic chemistries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical extraction technique for estimating the biologically available fraction of nonessential trace elements in soils has been developed. This procedure has been used in evaluating the uptake of naturally occurring transuranic analog elements from soils into several foodstuffs. The availability of the natural elements has been compared with the availability of their analog transuranics which have been derived from global fallout

  17. A Remote Characterization System and a fault-tolerant tracking system for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two closely related projects that will provide new technology for characterizing hazardous waste burial sites. The first project, a collaborative effort by five of the national laboratories, involves the development and demonstration of a remotely controlled site characterization system. The Remote Characterization System (RCS) includes a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for noninvasive inspection of the surface and subsurface. The second project, conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), involves the development of a position sensing system that can track a survey vehicle or instrument in the field. This system can coordinate updates at a rate of 200/s with an accuracy better than 0.1% of the distance separating the target and the sensor. It can employ acoustic or electromagnetic signals in a wide range of frequencies and can be operated as a passive or active device

  18. A Remote Characterization System and a fault-tolerant tracking system for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Martinson, L. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bingham, D.N.; Anderson, A.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes two closely related projects that will provide new technology for characterizing hazardous waste burial sites. The first project, a collaborative effort by five of the national laboratories, involves the development and demonstration of a remotely controlled site characterization system. The Remote Characterization System (RCS) includes a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for noninvasive inspection of the surface and subsurface. The second project, conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), involves the development of a position sensing system that can track a survey vehicle or instrument in the field. This system can coordinate updates at a rate of 200/s with an accuracy better than 0.1% of the distance separating the target and the sensor. It can employ acoustic or electromagnetic signals in a wide range of frequencies and can be operated as a passive or active device.

  19. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  20. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a